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Chapter 5 – Special Operations
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail
Petroleum Engineering Dept.
Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Eng.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM



Fishing operation
Underbalanced drilling (UBD)
Coiled tubing drilling (CTD)
Well abandonment

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM used in the manner that encompases both the special equipment and the special procedures required to remove undesirable object from the well hole Note: Failure to recover the fish can require redrilling or even abandoning the well. it is important to consider the cause of fishing jobs and to take every possible precaution to avoid them. bit cones.4 Fish . Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. broken pipe. wire line. UTM . non-drillable objects Fishing tool .any undesirable object in the well bore that cannot be withdrawn (e. spanner.g.any and all special pieces of equipment that must be added to the string to enable the operator to engage and retrieve the fish Fishing . Prof. etc.) Definitions Junk – generally considered to be any relatively small.

5 Causes & Prevention 1. Problem related to drilling fluid • Stuck pipe • Differential pressure sticking • Inadequate hole cleaning • Lost returns • Hole sloughing  Prevention: Monitor and control drilling fluid to minimize hole problems Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.

g.: drill string twist-off. UTM . bit failures. Prof.6 Causes & Prevention (ctd) 2. fatigue failure in crossover)  Prevention: Properly maintain bit or drill string components Assoc. Mechanical failure Bit or some other drill string component fails due to: • Bad manufacturing • Too long running a tool without changing them • Drilling with old drill pipe • Other equipment failures (e. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Drill string failure & hole problem • Improper care & maintenance of drilling assembly • Crooked hole problems • Poor drilling practices • Inadequate drill string design • Weight indicator or torque gauge not calibrated  Prevention: Immediately analyzed & practices changed to avoid re-occurrence of 1. Abdul Razak Ismail. Twist-off & washout 2. Undergauge hole 4.7 Causes & Prevention (ctd) 3. Key seat 3. Junk in the hole Assoc. UTM . Prof.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Drilling crew negligence/accident or error in judgments Example: dropping hand tools down hole when drill string is on surface  Prevention: Always have hole cover on when not running drill string Assoc.8 Causes & Prevention (ctd) 4. UTM .

crooked hole) • Rotate the drill string in tension (use sufficient drill collar) • Use new drill strings (old pipes tend to corrode.) • Tight the connection properly (do not over or under tighten) • Use proper muds • Unhurried. etc. repair.) • Check the equipment (connections. replace.9 Preventing fishing jobs (summary) • Do not compress the drill string (bend. etc. extreme caution should be exercised Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. wear.

5. 7. 6. 3. Fishing for junk Fishing for drill pipe Fishing for stuck pipe Wall sticking Drill collar recovery Fishing for wireline Fishing accessories Assoc. Prof.10 Fishing tools 1. 2. Abdul Razak Ismail. 4. UTM .

Jet-powered junk retriever ii. Finger type junk basket (poor-boy junk basket) Boot sub/junk sub Core type junk basket Junk retriever i. Jet-bottomhole cutters Assoc. Hydrostatic junk retriever e.11 1. c. d. Fishing tools for junk a. Abdul Razak Ismail. Fishing magnet f. b. Prof. UTM .

simplest.12 • Oldest. Finger type junk basket Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof. and cheapest rotary fishing tool • Rotated slowly and gradually lowered over the junk • Move any junk away from the wall and deposit under the basket • Weight is applied to the tool and bending the finger inward to trap the junk inside • Suitable for solid mass and lying loose on the bottom of the hole 1a.

Prof.13 1b. Abdul Razak Ismail. Boot sub/junk sub • To collect small pieces of junk that may impede drilling by interfering with the operations of the bit cones or damaging diamond bit • Run just above the bit during normal drilling to collect small pieces of junk • Usually is run above a mill during milling to collect cuttings • The cutting will be collected into the cup Assoc. UTM .

Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.1c. Core type junk basket • A mill shoe is made up on the bottom of the tool • There are four main types of shoe (see diagram) • The finger shoe is used when the junk is relatively large • The soft-formation shoe is used for the soft formation • The hard-formation shoe and flat-bottomed shoe are used if the formation is hard and the junk is imbedded in the formation 14 Assoc.

Prof. Junk retriever (Jet powered and Hydrostatic) i. Abdul Razak Ismail. this guarantees that any junk on the bottom is pumped into the barrel and caught by the catcher assembly – The tool is removed from the hole after cutting 10 to 20 inches of core Assoc. the ball is dropped down the drill pipe – The ball will position itself in the ball seat and reverse circulation will begin – The lower pressure inside the tool causes outside mud to rush into the bottom of the tool and lift the junk into the barrel – Circulate and begin coring. Jet-powered junk retriever – Designed to remove all types of objects from the bottom of the well bore – The tool utilizes normal circulation.15 1d. UTM . Combined with the reverse circulation. down the drill string and up the annulus when it is lowered to the top of the junk – When the tool is approximately 10 feet from the bottom of the hole.

16 a. UTM . normal circulation b. Abdul Razak Ismail. reverse circulation Assoc. Prof.

UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. weight is applied to the drill string – The weight will causes the trip valve to open and the mud surge into the string and lift the junk into the basket Assoc. Hydrostatic junk retriever – Operates on the principle of pressure differential – Once the junk basket over the junk.17 ii.


• Can be used for
the ferrous junk
which may be
attracted by the
• It has a
passageway for
the drilling fluid
through them
• The mud
circulation may
wash the cuttings
off the top of the

1e. Fishing magnet

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


1f. Jet-bottomhole cutters
• Used when the junk is
too large and the shape
is odd
• Used for breaking the
junk into small pieces
by the explosive
• The smaller junk can be
removed by the
conventional method
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


2. Fishing for drill pipe
• A common fishing job on a drilling
rig is one that results when the pipe
breaks during normal drilling
• Also called “twist-off” even though
the break usually does not occur
because of excessive torque or
• The pipe crack and separates in
helical break
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM

21 • Twist-off occurs due to: – Prolonged cyclic bending of drill string – Continue to propagate  pipe fails – Usually caused by fatigue in the metal due to: • • • • rough handling scarred with tong dies improper make-up torque bending and torquing • Prevention & minimized by: − − − − Scheduled inspection Thread dopes Dogleg severity check Frequently changing dp joint above dc Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

electric log is run to locate the top) • The break indicate whether the top of the fish has been damaged or split and whether the break occurred near a tool joint Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.22 • How to detect? – Loss of pump pressure – Loss of weight – Reduction of drilling torque – Lack of penetration rate • The drill string is measured to determine exact location (sometimes.

Impression block Mill Overshot Extension sub Wall-hook guide Knuckle joint Assoc. Prof.23 2. e. b. d. c. UTM . Fishing tools for drill pipe a. Abdul Razak Ismail. f.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. Impression block Assoc. UTM .24 • Impression block may be run if for some reason there is doubt as to what condition of the top of the fish is in • Gives visual evidence for determining the appearance of the top of the fish • Built up by the soft metal and mud circulation through the passageway to wash off the cuttings/settlings on the top of the fish so that a good impression can be obtained • Made up on drill pipe and drill collar 2a.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Mill • Mill is used if the top of the fish has been badly damaged or split • Milling is necessary in order to dress the top of the fish so that the fishing tool to retrieve the fish will be able to make a firm catch • High volume circulation should be maintained to flush the cuttings and cool the mill Assoc.25 2b. UTM .

26 Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.

Prof. UTM .27 Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

28 2c. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof. Overshot • Overshot is suitable when the top of the fish is fairy smooth • Consist of three main parts: – Top sub – Bowl – Guide • There are different types of guides depends on the type of fish • Commonly a hydraulic jar is installed between the overshot and drill collar in case the fish becomes stuck during fishing operation Assoc.

29 Assoc. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

) Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.30 See video clip: Fishing coil tubing (2:10 min.

31 2d. Prof. UTM . Extension sub • If the upper end of the fish is unengageable. an extension sub can be installed between the top sub and the bowl of the overshot  to lengthen the area Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Abdul Razak Ismail. a wall-hook guide may be used • The string is rotated slowly and carefully lowered until the wall hook tags the fish and the overshot engage the fish Assoc.32 2e. UTM . Prof. Wall-hook guide • If the top of the fish is in the washed-out section of the hole.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Knuckle joint • If the washed-out section of the hole is too large. UTM .33 2f. it may be necessary to run a knuckle joint to extend the wall hook and overshot out into the cavity • The mud pressure is applied to push the piston down and activate the knuckling action • The fishing string is then lowered and the fish is caught in the overshot Assoc. Prof.

Prof. UTM .34 Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

d. Fishing for stuck pipe Most common cause of fishing job Causes: a. h. e. UTM .) Bit balling Drill collar balling Cutting settling above bit or drill collar Assoc. etc. b. c. g. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Differential pressure sticking Key seating Undergage hole Foreign objects or junk in hole Sloughing formation (shale. f.35 3.

Mechanical cutter iii. Drill-out tools f. UTM . Hydraulic jars and jar accelerators/jar impact amplifier b. Free-point indicators and string shots c. Pipe cutters i. Prof. Chemical cutter Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.36 Fishing tools for stuck pipe a. Jet cutter ii. Outside cutting tools e. Washover operations d.

Prof. UTM . Hydraulic jars and jar accelerators/jar impact amplifier • Uses stretched fishing string and compressed gas in the jar accelerator to snaps the jar piston and drill collar upward • The mandrel knockers strikes the knocker sub with great force to free the fish Assoc.37 3a. Abdul Razak Ismail.

38 Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

Free-point indicators & string shots • Can be determine by using electromagnetic device – Two electromagnet connected with telescope joint – Run into hole on electric cable/wireline – Turned on electric current  magnets attach to inside pipe wall – Exert pull @ surface  pipe above stuck point  stretch – Distance between two magnet = elongation – Elongation measured by sensitive electronic strain gauge & transmitted to surface Assoc.39 3b. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

UTM .40 Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.

brought to the surface and stripped out of the wash pipe Assoc. Washover operations • Uses wash pipe with rotary shoe to wash over to fish • The fish is engaged. Abdul Razak Ismail.41 3c. UTM . Prof.

Prof.42 3d. Abdul Razak Ismail. Outside cutting tools • Used when other fishing tools fail to pass the freepoint indicators • Uses enough washpipes to get to the fish • Engages to the tool joint and moves knives to position • Rotates to cut Assoc. UTM .

UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Drill-out tools • Sometimes after backoff.43 3e. the fish still in hole may become plugged • Impossible to go for further backoff/pulling operations Assoc.

Pipe cutters • Sometimes backoff by torque fails because the stuck pipe turns in hole • Types of cutter i. UTM . Jet cutter ii. Prof. Mechanical cutter iii. P & T jets of gas / chemical make the cut Assoc. Chemical cutter • High velocity.44 3f. Abdul Razak Ismail.


i. Jet cutter
• To cut downhole tubing, drill pipe
or casing
• The cutting action is produced by a
circular-shaped charge
• Typically leaves a flare on the pipe
• In order to perform subsequent
pipe recovery operations, it is
necessary to smooth the top end of
the fish with an internal mill,
usually run with an overshot
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


ii. Mechanical cutter

See video clip:
Mechanical cutter (1:25 min.)

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


iii. Chemical cutter
• To cut all sizes and most weights
of coiled tubing, tubing, casing
and drill pipe
• The cut is flare-free, burr-free,
and undistorted
• This allows easy engagement of
an overshot without having to
dress the fishtop

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM

Prof. Wall sticking a.48 4. Freeing wall-stuck pipe b. Oil spotting Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.4a. Freeing wall-stuck pipe Jarring 49 Assoc. UTM .

4b. Abdul Razak Ismail. Oil spotting • Oil / chemical spotted around fish • Oil / chemical penetrates the wall cake and causes deterioration and makes pipe slick 50 Assoc. UTM . Prof.

Abdul Razak Ismail. but < 2 hours. UTM . including chalk – spot HCl acid around the contact zone and allow it to soak in – the HCl reaction with these formations will degrade/ dissolve the formation and thus reduce the pipe contact area – allow to soak into the formation for a minimum of 1 hour. Prof.51 Freeing stuck pipe with HCl acid A very successful technique for freeing stuck pipe in carbonate formations. before working or jarring on the drill string – repeat the soaking period as required Assoc.

UTM . c.52 5. Abdul Razak Ismail. Drill collar recovery a. Taper tap and die collar Releasing spear Stuck collar Anchor washpipe spear Assoc. b. d. Prof.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.53 5a. Taper tap and die collar • • • • Sometimes the drill collars are too large Use taper taps to engage the fish Trip out the fish  jarring If all above fail  break fishing string at safety joint Assoc. UTM .

UTM .54 Taper tap Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.55 Die collar Assoc.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Releasing spear • Spear is lowered to inside the fish until the bumper ring seats on the top of the fish • The slips set and fish is pulled Assoc.56 5b. UTM .

UTM . Stuck collar • Keyseats • Run free-point indicators and string shot and backoff made 5-6 joints above stuck point • Run bumper jar and keyseat wiper Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.57 5c.

Abdul Razak Ismail.58 5d. UTM . washover is needed • Wash pipe washes the fish free • Spear prevents the fish from falling Assoc. Prof. Anchor washpipe spear • If jarring fails.

Cable-guide method Assoc. Prof. Rope spear b.59 6. Fishing for wireline a. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

Rope spear Wire-line pipe cutter (ripper) Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.60 • Run on the bottom of drill string • Forced into the mass of coiled wireline to catch hold of a loop of line with barbs 6a. Prof.

UTM . Prof.61 6b. Cable-guide method Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

c. Abdul Razak Ismail. Drilling safety joint Bumper sub Lubricated bumper sub Fishing jar Assoc. UTM .62 7. d. Prof. b. Fishing accessories a.

the safety joint should be located between the drill pipe and the washover pipe Assoc. Drilling safety joint • To provide safe and easy release and make-up whenever disengagement becomes necessary • The tool is designed to transmit torque in either direction when placed in the drill. the safety joint should be located above the drill collars to avoid compression – In fishing strings. fishing. or washover string • To assemble: – Install the safety joint in the drill string – Make up the service connection to a torque of approximately 60 to 75% of the drill string connections – In drill strings. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. the safety joint should be located directly above the fishing tool but below the jar or bumper sub – In washover strings.63 7a.

drill collars. UTM . Prof. test tools. and safety joints • Also. the fishing bumper sub functions well when used with an overshot or spear • The fishing bumper sub is installed in the fishing string immediately above the fishing tool or safety joint Assoc.64 7b. Abdul Razak Ismail. Bumper sub • Suitable for all fishing operations • Typical operations include releasing stuck drill pipe. tubing.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. drilling and well workover operations • The tool can be stroked upward or downward. the average stroke is between 10" and 18" • Normally installed in the fishing string just above the fishing tool. UTM .65 7c. Lubricated bumper sub • Designed to withstand repetitive and sustained loads in severe fishing. safety joint or unlatching joint • Striking surfaces are provided at the limits of the free stroke movement to produce the impact necessary for achieving the greatest intensity of bumping action in either direction • The primary function of the tool is to enable the operator to release the fishing tool in the event that it becomes impossible to pull the fish • It will provide the necessary impact and deliver the torque required to release the tool from the fish Assoc.

mechanical & torque Assoc. UTM . Prof.66 7d. Fishing jar • • • • • Provide hammer type impact Commonly run in conjunction with overshot. Abdul Razak Ismail. spear. Utilize compressed fluid energy which drive free moving piston or hammer against top of jar Compression by proper dp surface movement Type: nitrogen. etc.

Prof.67 Guide to tool selection Objective/target Tools To recover small junk • Junk basket • Fishing magnet • Reverse circulation junk basket To recover wireline • Wireline spear To catch fish externally • Overshot • Short catch overshot • Washpipe To catch fish internally • • • • Taper tap Pin tap Spear Packet-picker Other components/tools used in fishing strings • • • • • • Bumper jar Fishing jar Accelerator Surface bumper jar Knuckle joint Safety joint Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

Prof.68 Abandoning fishing • One day to several months • Fishing cost vs sidetracking & re-drilling cost Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

Prof. • Performed by reducing drilling fluid density • This underbalanced pressure condition allows the reservoir fluids to enter the wellbore during drilling operation. Assoc.69 What is the underbalanced drilling (UBD)? • UBD is a drilling process in which the wellbore hydrostatic pressure is intentionally designed to be lower than the pressure of the formation being drilled. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

Abdul Razak Ismail.70 Objectives of UBD • Maximizing hydrocarbon recovery – – – – Reduced formation damage Early production Reduced stimulation Enhanced recovery • Minimizing drilling problems – – – – Reduce differential sticking Reduce fluid losses Improved penetration rate Reduction of ECD in extended reach wells Assoc. Prof. UTM .

weak formation. UTM .g. Prof. unconsolidated sand.71 Advantages and disadvantages of UBD Advantages Disadvantages Reduced formation damaged/ Increased well productivity More complex tripping operation Eliminate risk of differential sticking Increased daily cost Reduced risk of lost circulation Higher risk & more problem Increased ROP Possible increased torque & drag Improved bit life More complex drilling system Improved formation evaluation More people required Earlier or faster production Problem for ustable borehole (e. salt beds) Reduced stimulation requirements Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. geopressured shales.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.72 72 UBD: Solving today’s drilling problems Overbalanced Underbalanced Difficulty handling unpredicted influx of gas and water No problem with influx―handled by the UBD separation system Massive formation damage Reduced formation damage Lost circulation Differential sticking Production flowing from unsuspected zone No lost circulation Drill to total depth Poor removal of cuttings leads to slow drilling. UTM . more bit damage Better cuttings removal can double ROP and maximize bit life Production limited by formation damage Production increased by 50 to 1000 percent Net Present Value―is the well profitable? NPV of well increased by two to 10 times or more Missed productive zone Assoc.

Prof.) Assoc. UTM .73 Video Clips: Underbalanced drilling – by Shell (7 min. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Canada Wellsite UBD Equipment UB operators Nitrogen Geology Separator Rotating Head Camp Mud Treatment Assoc. Prof. UTM .74 Wellsite UBD Equipment. Abdul Razak Ismail.


Abdul Razak Ismail. foam or any other drilling fluid whose hydrostatic pressure is less than the formation pressure Assoc. gas. Prof. • Useful in drilling with air.Rotating BOP • Also called a rotating head or a stripper head • They are continuously closed around the drill stem by means of a heavyduty stripper rubber that rotates with the drill string. Packing provides a seal between the rotating and stationary elements. UTM .

Prof. nitrogen.77 UBD Drilling Fluids GAS MIST FOAM AERATED FLUID • • • • Air. UTM . natural gas Restricted to hard consolidated zone (little fluid influx) Increased air volume + small quantity of water + foaming agent Used when formation produce small amounts of water • Mixed air from compressor + foaming solution • Lifting capacity superior to other drilling fluid • Suitable for formations that are prone to lost circulation • Air or N2 added to liquid phase of drilling fluid • Achieved by injecting air/N2 into standpipe or using parasite string Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.e.. – Improves bit performance. Air drilling • Air/gas drilling (“dust”) is a technique used in areas where the formations are “dry” i.78 1. – Reduced formation damage. – Lost circulation control. UTM . Prof. there is no influx of water or liquid hydrocarbons.000 ft/min. • Air drilling benefit: – Increased rate of penetration. • This medium requires significant compressed gas volumes to clean the well with average velocities of over 3.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .79 Air drilling layout Assoc.

Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .80 Air drilling dusting Assoc. Prof.

• Clean and lubricates the bit • Cuttings are carried to surface by the mist in two phase flow. Prof. Mist or foam drilling layout Assoc. Mist drilling • Addition of 6 to 30 bbl/hr of fluid to the air flow. Abdul Razak Ismail.81 2. UTM .

Assoc. • Effective operating range from 0.6 S. Abdul Razak Ismail. • The most versatile of the gas-generated systems.2 to 0. Foam drilling • More than 40 bbls/hr of foaming agent added to the air flow creating solution of foam and gas phase mixture. • Foam flow varies with depth in the hole.G. • Mixture of gas phase and foaming solution. UTM . • Adjustable effective BHP. Prof.82 3. • Enhanced lifting and well bore cleaning.

83 Foam drilling benefits • • • • • • • • • • • Faster penetration rate Low air requirement Low fluid requirement Low hydrostatic head No formation damage Continuous DST Best for large hole Great lifting capacity Controllable BHP No lost circulation No differential sticking Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.84 Reasons For Foam Drilling • To stop circulation – Reduced mud density & no junk – Foam plugs lost zone (foam bubbles = lost zone plugging agent) – Imrpove drilling rate (low bottom hole pressure  increases drilling rate) • Protects reservoir – – – – No formation damage with no flux into wellbore Flow into hole Minimal pressure surge Controllable pressure • Avoid differential sticking – Formation pressure > fluid column pressure (-ve) • Hole cleaning with low fluid volume – Needs : • • • • Only limited fluid volume Foam agent : to reduce surface tension Polymers : to strengthen film around air bubbles Soda ash : to soften water & raise pH to 10 Assoc. UTM .

Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.85 Mist or foam drilling layout Assoc.

Abdul Razak Ismail.86 Foam flowing out of blooie line bringing cuttings Assoc. UTM . Prof.

87 Video Clip Foam drilling (30 sec. UTM . Prof.) Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail.

) Soda ash : makes foamer work better & increase pH to 10 • Liquid volume requirements: – Begin with 1/10 of conventional mud rate required to produce 120 ft/min (40m/min) annular velocity – May have to increased up to 50-0% of normal mud volume • Additionl Equipment Requirements: – Foam mixing system (chemical tank + metering pup . etc) – Compressor Assoc.88 Foam Drilling – Requirements • Requirements: – – – – – Stable system / foam : smaller more stable Tougher : polymer make skin around bubble tougher Bentonite makes skin around bubble more stable Stronger bubbles : more foamer + surfactant (polymer etc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. UTM .89 Foam Drilling Limitation • • • • Corrosion when air is used as gas Saline formation water increase corrosion H2S or CO2 formation increase corrosion Wellbore stability (mechanical & chemical) Assoc.

9)  Initially designed as a technique to lighten mud to reduce lost circulation. = 0.0.  As an UB fluid.90 4.G.55 . Assoc. Aerated (or gaseated) drilling  All types of conventional drilling fluids can be aerated or gasified. Abdul Razak Ismail.  Gas and liquid phase are intentionally mixed to decrease the density of the fluid (S. it is easiest to control in small holes.  Methods:  Standpipe injection  Jet sub  Parasite string  Dual casing string  Clear liquid are preferred. UTM . Prof.

Prof.91 Aerated fluid drilling layout Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .

92 Aerated Drilling .Usage & Advantages • Usage: – Control lost circulation – Avoid differential pressure sticking – Increase drilling rate – Reduce / avoid formation damage • Advantages: – Equivalent mud weight reduction down to 4 ppg – Simple system – Increase drilling rate – No lost corculation – No differential sticking – Minimal formation damage Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .93 Aerated Drilling – General Problems • Compressor / nitrogen cost • Rotating BOP • Solid/liquid/gas separation at surface • Corrosion (except with N2) • Vibration • Hydraulic calculation • Cutting lifting • High torque/drag • Borehole stability • Fire/explosions • • • • Fluid influx MWD transmission Underbalanced completion Pressure surges – causing overpressure or caving • Velocity surges • Hole caving • Environmental problems: – Large volume of water or oil – Oil emulsifying into mud – Residual H2S in cuttings – Foaming with oil Assoc. Prof.

94 Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. UTM .

continuous. coiled tubing can range from 2.) and the spool size.95 What is coiled tubing (CT)? • A long.570 m] or more Assoc. to 4 1/2 in. Prof.000 ft [610 to 4. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . jointless hollow steel pipe that is wound on a reel and can be coiled or uncoiled repeatedly as required • The pipe is straightened prior to pushing into a wellbore and recoiled to spool the pipe back onto the transport and storage spool • Depending on the pipe diameter (1 in.000 ft to 15.

areas where a small rig footprint is essential. reentering wells and drilling underbalanced Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .96 What is coiled tubing drilling (CTD)? • The use of coiled tubing with downhole mud motors to turn the bit to deepen a wellbore • CTD operations proceed quickly compared to using a jointed pipe drilling rig because connection time is eliminated during tripping • CTD is economical in several applications. Prof. such as drilling slimmer wells.

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.97 Why CTD? • Operational aspects ─ Easy mobilization ─ Increased ROP and no differential sticking ─ Less personnel (logistics) ─ Fast wireline telemetry and excellent directional control ─ Ultrashort radius and designer wells to avoid hazards • Reservoir issues—increase overall recovery ─ Reduced skin damage while drilling underbalanced ─ Reduced mud losses ─ Flatter drawdown profile for water control ─ Efficient formation evaluation with quick turnaround to CT logging Assoc. UTM .

2. UTM . 5. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. 4.98 Coiled tubing design Basic coiled tubing unit components are as follows: 1. Tubing injector head Coiled tubing reel Wellhead blowout prevented stack Hydraulic power-drive unit Control cab Assoc. 3.

99 Land coiled tubing unit Gooseneck Injector head CT string Control cab Reel Jacket frame Assoc. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Tubing injector heads • Tubing injector heads are designed to perform three basic functions: – To provide the thrust to snub tubing well against pressure or to overcome wellbore friction – To control the rate of tubing entry into the well under various well conditions – To support the full-suspended tubing weight and accelerate it to operating speed when extracting it from the well Tubing injector head on adjustable support legs and BOP stack Assoc.100 1. UTM .

about 26. OD tubing or 22. Abdul Razak Ismail. OD tubing can be stored on the reel Assoc. UTM .000 ft of 1-in.000 ft of 1¼-in. Coiled tubing reel – The coiled tubing reel is a fabricated steel spool with a core diameter of 60 to 72 in. and a 9-ft side-flange diameter – This spool size. Prof.101 2.

seals around the hanging CT Assoc.000 psig • The 4 BOP rams. Prof.seals the wellbore when the CT is out of the BOP – Shear ram . Wellhead BOP • The BOP system is a critical part of coiled tubing units and should be used on every coiled tubing service operation • The BOP stack is composed of 4 hydraulically operated rams. from top to bottom and their associated functions are: – Blind ram . Abdul Razak Ismail.supports the CT weight hanging below it (some are bi-directional and prevent the CT from moving upward) – Pipe ram . UTM .used to cut the CT – Slip ram .102 3. generally rated for minimum working pressure of 10.

103 4. Power drive – Hydraulic power-drive units are sized to operate all of the coiled tubing unit components – The prime mover assembly size will also vary with hydraulic-drive unit needs – The prime mover for a specific coiled tubing unit may range from a take-off assembly to a self-contained offshore skid package – Standard prime mover packages on most coiled tubing units are equipped with diesel engines and hydraulic pumps Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. UTM .

UTM . but normally all controls are positioned on one remote console – It may be skid-mounted for use offshore or permanently mounted on land units – The skid-mounted console can be placed at the well site as required operator Assoc. Control cab – Control console design varies by manufacturer. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.104 5.

105 CT operations from a barge Assoc. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM . Prof.106 CT operations on an offshore platform Assoc.

107 Video Clip Coil tubing unit rigging up animation (6:51 min.) Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. UTM .

Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. UTM .108 BHA for directional control Assoc.

UTM .109 Basic principle of CTD • No drill collars. Abdul Razak Ismail. weight on bit (WOB) normally applied by coiled tubing • Coiled tubing size adequate for WOB and rate cuttings transport • Downhole motor with bend sub used • Instrument to monitor direction and inclination as a minimum • Telemetry from BHA to surface • Device to change tool face Assoc. Prof.

110 Fishing Remedial cementing Drilling Wellbore cleanout Permanent installations Flow control operations Fluid displacement Application of CTD Running packers Stimulation Conveyed perforating Flowline Logging Sand control Setting and retrieving bridge plugs Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.

) Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.111 Video Clip CTD application (2:19 min. UTM .

Abdul Razak Ismail. this in turn reduces the amount of disposal fluid required • Reducing expenses by not using a workover rig • Reducing the time the well is off line and the loss of production involved in killing the well • Obtaining uncontaminated production log while preventing formation damage • Economic alternative to conventional welded pipe for flow lines • Reduced well site size. UTM . since coiled tubing requires about a tenth of the number of truckloads used for transporting a conventional drilling rig • Lower volume of formation cuttings to be disposed Assoc. Prof. since coiled tubing requires fewer pieces of equipment • Low noise level • Reduced damage to public roads.112 Advantages of coiled tubing • Saving of kill-fluid costs.

113 Limitation of coiled tubing • Life limits – Large CT diameters being used for CTD and the continuous exposure to drilling fluid pressure greatly increase the amount of fatigue compared to normal CT service operations – Parameters affect the CT life: • Pumping pressure • CT diameter • Wall thickness • Reel & goose neck geometry • Hydraulic limits – The drilling-fluid flow rate must be high enough to carry the cuttings out of the hole – The drilling-fluid flow rate is limited by the pressure drops through the CT and back up the annulus – The downhole motors have a maximum flow rate which often limits the drilling-fluid flow rate Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.


Prof. UTM .115 What is well abandonment? • Abandon refers to the filling and sealing of an unused well (reaching it’s economic limit / no more profitable) according to the requirements of the regulations. Abdul Razak Ismail. • Temporary abandon means the well is temporarily shut in but not plugged • Well abandonment is a process to permanently shut-in a well in a safe and environmentally responsible way Assoc.

typically the result of aging or a natural disaster. such as a hurricane • To remove wellhead equipment & to salvage usable well components • To ensure that there is no obstruction left at the surface or sea bed • Management decision • To comply with regulatory agencies Assoc. UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. high water cut) • The well has reached its economic limit: • To protect the environment from hazards. to block all overpressured zones & to protect overlying aquifers • The well has sustained irreparable damage (unsafe situation).g.116 When (reasons) to plug and abandon the well? • The well is a dry hole (e. such as the pollution of groundwater • To isolate all hydrocarbon bearing intervals.

Abdul Razak Ismail.117 Examples for improper well abandonment Assoc. UTM . Prof.

etc. rigs to reefs. milling. Prof. etc. UTM . perforations.118 Main targets that must be sealed Isolation: • Open hole • Separate pay zones • Perforations • Liner tops and channels in cement • Surface locations (3’ or 1m on land to 10 to 15’ or 3 to 5m. below mud line offshore) • Damaged sections (wear points. Abdul Razak Ismail.) • Multi-laterals • Corrosive zones (highly corrosive salt water?) • Special cases (clearing sea floor. geothermal.). Assoc.

Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.119 Well abandonment general guideline PRE-DECOMMISSIONING Send application. with detail decommissioning plan DECOMMISSIONING Remove tubing & wellhead Cut & remove uncemented casing Test plug Seal/plug formation Clear the location & Reclaim surface POSTDECOMMISSIONING Survey & report Assoc.

2. 6. Prof. 4. Abdul Razak Ismail. 5. Responsibility to abandon a well Application to abandon a well Subsequent report of abandonment Well suspension (semi-permanent well suspension) Temporary well suspension Suspended well Assoc.120 PDO (Procedure for Drilling Operation) The details methods to be used to plug and abandon the wells should be submitted to the HSE for approval in line with the requirement to obtain consent to re enter any subsea well 1. UTM . 3.

Prof. it shall be abandoned.121 1. Application to abandon a well • The Contractor shall submit to PETRONAS – Request for approval – Programme outlining the procedures of the operations – Reasons for abandonment Assoc. if not. UTM . it shall be the responsibility of the contractor. Responsibility to abandon a well • Contractor shall ensure that: – A well or a portion of a well that is not suspended or completed is abandoned – Where a well is abandoned. when required by PETRONAS to properly re-abandon the well 2. Abdul Razak Ismail.

Prof.122 3. by depth. Well suspension (semi-permanent well suspension) • Filled with drilling fluid • Cemented 5. Subsequent report of abandonment • Produce detailed report include : – Nature & quantities of materials used in the plugging – Location & extend. Temporary well suspension • Pressure tested casing or cement plug or liner • Kill String Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. of casing left in the well – Volume of mud fluid used 4.

Prof. Suspended well • Shall be inspected at least once a year • Reported to PETRONAS • Shall be placed on production or abandonment within a period 3 years from the date of suspension Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.123 6.


See video clip:
Subsea Abrasive Cutting System (2:55 min.)

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


Well-Plugging methods and materials
A. General Methods
B. Cement
C. Bentonite and Drilling Mud
D. Mechanical Plugs.

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


A. General Methods
• The dry cement is pumped
into a cement pumping truck
which adds the water at the
desired blending rate and
then pumps the liquid cement
down the well.
• Second, after the desired amount of cement is pumped, water is pumped behind
the cement to displace the cement in the tubing to a predetermined depth.
• When using the displacement method, operators can fairly accurately place the
cement in the well at the desired depth and thereby prevent flow in the wellbore
from the targeted depth intervals.
• First, tubing is run into the well to the depth desired for the bottom of the
cement plug where the cement is then placed into the well by pumping down
the tubing. The cement goes out the bottom of the tubing and then flows back
up the outside of the tubing.
Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM

Cement • Using the API cement for cementing a well or for plugging. • The additives commonly used are: – Retarder – Accelerator – Lost circulation material – Weighting additives – Light-weight additives – Water-loss additives Assoc. various additives are blended into the cement for specific purposes. UTM .127 B. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Assoc. Bentonite and drilling mud • The use of drilling mud for well plugging relies on the characteristics of mud weight and gel strength to prevent upward flow of reservoir fluids. Prof. UTM . when placed as a compressed solid and then hydrated. • Bentonite.128 C. • The bentonite must be in a compressed form The bentonite must be hydrated for 24 hours. will form a dense and low permeability solid mass in the wellbore based on its character as a clay material that swells when water is added.

Prof. Mechanical Plugs • Mechanical plugs are used in some wells to reduce the amount of cement required to plug a well or to provide additional protection from formation pressure in the well.129 D. UTM . Bridge Plug Cement Retainer Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. • Two types of mechanical plugs utilized to plug and abandon wells are a bridge plug or a cement retainer.

Cement 100 ft (30m) below shoe and 50 ft (15m) of cement on top. UTM . – Cement retainer 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30m) above the shoe. – Tested to 15.000 lbs load or 1000 psi. – Cement retainer 50 to 100 ft (15 to 30m) above the perfs. Assoc. – Tested to 15. Prof.130 • Isolation of open hole – Cement Plug 100ft (30m) above and below lower-most shoe in open hole. Cement 100 ft (30m) below shoe and 50 ft (15m) of cement on top. Abdul Razak Ismail.000 lbs load or 1000 psi. – Permanent bridge plug within 150 ft (45m) of perfs with 50 ft (15m) of cement on top. • Isolation of perforations – Cement Plug 100ft (30m) above and below perfs (or to next plug).

Reservoir fluids can attack metal and elastomers and eventually leak to surface. perforations and wellbore. Assoc. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.131 Cased Hole Abandonment Methods Most secure method of cased hole abandonment: Cement retainer and squeeze cement to seal sand face. Typical zonal abandonment: Bridge plug capped with cement.

UTM .132 General procedure 1. Cement/plug the well – cement is placed across the open perforations and partially squeezed into the formation to seal off all production zones – depending on the well configuration it is normal to set a series of cement and wireline plugs in both the liner and production casing to a depth level with the top of cement behind the production casing Assoc. and replaced by drilling fluids heavy enough to contain any open formation pressures – christmas tree is removed and replaced by a BOP. Well killing operation – produced fluids are circulated out of the well. through which the producing tubing can be removed 2. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. or pushed (bull head) into the formation.

and a cement plug positioned over the casing stub to isolate the annulus and any formation which may still be open below the intermediate casing shoe – if the intermediate casing has not been cemented to surface then the operation can be repeated on this string – alternatively the remaining casing string will be cut and removed close to surface and a cement plug set across the casing stubs – on land the wellsite may be covered over and returned to its original condition Assoc. UTM .133 3. Casing removal – the production casing is cut and removed above the top cement. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

minimum is recommended • Use either a neat or slightly accelerated cement to speed up the setting process • Use fiber glass tubing in case there are difficulties in pulling back out • Locate the top of the plug after the cement is hardened • If there are a number of areas to be plugged off over a large interval. UTM . generally a plug length of 500 ft.g. Abdul Razak Ismail. use bridge plug • To improve the quality of cement plug it is recommended that a balanced plug be used with a water spacer ahead e. 10 bbls Assoc. Prof.134 General Recommendations (refer to API RP 57 for details) • The length of cement plug should be sufficient to provide isolation (~ 100 ft may be adequate).

Temporary abandonment Assoc. UTM . Prof. Permanent abandonment – Open hole zone – Open hole below casing shoe – Cased hole B. Abdul Razak Ismail.135 Types of well abandonment A.

136 Permanent abandonment well schematic Assoc. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

Cement retainer. Plugging/isolating perforated intervals through tubing (a. Through-tubing bridge plug. Permanent bridge plug) 2. Cement plug. Isolation of zones in uncased hole 6. Plugging of casing stubs (a. Squeeze cementing. Bridge plug) 7. b. Isolation of open hole (a. Plugging/isolating perforated intervals using a work string (a. UTM . Bridge plug) 5. Clearance of location Assoc. d. Testing plugs 9. Abdul Razak Ismail. Surface plug equipment 8. Tubing plug/bridge plug. Displacement method. c. c.137 A. Prof. Squeeze cementing. c. Cement plug. Permanent Abandonment Operations 1. b. Plugging of annular space 4. b. c. b. Cement retainer. Cement plug) 3.

138 1. 100’ (30m) min. extending a minimum of 100’ above and 100’ below the perforated interval. Assoc. Displacement Method A cement plug should be placed opposite all open perforations. UTM . or down to the plug back total depth (PBTD). perforations PBTD 100’ (30m) min. Plugging/isolating perforated intervals using a work string 1a. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. 100’ (30m) min. whichever is less.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Squeeze Cementing If the perforations are isolated from the hole below . retrievable cementer. or by the Braden head method.139 Pump pressure (bullhead squeeze) 1b. existing production packer . UTM . squeeze cementing operations should be accomplished using a cement retainer. retrievable cementing tool. Prof. Cement retainer. or existing production packer PBTD Assoc.

Abdul Razak Ismail.140 1c. a permanent type bridge plug should be set within 150 ‘ above the top of the perforated interval and capped with a minimum of 50’ of cement. Use of Permanent Bridge Plug 50’ (15m) MIN Bridge plug 150’ (45m) MAX If the perforations are isolated from the hole below. UTM . Prof. perforations PBTD Assoc.

Use of a Through-Tubing Bridge Plug perforations Using wireline . Prof. PBTD Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. provided the perforations are isolated from the hole below.141 tubing Production packer 2. The bridge plug should be capped with cement. UTM . a through tubing bridge plug may be set in the casing above the perforated interval. Plugging/isolating perforated intervals through tubing Through tubing Bridge plug 2a.

Abdul Razak Ismail. Perforations PBTD Assoc. Prof. Squeeze Cementing Production Packer Perforated intervals may be abandoned by bullhead squeezing cement through the tubing into the perforations.142 Pump pressure (Bullhead squeeze) 2b. UTM .

The uppermost interval should be squeeze cemented. Abdul Razak Ismail.143 Tubing cut off Packer 2c. abandonment may be accomplished by setting a wireline plug in a landing nipple or a bridge plug in the tubing between the two zones to be isolated . Use of Tubing Plugs/ Bridge Plugs Squeeze trough tubing Packer Bridge plug in tubing Packer Wireline plug in landing nipple Casing Where there are several perforated intervals open but isolated by packers. UTM . Prof. PBTD Assoc. excepting the uppermost interval.

tubing should be perforated and a balanced cement plug spotted in the tubing-casing annulus and in the tubing using the displacement method Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. Cement Plug If unable to squeeze cement into perforated intervals . UTM .144 2d.

Plugging of Annular Space No annulus space that extends to the ocean floor should be left open to the drilled hole below.145 3. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. If this condition exists. the annulus should be plugged with cement. Assoc.

UTM . Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail. Cement Plug 100’ (30m) MIN 100’ (30m) MIN Cement plug should be set so as to extend a minimum of 100 ft (approximately 30 m) above 100 ft below the stub Assoc. Plugging of casing stubs 4a.146 4.

UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof. Cement Retainer 50’ (15m) MIN RETAINER 50’ (15m) MIN 100’ (30m) MIN A retainer may be set at least 50 ft (15 m) above the stub and a volume of cement calculated to extend a minimum of 150 ft (45 m) should be pump below the retainer. The retainer should be capped with a minimum of 50 ft (15 m) of cement Assoc.147 4b.

2.2. Bridge Plug A permanent bridge plug may be set at least 50 ft (15m) above the stub with a minimum of 50 ft (15m) of cement on top. For stubs terminating in open hole below a casing string.5 apply. Assoc.148 50’ (15m) MIN BRIDGE PLUG 50’ (15m) MIN 4c. UTM . the provision of Pars 6. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail.4 and 6.

100’ (30m) MIN GAS ZONE 100’ (30m) MIN Assoc. Prof. Isolated of Zones in Uncased Hole 100’ (30m) MIN WATER ZONE 100’ (30m) MIN 100’ (30m) MIN OIL ZONE 100’ (30m) MIN In uncased portions of wells. gas. or fresh water zone in order to isolate them in the strata in which they are found and to prevent migration into other strata. UTM . cement plugs should be placed to extend a minimum of 100 ft (30m) below the bottom and 100 ft (30m) above the top of any oil.149 5. Abdul Razak Ismail.


6. Isolated of Open Hole
6a. Cement Plug
100’ (30m) MIN

100’ (30m) MIN

Cement plug should be placed by
the displacement method so as to
extend a minimum of 100 ft
(approximately 30 m) above 100 ft
below the casing shoe.

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


6b. Cement Retainer
50’ (15m) MIN
50’ (15m) MIN
100’ (30m) MAX
100’ (30m) MIN

A cement retainer with effective back
pressure control may be set not less
than 50 ft (15m) nor more than 100 ft
(30m) above the casing shoe, and a
volume of cement pumped through
the retainer calculated to extend at
least 100 ft below the casing shoe. A
minimum of 50 ft of cement should
be placed on top of the retainer.

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM


6c. Bridge Plug
50’ (15m) MIN


150’ (45m) MAX.

If lost circulation exists or is
anticipated, a permanent type bridge
plug may be set within 150 ft (45m)
above the casing shoe and capped
with a minimum of 50 ft of cement.
The plug should be tested prior to
placing subsequent plugs.

Assoc. Prof. Abdul Razak Ismail, UTM

should be placed in the smallest string of casing which extends to the ocean floor Assoc. Surface Plug Requirement • Cement plug of at least 150 ft with the top of the plug 150 ft or less below the ocean flow. Prof.153 7. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

– Testing the casing against the plug a minimum pump pressure of 1.000 psi (66. Prof. UTM .The cement placed above the bridge plug not to be tested. Testing of Plugs • The setting and location of the first plug below 150 ft surface plug should be verified either: – Placing a minimum pipe weight of 15. Abdul Razak Ismail. .700 Newton) on the cement plug or bridge plug.000psi (6.154 8.900 kPa) with no more than 10% pressure drop during a 15 minute period Assoc.

of 6 ft) Assoc. piling and protective structures shall be removed to the satisfaction of the governing authority (min. Prof. wellhead equipment.155 9. Clearance of Location All casing. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail.

API Temporary Abandonment Operations • Any well which is to be suspended or temporarily abandoned should be cemented as recommended • A permanent or retrievable bridge plug or a 100 ft.156 B. 200’ (60 m) max. 200’ (60 m) max. plug Temporary abandonment – Cement plug Assoc. Prof. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. or more cement plug should be placed in the casing at least 15 ft. below the ocean floor Ocean floor Ocean floor 15’ (5 m) min. 15’ (5 m) min. but not more than 200 ft. Bridge plug Temporary abandonment – Bridge plug Cement 100’ (30 m) min.

UTM .157 Temporary abandonment well schematic 157 Assoc. Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.

Assoc. and these improvements have in turn reduced costs and minimized environmental and safety risks. however these costs can be minimized with prudent well design.158 Conclusions • Abandonment operations can be expensive. • A continuous improvement program has enabled equipment design operational program to be optimized. suspension and choice of abandonment method. UTM . Abdul Razak Ismail. Prof.