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You are on page 1of 8

2013/14

What you are given and what you need to know in C4

Recap of C3 facts

Exact Values of trigonometric functions

x (deg)

x (rad)

sin

cos

tan

30

1

2

3

2

45

60

3

2

1

2

90

180

-1

1. Sin2x + cos2x = 1

2. Tan x =

sin

cos

1

3. Cosec x =

4. Sec x =

5. Cot x =

sin

1

cos

1

tan

cos

sin

Dividing (1) by sin2x will give you: 1 + cot2x = cosec2x

Dividing (1) by cos2x will give you: tan2x + 1 = sec2x

3

1

Differentiation

Parametric Equations

If y = f(t) and x = g(t), then:

dy dt

=

dt dx

Implicit Differentiation

When f(x,y) = g(x,y), differentiate implicitly: that is differentiate w.r.t. y and include

dy/dx . The solution can simplified where necessary.

Example: y2 = xy + x + 2

(Hint: Use the product rule for xy)

2

=1

+1+1

ax

( )

= ln()

Start with

y = ax

ln(y) = ln(ax)

ln(y) = x ln(a)

Differentiate implicitly

= ln()

( )

= ln()

Proof of a x

Integration

Integration by substitution

There is no simple rule for integration by substitution, you must follow these steps:

Youll be given an integral which is made up of two functions of x.

4 (

2 1)

Substitute u for one of the functions of x to give function which is easier to integrate.

= 2 1,

Next, find

1

= 2, =

2

Rewrite the original integral in terms of u and du.

: 4 = 2

Integrate and substitute back for u at the end.

2 = 2 + = 2 (

2 1)

Integration by parts*

2

= 2

1

This describes the volume generated when the curve of y = f(x) from x1 to x2 is rotated 360

about the x-axis.

= 2

This describes the volume generated when the curve is defined by its parametric form (x(t),

y(t)) in the interval (a,b) is rotated 360 about the x-axis.

Both equations for the volumes of revolution can be adjusted for rotation about the y-axis by

substituting x for y and vice versa.

1

( + ) =

(+1)

( + )+1 +

where n1

Exponential functions

= +

+

1 +

Other functions

1

= || +

1

1

= | + | +

+

()

= |()| +

()

() = |() + cot()| +

() = |() + tan()| +

() = |()| +

() = () +

( + 1) () [()] = [()]+1 +

Trigonometric Integration

Basics

Learn these facts and do not confuse them with the rules for differentiation.

sin() = cos() +

cos() = sin() +

Summary (+ constant)

()

Cos x

Sin x

Sin x

-Cos x

sec2(kx)

In formula book

tan (kx)

tan(x)

|sec()|

cot(x)

|sin()|

sec (x)

|sec() + tan()|

cosec(x)

|cosec() + cot()|

y=f(x)

By the chain rule:

[sin(+)]

= acos( + )

Hence:

cos( + ) = sin( + ) +

It follows that:

sin( + ) =

cos( + ) +

[tan()]

Hence:

2 () = tan() +

Also:

2 () = k tan() + (*)

Thus:

2 ( + ) = a tan( + ) +

= 2 ()

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