THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

A

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

H. H. The Kizam of Hyderabad.
G. (\ S. I.

A

History of the Deccan.

BY

J.

D. B.

GEIBBLE.

IN

TWO VOLUMES.
cK:

With

Portraits, Maps, Plates

Illustrations.

YOL

T.

LONDON LUZAC & Co.
Publishers
to

the India Office.
1890.

3^S

V.l

TO

H. H.

THE NIZAM
OF

HYDERABAD.
G.

a

s.

I.

KESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

BY THE AUTHOK.

1793j44

KOELOFFZEN & HuBNEE.
Printers,

Amsterdam

(Holland).

PREFACE.

The Deccan may
India which
is

be roughly described as that portion of Southern
l)y

bounded

the Vindh3^a Mountains and the liiver

Godavery

to

the

North,
the

and

by

the

Tungabadhra and Kistna

Rivers to the South:

Ghats or mountain ranges which skirt

the seacoast on either side being the Eastern and Western limits.
It embraces an area about equal in extent to that of Great Britain and Ireland, and is a high-lying plateau with an elevation of from Previous to the Mahomedan invasion 1000' to 2000' above the sea. there exists no authentic record of the history of the Deccan

beyond inscriptions and architectural remains. It is known that but we know little it contained rich and flourishing Kingdoms, of the conditions of the country, beyond what can be gathered
from
a

name, a

o-rant,

a

date

or

a

coin.

The Mahomedans

did

South of the Vindhyas until the end of the 13th Their armies, commanded by generals of the Delhi century. But though they Sultans, met with but little effectual resistance.
not venture

marched through the Deccan

to

the

Southernmost limits of the

Indian Peninsula, their invasions were for the purpose of plunder and not of occupation. They bent but they did not break; and
as soon as the foreign

army

retired,

the native Hindoo States at

Although there was a Mahomedan Governor at Deogiri (DoAvlatabad), there was but a slender Towards the end of the connecting; link between him and Delhi. first half of the 14th century this link was broken by the tyranny the Mahomedan and oppression of Sultan Mahomed Toghlak
once sprang back to independence.
;

o-enerals

and

governors

in

the

Deccan

revolted:

distance

and

ii

I'UEI'.WE.
dissensions prevented
all

intcniiil

interference

on

tlie

purt of the

Delhi Sultans, and the result was that an inde|)endent Mahoniedan

Kinojdom was established
than 300
years.

in

tlic

Decciin

wliidi

lasted

i'oi-

more

Of
that
to be

this

Kingdom,

suljse(|uently divided into five,

there exists no connected or continuous history.

To

Ferishta

we

owe almost
he gives us
form,
in

all
is

we know

of this period, and the information

found scattered,
histories

and

in a greatly

condensed

the

various

of

India.

A

historian,

however

voluminous his work may be, when treating of a country as large as India is, with its huge population and its numerous races and peoples, has neither time nor space to give more than a broad
outline.

The

interest

centers

round
is

certain

prominent

figures,

but outside this circle everything

confused.

There

is

a luxuriant

Eastern jungle of change names and events which must be recorded,

but which like meteors, simply flash across the eye, and then Occasionally these broad disappear leaving no trace Ijehind.
outlines have been
filled
in.

Historians
of this

such as Tod^

Grant Diif\ have

cleared

pieces

Ifllks and huge jungle, and have

enclosed each with a ring fence.
ana,
for

This has been done for Rajputbut has not yet been

Mysore and
first

for

the

Mahrattas,

attempted for the Deccan.
I

was

struck

with

the

necessit}^

by a conversation with

the

son

of a

of a work of this kind Hyderabad Nobleman who

who was

had just finished his studies in the Nizam's College. I asked him the first of the Bahmanee Sultans of Gulburga, and he
said that he did not

know
royal

there

had been any.

He was

equally

ignorant of the fate of the last

King
are

of Golconda, although the
Avithin

remains of the

old

fortress

an hour's drive of

the city where he lived!

In

our Indian schools and colleges

we

teach the broad outlines of Indian history, but
attention to the details of the

we pay very

little

history
as

of the different provinces.

Now

it

seems to

me

that

it

is

essential for a

Deccan boy

to

know something
which he
zebe, Clive or

of the early history of that part of the country in
to

lives, as it is for

him Warren Hastings.

In the same

know about Akbar, Aurungway a Poonah boy

should be thoroughly

grounded in the history of the Mahrattas, and a Bangalore boy in that of Mysore. In the schools of Europe

PREFACE.
a l)oy goes

iii

through
is

;i

detailed

course

of the
outline

Jiistory of

liis

own

country

and

only
In
is

given

a

general
reverse

of the

history of

other nations.
general system

India,
hiid

the

seems to

be

the case.

A

which does not embrace local and provincial history. The present volume therefore is an attempt to make Deccan readers more familiar
for

down

the

Avhole of India,

with
view,

tlie
I

history

of their

own

country.

Bearing this object

in

have endeavoured to collect the fragments to be found in the various histories, and to piece them together, so as to form a connected history of the Deccan from the commencement of the
14th century up to the establishment of the present dynasty.

period of nearly

400 years
Sir
is

is

full

of the

This most interesting and
Professor Dowson's

romantic

episodes.

Henry
a

Elliot's

and

most admirable history
of

storehouse

of raw material of which

as yet but little use has

been made, and the Bombay Gazetteers
Districts

the

difierent

Deccan
circle,

are

replete

with

researches,

archaeological, historical and local,

which com])aratively unknown
old

beyond an
history

official

furnish admirable materials for a detailed

of the

Deccan.

These
I

materials,

and new,

I

have

made use

of without scruple.

can claim nothing of originality

in a history the absence of this quality is perhaps desirable
I

and what
invasion.
It

have attempted

events relating to the

is merely a collation of historical Deccan from the time of the Mahomedan

only remains for

me
is

to

acknowledge the sources from Avhich
Ferishta,
scarce,
as

my
due.

information has been drawn.

Scott, a

book which
different

To now becoming

translated

l)y

my

first

thanks are

by Elliot and Dowson, upon Deccan affairs, throw from time to time considerable and I have transcribed from them verbatim whenever occasion required. My thanks are also due to the Bombay Government for permission to make use of the material provided in their most

The

historians

collected

light

excellent Gazetteers of Kanara,

Bijapur and

Ahmednagar,
Colonel

a per-

mission of which

I

have gladly availed myself.

Meadows

Taylor's historical romance of
to

"A

Noble c^ueen" has enabled me

go at some length into a most interesting episode of Bijapur

history, and the "Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the Nizam's

iv

PREFACE.
l>y

Dominions"'
has

Messrs.
to

Wilniott
a

an<l

Sc'y<l

Jioossein Belgrami,
|il;iees

enabled

me

give
to

(leserij)tioii

of

those
.Mr.

wliieli

I

have not been able

visit

in

person.

To
me,

llerrman Linde
the

my

most cordial thanks are dne for the beautiful original sketches
wliicli

with

he

has so

kindly

provided

and

excellent

jdiotographs

of the

Deccaii

cities

have

been

furnished

by

the

well-known photographer Mr.
and Sudore, whilst those
Nicholas of Madras.

Lala

Deen Dayal of Secunderabad
Mi-.

of the

Vijayanagar ruins are from

Some

of the portraits have been reproduced

from a collection of old paintings found in the royal city of Bieder, and the genealogy of H.H. the Nizam (who has graciously accepted the dedication of the work) was kindly furnished to me from the
])alace

by

NaAvab

Sarvar Jung

the

Peshi Secretary to
D. B. Geibble.

His Highness.
J.

IT^deraha)! [Deccan)

October, 1895.

CONTENTS.
CllAl'TEK
I.

I'AMi

II.

III.

IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII.

The Gulburga Sultans. — Muhammad Shah The Gulburga Sultans from 1374—1397, A.D
Sultans Ghazi-ud-Din and Shums-ud-Din The City and Kingdom of Vijayanagar Sultans Feroze Shah and Ahmed Shah Sultan Allah-ud-Din II HUMAYUN THE CrUEL Sultans Nizam Shah and Muhammed Shah The End of the House of Bahmanee
.

Introductory The Origin of the Bahmanee Kings of Gulburga The Rise of the Hindoo Kingdom of Vijayanagar. and the End of the first Gulburga Sultan. ...
. .

1
1-i

23

34
47 56 60 74
97 109 113 128

,

PART

II.
to its

History of Bijapur and of the Deccan down Aurunrjzebe {A. D. 1500—1680).

Subjugation by

XIII.

YusuF Adil Shah of Bijapur
Ismael Adil Shah .... The Kingdoms of Berar and Golconda and Continu-

XIV. XV. XVI.
XVII. XVIII.

The

Nizajis of

Ahmednagar

Bijapur from 1509—1534.
ation OF Bijapur

137 150 156

XIX.

XX.
XXI. XXII.
XXIII.

XXIV.

The Fall of Vijayanagar Ahmednagar and Bijapur from the Fall of Vijayanagar TILL the Death of Ali Adil Shah (1580) The STORYOF Queen Chand AND THE Fall of Ahmednagar Retrospective Sketch of the Deccan The Story of J^Ealick Amber The Beginning of the End The End of Bijapur ... The Fall of Golconda.— A.D. 1686
.
. .

179 186

.

,

,

199 211 242 251 263 286 297

PART

III.

The Empire in Ruins.

XXVI.

XXV. The King-Makers The End of the King-Makers and the Birth
NEW Kingdom Appendix

312

of a
365 383

etc.,

detailed list o£ all the Illustrations. Maps, Plaus, Genealogical Tables, contained in the two volumes, along with an Index to the complete work, will be inserted at the end of the second volume.

A

CHAPTER

I.

INTEODUCTORY.

Up

to the

end of

tlie

thirteenth
It

century

had not invaded the Deccan.
country

was

to

Mahomedans them an unknown
the

peopled

by pagan
is

idolaters,

as

they

called

them.

Scarcely anything

known

of the inner condition

of the vast

Deccan and Carnatic of modern times. There seems to be some doubt regarding the origin of the name itself, and it is supposed by some to be derived from the Bandaka or forest to which Eama went into voluntary banishment, but the most probable derivation is that Deccan is a corruption of Bahkhiu the Prakrit form of the Sanscrit Dakshin, the left or south. The country was occupied by many ancient Hindoo kingdoms, the history and origin of which are lost. The two northernmost of these kingdoms had their capitals at Deogiri and Warangal. The former extended to the western coast, and far away south to Mysore, and the latter included Orissa and probably all the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad and Madras. That these kingdoms w^ere very great and powerful there can be no doubt, but there remain now nothing but ruins, which, however, are sufficient to show how advanced they were in civilisation. Deogiri, the modern Dowlatabad, was not only a
are

country in which

included the

1

2

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
fortress,
J'^Uora

large city but an important

supposed

to

be impreg-

nable. The wonderful caves of

and Ajunta show how

advanced Avas the
remains of
the rulers of the

art

of

architecture;

and

in

Warangal the

immense
of

irrigation

tanks and channels show that
great attention to the imthese
cities

country

devoted
In

provement

agriculture.

both

there were

enormous accumulations of wealth, consisting of gold, precious stones, and elephants, all of which were found within their own boundaries. The people appear to have been brave, happy, and prosperous, and from west to east there were scattered about numerous holy shrines which l)rought together thousands
of pilgrims. of the
It

was

this

wealth

that

attracted

the cupidity

Mahomedans. year 1294 Ala-ud-Din was the governor of the Bengal provinces. He was the nephew and son-in-law of the and was an ambitious, cruel Sidtan of Delhi— Jelal-ud-Din stories of the wealth which was stored man. He had heard
In
the

up

in the cities of the idolatrous

Hindoos, and, taking religion
In
reality,

as his excuse, he determined to plunder them.

he wanted the riches for was to
gaining
his

use

father-in-law's

throne.

them as a Without mentioning

what means of
his

project to the emperor, Ala-ud-Din marched southwards with

and was absent for more than a year. During this time no one knew what had become of him, but there were vague rumours that he was lighting with the Hindoos This, indeed, was the case, and for a great part in Deogiri.
a large army,

of this time he was besieging the fortress of Deogiri, afterwards

Dowlatabad.
feet in height.

This fortress

is

situated on an isolated

hill,

640

The

hill

is
it

cone-shaped,

and

in addition to

the steepness of the rock

was very strongly fortified with walls, bastions, and moats. There were in reality three distinct forts, one within another, and at the foot was the city which was the centre of a considerable trade. At the time of Alaud-Din's invasion.

Ram Deo

was king

of Deogiri.

Zia-ud-Din

INTRODUCTORY.
Barni, the MaliomL'daii

historiai],

says:

"The

people

of that coinitrv

had

never heard of the Miis-

sidmans

;

the Mahratta

and

liad

never

been

punished by their armies

no JMiissidman king or
prince had penetrated so
far.

Deogiri was exceed-

ingly rich in
silver,

gold and

jewels and pearls,
other
valuables."

and
to

Ram Deo

sent an army meet the Mahomedan but it was invader,
totally

defeated,

and

Ala-ud-Din then invested
the fortress of Deogiri.

The

fort

was not taken,

and the Rajah saved it only by agreeing to give up an immense amount
of of
treasure,

consisting

gold,

jewels

and
which

elephants,

with

Ala-ud-Din returned to
Karra, his seat of govern-

ment.

So great was
it

this

treasure that

is

said

nothing had ever been
seen like
it

before,
it

and

Ala-ud-Din used

to win

4

HISTORY OF TEE DECCAN.
many
to
liis

over as

side as ])ossil)le.

When

the Ein])eror Jelal-

lul-Din heard that his soii-iii-law had returned after so successful
a

campaign, he sent to congratuhite him and to ask
to

why he

did

not come

Delhi

to

report

the

circumstances

in ])crson.

Ala-ud-Din replied,
therefore he

that,

having gone away Avithout permission,

he was afraid the Emperor would be angry with him, and

had not ventured to come to Delhi, but if the Emperor would come and see him, it would satisfy the minds of his officers that no harm was intended to them, and he would then introduce them to the Emperor, and at the same time hand The poor over to him the treasure which he had brought. old Emperor, suspecting nothing, and anxious, perha])s, to receive the wonderful treasure of which he had heard so much, fell into the trap thus laid for him. He sent word that he would start at once, and, so as to show that he had no evil intentions, would come with only a slight retinue. Karra is situated on the Ganges, and Avas some five or six days' journey form Kilu-gadhi, where the Emperor was then encamped. Without listening to the advice of his counsellors, the Emperor set off on this journey in a boat, accompanied only by a few personal attendants and a body-guard of a thousand horse. The historian Barni thus relates the tragedy that followed: "Ala-ud-Din and his followers had determined

He on the course to be adopted before the Sultan arrived. had crossed the river with the elephants and treasure, and had taken post with his forces between Manikpur and Karra, the Ganges being very high. When the royal ensign came in sight he was all prepared, the men were armed, and the Ala-ud-Din sent his elephants and horses were harnessed.
brother Almas

Beg

in

a small boat to the sultan, with directions

to use every device to induce

him

to leave behind the

thousand
to the

men

he had brought with him, and to come with only a few

personal attendants.

The

traitor

Almas Beg hastened
full

Sultan and perceived several boats

of

horsemen around

INTRODUCTORY.
him.

5

He

told the Sultan

that

his brother

had

left the

city,

and God only knew where he would have gone to, if he (Almas Reg) had not been sent to him. If the Sultan did not make more haste to meet him, he would kill himself, and
his

treasure

would be ])lundercd.
directed

If his brother

were

to see

armed boats with The Sultan accordingly
these

would destroy himself. horsemen and boats should remain by the side of the river, whilst he, with two boats and a few personal attendants and friends, passed over to the other side. When the two boats had started and the Angel of Destiny had come still nearer, the traitor Almas
the Sultan he
that the

Beg

desired the Sultan

to

direct

his

attendants to lay aside

their arms, lest his brother should see

them

as

he approached

nearer,

and be frightened.

The
to

Sultan,

about to become a

martyr, did not detect the

drift of this insidious ])roposition,

As the boats reached mid-stream, the army of Ala-iid-Din was perceived, all under arms, the elephants and horses harnessed, and in several places troops of horsemen ready for action. When the nobles who
but directed his followers
disarm.

accompanied the Sultan saw

this,

they

knew

that

Almas Beg

had by
they

his plausibility

brought his patron into a snare, and

up as lost. j\Ialik Khuram asked meaning of all this?" and Almas Beg, seeing that his treachery was detected, said his brother was anxious that his army should pay homage to his master. The Sultan was so blinded by his destiny, that although his own eyes saw the treachery, he would not return, but he said " I have come so far in a little boat to meet to Almas Beg your brother, cannot he, and does not his heart induce him to advance to meet me with due respect?" The traitor replied:
gave
is

themselves

"What

the

:

" j\Iy

brother's

intention

is

to

await

your

majesty

at

the

landing-place with the elephants and treasure and jewels, and
there to present his officers."
in them,

The Sultan, trusting

implicitly

who were

his

nephews, sons-in-law, and foster-children,

6

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Jletooktlic
as a

did not awake and detect the obvious intention.

Koran and read

it,

and proceeded
All the people

fearless

and confiding
in the boat

father to his sons.

who were

with

him saw death
chapter

plainly before them,
to

and began
of death.

to re])eat the

appropriate

men

in

sight

The Sultan

reached the shore
with a few

before

afternoon

prayer,

and disembarked

followers.

Ala-ud-Din advanced to receive him,

he and

all

his officers
fell

showing due respect.

When

he reached
as

the Sultan he

at his feet,

and the Sultan, treating him

a son, kissed his eyes and cheeks, stroked his beard, gave

him

two loving taps upon the cheek, and said: "I have brought thee up from infancy, why art thou afraid of me?" The Sultan took Ala-ud-Din's hand, and at that moment the stony-hearted
traitor gave the fatal signal.

Muhammad

Salim of Samana, a

bad fellow of a bad family, struck at the Sultan with a sword, He again but the blow fell short and cut his own hand. struck and wounded the Sultan, who ran towards the river, " Ah thou villain, Ala-ud-Uin, what hast thou crying done ? " Iktiyar-ud-Din Hud ran after the betrayed monarch, threw him down, and cut off his head and bore it dripping Some of those persons who accomwith blood to Ala-ud-Din, panied the Sultan had landed, and others remained in the boats, but all were slain. Villainy and treachery and murderous
: !

feelings, covetousness

and

desire of riches, thus did their work."

This happened on the 17th Ramazan 695. H. equal to A. D.
1296, and Ala-ud-Din at once ascended the throne and marched

was largely used to make men forget the terrible tragedy that had been enacted on the banks Every day five maunds of golden stars were of the Ganges. discharged by a kind of engine amongst the people in front

upon

Delhi.

The

fatal treasure

of the royal tent,

and from

far and near people flocked to his

camp
about.

in order to share in the wealth that

was being scattered
to

Delhi was entered in the midst of a magnificent display,
still

and there

remained enough of the gold

fill

the treasury

INTRODUCTORY.
as
it

7

had never been
{tanJiCis)

filled before.

Purses and bags

lilled

with

were distributed, and men gave themselves and enjoyment. "Ala-ud-Din, in the pride of youth, prosperity, and boundless wealth, proud also of his army and his followers, his elephants, and liis liorses, plunged into dissipation and pleasure." As was only natural, Ala-ud-Din was not likely to forget the place which had furnished him with the means of winning a throne. There must be more left in the country from which
gold coins

np

to dissipation

so

much had

already come.

Deogiri had not been sacked and

had only bought off the invaders with a portion of Besides, Warangal had not been touched, and, were true, this city was even wealthier than if rumours Deogiri. People said that in Telingana, of which Warangal was the capital, there were gold and diamond mines. It was a religious duty to take these treasures from the hands of infidels, and accordingly, in the year 1 308 A. D. an army was sent to Deogiri, the Rajah of which had rebelled and had sent no tribute for several years. This time Deogiri was taken, and wdth it an immense amount of treasure. The Rajah with his family were sent as prisoners to Delhi, where they did homage to the Sultan, and were then pardoned. Next year (1309) another expedition was sent to Warangal, the Rajah of which was called Rai Laddar Deo by the Mahomedan historians, but w4iose real name was Pratapa Rudra Deva. Malik Naib Kafur w^as appointed in command of this army, and his instructions were not to press the Rajah too hard, but to content himself with getting as much
the Rajah
his wealth.

treasure as he could, wdth a promise of tribute in the future.

The march lasted for more than three months and was through Every day, we are a wild and hitherto unknown country. told, it passed a new river until at length it reached the Nerbuddah, " which was such that you might say it was a remnant of the deluge," The Deogiri territories were respected

8

HISTOKY OF THE DEC CAN.
of
a
de])en{leiit,
))iit

as l)eiiig those

when

the fort of Sarbar

was readied, which belonged to the Telingana country, it was taken by storm and the whole of the inhabitants were killed. "Every one threw himself, with his wife and children, upon
the flames,
fire

and departed

to hell,"

and those who escaped the

were put to the sword. Soon after, the army arrived near Warangal, and an advance force was sent to occupy " the hill

An Makinda, for from that all the edifices and gardens of Warangal can be seen" {Jmir Khusrn, Tarikh-i-'Alai). This clearly refers to the hill of Hanumkunda, which is situated about four miles from the ruins of the ancient fort of Warangal. The city was surrounded by a double wall of fortifications, tlie The circumouter one of mud and the inner one of stone. ference of the outer wall was seven miles and one-eighth. The whole of this wall was surrounded by the invaders with a wooden breastwork, to construct which all the trees of the "The trees were cut with axes sacred groves w^ere cut down. and felled, notwithstanding their groans; and the Hindoos, who w^orship trees, could not at that time come to the rescue of their idols, so that every cursed tree which w^as in that and clever capital of idolatry was cut down to the roots
of
;

carpenters applied the sharp iron to shape the blocks, so that
a

wooden

fortress

that

if fire

had rained from

was drawn round the army, of such stability heaven, their camp would have

been

ui] scathed."

The

siege

was carried on with great fury
Several sorties were repulsed,

in spite of an obstinate defence.

and

in

one the whole party was slain and " the heads of the
rolled

Rawats

on the plain

like crocodiles' eggs."

At length
for peace.

the outer wall

was taken and then the Rajah sued
if

He was
general

ordered to give up

the whole of his treasure,

massacre was threatened

and a he should be found to

have kept anything for himself.
yearly.
left

He

also agreed to send tribute

On

the 16th Shawal (March
his

Warangal with

army,

1310 A. D.) Malik Kafur and with a thousand camels

INTRODUCTORY.
lie reached Delhi groaning under the weight of the treasure, on the 11th iMohurram, and on the 24th the treasure was

presented to the Sultan.

Thus ended the
finally

first

siege of Warangal,

which had, how^ever, to undergo several others before, thirteen
years afterwards,

sacked and destroyed. from the two excursions to the The plunder thus obtained Deccan only excited the Sultan's desire for more, and the
it

was

same general, Malik Kafur, was
with
orders
to

at

once despatched to Deogiri
expedition
to

organise
It is

another

the

regions

further south.
it

probable that Deogiri or Dowlatabad, as

will

of the Delhi emperor, although the

be called henceforth, was already governed by a lieutenant Rajah may have been left

there with a certain

amount of nominal power. Not only was every assistance given towards the equipment of this new expedition, but the Rajah himself gave a Hindoo The King general to act as a guide to this unknown country.
of

twenty elephants to Dowlatabad, with an intimation that he would be punctual in sending his tribute Early in the following year (1311) Malik Kafur in future.

Warangal

also sent

marched southwards. The territories of the Dowdatabad and Warangal kingdoms must have extended as far south as the boundaries of Mysore, for we do not read of the Mahomedan

army having encountered any enemy until the "Belial Deo Dharwar Samoonder." This name evidently refers to one
the
Vellala
is

of
of

dynasty,

which then ruled
a

in

IMysore,

and the

place

identified with

spot

near Seringapatam, the

Samoonder being a Mahomedan corruption of word used in the Tamil, Telugu, and Canarese languages for a large tank or reservoir, the literal meaning being "sea." The Raja^i was conquered and had to yield a large amount of treasure and elephants, which were despatched as a first From Mysore the Mahomedan army instalment to Delhi.
marched
to
tw^o sons of the

word Samudram, the

Madura where a quarrel had arisen between the Hindoo king, who is called by the historian

10

HISTOnV OF THE DECCAN.

Dewar. Tliis kiiii;- is said to have been immensely rich, and the same autlior says that in his city of Mardi (Madura) there were " 1200 crores of gold deposited, every crore being ccjiial to a thousand lakhs, and every lakh
IVassaf, Kales
to one

hundred thousand

dinars.
stones,

Beside such

this,

there

was an

accumulation of precious
quoises,
to express."

as pearls, rubies, tur-

and emeralds, more than is the power of language The whole of the country over which this king ruled, is called by the IMahomedan historians Ma'bar, and included not only that part which is now known as Malabar, but also the whole of the ]\Iadura country, Trichinopoly and Tanjore. The capital of this great kingdom was at Madura, and the dynasty is known as the Pandion race of kings. When the King Kales Dewar died, about 1309, he left two sons, called by the Mahomedan historians Eai Sundar Pandiya and Rai Bir Pandiya. The latter name is clearly a corruption These two brothers quarrelled, of Veera, an old Hindoo name. and Veera Pandiya, the younger and illegitimate brother, drove the older one from the country, and it appears to have been on behalf of Sundar Pandiya that Malik Kafur invaded Madura. At the approach of the Mahomedan army, Veera Pandiya took refuge in the jungles, and was pursued from place to place. All the towns and temples on the line of march were sacked and destroyed, and on the 17th Zilkada the army arrived at Madura which shared the same fate. An immense amount of booty was obtained here, and Amir Khusru says that " when the Malik came to take a muster of the
elephants, they extended

over

* a length of three parasm^gs,

hundred and twelve, besides five thousand and five hundred mans of jewels of every description diamonds, pearls, emeralds, and rubies." On the 4th Jumada Sani 711 H. (1311) Malik Kafur
to five

and amounted

horses, Arabian and Syrian,

* Parasa]i//s. a Persian

measure of distance

=

3 miles.

INTRODUCTORY.
arrived in Delhi with
all

11

and presented it to the lUit a curse seemed to attach to all the Sultan Ala-ud-Din. gold and jewels taken from the Hindoo idolaters, and in the same way as the Warangal treasure tempted Ala-ud-I)in to murder his uncle Jelal-ud-Din, so now the same temptation brought upon him the same fate from the hands of jMalik
this treasure

Kafur.
hastened,
throne.

In
it

1317
is

Ala-ud-Din died, his

death
at

having

been

said,

by

]\lalik

Kafur,

who

once seized the

put out the eyes of two of Ala-ud-Din's sons, them from their sockets with a razor, like slices of melon," and confined another (Mubarak Khan), intending him for the same fate. Before, however, he could do this, A conspiracy was retribution overtook jNIalik Kafur himself. formed amongst some of the nobles, who entered the palace This being at night and killed him when he was asleep. done, Mubarak Khan was placed upon the throne and assumed

He

"by

cutting

Kutb-ud-Din (1317). In the following year another expedition was undertaken by the Sultan against The head of the revolt was Deogiri, which had revolted. Harpal Deo, but he was defeated without difficulty, taken
the
title

of

Sultan

prisoner,

and then flayed
the
fort.

alive,

his

skin being

hung over
was then
is

the ap-

gates

of

A Mahomedan

governor
it

pointed, and from that time Deogiri, or, as

now

called,

Dowlatabad, ceased to be the residence of a Hindoo king. In the following year the newly-appointed governor of Dowlatabad revolted, but was taken
prisoner and sent to Delhi,

where

and nose were cut off, and he was publicly Khusru Khan, a favourite of the Sultan, appears disgraced. to have replaced him, and to have made another invasion of Malabar; but the Hindoo gold seems to have laid upon him on his return to Delhi he abused the its curse also, for confidence placed in him by entering the palace with a band
his ears

of assassins
last

and murdering the Sultan.

In this way died the

descendant of Ala-ud-Din, and the former murder of the

12

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

poor old Sultan Jelal-iid-Diii was avenged upon the murderer's Khusru Khan occupied the throne for a few descendents.

months

only,

under the

title

of

Sultan

Nasir-ud-Din, when

he in turn was slain

by Ghazi Malik, a noble of Deobalpur,

who

then mounted the throne as the founder of a

new

dynasty,

under the title of Sultan Ghiyas-ud-Uin Tughlik Shah (1320). One of the first acts of the new Sultan was to send an army under his eldest son to Warangal. Laddar Deo was still King of Warangal, and at first tried to purchase peace by delivering up his treasure. Ulugh Khan, the Sultan's son, refused any
terms, and

commenced
to

laying siege to the fort.

were reduced

extremity,

The Hindoos and were on the eve of capituThe Hindoos
seized

lating, w^hen a revolt

broke out in the camp in consequence
the Sultan's death.
forth,

of a false report of

the opportunity, sallied

the army, whereupon Ulugh

Khan

Warangal had another respite. brief one, for no sooner had the Sultan punished the instigators of the revolt, than he sent Ulugh Khan with another army This time resistance was of no to besiege the ill-fated city. avail, and after a short siege the fort was taken, the Rajah with all his family and treasures w^ere captured and sent to Delhi, and the very name of Warangal was altered to that of But the curse attending This occurred in 1323. Sultanpur. the Hindoo gold was still at work, and again we find that the
desire of possessing this
it

and plundered the baggage of retired to Dowdatabad, and The respite, however, was a

fatal

gold led to crime.

This time

own

and Ulugh Khan w^as led away to kill his The is the way the murder was effected. Sultan was returning from an expedition to Delhi, and Ulugh Khan built a pavilion in which to receive him. This pavilion w^qs so contrived that by treading on a certain stone the roof would fall in. Whilst the Sultan was being entertained at dinner, Ulugh Khan and the conspirators went out, touched the secret spring, and the roof fell in and killed the Sultan
was
parricide,
father.

This

INTRODUCTORY.
and
his

13

companions.
title

Ulugli

Khan

then monnted the throne
(1325).

under the

of

Mahomed Tughlak Shah
to

We

have

now come
of

the time

authentic

accounts

the

when we can find some Deccan country. The two great

Hindoo kingdoms of Warangal and Deogiri have been destroyed, and in their place Mahomedan rule has been substituted.

The
in

representative of the
in the

pendent governor
the

Sultan of Delhi is an almost indemidst of on alien population. Except
of
his
capital,

immediate

vicinity

Dowlatabad,

it

is

probable that he does not exercise more than a nominal sway.
far away to tlie Kafur actually built a mosque at Rameswaram they have left no permanent impression. All that they have done is to carry away plunder, and leave behind them ruins and heaps of corpses. There exists a bitter hatred against them on account of their cruelty and rapine, and already the Hindoos, driven away from Warangal and the Telingana, have founded a new kingdom at Vijayanagar, which is destined to be for two hundred and fifty years a bulwark against further invasion. In Delhi there is a constant struggle for the throne. Tempted by the enormous amount of treasure which has been carried away from the Hindoos,

Though Mahomedan armies have marched

south

it

is

said that Malik

there are adventurers always eager to obtain a share.

Already

on the north-western frontiers has appeared the shadow of the

Mogul conqueror, who before long
Sultans away.

will

drive

the

Afghan

Amid

such scenes of disturbance

it is

not likely

that the Sultans of Delhi can exercise a very effectual control

over so distant a place

as

Dowlatabad.

If

this

part of the

country

is

to

be preserved under Mahomedan
lost their ancient

rule, there

must

be a local leader to concentrate the scattered Hindoo provinces

which have
of a

rulers.

the

new kingdom man is always

has arrived, and
ready.

The time for the birth when the hour has come
was
in this case.

And

so

it

CHAPTER
THE
OKI(;i-\

II.

OF TJIE 15AI1MA>KE KlXCiS OF GULBURGA.

N the

last

cha])ter 1

have endeavoured to
describe the state of
affairs in the

at the

ment
y

Deccan commenceof the

reign of

Mahomed Tughlak Shah.

this

The character of King was not
one calculated to

improve

matters.
his

During
reign
of twenty-seven

long

years

(from

1325

to

1352, A.D.) he

brought his kingdom to the verge of ruin by his mad acts of tyranny and insane adventure. He was wise enough to see
that if the
to the

new conquests in the Deccan were to be preserved Mahomedans, and the growing power of the young Hindoo kingdom at Vijayanagar kept in check, it would be necessary to have the central power nearer to the newly conquered province than Delhi. The distance from the capital, and the immense wealth hoarded up by the Hindoo princes

THE ORIGIN OF THE BAHMANEE KINGS OF GULBUBGA.

15

offered too great a temptation to the loyalty of his lieutenants.

The Governors
of
disloyalty,

at

Dowlatabad were constantly being accused
were
frequently

and

removed.

In

order

to

obviate this he conceived the

mad

idea of transferring his capital

from Delhi to Dowlatabad. This was not done gradually, but, it were at a moment's notice, the Avholc of the inhabitants of the great city, which for 180 years had been the capital of
as

the

Mahomedan Empire
to

in

India, were ordered to leave their

homes and emigrate
with
its

Dowlatabad.
of
this

The

historian

Barni
city

thus describes the effect

tyrannical order:

"The

or five

sdrciis and its Kos (about 10 miles).

suburbs and villages spread over four
All was destroyed.

So complete
the buildings

was the
natives,

ruin, that not a cat or
its

dog was
in its

left

among

of the city, in

palaces

or

suburbs.

Troops of the

with their families and dependents, wives and children,

men-servants, and maid-servants were forced to remove.

people

who

for

many

years

The and for generations had been

natives and inhabitants of the land were broken-hearted. Many from the toils of the long journey, perished on the road, and

those

who

arrived at Deogiri could not endure the pain of exile.

In despondency they pined to death.
is

All around Deogiri, which

an infidel land, there sprung up graveyards of Mussulmans.
in his liberality

The Sultan was bounteous
emigrants, both

and favours

to the

on

their

journey and
could

on

their arrival:

but

they were tender and they
the suffering.
land,

not endure

the exile

and

They

laid

down

their

heads in that heathen

and of

all

the multitudes of emigrants few only survived

Thus the city, the envy of the cities of the inhabited world, was reduced to ruin. One of these emigrants was a man who afterwards became very famous in the Deccan as the founder of a new kingdom. This man was called Hassan. He was born in the year 1290 (A. D.) and was in very humble circumstances. Tor the first thirty years of his life he was nothing more than a field labourer,
to return to their

home.

16

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
a

and was emjDloyed by This Brahmin gave him
a hard working

Brahmin
of

of

Delhi

named

Ga//////.

a piece

land near the city walls,

together with a pair of oxen and two labourers.

honest man, and one day work with his plough, it struck in some hard body "and Hassan upon examination, found it was entangled in a chain round the neck of an earthen vessel, which proved to be full He immediately carried them to the of anti(pie gold coins. Brahmin, who commended his honesty and informed the Prince
of

Hassan was when he was at

the

discovered

treasure"

(Scott's

Ferishta).

This
to

prince was the Sultan Ghaziuddin,

who reigned from 1320
to his

1325.
that

The Sultan was
he
ordered him
the

so
to

much
be

pleased with Hassan's honesty,

brought
of one

presence
horse.

and
This
to

bestowed upon him

command
of

hundred
a
field

sudden

elevation

from the position

of

labourer

that of a military officer

considerable

rank would appear

absurd now-a-days,

uncommon

thing.

was one of the

but five hundred years ago it was no The Brahmin Gangu, who employed Hassan, royal astrologers, and attracted by this promotion
In this

of his hitherto obscure servant he cast his horoscope.

Hassan would one day it foretold that become a king. In repeating this prophecy to Hassan, the Brahmin made one request, viz., that Hassan should adopt his name in future, and w^hen he should some day become king that he would appoint him as his minister of finance. This Hassan promised, and from that time was known as Hassan Gangu *. It is said that his good fortune was also predicted by a Mahomedan saint named Shekh Nizam-ud-Din Oulea, whose memory is still venerated at Delhi, and whose tomb is resorted to annually by numerous pilgrims. These
horoscope he found
prophecies and his recent promotion, no doubt, fired Hassan's
* This

name

as

translated
it

from the

Persian

historians

is

generally

spelt

Kangoh. but

evidently refers to

Gangu

a not

uncommon Hindoo

name.

THE ORIGIN OF THE BAHMANEE KINGS OF GULBURGA.
ambition, and
adventure.

17

he

looked

forward

to

some

opjDortunity

of

the El Dorado of the and no douht Hassan hoped some day to employ his body of horsemen in slaying and plundering the infidel Hindoos. The opportunity was not long in coming. When Mahomed Tughlak Sliah resolved to change his capital from Delhi to Dowlatabad, he appointed Kuttulugh Khan as Governor of the latter place, and allowed him to select his own officers. One of these was Hassan Gangu and he followed

The Deccan was then
imagination,

Mahomedan

new master to Dowlatabad, where he was assigned as "town of Konechee with lands dependent on the district of Roy baugh" (Scott.) This town is situated in what is now H. H. the Nizam's Dominions. Here Hassan remained
his

jaghir the

for

some years increasing in influence and wealth. No doubt he made various raids for himself against his neighbours the
last

heathen Hindoos, until at

he became a landholder and

a

military chief of considerable importance.

In the meantime matters throughout the kingdom of Mahomed Tughlak had grown from bad to worse. The unpopularity which the king had earned by the enforced emigration of the inhabitants from Delhi to DoAvlatabad was increased by the arbitrary manner in which the jaghirdars were treated in the outlying ])rovinces. All kinds of exactions were made, and whenever a landowner refused to pay he was treated as a rebel. Altogether Mahomed Tughlak seems to have behaved like a madman. Bar?ii * enumerates six projects which led to the ruin of the country. The first was an attempt to extort from five to ten per cent more tribute from all the landowners in the Doab. These
cesses,

we

are

told,

were collected

so

rigorously

that

the

raiyats were impoverished and reduced to beggary.

Those Avho

were rich and had property became rebels;
ruined and cultivation was
a failure of the rains,
* Elliot

the lands were
Tiiis,

entirely

arrested.
a

added

to

brought about
III.

terrible famine, Avhich

and Dowson, Vol.

18

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
spoken of as one of the worst
tliat

is

ever occurred in India.

It continued,

we

are told, for

some
Avliich

years,

thousands of people perished of want.
the change of the capital to

and thousands upon The second project was
first

allusion has already been

made.
Avished

The
to

third

was even madder than the

two, and was

nothing less than a conquest of the whole world.
raising an

become a second enormous army with w^hich

The King Alexander, and resolved upon
to carry out his designs.

In order to provide the necessary funds to pay this countless
host of soldiers, he introduced copper money, and gave orders
that
it

should be used in buying and selling and should pass
the

current, just as

gold

and

silver

coins

had passed.

The

promulgation of this order we are told by the same historian,
turned the house of every Hindoo into a mint, and the Hindoos
of the various provinces coined an
coins.

Of

course, the natural result

enormous amount of copper was a general depreciation
the value of the

of the currency,
fall,

and

so

low

did

new

coins

that

they

were not esteemed higher than
trade was

"pebbles or

potsherds."

When

interrupted on every side, and

w^hen the copper

iankas

"had become more worthless than
his
edict,

clods," the Sultan repealed

and

in great

wrath he

proclaimed that whoever possessed copper coins should bring

them to the treasury and receive the old gold coins in exchange. "Thousands of men from various quarters, who possessed thousands of these copper coins, and caring nothing about them, had flung them into corners along with their copper pots, now brought them to the treasury and received in exchange gold iankas and silver tankas, shashgdnis and dii-garms which
they carried to their homes.

So many of these copper coins
of

were brought to the treasury that heaps of them rose up in

Tuglikabad
Great sums

(the

new name

Dowlatabad)
in

like

mountains.
the Sultan

went out of the treasury

exchange for the

copper, and a great deficiency was caused.

When
loss

saw that

his project

had

failed,

and that great

had been

THE ORIGIN OF THE BAHMANEE KINGS OF GULBUBGA.
entailed ii})on
tlie

19

treasury througli his copper coins, he
his

more
three

than ever turned against

subjects."
all

The remaining

projects were military expeditions,

of which were attended

by failure. The first two were against Khurasan and Persia, and the third against China. The latter was especially disA large army was shut in by the Hindoos in the astrous. defiles of what is now called the Black Mountain and was entirely cut to pieces. Out of the whole army only ten horsemen returned to Delhi to tell the news of their defeat. The consequence of these rash enterprises was that everywhere the country broke into open revolt. In Multan, Bengal, and distant Ma'bar the Governors rebelled. It is difficult now
to ascertain the exact

boundaries of this province of Ma'bar.

As has been

said before, the whole of the southern portion of

the Peninsula
capital of the

was

called

Malabar. *

It is

probable that the
the

Mahomedan Governor was somewhere on
if

western coast, but

so, in a

very short time
for

all

trace of this

Mahomedan
hundred
this

occupation
the

vanished,

during the next

two

years, until

time of

Aurungzebe, the whole ef

country was undoubtedly held by Hindoos. The Sultan marched with an army to put down this rebellion, but he did not get further than Warangal, when cholera broke out and he was compelled to return. When he reached Dowlatabad on his way home, he gave permission to those who wished
to

do so to return

to Delhi.

A

large

of this

permission,

but those

number availed themselves who had become acclimatised
Sultan

resolved to

remain.

No

sooner had the

returned

to

Delhi than a revolt broke out at Warangal.

A

Hindoo named
and succeeded
jMakbul,

Kanya Naick
fled to Delhi.
*

raised an

army

of his co-religionists,
j\Ialik

in driving out the

Mahomedan Governor
of

who

The province
coast

Warangal was then completely

The west

this conquest,

because

was known to the Arabs as Ma'bar long before it was the coast to which traders crossed over

from Arabia (from Ahara =r he crossed).

20

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
to

lost

the

^Mahomedans

and

for

some time

tlie

Hindoos

established their rule.
to recover this country,
Avas so fully

No

attempt seems to have been made
In fact before long
faithful

probably because the Sultan's attention

occupied by other matters.
provinces
that
it

the

oidy

outlying

remained

were
the

Dowlatabad
1344, a

and

Guzerat.

But

was

not

long

that

Sultan's folly caused

him

to lose these

man named Aziz Khummar Malwa and Guzerat with strict orders One of the first acts tribute as possible.
of
to collect eighty of the principal to be beheaded.

two provinces also. In was appointed as Governor
to collect as

much
was

of this wretch

Amirs

at his palace,
act,

and cause

them all by the Sultan with a robe of honour
This brutal
letter,

which was rewarded
first

and a complimentary
This broke out
in

caused a general insurrection.
This occurred in 1345.

Gujarat where the nobles rose and defeated the deputy Governor

Mukbil.

The Sultan

at

once marched

in person to suppress this revolt, which, after
cruelties,

committing great

he succeeded in doing.

Those nobles who were not
to the

captured fled with their families

them took refuge
order that
all

at

Dowlatabad.
horse.
killed

these fugitives

Deccan and many of The Sultan despatched an should be sent to him with an

escort of fifteen

hundred
guards,

On

the

way

these prisoners
to

rose against their

them and then returned

Dowlatabad where they proclaimed an open rebellion. The treasury was looted and distributed amongst the conspirators. They then declared the independence of the Deccan and elected as their first Sultan an Afghan chief named Ismael who assumed
the
title

of Nusrud-din.

Prominent amongst these conspirators

was Hassan Kangoh, upon
bestowed, together with
great

whom

the
large

title

of Zaflir

Khan was
So

several

districts in jaghir.

of Delhi, that the rebels at
revolt

was the general feeling of discontent against the Sultan Dowlatabad were assisted in their Hindoos of Warangal, who thus made common by the
with

cause

Mahomedans

against

their

oppressor.

Mahomed

THE ORIGIN OF THE BAHMANEE KINGS OF GULBURGA.
Togliluk at once marched against the rebels and defeated

21

tlieni.

He

did not, however, succeed in capturing the ringleaders, and
to their

most of them escaped

own

districts,

where the Sultan

was unable
a

to follow^

them, as his presence was again required
at

to suppress a revolt

Delhi.

He

left

behind him howxver
orders
to

deputy

named Imad-ul-Mulk,
all

with

march

to

Gulburga, hunt up
into order.

the

Hassan

Gulburga w-as Kangoh's jaghirs

and bring the country the part of the country in which were situated, and this was the
fugitives

opportunity for which he had prepared himself.
his troops as quickly as possible,

He

collected

and went

to

meet Imad-ulGeneral

Mulk, who had remained had about 30,000 men of
15,000.
action,

at
all

Bieder.

The

Sultan's

The

latter,

and Hassan only about avoided coming to a general therefore,
arms,

but kept Imad-ul-Mulk in check, until reinforcements

At length he received 15,000 men from Warangal, and a body of 5,000 horse despatched by the confederate Sultan With forces thus increased, Hassan Ismael from Dowlatabad. A pitched battle ensued did not hesitate to meet his opponent. which was fought near Bieder. It commenced at daybreak and The result was that Imad-ul-Mulk was killed lasted till sunset. and his army utterly defeated with great slaughter. The fugitives made their escape to ]\Ialwa, but a large number
could arrive.

appear subsequently to have taken service "with the victorious
general.

Hassan, flushed with victory, now marched to

Dow-

latabad to join his forces wdth those of Sultan Ismael Nasr-

ud-Din.
there

Ismael came some distance to meet his general, and

was a scene of the utmost enthusiasm. JNasr-ud-Din saw that the wdiole of the army looked up to Hassan as its natural leader, and he therefore very Avisely resolved to give place to his younger rival. He called an assembly of the nobles and told them that his great age rendered him incapable of conducting the government of so young a kingdom,
surrounded by such powerful enemies.

He

therefore voluntarily

22

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
Kangoh

resigned the throne, and advised them to elect Hassan
in
his

This proj)osal was received with tlie utmost and the former peasant was raised to tlie tlu'one enthusiasm under the title of Sultan AUa-iid-Bin Hassan Kanyoli Bahmanee.
pLace.

(A.

]).

1347).

In the hour of his

prosperity the

new Sultan

did not forget his old patron and, faithfid to his former promise,

he sent for Kangoh and committed to his care his treasury

and
this

finances.

It is said that

Kangoh was

the

first

Brahmin who
for during

ever took service

under a Mahomedan
years

Prince, but, however
last,

may

be, he

was most certainly not the
it

the next two hundred

became the universal custom
This was a wise

throughout the Deccan for the different Mahomedan kings to
appoint Brahmins to high posts of authority.
stroke of policy; for
it

had the

effect of

bringing the Govern-

w^hom were Hindoos. In fact the Mahomedans throughout the Deccan were only employed in military posts, and the cultivation of the country was everywhere left in the hands of the Hindoos. Malik Seyf-ud-Din Ghoree was appointed Prime Minister, and the ex-Sultan resumed his name of Ismael, and was nominated

ment more

in touch with the people, the vast majority of

Amir-td-Amra or chief of the nobles.

Such was the commencement of the dynasty of the Bahmanee of Gul])urga, for this was the capital of the new kingdom. In the succeeding chapters we shall see to what an extraordinary height of prosperity this kingdom quickly rose,
Sultans

under the wise and just rule of Sultan Alla-ud-Din the former
servant of the

Brahmin

astrologer.

Amongst

the

Mahomedans

more than any other nation, there are to of a romantic and adventurous life, but even amongst ]\Iahomedans there are but few examples of such a wonderful change of fortune, and still rarer are the instances where Sultan Alla-ud-Din the success was unstained by cruelty. was now 57 years of age, and he had still eleven years before him in which to finish the work he had thus gloriously commenced.

be found instances

CHAPTER

III.

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF YIJAyANA(iAR, AND THE END OF THE FIRST GULBURGA SULTAN.
AVe have already seen that
Avith

the

fall

of

Warangal

the Hindoo kingdom of Telingana came to an end,

in 1323 The city

was plundered and destroyed and the King was carried off After some years he was permitted to prisoner to Delhi. return to find his capital in ruins and its inhabitants scattered.

24

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
exercised a
certain
his

He

control

over

a

few

districts,

but he

never recovered

former power and position, and instead

of being the head of a mighty kingdom, he became nothing more than a petty chieftain. There had been two brothers in the army of the King of Warangal, named Bi/Jiha Rajja and When the city fell, these two brothers made their Hari-hara. escape with a small body of horse, and were according to one account accompanied in their flight by a Madhava Brahmin named Vidya Aranya, or the Forest of learning. This Brahmin had formed a strong attachment towards tbe two brothers, and had prophesied that they would some day become Kings *). During their flight they were joined by other remnants of the army of the King of Warangal until at last the following became quite a large one. This small army marched towards the south, and crossed the Kristna about the spot where it is joined by the Tungabadhra, near where the present town of Kurnool is situated. Following the course of the Tungabadhra the brothers marched on for more than 150 miles up

the

stream,

until
safe

they

reached a

spot where

they

thought

themselves

from a Mahomedan invasion. Here they remained for some years, moving probably from one place to another until at last they selected a site for a town, which in honour of their Brahmin Counsellor they called Vidhyanagaram,
or city of learning.

The date

of the building of this city

is

generally ascribed to the year 1336 A.D.

The only records

to

be found of be found

this

new kingdom
several

are in the grants

which are to

in the inscriptions

on stone and copper in the temples.
years

The

earliest of these is

subsequent to the year
it

1336.

This, however,

increasing in

would only be after power that such grants would be made. The
is

only natural as

time was especially favourable for the gi'owth of a
It will

new power.

be remembered that the armies of the Delhi Sultans under Malik Kafur and others had between 1310 and 1324
*

For

anotlier

and more

reliable account see Chap. VII.

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.
swept away the Hindoo kingdoms of the Deccan.

25

After this

period, and especially during the reign of Mahomed Toghluk, there were so many distm'bances in the Mahomedan kingdom that the Sultan had but little time to spare to look after the The Mahomedan Governors of the conquests in the South. provinces, amongst whom was Hassan Kangoh, were each

too busy in schemes of personal

aggrandizement to interfere
distance,

with what was going

on

at

a

so

that

whilst
of
a

cir-

cumstances were
hara w^ere

bringing
at

about

the

founding

new

Mahomedan Kingdom
left

Gulburga,

JJukha

Ray a and Hari-

undisturbed.

So rapidly did their conquests

extend, especially tow^ards the East and South, that in a short

time the

was changed to Vijayanagaram, or the city of victory, and it is under that name, or that of Bisnugger that we find it mentioned in history. The city of Vijayanagar rapidly grew in size, and extended itself on both banks of the river Tungabadhra. The site is a favourable one, being protected by a ridge of hills, through which a narrow The rapid pass that can be easily defended protects the city.
of their city

name

growth of
rivals of

this

new kingdom

is

as striking as w^as that of the

new kingdom

of Golconda.

For two hundred years they were

At first they were probably allies against the Delhi Sultans and so had time to extend their dominions without mutual interference. The Vijayanagar dynasty having been expelled from the Telingana or Warangal country, seems to have relinquished all thoughts of reconquering it, and devoted
each other.
itself to

recovering from

the

Mahomcdans

the outlying and

detached provinces situated in the Ma' bar or Southern countries.

The

tw^enty years in the

and civil w^ars, which lasted for the next North of India, enabled it to succeed in this endeavour, for by the end of that time we find that all in southern India had trace of Mahomedan government
dissensions

disappeared.
this

It is

probably

soon after the establishment of

new Hindoo Kingdom

that a geographical line

was drawn

26

HISTOIiY OF THE DEC CAN.

between the Dcccaii and the Carnatic.
that portion of central India
as a northern

The former represented

boundary

which Ues between the Godavery and the Tungabadhra, and extended

before long from one coast to the other.
the rich valleys of the
tributaries

The

latter compriiicd

of

the

Pennair with their
to

mountainous passes, and from thence extended
Arcot,
history

Conjeveram,
the

and
of

subsequently
the
struggles

Madura.
between
feature.
it

There
the

is

throughout

Hindoos one remarkable

Mahomedans and the No sooner is a Hindoo

kingdom
in gold

established than

at

once acquires enormous wealth

and jewels.

These treasures, no doubt, attracted the

cupidity of the

Prince has been
find

Mahomedans, but a few years after a Hindoo conquered and despoiled, we almost always
fresh

him

in possession of

hoards

of treasure which he

again has to yield up.
is

It is

only

when

the

Hindoo kingdom

annexed and the dynasty exterminated that we find the

country ceases to produce gold and precious stones, and the

Mahomedan conquerors have then to go against other Hindoo kingdoms in order to gain fresh treasure. Under Mahomedan rule it would seem that there was little or no natural production, and no development of the country's resources. Under Hindoo
Princes, on the contrary, as long as they were left undisturbed,

attention

was paid

to

agricultural

and

irrigation works,

and

mining industries. The consequence was that the Hindoo kingdoms became rich and prosperous, but as soon as they were conquered and annexed by the Mahomedans the indigenous industries were allowed to languish. No more
especially to

striking instance of this
It

is

to

be

found than

in the

Deccan.

has

already

been told how often Deogiri and Warangal
away.

were attacked, and how on each occasion an enormous amount
of
treasure
carried

To

this

day

the

ruins

of

old

irrigation

works show how prosperous must have been the
condition of
of

agricultural

the

Telingana country.

After

the
to

Mahomedan Governor

Warangal had been compelled

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAIi.
flee,

27

Hindoos again ruled the country, and we shall again find them coming into collision with the Mahomedan Sultans of Gulburga, and being again When, in possession of treasures of gold and precious stones. however, eventually the Hindoo princes were finally overthrown, and their country subjugated to the Golconda Kings we hear
as told in the last chapter, the

but

little

more
limits

of

the

stores

of

treasure.

It

is,

however, a
u}) to

fact that the

whole of the Deccan, from
of

INIysore

the

northern

the

Nizam's dominions are covered with
In
a

remains of old mining works.
that

Mysore

it

has been found
depth,

these

old

mines extend to

considerable

and

traces of what, in

are

found

at

mining language, is called "the old men" three oi- even four hundred feet beneath the
of these mines the

surface.

In

many

work had, no doubt,
appliances

to

be

relinquished,

because with the mechanical

of

those days there was always a point beyond which the miners

could not go, owing to the
of raising the ore

want

of

proper pumps, the cost

by manual labour, &c.

Other mines again

were probably relinquished before this point had been reached,
because the new conquerors paid no attention to the industry, and prized the spoil of the sword, higher than that of the
spade and the pickaxe.
into
ruin,

They were,
of
is

therefore, allowed to fall

and

all

tradition

the

ancient

industry
to

passed
these

away.

Attention,

however,

now being

attracted

old mines, and in

some
yield

of

work has been
amongst the
time
it is

carried to a

Mysore mines in which the point beyond which the "old men"
the

could not go, the

of

gold

is

so

great, that they

rank

richest gold

mines

in

the world.

In course of

highly probable, that similar results will be obtained

from the other old mines, hundreds of which are scattered There is little doubt, that it was from all over the country. Hindoos obtained their vast wealth, and these mines that the it is equally certain that the old miners must have left behind them a vast store of gold, which, with their appliances and

28

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
iiiat'hiiicn,

primitive

they

were unable to
that
a

touch.

It

would
in

not be unsafe to

prophecy,

lunidred

years hence the

Deccan
the

will

be one of the richest gold-producing countries

world,

and

during

the

next

century

we may

see

the

prosjjerity of six

hundred years ago renewed
accpiired,
w'ill

to an even greater

degree.

The gold thus

be

spent in restoring

the old irrigation works, and the districts, which nnist at one

time have borne a teeming
carry less than one

square mile,
peasantry.

Avill

population, but which now often hundred meagrely-nourished persons to the again be peopled by a prosperous and thriving

Having thus traced the origin of the Vijayanagar kingdom, we must now return to Gulburga and follow the events of the reign of the first of the Bahmani Sultans. Sultan Alla-ud-Din was not slow to take advantage of the
disturbances in Delhi
to

extend the boundaries
Bieder

of his

new

kingdom.
stationed

He won
by the

over the Afghan,

Mogul and Rajput

Chiefs,

and Candahar. This Candahar is not to be mistaken for the town in Afghanistan, He but is a fort situated on the north-west of Dowlatabad. also took Kailas from the Rajah of Warangal, with whom
at

Emperor

he then formed

a

defensive

alliance.

In

a

short

time his

dominions

comprised

almost the

whole of the
died,

western and

southern portions of what

now forms
This

the ^Nizam's Dominions.

In 1352 (A.D.)

Mahomed Toghluk

by

his

nephew Tiroz Shah.
ruler,

Prince

and was succeeded was a wise and

humane

Delhi Emperors.

and ranks amongst the best and greatest of the He w^as wise enough to see that the only
the tottering

way

to maintain

empire was to consolidate

it.

Accordingly, he recognized the

accomplished fact of the new
his attention to redressing

kingdom

of Gulburga,

and devoted

the grievances of the provinces

nearer his capital.

Thus

left

undisturbed, Alla-ud-Din was at liberty to carry out his
designs.

own

One

of his first

daughter of his

marry his son to the Prime Minister, Malik Sejf-ud-Din Ghoree.
acts
w^as

to

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.
This ceremony was conducted with the

29

utmost magnificence.

We

are told by Ferishta that " ten thousand robes of cloth of

gold, velvet,

and

satin

were

distributed

among

the nobility

and others. One thousand Arab and Persian horses, and two hundred sabres set with jewels were also divided. The populace were entertained with various amusements, and engines were erected in the streets of Gulburga, which cast
forth showers of confectionery

among
of

the crowd.

The

rejoic-

ings lasted a whole year, on the last day of which, the n'obility

and was

officers

presented
all

offerings

jewels,

money and

the

rarest productions of
a right royal

countries to the Sultan."

This truly

wedding, and shows that the new King had
a

already

acquired

considerable
that
festivities

quantity

of

w^ealth.

It

is

probable, however,

on
In

so

large

a scale were
as the

organized from feelings

of

policy.

the

same w^ay

Roman
of the

people w^as always attracted and conciliated by Paries

et circen&es, so,

by a

lavish expenditure of
to

money, the founder
alien people.

new dynasty endeavoured
been

win over an

In this he seems to have

eminently successful, and we

read of no rebellions or revolts, amongst his Hindoo subjects.

One conspiracy we do read
ex-Sultan Ismael,
of the nobles.

of,

but that was organized by the
or chief
to resign

who had been made Amir-ul-Amra,
Alla-ud-I)in,
it

Although he had been wise enough
is

the throne in favour of
felt

probable, that he
in fact,
it

would be contrary to human nature if he did not. This jealousy was increased by the preference and precedence shown towards Seyf-ud-Din Ghoree, the Pjime Minister. As chief of the nobles, he considered himself entitled to the first rank under the Sultan, and complained accordingly to his master. He received as an answer, that in every Government the pen
ranked above the
sword.

some jealousy tow^ards the new King;

With

this

reply,

he pretended to

be
of

satisfied,

but secretly he formed a
to assassinate

conspiracy, the object

which was

the Sidtan, and to place himself

30

HIS TOBY OF THE DEC CAN.
the throne he had previously resigned.
to the Sultan

oil

The

plot,

however,

was revealed
repented.
l)rin(ipal

by some of the conspirators who

the

The Sultan at once called an asseml)lage of all his and officers, and in their presence accused Amir-ul-Amra of treachery. This accusation being denied
nobles
the

on solemn oath,

Sultan

called

forth

the informer
if

and
they

offered a pardon to all others

who had
they

joined the plot

would reveal the

truth.

This

did,

and
at

his guilt

being

conclusively proved, the

ex-Sultan

was

once put to death.

But though the Sultan showed that he could be severe, his conduct was a proof that he was neither cruel nor vindictive

None of the traitor's property was confiscated, and his son Bahadur Khan was at once appointed to his father's post as Aniir-ul-Omara, and the royal favour continued as before, to be
extended to the family.

Alla-ud-Din

up

as a peasant, but he

showed
again

that

may have been brought he knew how to behave

like a king.

"From

this,"

to

quote

from Ferishta, "and other

instances of justice tempered with mercy, loyalty to the Sultan

became fixed in every breast, and his power daily increased. The Rajah of Telingana, who had become disobedient, but was treated with generous forbearance on account of his former
''"

assistance to
virtues,

the

Sultan,

submitted to his

was overcome by the sense of his authority, and agreed to pay the

tribute

which he had heretofore remitted to the Sovereign of

Delhi."

An army

sent into the Carnatic returned after several

successful engagements, laden with booty, amongst which were two hundred elephants, and one thousand female singers.

was sent from the representative of the old Rajah which was then left a prey to a number of turbulent and rebellious jagirdars, who were too distant from Delhi to be kept in control. Alla-ud-Din assembled a large army for this purpose, and sent off his
invitation

An

of Guzerat to invade that country,

*

The name generally used

for

Waragal.

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.
eldest son

31

Mohanied in command of the vanguard, he himself On the way, however, he w-as following with the main army. by a severe illness, which compelled him to return attacked The Sultan seeing that his days were numbered, to Gulburga.
set

about arranging the
placed
a

affairs of his

kingdom.

He

divided his

territories into four

provinces at the head of each of which,

he

governor.

The
small

capital

and

its

dependencies,

consisting of Dabul, a

port

near

Bombay, Bejoir and

Mudkul were

entrusted to Sey-fud-Din Ghoree; Choul, Kiber,
to his

Dowlatabad and Mheeropatan, Berars, Mahoor and Ramgur,
son of Seyf-ud-I)in

to

Bieder, Indore and the T^elingana

nephew Mahomed; the Kusder Khan Systain; and districts to Azim Humayun,
thus be seen that Allaa
also

Ghoree.

It

will

ud-Din's

dominions including

not

only

large

portion

of

the present
as the

kingdom

of

Hyderabad, but

extended as far

Western coast, though it is probable that his possessions The Beejoir here there were detached and limited in extent. mentioned is probably what was afterwards known as Beejapore,

and of which we

shall hear

more
;

hereafter.

At

this

time the

Mahrattas did not exist as a nation

and the country afterwards known as the Mahratta country was divided amongst a number some of whom submitted to the Sultan, of petty hill chieftains whilst others remained independent in their inaccessible forts and fortresses. For six months the Sultan continued to decline in health, and his end was fast approaching. During the whole of this
;

time, in spite

of

his

illness

he

gave

public

audience twice
all

a day,

and transacted business.

He

ordered

prisoners to

be released except those accused of capital offences. These were sent to Gulburga, where they were examined by the Sultan With the exception of seven, all these were set at himself.

and these seven the Sultan handed over to his son Muhammed to be dealt with as he thought proper after his "At length" says Ferishta "finding no benefit father's death.
liberty,

32

HISTOIiY OF THE DECCAN.

from medicine
his pliysicians,
ills.

and feeling nature exhausted,
and waited
encjuii-ing for

lie

discharged

])atiently for the final cure of

human
tliat

In this

state,

his

youngest son

Mahmoud

who had been

reading with his tutor, what book he had

day perused, the Prince replied: "The lioseton of Saadi, and
the following passage: 'I have heard that

Jamshid

of angelic
:

memory had
like

these

verses

engraved

upon a fountain

Many

me

have viewed the fountain, but they are gone, and their
I conquered the M'^orld by policy and overcome the grave.' " The Sultan sighed

eyes closed for ever.
valour, but could not
at
this
recital,

and
:

calling
is

his

sons
last

Daood and Mahomed
breath,

before him,

said
as

" This

my

and with

it

I

conjure you,

you value the permanence of the kingdom

to agree with each other.

Muhammed

is

my

successor; esteem

submission and loyalty to him as your duty in this world, and your surety for ha])piness in the next." Having said this, he sent for the treasurer, and gave to each of his sons a sum
of money to distribute to the poor. him and returned, he exclaimed
:

When
Praise

they had obeyed
to

'

be

God

!

'

and

instantly resigned his life to the Creator.

'Constantly a]jpears

some one who boasts, I am Lord, shows himself to his fellows, and vaunts, I am Lord. AVhen the affairs of mortals have become dependent on him, suddenly advances death, and The death of Sultan Alla-ud-I)in exclaims: /am Lord!'" happened eleven years, two months, and seven days after his accession to royalty, and on the first of Rabec'-ul-Awal,
759, (A. D. 1359), in the sixty-seventh year of his age.

"It

is

related

that

Sultan

Alla-ud-I)in
"

being asked, how,
friends and

without great treasures or armies, he had acquired royalty in
so short a space,

he

replied

:

By

affability

to

enemies, and by

showing

liberality

to

all

to

the utmost of

my power!"
There
are

unfortunately

but

very

slight

materials

for

a

history of Sultan Alla-ud-Din, but those that exist are sufficient

THE RISE OF THE HINDOO KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.
to

33

show that be deserves a high pkce amongst the great men Born in the lowest ranks, he rose, by of the world's history.
his

own honesty

of

character,

to

be the founder of a great

kingdom, and at no time was
injustice.

his career stained

by
is

cruelty or

There are few characters
the
first

in history that can

compare
probably

with

this,

King of

the Deccan, and there

no other nation in the
throne of a monarch,

world than the Mahomedan, which
retains

can furnish the example of a peasant raising himself to the

who

throughout his career, not

only dignity of character, but
relinquishes
his
life

honesty of purpose, and

who

with such humble piety and simplicity.

Mahomedans
that he

of the

founder of their

Deccan may well be proud of the first rule, and the history of the country shows
to those

was a rare exception

who

followed him.

'vA,

CHAPTER
THE GULBURGA SULTANS.

IV.

MUHAMMED

SHAH.

ULTAN

Alla-ud-Din

was

suc-

ceeded by his eldest son

Muham759

med
India

(1st

Rabee-ul-Awul
1357).

H— A.D.
influence,

EverythiHg in

depends

upon personal

the

and no sooner did news spread that Alla-udDin was dead, than the Hindoo Kings of Vijayanagar and
Telingana, hoping
to

take ad-

vantage of a young king on a
lately-established

throne,

not

only

refused

to

send
the

tribute,

but
of the districts taken

demanded

restoration

from them by the late Sultan. Muhammed Shah was not at first in a position to punish this rebellion. His treasury was very low, owing to the enormous expenditure which he had incurred during the festivities which followed his accession, and to his having also sent his mother on a

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS.
pilgrimage
nobles and
to

— MUHAMMED
a large

SHAH.
train

35

Mecca accompanied by
Accordingly,
sent
to

of

his

chiefs.

he

prolonged

negociations
to the

with the

ambassadors

him,

and sent others

Courts of the Rajahs with instructions to gain as
possible.

much
all

time as

As

soon, however, as he

had completed
oft'

his arrange-

ments, and his mother had returned, he broke
tions

negocia-

and made a demand on the Rajahs of their arrears of
together

tribute,

with

a

number

of

elephants

laden

with

Upon this the two Rajahs at once declared war, and the Rajah of Telingana, assisted by an army from Vijayantreasure.

agar, sent

his

son Nagdeo

to

recapture the fort of Kailas.

The Hindoos, however, were met by a Mahomedan army under Bahadur Khan and were totally defeated. The Telingana Rajah was made to pay a large subsidy in gold and jewels, and for some years there was peace. This period, which seems to have lasted for thirteen years, the Sultan employed in strengthening his kingdom. He was fond of show and magnificence, and spent a considerable amount of money in beautifying his capital. It was probably during this period that the splendid mosque was built which still stands in the Gulburga fort, though all the other palaces have fallen into ruin. This mosque is said to be unique of its kind in India and is modelled after the great mosque of Cordova. * He also devoted a great deal of attention to his army, and established
*

544)

According to Mr. Fergusson's account ("Eastern Arcliitecture," page it measures 216 feet east and west, and 176 feet north and south,

iarity

and consequently covers an area of 38,016 square feet. Its great peculis that alone of all the great mosques in India the whole area is The roof is supported on square stone pillars which form covei-ed in.
a

number

of aisles

all

converging towards the pulpit platform, which
are

is

separated from the body of the masjid by a carved stone railing.
portions of the

Some

It would be a sadly in need of repair. which Mr. Fergusson styles " one of the finest of the old Patlian mosques in India," were allowed to lapse into the same decay and desolation as those which surround it.

building

great

pity

if

the

building,

36

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
household forces on a system of great magnificence.
In

his

two hundred sons of noblemen, formed a bodyguard of four thousand men commanded by an officer of high rank, styled the j\Ieer Nobut, or Lord of the Watch. Fifty mounted horsemen and one thousand of The the bodyguard were on duty every day at the palace.
addition to a select corps of

he

Sultan himself gave public audience on every day of the week
except Triday, and transacted business ing
until

noon.

sounded
to

five

from the early mornband of the Watch, was times during the day, a custom which is said

The Nobut,
by

or

have

been

adopted

none

of

the

other

Mahomedan

Princes of the Deccan except the

coinage was also introduced,

hoarding gold was as
is

Kings of Golconda. Gold and we find that the system of prevalent five hundred years ago as it
are
said
to

now.

The Hindoo bankers
it

have collected as

much

of the gold coinage as

they

could gather, and to have

melted

down.

Ferishta attributes this to the instigation of

the Rajahs of Telingana
coins only should

and Vijayanagar who wished that
it

their

be current in the Deccan, but

is

more

probable that

it

was

due to the inboi'n habit of hoarding
all

which prevails amongst

Hindoos.

The

Sultan, however, put

a most effectual stop to this custom by punishing such offences

with death, and by confining the banking business to

Mahomown

edans related to Delhi bankers.
Sultan
dignity,

Muhammed Shah
and
his

w^as

very

jealous

about his

two greatest wars arose from what he considered a personal slight. In 1371 some horse dealers arrived in Gulburga with some horses which were shown to the Sultan; they were a very poor lot, and the Sultan said that

whereupon the dealers replied that the best of the horses had been forcibly taken from them by the Hindoo prince Nagdeo at YelunIt is difficult to ascertain what port is meant by puttun.
they

were not

fit

to

be

given

to

a

king,

Velunputtun.

Scott guesses

it

to

be either Goa or Rajapoor,

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS. — MUHAMMED SHAH.
but Nagdeo was the
possessions
coast.

37

son

of

the

most certainly
itself
it

did

Rajah of Tehngana, whose not extend to the Western
like a

The name

sounds more
(perhaps

Telugu or Tamil
it

name, and
on
the

therefore seems
coast

probable that
to understand

was some port

Coromandel
it

Masulipatam).

On

the

other hand,

seems

difficult

why Arab

horse

Western and Ferishta expressly speaks of the Sultan halting on This town was not the his march at a place called Kallean. Kallean on the G, I. P. Railway below the Western Ghats but another Kallean situated in the Nizam's dominions considdealers should have gone to the Eastern instead of the
coast,

erably to the
insult, the

East

of

Gulburga.
into

In

order

to

revenge this
took Velun-

Sultan

marched

Telingana and

puttun by storm, the young Rajah being taken prisoner.
the Rajah

When

he had dared

was brought before the Sultan, he was asked why to seize horses which were on their way to

insolent reply,

The Hindoo Prince is said to have given an which so enraged the Sultan that he ordered Nagdeo to be shot from an engine into a burning pile of wood, which barbarous sentence was duly carried out. On the return march, however, the Hindoos had their revenge. The country through which his journey lay was a very difficult one, and the enemy harrassed the Mahomedan army to such an extent that out of four thousand men only fifteen hundred
Gulburga.
reached Gulburga,
after

having

lost

all

their tents,

baggage

and plunder, with the exception of the gold and jewels. The Sultan himself was wounded in the hand, and was forced to
This fact is a proof that the expedition was Coromandel coast; for Kailas was a fort which had been taken from the Rajah of Warangal, in whose territory it was situated. The Telingana Rajah in order to avenge the death of his son, now applied to Delhi for assistance, in return for which he promised to become a vassal of the Emperor. Eeroze
halt at Kailas.
to the

38

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
oL'cii|)iecl

Shah, however, was too iiiuch
to comi)ly with this a])i)cal,
to his

witli

internal matters
left

and the Telingana king was
of
this
hast

own

resources.
rc])air

In order to

the

disaster

expedition, the

Sultan

made

large

preparations
to

and despatched two armies
the
com])lete

with which he
Telingana.

intended
left

effect

conquest of

Minister, Ghoree in and himself marched with the army which had been sent to AVarangal. A second army was sent to besiege Golconda, and the Rajah of Warangal was threatened
his

He

Seyf-ud-Din

charge of his

capital,

with total ruin.

The conquest, however, does not

aj^pear to

have been an easy one, for the Sultan w^as detained for nearly

two years in the Telingana country. At the end of this time the Rajah made overtures of peace, but the conditions imposed by the Sultan were very severe. They were the cession of the fort of Golconda, three hundred elephants, two hundred To these conditions horses, and thirty-three lakhs of rupees. the Rajah had to accede, and accordingly the main body of the ]\Iahomedan army w'as sent back to Gulburga, the Sultan remaining w-ith Bahadur Khan at Kailas in order to receive AA hen this had been handed over and the the treasure. Rajah's ambassadors had been rewarded wdth presents, they asked the Sultan if he would sign a treaty of perpetual alliance
with the Telingana Rajah, to be binding on the successors of
both, in

which case the Rajah would become

his vassal,

and

present

of a great
to the

him with "a curiosity w^orthy to be laid at the feet King only." This offer was no doubt agreeable Sultan, and a treaty was drawn up fixing Golconda as
a pa[)er

the boundary between the Sultan's and the Rajah's dominions,

and the Sultan signed
to molest

conjuring his descendants not
as

the

Telingana

Rajahs

long as they kept

faith.

The ambassadors then produced
of a splendid throne covered

the " curiosity," which consisted

with valuable jewels which had

been prepared some time before as a present to the Emperor

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS. — MUHAMMED SHAH.

39

Mahomed Toghluk
mark of honour.
fully kept,

Shall.

With

this

present the

SuUan was

highly pleased, and the ambassadors were dismissed with every

The

treaty itself seems to have been faith-

and for many generations we find no more men-

Gulburga and the Telingana Princes. It was in this way that Golconda came into the power of the Mahomedans, and from thenceforth it formed the capital of one of the Gulburga Governors, one of whom in course of time, when the power of the Eahmanee dynasty had declined, declared his independence and converted Golconda into the capital of a kingdom.
tion of wars between the

As regards
It w^as

the throne, Eerishta says that he

had heard from

an eyewitness that

made

of

it was nine feet long and three feet broad. ebony covered with plates of pure gold, and

set with precious stones of

immense

value.

The jewels were
to
it

so contrived as to be taken off and on.

Every prince of the

house of Bahmanee made a point of adding
stone;
so that

some
it

rich
w^as

when

in the reign of Sultan

Mahmood
it

taken to pieces to remove some
set in

of the jewels in order to be
at

vases

and cups, the jewellers valued

one crore of

sterling).

pagodas or three and-a-half crores of rupees (about 3^ millions This splendid throne was called Tirozeh, owing, as
Ferishta
says,

to

its

being

partly

enamelled

of

a

sky-blue

colour which in
of jewels.

time was entirely concealed

by the number
set

This throne

was carried

to

Gulburga,

and

up

in the

Durbar-hall with great

pomp and

festivity, the old silver thj-one

of Alla-ud-Din being relegated to the treasury. Public rejoicings

were
It

instituted,

and there was high feasting and merriment.
of one of these banquets that an incident

was on occasion

occurred which led to another great war.

One
of the

evening, during the festivities with which the inauguration

new throne Avas celebrated, three hundred singers, Avho had come all the way from Delhi, were introduced to the

40

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
The
iViiice Avas lliislicd
witli

Sultan.
lie

wine, in

wliicli, at

times

indulged to excess, and
he
ado])ted

excited

In

the recolKclioii of his

method of rewarding the singers by orderiiig the ^Minister to give them a draft on The ]\Iinister wrote the treasury of the King of Vijayanagar. the draft accordingly, but, remembering the saying that an appeal lay from Alexander drunk to Alexander sober, did not
i-ecent victories

the strange

despatch

it.

On
the

the following day, however, the Sultan asked

him

if

the order

had been sent
negative,

to the Rajah, and,

on being

answ^ered in

he exclaimed "Think you that a

word without meaning could escape
the royal seal

my

lips?

I

did not give

the order in intoxication, but in serious design."

Accordingly

was attached

to

the draft and

it

was sent by
caused the

a messenger to Vijayanagar.

Naturally the Rajah w^as greatly
;

exasperated at this apparently uncalled for insult

messenger to be paraded through his city on an ass and sent him back with every mark of contempt and derision. As this
treatment of an ambassador was certain to be answered by a
declaration of war, the

Rajah resolved

to take the first step

and

to carry the attack into the Sultan's territory.

Accordingly,

he at once marched
three

wdth

30,000 horse,

100,000 foot and
fort of

Adoni his base he ravaged that portion of the country situated between the Tungabadhra and the Kistna, which is now^ known as the Doab. Before Muhammed Shah could collect his army, the Rajah was able to surprise and capture the fort of Mudkul, Of these, every one in which was a garrison of 600 men. with the exception of one man, who was put to the sword was allowed to escape to carry the news to the Sultan who
hundred elephants, and making the
w^as still at

Gulburga.

When

the new^s of this terrible disaster

He first ordered the Sultan was furious. messenger to be put to death as being a coward unfortunate to have survived the death of so many brave companions, and
reached him, the then swore a solemn oath that he would not sheath his sword

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS.
until he

— MUHAMMEB

SHAH.

41

had revenged
infidels.

this act

thousand
a

He

at

by the slaughter of one hundred once commenced his march, and in

few days reached the Kistna upon the opposite bank of which the Rajah was encamped. The river was then in high flood, and deeming it impossible to carry the whole of his army across in the face of the enemy, he sent the whole
back, with the exception of
a

picked force of nine thousand
this small

horse and twenty elephants.
to attack

With
the

army he resolved
to

the

Ixajah,

but as

enterprise seemed

be a

desperate one, he appointed his son Mujahid Shah to succeed

him with Malek Syef-ud-Din
and put the enemy
to

as regent.

He

then swore that

he would neither eat nor sleep until he had crossed the river
flight.

That same night the Sultan
which, as soon as he received
all his

succeeded in crossing the

river,

the news, so alarmed the Rajah that he sent off

elephants,

baggage and treasure
next morning.
It

to the capital, meaning to fight the Sultan was however the middle of the monsoon and heavy rain was falling. The roads were all impracticable and the elephants and baggage trains could not get on through the mud and slush, so that they were surprised by the Sultan There then followed an utter rout and just before dawn. indiscriminate slaughter. The Rajah himself managed to escape, but he left behind him the whole of his camp and treasure, and no less than seventy thousand Hindoos were put The plunder was to the sword without regard to age or sex. enormous, for without calculating what fell into the hands of the soldiery, the royal share alone is said to have amounted to two thousand elephants, three hundred pieces of cannon, seven hundred Arab horses, and a litter set with jewels. It seems difficult to understand how so large an army could have been so thoroughly defeated by so small a body of men, but apart from the confusion consequent on a night attack in blinding rain, it must be remembered that the Hindoos had little or none of the military discipline enforced by the Ma-

42

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.

Under such circumstances their huge numbers only served to add to the confusion, and those who could not Tlie Rajah now escape were simply slaughtered like sheep. retired to the other banks of the Tungabadhra and, leaving his nephew in command of Adoni, encamped in the vast plain outside the fort at some distance, and assembled as large an army as possible. This army is said to have consisted of forty thousand horse and five hundred thousand foot, with a number of elephants, but it is probable that these numbers have been greatly exaggerated. The Sultan's army consisted of only fifteen thousand horse and fifty thousand foot, but there was also a train of artillery in which were employed n number of Europeans and Turks. With this army the Sultan
liomedans.
crossed the Tungabadhra, this

being the

first

occasion that a

Mahomedan Prince had invaded the Vijayanagar dominions in person. The Rajah, Roy Kishen Roy, appointed a relative, named Hoji Mul, to be Commander-in-Chief of his army, and
at

once despatched him to meet the Sultan.

Every endeavour

Avas

made by

the Hindoos to

excite the religious zeal of the

and Brahmins went about amongst them describing the the desecration of temples, and the other The two enormities practised by the Mahomedan invaders. armies met somewhere near the Tungabadhra and a furious
soldiers,

butchery of cows,

battle

afternoon.

from early morning until about four in the At first, fortune favoured the Hindoos, both wings of the advance army of the Mahomedans were broken and a defeat had almost ensued when the Sultan himself came up with a reserve of three thousand men. Thus strengthened, the Mahomedan centre advanced, and after a furious artillery The confusion into which fire a general charge was made. the Hindoos were thrown was increased by one of their elephants becoming unmanageable and breaking back through their ranks. Hoji Mul, the Hindoo general, was mortally wounded, and then the Hindoos broke and fled. A general massacre followed,
raged

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS. — MUHAMMED SHAH.
in

43

which not even pregnant women nor children at the 1)reast were spared, and the vast Hindoo army was utterly broken up.

After halting for a

week on the

field

of

battle

the Sultan
fled

advanced
jungles.

to

meet Kishen Roy,

who thereupon

to

the

The Sultan followed him without success for three months, until at last the Rajah was driven to take refuge in his capital, whereupon the Sultan sat down before Vijayanagar
with the whole of his army.
strong
to

This
a

city,

however,

was too

be

taken

and

after

month's siege the Sultan

draw the Hindoos out of their and the ]\Iahomedans recrossed the Tungabadhra followed on all sides by swarms of Hindoos. So completely had the Sultan disguised his intention that the
resolved to retire in order to

works.

This ruse succeeded,

greater part of his
one,
ill.

army believed

that the retreat Avas a real

and that the Sultan himself was either dying or dangerously When, however, the army had reached a convenient plain,

the Sultan ordered a halt, and assembling his principal officers directed

them

to

hold their

troops

in

readiness for an'other

night attack.
distance,

Kishen Roy's army was encamped at no great and thinking a victory over the retreating Mahomedans

certain, the Rajah and his officers passed the night in drinking and in the company of nautch girls. In the midst of their amusement, however, they were surprised by the Sultan, with such success that they were not even able to offer any opposition, The Rajah managed to escape, but ten but fled pell-mell. thousand of his soldiers were slaughtered and the massacre

was extended

to

the

innocent

inhabitants

of

all

the villages

in the neighbourhood.

Immense booty was gained from the plunder obtained from the camp, and the Hindoo power seemed to be entirely crushed, Kishen Roy now sent to treat
for peace,

and

his

ambassadors represented
since

to the Sultan that

the

war might now well cease

he had only vowed to

slaughter one hundred thousand Hindoos, and not to exterminate
the whole race.

The

Sultan, however, replied that he

would

U
listen
to

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
no
draft

ncgociations

until

the
u|)on

musicians

were

satisfied,

and the had been duly honoured. To this the ambassadors at once The Sultan agreed, and the money was paid on the spot. " Praise be to God that what I ordered has then exclaimed
:

he had

drawn

the Vijayanagar treasury

been performed.
of

I

would not
to

let

a light

word be recorded

me

in

the pages of time!"

Before

returning

repented of the fearful
representation
of

Gulburga the Sultan seems to have slaughter he had wrought, and on the
Hindoos,
that,

the
it

as

in

the future other

wars might occur,
spare
the innocent
that in

would be advisable

to

make
he

a treaty to

women and
not
his
it

children,

swore an oath
a single

future

he would

put to death

enemy

after victory,

and would bind

successors to do the same.

From
in the

that time, says Ferishta,

has been the general custom

Deccan

to spare the lives of prisoners in war,

and not

to shed the blood of an

enemy's unarmed subjects.

No
again

sooner had the Sultan returned to Gulburga than he was
called

broken out.

away to Dowlatabad, where a rebellion had The Governor hearing of the supposed retreat of the Sultan from Vijayanagar, had asserted his independence, and aided by a j\Jahratta chief named Geodeo, and one of the Rajahs of the Berars, had succeeded in diverting to his
Meerut and Berar. This is the first occasion on which we read of the term Mahratta as referring to a separate and distinct race. Ferishta speaks frequently
use the revenues
of
of the Mahrattas as dwelling in the province of

own

"Mheerut"

or

"Mharat" but
of

it

is

probable
is

that

the

Hindoo

derivation of

Maharashta, which
country
the south,

generally supposed to refer to the strip

and Poonah on bounded by the Konkan on the west and the Deccan on the east, and consists of a narrow hilly tract full of inaccessible valleys and thickly wooded hills, the inhabitants of which were from the nature
between
Guzerat on
the

north,
is

is

more

correct.

This

region

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS. — MUHAMMED SHAH.
of
their

45

country
this

but

little

known.

As soon
his

as
to

the

Sultan
to

heard
three

of

rebellion

he ordered

army

march
resolved

Dowlatabad, but he himself, followed by a small train of only

hundred horsemen,
to

went on
rebellion

in

advance,

if

possible

put

down

the

with this

small

force.

Such was the

terror of his

name

that his presence
a

was

sufficient

to scatter the rebels'

army without
to

blow being
which

struck.

The
time

rebel chiefs fled to Dowlatabad, but finding themselves unable
to hold

the

fort,

escaped

Guzerat,

at

this

seems to have been a

kind of sanctuary

for every one

who
the
lived

was
in

in difficulties.

Before going they

left their families in

protection of Sheikh Ein-ud-Din, a

Mahomedan

saint,

who
all

Dowlatabad.

As soon
sent
for

as the

Sultan had taken possession
other

of the fort he

the

Sheikh, wdio alone of

M^homedRn fa keers had

paid no allegiance to him because of

his habit of drinking wine.

The Sheikh, however, was not

to

be intimidated, and sent back as answer the following story

A scholar, a Syed, and a prostitute w^ere once taken prisoners by the infidels, who promised to give them quarter if they would prostrate themselves before their idols. The scholar to save his life consented and so did the Syed. But the prostitute I have been all my life committing crimes, and am said
"
'
:

neither a scholar nor a Syed to atone for this sin
virtues.

She refused

to

prostrate

herself

by my other and was therefore

put to death.' "

This answer enraged the Sultan,
This the

the Sheikh to leave the city at once.

who ordered holy man did,
drive

went
hence
the

to the

tomb

of

Boorahan-ud-Din upon which he seated
is

himself exclaiming
?

"Where
:

the

man who
courage
to

will

me
him

"

The
to

Sultan,

admiring
"I

this

then sent
thee,

following verse

am

submissive

be
to

thou
the

submissive
Sultan,

me."

The Sheikh then
if,

sent a

letter

whom

he addressed as

Muhammed

Ghazi (victorious)
he would

and promised to pay him allegiance
abstain

like his father,

from drinking wine,

at all events in public,

and would

46

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
liis

order

judges to enforce

tlie

laws

ngainst

robbers.

This

delicate

Ghaz'i to be

compliment appeased the Sultan, who ordered the title added to his other titles, and then received the

courageous Sheikh into his favour.
his return to

True

to his promise,
all

on

Gulburga, the Sultan ordered

the distilleries

to be destroyed,

and

so strictly enforced the laws against the

Deccaai banditti,

who were even

then famed for their lawlessness,

that before long eight thousand heads of robbers were sent to

the city, and placed on poles outside the gates as a warning to
others.

Sultan

Muhammed

Shah's

days

of

war

w^ere

now

over.

The Hindoo Rajahs w^ere reduced to obedience, and his country The last few months of his life were AA^as quiet and at peace. spent in. travelling about his kingdom, and in 1374 (19 Zilkad 776)
he died
full of

honours, after a glorious reign of seventeen years.

JNluhamed Shah seems to have been a passionate and impulsive
Prince, easily offended and given to w^rath, and ready to avenge

the slightest offence to his dignity.

He

must, however, have

had considerable military talent, and w^as personally as brave His greatest expeditions were undertaken with a as a lion. comparative handful of men, and by clever stratagems and surprises he w^as able to defeat an enemy immensely superior in force. The treasure he accumulated at Gulburga is said "Three thousand elephants and to have been enormous. half as much as treasure as any other Prince," was one of the results of his campaigns, but on the other hand another result was that nearly " five hundred thousand unbelievers fell by the swords of his warriors in defence of the faith of Islam, by w^hich the districts of Camatic were so laid w^aste that
they
did not
recover
their

natural

population

for

several

decades."

— (Ferishta).

CHAPTER

V.

THE GULBURC4A SULTANS FROM 1374

— 1397,

A. D.

RING the twenty-four years which followed on the death of Mu-

hammed Shah
sultans

there

w^ere

five

who

reigned at Gulburga,

four of

whom

were assassinated,
duration of

the aggregate

whose reigns being only 4^ years. The first of
these Princes was Mujahid
\*/tjr^<t.'

Shah, the only son
is

the

late

Sultan.

He

said

to

have been

a

tall,

left by handsome

1374
to

man

of great bodily strength,

and of considerable
chose
as

in-

telligence

and education.
which,

He

his favourite

1^^'
first

companions Persians and Turks, and thus sowed the

for the last five hundred Deccannee and foreign Mahomyears, has existed between the It is mainly due to these jealousies that throughout edans.

seeds of the jealousy

Deccan history w^e come across the constantly recurring intrigues, plots and assassinations, and which, a hundred and fifty years later, led to the dismemberment of the Gulburga kingdom, and eventually, three hundred years
the rest of the

48

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
to the absorption

later,

of

;ill

tlic

Mahomcdan

States of

tlie

Deccan into Aiirungzebe's unwieldy empire. Sultan Mujaliid was brave but revengeful, and during his father's lifetime committed an act which was destined to bring about his own premature death. AVhen he was fourteen years old, he managed to break open his father's treasury and abstracted some bags of gold, which he divided amongst his playfellows. The treasurer,
Mubarik, discovering
this,

reported

the

theft to the Sultan,

who
his

administered

personal chastisement to the young culprit
as to

in so severe a

draw blood. The Prince disguised resentment towards the informer, and pretended an affec-

manner

tion for him, until a

month

later

he challenged him to a bout
treasurer

of wrestling, during

which he threw him with such violence
unfortunate

to the ground that the

broke his neck

and died on the

spot.

No

sooner had Mujahid ascended the

throne than war again

broke out between Gulburga and the

neighbouring State of Vijayanagar.

The cause seems
territory,

to

have

been

the

possession
called

of

that

debatable

the

Doab.

Mujahid
districts

upon the Rajah
calling

to evacuate the

whole of the

between the Tungabadhra and the Kistna, and the

Rajah replied by
of Raichore and
father,

upon the Sultan

to restore the forts
his

Mudkul which had been conquered by

which had been given as Mujahid at once marched with a large army and crossed the two rivers, leaving the veteran Seyf-ud-Din Ghoree as regent in his absence. On this occato restore the elephants

and

part of the war indemnity.

foot

is said to have killed an enormous tiger on by shooting it with an arrow through the heart, an act which struck such terror into the Hindoo Prince that he at once took to the jungles. Mujahid then advanced to Vija-

sion the Sultan

yanagar, but finding the city too strong went in pursuit of the

Rajah.

This pursuit
in

is

said

to have lasted as far as

Ramesreported

waram

the

extreme
the

south,

where the
liuilt

Sultan

is

to have repaired

mosque

fifty

years before

by the

THE GULBUBGA SULTANS FROM
Delhi general.
rule

1374-1397, A. D.
at this

49

There can be no doubt that

time the

of

the Vijayanagar Prince

extended over the whole of

Southern India, and that his supremacy was recognized by the

Rajahs of Madura and

Tanjore.
of
this,

A
and

little
it

bit

later

we

shall
at

come
this

across an

instance

seems clear that
all

time the Vijayanagar house was looked upon by

the

Princes of Southern India as the head of the Hindoo nation,

and

as

forming the

last

bulwark against the Mahomedan stream
have hojjed that by leading the Sultan

of invasion.

The Rajah seems
through the jungle,
to

to

the Mahomedans, who were accustomed would fall sick, and that he would then be The only record of this able to harass them on their retreat. campaign is to be found in Ferishta, and he says that the Rajah himself was attacked by jungle fever and, therefore, fell back upon his capital. Ferishta merely alludes to the Sultan having destroyed several towns; but as he makes no mention of any plunder, upon which the Mahomedan historians always lay great weight, it is probable that the Sultan was not strong

good

living,

enough to attack any of the great strongholds of the South. He pursued the Rajah back to Vijayanagar, and being joined by fresh forces attempted to besiege the city. It would seem that the Hindoos were dispirited, and the Sultan might have been successful in his attempt if he had not allowed himself
to give

way

to a spirit of fanaticism.

Outside the

city there

was
for
*

a

sacred temple, the shrine of numerous pilgrims.

This

temple Sultan Mujahid, fired by
plunder, attacked

a zeal, either for religion or

and

destroyed*.

Religious

feelings,

The

story goes that a

number

of Brahmins took refuge in the shrine

of

Hanunum (the favourite monkey-God). They were all put to the sword and Mujahid Shah himself struck the image of the God in the face with his battle-axe, mutilating the features; a dying Brahmin then raised himself with a last effort and exclaimed: 'Tor this act you will never see your kingdom again, and will not return to your capital A prophecy which proved to be only too true. alive!"
4

50

HISTOIiY OF THE DEC CAN.
in

outraged
triotism

this iiiaiuicr,

brought

about wliat a sense of

})a-

had not been able to effect. The Hindoos rose to a man, and so threatening was their attitude that the SuUan had to retreat. He was not, however, able to go very far
before he was compelled to give the
conflict ensued, in which,

enemy
is

battle.

A

furious

although

it

claimed for the Ma-

homedans

that they killed forty thousand

men,

still

their losses

were so considerable that they had to retire. This was effected in good order, the Sultan holding the passes until his army had got through. There seems to be little doubt that on this

had it not been for the Sultan's personal bravery, would have become a It is stated that it was mainly owing to the serious disaster.
occasion the

Mahomedans

suffered a defeat, Avhich,

disobedience of
Avas lost.

Daoud Shah,

the Sultan's uncle, that the battle

This Prince had neglected to occupy an important

post, which, being taken

up by the Hindoos, the Mahomedans
After the
battle,

were compelled

to

retire.

the Sultan gave
it

his uncle a sharp

reprimand, so severe, indeed, that

rankled

in the Prince's bosom, and led eventually to the catastrophe which ended Mujahid's reign. After his retreat from Vijayanagar, the Sultan laid siege to Adoni, but not only was his

army greatly reduced in numbers, but it was hampered with an enormous number of prisoners, said to have amounted to between sixty and seventy thousand persons, mostly Avomen. Malek Seyf-ud-din Ghoree who had been left at Gulburga in charge of the Kingdom, now advanced with reinforcements This veteran general soon saw to his master's assistance. that the capture of Adoni was likely to prove a serious matter. It is described as having had fifteen forts, all communicating with one another, and to have been of immense strength. The Vizier advised the Sultan to first of all reduce the forts
on the north side
his
capital,

of

the

river,

and, in
the

consequence of this
siege

advice, the Sultan resolved to

raise

and

retreat to
to reach.

which,

however, he

was not destined

THE GULBURGA SULTANS FROM

]324— 1397, A.D.

51

After crossing the Tmigabadlira, the Sultan, taking advantage

had succeeded in forming with army with a small bodyguard His uncle, Daoud Khan, to enjoy the pleasures of the chase. who was still sore over the public reprimand that had been
of the peace which his Vizier

the Vijayanagar Rajah, left his

administered, resolved to take this opportunity to carry out a

conspiracy which he

had hatched with the son of jMubarik Khan, the betel-bearer, who was burning to avenge the death of his father caused by the wrestling match, narrated in the
Before long, an occasion happened.
fishing, but,

beginning of the chapter.

One day

the

Sultan

was amusing himself with

being seized with a sudden pain in the eyes, retired to sleep
in his tent alone.

That night Daoud Khan and
the
tent

his fellow con-

spirators

entered
only

with

their

daggers

drawn.

Sultan's

attendant

was an Abyssinian

slave,

The who was
was too

rubbing his

feet.

He

at

once raised an alarm, but

it

late. Daoud Khan plunged his dagger into the Sultan's stomach, and Musaoud Khan, the son of the betel-bearer, then cut down As the slave and gave the finishing stroke to the Sultan. Mujahid left no children, his uncle, Daoud Shah, became the heir to the throne, and after having made the army swear allegiance to him, he marched upon Gulburga and ascended This deed of the throne amidst great pomp and magnificence.

blood soon brought about

its

own

revenge.

Sultan Mujahid, w^ho

had just been murdered, was the grandson of the aged Vizier Sayf-ud-din Ghoree, whose daughter had been married to Sultan Muhammed. The old man asked to be allowed to resign his The rest of the Royal office, and he was permitted to retire.
family appear to have acquiesced in the change of
affairs,

with

one exception, the

sister of the

murdered Sultan, Ruh Parwar
it

Ageh.
as the

This princess was looked upon by the rest of the ladies

head of the harem, and she did not find
murder.

difficult to

induce a young man, a favourite of the
his patron's

late Sultan, to
is

avenge

The

assassin's

name

not mentioned,

62

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
in

but the deed uas committed

the moscjnc whilst the Sultan

was prostrated in prayer. With one blow of the sabre he was killed, the murderer falling immediately afterwards by the

sword of Khan

Mahomed.
(A.D.
137S).

In

this

the fourth Sultan of Gulburga after a short reign of one

way died Daoud Shah, month
w^ere

and
years

five

days

There

four heirs

to

the

throne after
of

Daoud Shah's
together

death, his son

Mahomed

Sunjer, nine

age,

with

two

younger sons, Firoze and
to the throne,

Ahmed, who afterwards succeeded
surviving son of the
first

and the

last

Sultan,

Mahmood

Shah, brother of

Daoud Shah.

Both these princes were
to place the

in the

harem, in the

powder of that strong-minded Princess

Ruh Parwar Ageh. Khan

Mahomed wished

former on the throne, but the
In order to prevent
little

Princess shut the gates and swore that the son of an assassin

should never be Sultan with her consent.
all

further

intrigue,

she

caused the
father

poor were

boy

to

be
his

blinded and at once caused

Mahmood Shah

to be proclaimed.
visited

In

this

way the

sins

of

the

upon

innocent offspring.
Sultan
prince.
1378. 1396.

Mahmood
His
first

is

said to

have been a wise and humane
punish
the

act

was

to

murderers of his

nephew Mujahid.
in

Khan Mahomed was imprisoned

Saugur, where he shortly afterwards Khan, the son of the betel-bearer, was died, and Musaoud impaled alive. It cannot be said that their punishments were
the
fort

of

not deserved, and, this act of retributive justice over, the
Sultan's reign,

new

was devoted to peace, and the cultivation of and science. Seyf-ud-Din Ghoree was again appointed literature During Vizier, though he was then nearly ninety years old. reign of more than nineteen years, the country was troubled a by no wars, and it w^as only towards the end of this period that one rebellion occurred wdiich, how^ever, was promptly
suppressed.
poets

So wide did the name of
all

this Sultan spread, that

and learned men from

parts

of

the

Mahomedan

THE GULBUBGA SVLTANS FROM
world
bounty.
flocked
to

1324—1397, A. D.
to

53

the

Court

of

Gulburga
Persian

share
title

in

his

In return, they
Aristotle. to

bestowed upon him the
great

of the

Mahomedan
started to

The

poet

Hafiz

even

come

Gulburga, and
Gulf.

got so far on his journey

as to put to sea in the Persian

A

heavy storm, however,

came on, and the ship had to put back. Haflz had had enough of sea voyages, and seems to have thought that the game of court favour was not worth the candle of seasickness and possible shipwreck, so he had himself reconducted to land, and, instead of his own person, sent the Sultan an ode. Put into rough English, the ode would run as follows
:

For the wealth of the world I The wind of my garden which

Avill

not exchange

softly

blows
not range
:

My

friends

I will stop

may rebuke me, but I here at home with the
is

will

bulbul and rose

Enticing, no doubt,

your beautiful crown.
bed;
risks that

With

costliest

gems

in a fair golden

But through I might win

perils
it,

ominous frown. perhaps, but then have no head.
it

and

When
To

I

thought of your pearls,

seemed then

to

me

risk a short

voyage would not be too bold;

But now I am sure, one wave of the sea Can )/ot be repaid by treasures of gold.

What

care I for pearls or for
friendship and love at

When
With

gems rich and rare homo both are mine?
compare
!

All the gilding of art can never

the pleasure derived from generous wine

Let Hafiz retire from the cares of the world.

Contented with only few pieces of gold
let him lie curled. Far removed from the sea and its dangers untold

In the lap of repose here

When

this

ode was read to the Sultan, he was so pleased
Hafiz had actually started with the

that he observed that as

54

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
coming
to

intention of

Gnlburga,
lie

lie

was

entitled

to

some
gold

recognition, even althongli

was not able to complete his
a

journey.

Accordingly,

lie

liad

thousand
lie

pieces

of

brought from the treasury, with which
to the poet.

ordered one of his

courtiers to purchase specimens of Indian art

and send them

This w^as

accordingly
his
little

done, and Hafiz received

a splendid
a very

payment for
in his

ode.

Sultan

Mahmood
attire,

Avas

temperate mau, both in his habit of living and of dress.

Though fond
was

youth of rich and costly
saying that
to

after his

accession to the throne he wore nothing but plain white.
in the habit of

He

the divine riches,

and that

kings were only trustees of expend more than was actually

uecessary was to

commit a breach of trust. This is a maxim all kings would bear in miud, but it is one unfortunately that is more honoured in the breach than in the observance. Great care and attention appears to have been bestowed during this reign on education, and schools were established at all the principal towns, and, amongst others,
which
it

were well

Gulburga,

Bieder,

Candahar,
of

Elichpore,

Doulatabad,

and Dabul.
ten

On

occasion
in

a famine, the Sultan

Choule employed
find

thousand

bullocks

bringing

grain

from Malwa

Guzerat, which was then retailed to the poor at a low price.
Shortly before the Sultan's
of
his

death

occurred the sole rebellion
already
alluded.
It

reign,

to

which

we have

was

organized by Bahaud-din, the Governor of Dowlatabad, together

with his two sons, but was quickly suppressed and the leaders

1396 (21st Rajab 799) the Sultan died of a putrid fever, and the day after the patriarch Seyf-ud-din Ghoree, who had accompanied the first Sultan from Dowlatabad to Gulburga, and who had ruled the country as Prime Minister for more than half a century, also passed away at the age of one hundred and seven years. Sultan Mahmood reigned nineteen years nine months and
of the revolt

were

killed.

In

A.D.,

twenty-four days.

S o Q*

"
02
--^

;^

00

02

P

w

«
o w «
-<

q

o <

CHAPTER

VI.

SULTANS GHAZI-UD-DIN AND SHUMS-UD-DIN.

ULSL two Sultans commenced and ended their reigns They were both sons of in the short period of six months. The eldest was Ghazi-ud-Din, who A.D. Mahmood Shah.
1396

ascended the throne

at the

age of seventeen.

He

seems
in

to have heen an amiable young Prince, hut he was unfortunate
at

once exciting the jealousy of a powerful Turkish slave of the

late Sultan,

named
or

Lallcheen.
of the

This person desired the post of

Meer Nobut,

Lord

Watch, for

his son

Hussan Khan,

SULTANS GHAZI-UD-DIN AND SHUMS-UD-DIN

57

and Avhen he expostulated with the Sultan for bestowing it upon another, he was told that it was not right that the sons of slaves should be promoted above the heads of the old nobility. Stung by this retort, Lallcheen resolved upon revenge, and he carried out his plan in the following manner: The young Sultan was desirous of obtaining Lallcheen's daughter,

and,

accordingly,

the

slave

invited

his

master to

a

feast.

When

the Sultan

was half intoxicated with wine, Lallcheen
side
as
if

drew him on one
apartments.
fell

to

take

him

to

the

female

When
He

he had taken

him

into another room, he
his eyes

npon him, threw him down, and gouged out

with a dagger.

then called in each of the attendants, one

by one, and put them to death singly to the number of twentyone persons so that no one remained alive powerful enough to The Sultan was then sent to the fort obstruct his designs. of Saugur, and his younger brother, Shums-ud-Din, was throne. placed upon the The reign of the unfortunate Ghazi-ud-Din lasted only one month and twenty davs
(17

Ramzan 799) (1396

A.D.).

Sultan Shums-ud-Din

was only

fifteen

years old

when he

ascended the throne. he
left all the

Intimidated by the fate of his brother,
in the
his

The latter, commenced an intrigue with the Sultan's mother, and in this way was able to do what he liked with the young Prince. As was to be expected,
hands of Lallcheen.
the

power

more

to strengthen

position,

power soon excited the jealousy of the other members of the Royal Family. Sultan Daood Khan (the murderer of Sultan Mujahid Shah) had left three sons. The eldest of these, Mahomed Sunjer had, it will be remembered, been blinded, but there were two younger brothers, Feroze Khan and Ahmed Khan, who married two daughters of the late Sultan Mahmood Shah. They were therefore brothers-inlaw and cousins of the unfortunate Ghazi-ud-Din, who had
this

absolute

enjoyed so brief a period of power.

Their wives incited these

58

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
avenge
getting
their

princes to

brother
this

which

they

resolved to do.
sent

Lallcheen,

wind of

cons])iracy

orders
in

to

have the Princes

killed,

but they managed to esca])e
of

time

and

took refuge in the fort of
slave

Saugur which was commanded
royal

by one Suddoo, a

the

family,

who

received

them with kindness and respect. Here they found the ])oor young blinded Sultan Ghazi-iid-Din, and the three resolved They gathered to strike a blow to recover the throne. together an army, and marched upon Gulburga, but were defeated with considerable loss and had to fly again to Saugur.
Flushed with
all

this success, the insolence of Lallcheen overstepped

bounds.

The Sultan Shums-ud-I)in was
longer

treated as a

mere

puppet, and his mother no
intrigue with Lallcheen.

made any

disguise of her

This conduct so disgusted the chief

Princes,

noblemen that they entered into correspondence with the two who now i-esolved to attempt by stratagem what they
to accomplish

had not been able

by

force.

Accordingly, they
for

sent letters to Lallcheen and

the

Queen -mother praying

forgiveness and asking to

be allowed to return to Gulburga.

Lallcheen, delighted at the chance of getting the Princes into his

power,
the

first

then

once consented, and they accordingly returned. Por few days they remained quiet on their guard, and Feroze Khan carried out their plot by a surprise.
at

appeared in the Durbar with twelve followers, leaving three

hundred adherents
to stop him,

outside.

The
at

porters at the gate attempted

but they were
twelve

once cut down, and the Prince

followed by his

friends

rushed into the

hall,

leaving
fled to

the gates guarded by the three hundred.

The Sultan
Lallcheen

an under-ground chamber, and Lallcheen's sons, who attempted
to

defend themselves,

Avere

cut

down.

was then

taken and bound, and Peroze ascended the throne which bore
his

own name.
of
his

Vengeance upon Lallcheen was reserved for
unfortunate victim

the hand

Ghazi-ud-Din,

who was

sent for from Saugur.

Lallcheen was placed, bound, before the

SULTANS GHAZI-UD-DIN AND SHUMS-UD-DIN.
blind prince,

59

who

called

for

a

sword and

killed

him with
This

one stroke.
request
lived

Ghazi-ud-Din, incapacitated by his blindness for

Government, then asked to be allowed to go to Mecca.

was granted,

and
in

we
that

arc
city

told

that

the

ex-Sultan

for

many

years

provided

with a liberal

allowance from his cousin I'eroze

Shah.

Shums-ud-Din, the

boy king of fifteen, was then blinded and sent iu captivity to Bieder, and so the country was once more restored to peace.

Shums-ud-Din reigned only

five

months and seven days.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.

T

is

necessary
part
of

at

this

the

history of the Dec-

can to
the

glance

at

manner

in

which Vijayanagar

had
of
th e

risen to be so
rival

formidable a
j\'l

power.
little

homedan There can be
a

donbt that preto

vious

the

14th

Century,
Avas a place of
it

Vijayanagar

such insignificance that

was

entirely

unknown.
of a

It

may have
Chieftain,

been the

residence
that

petty

and
city,

it

is

possible

the founders of the

Bnkha Raya
1328.

and

Hari

Ilara,

new may have
fall
is

belonged to his family, and have returned thither after the
of

V^^arangal

in

The foundation

of

Vijayanagar

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAB.
generally ascribed to the year
to the year 1343, or a

61

1336

A.I).,

and

its

completion

few years previous

to the foundation

of the Gulburga

doubt that the
Avas

kingdom (1348), and there seems to he no rapid groAvth of the young Hindoo Kingdom
measure due
to

in

a great

Sri
;

j\Iaha

Vidyjxranya, the

eleyenth successor of Sankarachariar

(according to Dr. Burnell,

than Avhom there can be no safer guide), the same as Sayana,
the famous commentator on the Vedas.

This sage's monastery

was situated
Mysore.

at

Shringeri,

in

the

Kadoor
the
fall

Taluq

of

West
The

Tradition says that

after

of Warangal, the

two

brothers

came
Priest
fall

to

the

sage

and
to

asked for help.
recognize
the
left

Hindoo High The position.

was not slow

critical

of Deogiri

and Warangal had

Southern

India entirely unprotected from

the invasions of the jNlahom-

edans, and it was therefore absolutely necessary that a new bulwark of protection should be raised against this dangerous foe. It is said that the deity appeared to the sage in a
vision,

and revealed

to

him

the existence of a hidden treasure,

which he, recognizing their fitness for the new task, bestowed upon the two brothers, and with this money they founded
the

new

city,

which,
It is a

in

honour of

their patron,

they called

Yidhyanagar.
city or

strange thing that throughout the whole

of Indian history

we

frequently find the foundation of a

new

dynasty connected with the finding of a hidden treasure.

No

doubt the custom of hoarding money goes back to the

these hidden

most ancient times, but it is also exceedingly possible that treasures were in reality mines, either of gold
or precious stones, the existence of
secret.

Within

a

few years

after the

which was kept a profound founding of the new

kingdom, its authority extended to the Western Coast. The Ibn Batuta, who visited the great ^lahomedan traveller, Kanara Coast in 1842, says that at Honavar (the modern

Honor) he found a Mahomedan Prince named Jamal-ud-Din,

who was

subject to an infidel

King named

Ilariab (evidently

62

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
or,

Ilaii llara,
is

as he

is

styled,

Ilariyappa) of Vijayanagar.

It

|)r()l)al>le tliat, o\viii(>;

to tlie influence of the sage Vidyaraiiya,

Hindoo Kings of Southern India recognized the mission of tlie Vijayanagar Kings to protect them against the Mahomedans, and paid tribute in treasure and men for this purpose. On more than one occasion we find the Madura Kings recognizing the King of Vijayanagar as their overlord, and appealing The resources thus placed at the disposal to him for assistance. of the new kingdom were therefore enormous, and in a very short time its power and influence overshadowed that of all For more than the other Hindoo kingdoms of South India.
all

the

two hundred years Vijayanagar performed its duty as Warden of the Hindoo marches, and during the constant wars that took place with the Mahomedan Princes she was as often
victorious as

she

was conquered.
to at once

Even when defeated, the
never
al)le to

Hindoos were able

replace the beaten armies liy
get

fresh levies, so that the

Mahomed ans were

a firm footing in the
of the kingdom. able to advance

Hmdoo

country until the

final

downfall

It was only seldom, indeed, that they were beyond the Tungabadhra, and the Raichore Doab or country between the Tungabadhra and the Kistna appears to have been the scene of most of the battles. Vijayanagar lies on the right or south bank of the River

Tungabadhra, which here rushes through some rocky
forms a wide bend.
as

hills

and

a range of hills about 3,000
it

About ten miles further south there is feet above the sea which form,
These
full
hills

were, a natural barrier.

shut in an extensive

plain
plain.

and the

city itself

was
city

built in the north corner of this
is

The

site

of the

of

rocky

hills,

some of

which must be nearly
are only a

1,000
feet.

feet high,

but most of which
are

few hundred

These

hills

formed of huge

boulders of stones piled upon each other in such a

way

as to

form an almost insurmountable barrier. In order to fortify the city all that was recjuired was to connect these hills by

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAB.
walls, wliicli has been

63

done

in

almost every instance.

In this

way

was defended by a series of walls, the outermost one of which is said to have enclosed a space eight miles
the city across {Xicolo
city

Conti, early in the 15th Century, says that the

was

sixty

miles

round).

These walls seem
hills

all

to have

terminated in a rocky range of

which intervened between
the river

the city and the river, thus rendering any approach from the
river side impossible.

Floating

down

now

in boats

from Humpi, the South-Westmost part of the city, there is nothing to show that on the other side of the rocks there are the ruins of what must have been a vast city. The stone piles
of the old bridge communicating with the northern shore are
still

standing,

but

the

approach

to

this

bridge

on

the

Vijayanagar side

which could

easily

was by a natural tunnel through the hill, be defended by a small body of men

The only way in which the city could from the south and southeast. At this latter point, advantage was taken of the lie of the country to build a large tank. The bund of this tank forms The water is about a natural rampart about a mile long.
against a large army.

be approached was, therefore,

twenty feet in depth
of at least three
to

at

the

bund,

and spreads over an area
This
large

four square miles.

sheet of

water Avould, therefore, form an
attack
of

insuperable

obstacle to the

and there remains, therefore, only the Near the south-west from which the city could be attacked. Calingula, or weir, at the western end of the tank bund, a
an

army,

massive wall runs

off

of the inhabited portion of

whicb probably formed the outer defence the city. The moat of this wall
different points
until at last
to.
it

was

easily filled

the wall was defended by forts

from the Calingula, and at aud redoubts,
of
hills

joined the rocky range
ately within this wall

before

alluded

Immedi-

there
tank,

were

rice fields

aud gardens fed

with

water

from

the

and

then
its

portions of the city each defended by

came the different wall and rocky hills.

64

HIS WHY OF THE DEC CAN.
city,

In the centre of the
palace, the

or

innermost ring, was the King's
of the Commander-in-Chief.
hill,

mint and the
palace
is

palace

The King's

said to have been on a

and formed
it

the highest portion of

the

city.

If

so,

all

tiaces of

have

now

disappeared.

seen the ruins of what

with a range of
hill

behind there

At the foot of the hill there is still to be must have been a harem, or zenana, elephant stal)les and a concert hall. On the are some old ruins. Possibly the palace was
it

built here, but, if so,

is

noAv impossible to identify

it.

The

first

King was Hari Hara, and
1336

the date of his reign

is

ascribed to

— 1350.

He was

followed by

his brother,

Bukka Raya, who reigned till 1379, when he was succeeded by Hari Hara II., who reigned till 1401. This Prince, together with his son, Deva Raya (1401 1451), greatly
Bukka
or

extended the pow^r of the kingdom, and added to the splendour
of the
these
city.

A

difference

will

be

noticed

in

Kings and those
conflict.

with

whom we
of

find

names of the Gulburga
the

Sultans in

The King

Vijayanagar,

who

so fre-

quently fought with

Muhammed

Shah and Mujahid Shah of

Gulburga (1357—1377) is called by Ferishta Krishen Roy or Raya. According to the dates, this King must, in reality, have been Bukka Raya, and it is impossible to explain how
Ferishta gets the
as

name

of

Krishen Roy.

Muhammed

Shah,

already related, no

doubt committed a terrible
l)ut

slaughter

amongst the Hindoos,
certainly inflicted into a disaster,
if

under Mujahid the Hindoo King one severe defeat, which would have turned
the

had not been able to hold the passes of the hills, which protect Vijayanagar on the south It was during East, whilst the main army passed through.
Sultan
the

reign

of

Deva Raya

that

we have
visited

the

first

authentic

account by a traveller of the city of Vijayanagar. Razzak, the Persian
of
April,

Abd-er-

Ambassador,
it

the city at the end

1443,
city,

and found
seat

populous

the

of

a

"an exceedingly large and King of great poAver, whose

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.
kingdojii stretched
to Malabar."

67

from Ceylon

(This latter

to Gulljurga and from Bengal must be an exaggeration, for it is

certain that the

Vijayanagar
land was
equal

dominions never extended north

of the Kistna River.)

"Most
about
elephants,

of the

tilled

and
men.

fertile,

and there were
were
1,000
actual

300
in

seaports

to

Kalikat.

There

and
India,

over a

million

There

was no

"Rai"

except the

King

of Vijayanagar.

had seven
outmost
across.

fortified walls,

one within the other.

The city The first or

circle enclosed a space of eight miles

(two parasanr/s)

Between the first, second, and third circles of wall were fields and gardens, and from the third to the seventh or inmost circle, the space was crowded with markets and shops. The seventh centre was on a hill, and in it was the
palace
of

the

King and four markets with
head of each.

a lofty arcade,

and

a magnificent gallery at the

The markets

were broad and long.
fiowers,

There w^ere always sweet and fresh

and the
tlie

different crafts

had separate quarters.
loftiest

Many

streams flowed along polished and level stone channels.
the right of
city,

On

palace,

which was the
in

building in the
justice.
full

"was a

pillared

hall

which the Minister did
with hollow
the

On
office

the

left

was the mint,

chambers

of

masses of molten gold.

Opposite

with 12,000 soldiers.

lived, very beautiful,

300 yards long by twenty rich and accomplished.
young, of a

mint was the police Behind the mint was a market broad, where the daucing girls

exceedingly

The King was spare body, rather tall and of an
stay at Vijayanagar,

olive complexion.

During Abd-er-Razzak's

the brother of the

King

killed

many

of

the leading nobles,

and
sat

all

but succeeded in assassinating the King.

The King
During part

on a throne of gold, inlaid with jewels, and the walls of

the throne

room were

lined with plates of gold.

of the time Abd-er-Razzak

was

there,

a Christian was Minister

there was a Avonderful festival at

"Dassara" time,

m Mahan-

68

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
September
Avitli

acauti, the
city

full

moon.
of

'J'lic

great

plain

near the

was

tilled

enchanting pavilions
pictures

covered

with most

and there was one King. Por three days, with a most gorgeous dis])lay, dancing girls danced and sang, fireworks blazed, and showmen and jugglers performed wonderful feats. Abd-er-Razzak left Vijayanagar on the 5th of November, 1443, and reached Mangalore- on the 23rd of It Avas impossible within reasonable space the same month. All to give an idea of how well the country was peopled. the people, high and low, even the workers in market places, w^ore jcAvels and gilt ornaments in their ears, round their necks, Prom Mangalore he went to arms, and wrists, and fingers. the port of Honavar or Honor, and there arranged for a He started on the 28th vessel to take him back to Persia. Ormuz on the 22nd* of April, of January, and reached
delicate
tasteful

and

animals,

pillared mansion, nine stories high, for the

after a

voyage of sixty -five days."
seven walls
of

Of
The

the

which Abd-er-Razzak speaks,
seven
miles

it

is

probable that the two outer ones were merely rows of
village of

forts.
still

Hospett,

from the

ruins, is

called the eighth gate of the ancient city;

but a wall at this

part enclosing a space

eight

miles across would have been a

work
is it

too gigantic even for those days of forced labour.
likely that all traces of so large a w^ork

Nor
dis-

should have

appeared, and at

present

there
is

is

no sign of any wall until

the Calingula of the tank
this latter wall

reached.

The space enclosed by
Within

might possibly be eight square miles or more,
about three miles across.
of
are

but cannot be more than
these walls
there
said above, they do

remains

many

other walls, but, as

the most part

form separate enceintes, but are for between different rocky hills. Abd-er-Razzak probably entered the city by means of seven different gates, and the distance between the outer and the
not
connecting-links
*

Bombay

Gazetteer

—Kanara.

Vol.

XV. Part

II.

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAB.
inner
gates

69

was very possibly
Vijayanagar in 1503.
seven

eight

miles.

This

view

is

confirmed by the account of the

Italian traveller, Vartherna,

who

visited

He

says that the city "stood
circles

on the side of a mountain with

three

of walls, the

outermost

circle

miles

round."

This
the

correspond with

the wall

leading from

would exactly tank-bund, and
Vartherna says
of.

the other two inner circles can also be traced.
that the

King was the richest he had Brahmans said that he had £ 4,000 a

ever heard
day.

"His
always

He was

at war.

He had
;{^

40,000

horsemen, whose horses were worth

;^ 100 to and some

226 each, for horses were scarce; 400 elephants;
dromedaries.

He

was
did

a

great

friend

of

the

Christians,

and the

Portuguese

him much honour.

He

wore a cap of gold brocade, and when he went to war, a quilted dress of cotton with an over- garment full of golden
piastres,

and hung with jewels.

The ornaments on

his horse

were worth more than an
or four kings,

Italian city.

He

rode out with three

many

lords,

and

five or six

thousand horses."
a

In

— "Vijayanagar says:
mountain on a
There
streets

1514

another

traveller,

Duarte
level

Barbosa,

Portuguese,
a

was on a
It

ground surrounded by

very good wall on one side, a river on a second side, and a
third.

were

many
is,

large

and squares.

was very large and very populous. and handsome palaces, and wide The King, a Gentile (= Gentoo) called
always lived in the
city.

Raheni, that

Rayalu,

He

lived

very luxuriously and seldom left the palace.
white, well-made, and had smooth black hair.

He was nearly The attendance

was by women, who all lived in the palaces. They sang and played and amused the King in a thousand ways. They went to bathe daily, and the King went to see them bathe, and sent to his chamber the one that pleased him most, and the first son he had from any of them inherited the Kingdom. Many litters and many horsemen stood at the door of the palace. The King kept 900 elephants, each worth
on the King

70

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
20,000 horses worth 300
to (;00

1,500 to 2,000 ducats and
ducats, and sonic

of the choicest worth 1,000 (Uicats. The more than 100,000 men, horse and foot, and 5,000 women in his pay. The Avomcn went with the army, but did not tight, but their lovers fought for them very vigorously. When the King, which occasionally happened, went in person to war, he cam])ed at some distance from the city, and ordered all people to join him within a certain number of days. At the end of the days he gave orders to burn the whole city, except his palaces, and some of the nobles' palaces, that all might go to the war and die with him. " Among his knights many had come from different parts to take service, and did not cease to live in their own creeds. In times of peace the city was filled with an innumerable crowd of all nations. There were very rich local Gentiles, many Moorish merchants and traders, and an infinite number of others from all parts. They dwelt freely and safely in what creed they chose, whether Moor, Christian, or Gentile. The governors observed strict justice, and there was an infinite trade. Great quantities of precious stones poured into Vijayanagar, jewels from Pegu, diamonds from the Deccan, and also from a Vijayanagar mine, and pearls from Ormuz and from Gael in South India." One passage in this extract is especially important, as it sup-

King

liad

"^

plies

a

reason

why

the

only

ruins

of
If

this

large

city

are

temples and a few public buildings.

the

homes
built

of the

common
went
to

people were liable to be burnt whenever the King
war,

they

must, of course,

have been

of the
fell

most unsubstantial materials.

When

Vijayanagar

finally

after the battle of Tellicotta (1565) the

found the

city

in such

a

half -ruined

strained every nerve to meet the allied

Mahomedans probably state. The King had Mahomedan kings, and
city.

had possibly burnt the greater part of the
* (l/jld).

All that the

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAB.

71

Mahomedaris found, therefore, were temples and pu])licl)uildings, which they ruthlessly destroyed. In many of the temples it
is
still

clearly visible

how

the pavement was torn

up

in order

to search for

hidden treasure.

Of

the

public buildings, the

most interesting ruins are: The elephant stables, very substantially built, and in a very good state of preservation and a grand stand where the King used to sit and watch the sports
in the arena below.

This

stand

is

covered on

all

sides with

excellent carvings in bas-relief of animals, sports, &c.

On

the

north side the walls are hidden by debris; but a portion has been excavated, exposing some very delicate carving in an
excellent state of preservation.

Near the arena
is

are the remains

of an aqueduct,
stone.

each section of which
is

built

out of solid
a foot deep.

The channel
l)ath,
is

a foot

and

a half

wide by
are

In communication with this
covered
possibly
evidently
l)atli

aqueduct

the remains of a
architecture.

of

Mahomedan
like

This

the

which the King used
apartments

to visit, as there are

screened

and

latticed

which he could watch the bathers.
the

from Abd-er-Razzak speaks of
private

boxes

water flowing through the

streets,

and of the
very

different

handicrafts

being located
this
lies

together.

A

interesting

ex-

ample of

remains of a

street,

from the bath. There are the by the side of which is a stone channel,
not
far

and on

either side of the channel are a large

number

of square

slabs of black stone

with a round excavation

like a plate in

the middle, by the side of which are two, three, and sometimes
five

smaller

excavations.

These slabs
for

were used for eating.
rice,

The middle excavation was meant
bouring ones for condiments.
eating houses.

and the neigh-

Here, probably, were the public
to dine

A

traveller

who wanted

came and

sat

down

at a slab,

and was served with his food, and he probably

paid according to the kind of slab he selected.

A

five- condiment

dinner cost more

than

one

with only two.

After eating he

washed

his

hands

in the channel,

and then went away.

These

72

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

eating-slabs are probably in exactly the

they were

same position now as no value Placed as they to the thief and are too heavy to be moved. are, they form an interesting relic of Hindoo life of five hundred years ago. The principal ruins are those of temples, of which there is an enormous number. They are scattered about everywhere, on the tops of hills and on the level ground. The most

when they were

last

used, for they are of

important
inner

of these

are

that

of

Hazara Ramaswamy,
with
the
large

in the

circle

near

the

King's

palace,

some beautifully
at

carved pillars in black granite;

temple

Humpi,
latter

which

is

in

good repair and

is

even

now

largely frequented,
river.

and the temple of Vittelaswamy near the
pattern,

The

has some beautifully carved pillars of a very rare and elegant

and

in

front

of

the temple

is

what

is

probably a
car,

unique piece of carving in the shape of a large stone

modelled on the pattern of an ordinary wooden
car unfortunately

car.

This
in

shows

a

number
but
retired,

of

cracks,

and

was

danger of falling to pieces;
Bellary Mr. R. Sewell,
archcTological,

the

present

Collector

of

since

who

takes not only an
in the ruins

but also a keen personal interest

had the heavy superstructure of brickwork, with which the car was loaded, removed, and, relieved from this superincumbent weight, it is to be hoped that the car will stand for many more years to come, though it might be advisable to have it protected from the ravages caused by the
of this old city, has

weather.

At present
which
corner
is

the

only

two portions of the
at

city

which are

inhabited are Kamalapoor,
called after its

the southwest end of the tank,

name,
the

and Humpi,
river.

in the southwest
is

of

the

city

near
of

Kamalapur
a

a

small

village, the

houses

which have
stones
of

substantial
of

appearance,
walls.

being built from
there
is

the

one

the

Here

a small

bungalow constructed out

of an old temple.

THE CITY AND KINGDOM OF VIJAYANAGAR.

7S

winding road leads from here tlirongli the ruins of the old city, past old temples and through crumbling gateways until Humpi is reached. Here there are the remains of a broad

A

by what were shops and possibly noblemen's some of these arc pretentious, having columns in At the north front, and a few of them are still inhabited. end of this street is the temple, one of the towers or Goparams of which, was rebuilt by a former Collector of Bellary, Mr. Robertson, whose name is held in high reverence in consequence.
street fringed

houses;

None

of the temples in or near the old city are of later date

than the 14th Century, with the exception of one or two very

Mr. Sewell is of opinion may be of an older period. This shows that, previous to the 14th Century, the place was one of insignificance, and that the whole of the vast mass of temples, which must at one time have existed, are due to the liberality of the Kings of the new dynasty. At present the very name of Vijayanagar seems in danger The ruins are generally called the ruins of being forgotten. Humpi, and many who are familiar with that name are of iinaware that they form the only remains of what was once On the largest and richest Hindoo city of Southern India. the north bank of the river there was once a large suburb a portion of this suburb which was also defended by walls now forms the small village of Anagoondy, wdiere lives, in
small buildings, which
;

sadly

reduced circumstances,

the

sole

representative
is,

of the

Vijayanagar Kings.

But, poor though he

he

is still

looked

upon by all the inhabitants of the district with great respect, and whenever there is a family festival in his house, the Baiders turn out in large numbers to do him honour, and prostrate He is, themselves before him when he appears in public. however, but the shadow of a once great name.

CHAPTER

VIII.

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND

AHMED SHAH.
ULTAN Feroze
under
Shall reigned

for twenty-five years,

and

his rule the king-

dom
1397
to

of

Gulburga may
said
to
its

be

have

reached

highest

U22

point of prosperity,

He

made
glorious

twenty-four

campaigns;

conquered the greater
part of Telingana, and

compelled

the

King

of Vijayanagar to give

ters in

marriage

It is said of

him one him that he was

of his daughstrict in his

religious observances, with the exception of drinking wine and

listening to music, but he consoled himself for committing these

two offences against Islam by saying that "music lifted his mind to contemplate the divinity, and that wine did not make

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
liim passionate, and, tlierefore, he

75

hoped that hereafter he would

not be questioned about them, but find mercy from a forgiving Creator."

Feroze Shah paid very great attention to the development of

and every year despatched vessels from the ports of Goa and Choule. These ships not only brought back merchandize of different countries, but, the captains were also charged to
trade,
invite persons celebrated for their talents to visit the Sultan's

Court.

Another kind of
in

visitors in

whom

the Sultan delighted
of
all

were Avomen, and

his

harem were females

nations

Arabians, Circassians, Georgians, Turks, Russians, Europeans,
Chinese, Afghans, Rajputs, Bengalis, Guzeratees, Tclinganees,

and
her

others.

We

are

told

that
is

he could speak with each in
doubtless an exaggeration.
Sultan's
reign,

own

language, but this
of

war broke out with the King of Vijayanagar whom Ferishta names Dewul Roy. According to the Hindoo inscriptions, the King of Vijayanagar The Avords "Deva" are more in 1398 was Hari Hara II. Almost all Hindoo Kings honorific titles than actual names. termed themselves Deva, and Roy or Raya is simply another form of Rajah. T'he names therefore of the Hindoo Kings as
In the second year
the

given by

Mahomedan
names
to

historians

are

not

to

be

relied upon.

The

real

as noAv ascertained are derived

from inscriptions
the Doali with

which are far more
absolutely so.
a large

be depended upon, although not always

The Vijayanagar King invaded
of

army

in order to possess himself of jNIudkul.

At the
lai'ge

same time the Rajah
invaded the
Berars,

the Telingana, (Nursinga) country,
to

and the Sultan had
defend
the
river

detach a

portion of his troops to

this portion of his

dominions.

When

the

Sultan

reached

Kistna,

he

found the

Vijayanagar forces camped on

the

other side, and the river

being in

flood,

he was unable to cross.
Siraj,

A
the

Kazi in the Sultan's
river

army, named
passage.

offered

to

cross

and secure

a

This he did by a most daring adventure.

The Kazi

76

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
his

with seven of

friends

disguised

themselves as

reHgious

mendicants, and crossing the river
Rajah's Camp, which was

went

to that part of the
girls.

frequented by dancing
love

The
to

Kazi pretended

to fall

in

with

the chief of these, and
girl

when night came
take

on,

and he found, that the

was going

an

entertainment at the tent of the Rajah's son, he persuaded her to

him with her
in the

as one of the musicians, he being well-skilled in
lute.

performing on the mandel, or Hindoo
to,

This the

girl

consented

and

midst of the entertainment, whilst performing a dagtheir daggers into his body.

ger dance, the Kazi and one of his friends rushed in on the Rajah's
son,

and plunged
killed;
river,

In the confu-

sion that ensued, the lights

were extinguished and a number

of

Hindoos
the

a

report

was spread that the Sultan had
in

crossed
alarm.

and the whole camp was
Sultan

a

state

of

In the meantime the
four

did actually cross with

about
took to

thousand

picked

men,

and

effected

a

landing

without opposition.
flight,

Surprised in this manner the whole army
fled to Vijayanagar,

and the King

where he shut

Hindoos being slain. A peace very shortly ensued, and the Rajah paid as a ransom for the Brahmins who had been captured eleven lakhs of pagodas, or Hoons or Huns; and upon this the Sultan returned In the following year, he marched to punish to Gulburga. Nursinga, who was driven out of Berar without much difficulty, and compelled to shut himself up in Kurleh, one of his own forts. Here after a siege of two months, he surrendered and went in person to the Sultan's camp at Ellichpore to make his submission. He was pardoned and reinstated, and is said to have been submissive thereafter. In 1401 Feroze Shah sent ambassadors to Timur the great conqueror, and proffered his This was graciously accepted, and in return the allegiance. Sultan was named sovereign of Malwa and Guzerat in addition Considering, however, that both Malwa and to the Deccan.
himself up, an immense

number

of

Guzerat were already in the possession of

two Mahomedan

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.

77

Princes, this was something like dividing the lion's skin before

the animal had been killed, and the sole resnlt was to raise up two new enemies in the Kings, who feared that their dominions would be attacked. These princes at once formed a secret alliance with the King of Vijnyanagar, who, being

f</(.

assured of their assistance, discontinued paying any tribute.

At

first

Feroze

Shah did not
but
an open

feel

himself in

a

position to

resent

this

disobedience,
into

before

long

the

smouldering

flame, and the ostensible cause woman. In the fort of jMudkul there was a Hindoo farmer who had a beautiful daughter, who, contrary to the usual custom among Hindoos, had reached maturity without being married. A Brahmin returning

quarrel broke

was, as so often happens

—a

from

Benares

saw

this

village

beauty,

and was

so

much

struck with her that
father's house,

he remained a year and a half in her
in

and instructed her
to the

music and dancing.

When

her education was completed the Brahmin went to Vijayanagar,

and reported

King

the existence of this peerless maiden.

The King
bring
the

at

once sent him back to

Mudkul with

orders to

maiden

proposed to

and her parents to Vijayanagar as he make the young lady his wife. This, no doubt,

78

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
a great honour,

was

but

still

it

was one that had

its

drawbacks.

Nicolo Couti, to

whom

allusion has already l)een

made, writing

between 1420 and 1440, says that the

King

of Vijayanagar

had 12,000, wives of
in

whom
the

his

kitchen,
litters.

4,000

went on foot and served went on horseback, and 4,000 w^ere
4,000
litter

carried in

Of

ladies

2,000 were chosen as

wives on condition that they would burn when the King died.

Now

it

is

possible that the educated beauty of

Mudkul knew

and did not relish having some day to perform At all events the young lady declined the offer, and refused to accept the jewels which had been sent her. The reason she assigned was her love for her parents, because
of this custom,

the rite of Suttee.

when once she should be made

the w^ife of the

King,

she

would be separated from them, and never see them again. Accordingly, the Brahmin was sent back with all his presents After he had gone, the girl told her a disappointed man. parents that she had long had an inward persuasion that she
should become the wife of a great prince of Islam, and that,

must not be angry with her for refusing the When the Brahmin reported the failure of his mission, the King's love became more inflamed than ever, and he resolved to carry off the fair Pertal for this was her name — by force, even though in order to do so he had to invade the Sultan's country, for Mudkul was in the possestherefore, they

Hindoo King.

sion

of Teroze

Shah,

Accordingly,

he assembled an army,

crossed

the

Tungabadhra,
however, he

and

marched
before

upon
he

Mudkul.

Unfortunately,
fort,

stopped

reached the

and the consequence was

that the inhabitants, hearing of

the approach of this large army,

town.

Amongst

these

were

Pertal

became alarmed and left the and her parents. The
without their

had accordingly to retire expected prize, but on their way back they burnt several villages and towns. When Peroze Shah unprovoked and insolent invasion, he assembled
Vijayanagar
troops

and destroyed
heard of this

an army, and

SULTANS FEBOZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
crossing the two rivers laid siege to Vijayaiiagar.

79

Deva Raya was the Hindoo King, and lie seems to have suceessfully defended his city. The Mahomedans were repulsed, and the Sultan himself wounded. In fact so hard pressed were the Sultan's forces that they had to withdraw into the ])lain, and entrench themselves in order to keep off the Hindoos. Deva Raya does not seem to have been able to force them from this position, and accordingly sent for assistance from his allies of Malwa and Guzerat. In the meantime, another army
of the

Sultan,

commanded by

his

brother

Ahmed,

laid the

Vijayanagar country waste,

and rejoined Feroze
in

in his

camp

with a large amount of booty and sixty thousand prisoners.

The Sultan then left his brother Ahmed camp, and went with the rest of the army
In the meantime, the

the entrenched

to besiege Adoni.

Rajah's

application

for assistance

from

Malwa and Guzerat had proved

unsuccessful.

His

allies either

could not or would not give him help, and he, therefore, found himself obliged to sue for peace. At first the Sultan
refused, but at last agreed, under the condition, however, that
in addition to an

daughter in

enormous indemnity he would give him his marriage. The indemnity consisted of ten laks

of pagodas, five

maunds

of

pearls

(the

maund

of S. India

is

equal to 28 pounds),

fifty

choice elephants, and two thousand

men and women
as

slaves, in

addition to the fort of Beekapore
first

a

marriage

portion.

The

of

these

probably the most
obliged to comply.
of

irksome one,

but the

conditions was Hindoo King was
city

The

Sultan's brother

went into the

and brought out the bride, whereupon the marriage was celebrated with great pomp and magnificence.
Vijayanagar,

After the marriage had

been
his

celebrated,
bride.

Deva Raya a visit with related by Ferishta:
"

Feroze Shah paid The incident is thus

A

day having been

fixed,

he with the bride proceeded to
in

Vijayanagar, leaving

the

camp

charge of

Khan Khanan

80
(his

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
brother Ahmed).

On

the

vvjiy

he was met by Deva Raya
of the city to the ])alace,

with great pomp.

From
of

the

gate
six

being

a

distance

nearly

miles,

the

road

was

sj)read

and other rich stnffs. The two princes rode on horseback together, between ranks of beautiful boys and girls, who waved plates of gold and silver
with cloth of gold, velvet,
satin,

flowers over

their

heads

as

they
the

advanced,
populace.

and then threw
After
this,

them

to

be

gathered

by

the

inhabitants of the city

made

offerings,

both men and women,

according to their rank. After passing through a square directly in
the centre of the city, the relations of
the streets in crowds,

made
on

their

Deva Raya who had lined obeisance and offerings, and

joined the

cavalcade
arrival
at

Upon

their

marching before the princes. the palace gate, the Sultan and the
foot,

Raya dismounted from
palanquin, set
together
to

and ascended a splendid with valuable jewels, in which they were carried
their horses,

the apartments prepared for the reception of the

bride and bridegroom,

went

to

his

palace.

when Deva Raya took his leave and The Sultan after having been treated
for three

with royal magnificence

days took his leave of the

Raya, who pressed upon him richer presents than before given,

and attended him four miles on his Avay back and then returned Sultan Feroze Shah was enraged at his not going to the city. with him to his camp, and said to Meer Fazl Oollali that he would one day have revenge for such an affront. This declaration being told to Deva Raya, he made some insolent remarks,
so that, notwithstanding the connection of family, their hatred

was not calmed.

Sultan Feroze Shah proceeded to the capital

of his dominions, and despatched persons to bring the beautiful
Pertal and her family to court
;

was found

to surpass

all

that

which being done, her beauty had been reported of it. The

Sultan observing that he was too old to espouse her himself

gave her to his son, Hussan Khan, in marriage, and gratified
her parents with rich gifts and grants of land in their country.

SULTANS FEBOZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
Pertal

81

was ronimittcd

to

tlic

care

of tha

Sultan's aunt until

the nuptial preparations

were ready, when the knot was tied
of which

amid great rejoicings and princely magniticence." The story of the beautiful Pertal and the war
she

was

the

innocent

cause

contain

all

the

elements of a

historical
still

romance.

Would

that there were a

Meadows Taylor

alive to give it to us, together

with a graphic description

of the country

and the people amongst whom she lived Shah laid out a new city not far from Gulburga, which he named after himself Firozeabad. It was
Sultan

Feroze

situated on the banks of the
affluents of the

Kistna.

Bheemrah, or Bhima, one of the The site of this town was about 15
of
J/^adi,

miles from the present railway station
of the G. T. P.

the junction
is

and Nizam's State Railways, and
seat

said to

have been laid out with great regularity.
continued to be the
of

Gulburga, however,

Government, and the new town
than a residence.

About 1412 a celebrated saint, named Mahummud Geesoo-Diraz, came from Delhi to Gidburga, but though the Sultan at first showed him considerable favour, he appears to have afterwards neglected him. The Sultan's brother, Ahmed, who held the post of Khan Khanan made it, however, his duty to show this saint considerable respect, and was constant in his attendance upon him. The result was that Ahmed stood high in the saint's favour, and when in 1415 the Sultan asked the latter to bestow his blessing upon his son Hassan, whom he had selected as his successor, and who is said to have been a weak and dissipated
resort

was more a pleasure

prince, the saint declined, giving, as his reason, that Providence

had decreed

that the

crown should be bestowed on

his brothei',

Ahmed.
city,

Upon

this the Sultan

ordered the saint to leave the

which he did, and retired to a place outside, where his tomb now stands. This tomb is still highly venerated by the Mahomedans of the Deccan, and is visited every year by thousands of pilgrims. The walls are decorated with texts
6

82

TTTSTOnr or TITE DEC CAN.
(1k'

from

Koran

in

i!;ilt

letters,

and

none

hul

true Ix'licvcrs

arc aclniitted inside.

Near it are some buildings consisting; of a srrai, a mosque, and a college, said to liave been built by Aurungzebe in the seventeenth century. In 1417 Feroze Shah made an unprovoked attack uj)on the fort of Bilkonda, belonging to the King of Vijayanagar, who was still Deva Raya. After a siege of two years, a pestilence broke out in the Sultan's army, and he had to retire. The Hindoos then advanced with a large force, and the Sultan, disregarding the advice of his chief officei's, gave them battle,
Avith

the result that he Chief,

suffered

a serious defeat.
killed,

His Com-

mander in had to fly
the

Meer Fuzl Oollah, was
confusion.
the

and he himself

in the greatest

A

general slaughter of

Mahomedans
his

followed, and

erected a platform of their heads.
into

Hindoos are said to have The Sultan was followed
everywhere
laid

OAvn

country

which

was

waste,

mosques and holy places were broken down, and people were The Sultan appealed for help to Guzerat, but in vain, and it Avas only after some time and immense exertions that his brother, Ahmed, succeeded in driving the Hindoos back into their OAvn dominions. This reverse seems to have prayed so much upon the Sultan's
slaughtered indiscriminately.

mind
his

that he fell

ill.

During

his illness he left the affairs of

Government to two of his slaves, named Hoshiar Ein-ulMulk and Nizam Bedar-ul-Mulk. These two persons, alarmed at the growing popularity of Ahmed, advised the King to have him blinded. The Sultan, remembering the Saint's prophecy, resolved to do
this,

but his brother received timely notice

and prepared with his son for flight. First of all, however, he went with his son to ask for the blessing of the holy Seyd. "The Seyd took the turban from his OAvn son's head, and
dividing
father
it into two parts, tied one round the head of the and son, and extending his hands over them, hailed

them both with future royalty"

(Ferishta.)

After this

Ahmed

SULTANS
left

FEUOZl'J

SHAH AND AHMKI) SHAH.
Iiuiulrcd

83

the city, followed

by four

trusty adhercuts.
their

As

soon as Hoshiar and

Bedar heard that

intended victim

had escaped, they Ahmed had only
the victory by chief supporter,

set out in pursuit

with four thousand horses.
is

a

few followers, but
Khulif
Ilussan.

said to have gained

means
one

of a clever stratagem carried out by his

A
oxen

company
happened

of

grain

merchants with about two thousand

to pass,
a

and Hussan purchased them red and white flag on each
in

all,

and mounted a man with

ox.

Some

cavalry
to

were posted
appear
at

front

of

this

strange

force

with orders

a

engagement should commence. Next morning the attack was commenced, and whilst it was going on, llussan's force was seen marching behind some trees. At
distance
the the

when

same time

Ahmed made
fled.

a

vigorous

charge,

and

the

was supported by a large force of gained a considerable amount of booty, and at once marched upon Gulburga, where he was soon joined by a large number of disaffected persons, who were encouraged l)y his success. The Sultan, in spite of
Sultan's army, thinking he
cavalry, broke

and

Ahmed

his illness,
his

had himself carried out in a ])alanquin and attacked brother. His forces, however, were again defeated, and he

to take refuge in the citadel. Hoshiar and Bedar commenced defending the fort, but the Sultan, weakened by age and disease, resolved to abdicate. He first of all called his son, Hussan-Khan, and told him that as all the nobility had

had

sided Avith

Ahmed

it

Avould

be

better

to

su])mit.
to

He

then
his

summoned

his ])rother, his son.

and formally made over

him

kingdom, and

Ahmed

Shah, then ascended the throne

and ordered coins to be struck and the Khutl)a to be read A few days afterwards Feroze Shah died, and in his name. Ferishta adds that " it is said in some books that he was put to death through policy, by his brother but no good founda;

tion appears for

the report."

Ferishta

is

probably correct

in

this latter surmise, for

by

his

subsequent behaviour

to the late

84

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
it

Snltnii's SOD,

is

clear that
tlie

Ahmed
Shali's

Sliah

^\as

more generous
twenty-five

than was the custom of

kings of that time towards their
reign
lasted

unsuccessful

rivals.

Feroze

years, seven montlis,

and

tifteen

days.

Sultan

Ahmed Shah Wullee
liis

Hahmanee appears
of

to

have

followed
1422
to

brother's example

encouraging learning.
to

As
the

might be expected, he showed great gratitude
holy Syed (leesoo
hiin

Diraz;

not

only did he

build for

1434.

a

splendid

college,

but

he

also

endowed him
Rejecting the

richly Avith villages

and

jaghirs.

Ahmed
the late

Shah's accession was

signalized

by more than ordinary generosity.

advice of his Minister to put

Sultan's son to death,

he gave him Ferozeabad as a residence with an ample revenue,

and here the Prince continued
giving

in

future

to

reside,

without

any

trouble,

for,

being

indolent

and

dissipated

by

nature, he preferred the

pleasures

of hunting

and the enjoyin

ments of the harem

to the
lived,

dangers and cares of sovereignty.

As long

as

his

uncle

he

was unmolested, but
to

the

next reign he was

blinded

and confined

his palace.

The

two Ministers of the late Sultan were also taken into favour, and lioshiar Ein-ul-Mulk was appointed Ameer-ul-Umra, or
chief of the Nobles, whilst

Bedar-ul-Mulk was posted

to the

Government

of Dowlatabad.

llussan the Merchant, owing to

whose clever stratagem
with the
title

Ahmed had
(Prince
still

gained the throne, was

appointed Minister (Vakeel-ul-Sultanat: Envoy of the Kingdom)
Malick-ul-Tijar,
of

Merchants) a rank
in

which

in

Eerishta's

time

was
first

bestowed

the Deccan,

and was held

in high esteem.

One

of

Ahmed

Shah's

acts Avas to declare Avar against
late reign.

Vijayanagar in revenge for the invasions during the

Deva Raya
latter before

Avas assisted

by the

King of Warangal, but the
The
tAvo

long deserted his
the

ally.

the

banks

of

Tungabadhra,

and

after

armies met on some delay the

Sultan crossed the river, and attacked the Rajah early in the

SULTANS FEUOZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
inoriiiiig.

85

A

strange incident occurred in this surprise.
in
n

The
ahnost

Rnjah was sleeping

garden

near
their

a

sugar-cane plantation

when

the

Mahomcdans made

attack.

He

fled

naked into the ])lantation, and there he was found hiding by some soldiers, who wanted to cut some of the canes. Thinking him to be an ordinary person, they made him carry a bundle of canes, and follow them. The Rajah, glad to escape recognition, said nothing, but followed his captors.

When

they

reached the Rajah's camp, the
plundering, and so the soldiers,

Sultan's

army was engaged in hoping to get more valuable
his

plunder than sugar-cane,

left their captive to

own

devices,

and joined their comrades.
his escape,

and soon

after,

was brought into

safety.

Deva Raya was not slow to make coming up with some of his nobles, The Rajah then retired to Vijayanagar,
lie
is

and

Ahmed Shah

devastated the country.

said to have

neglected the old com])act

made between
to

the Sultan of

Gulburga

and the King of Vijayanagar, and
thousand Hindoos, and
assassinate
to

have slaughtered twenty

have destroyed a number of temples.
a

So exasperated were the Brahmins that they formed
the

plot to
their

Sultan,

and

very

nearly

succeeded

in

attempt.

separated from
that

They surprised him whilst he was out hunting and his companions, and pursued him so hotly
only
just

he

was

able

to

take

refuge

within

a

mud

enclosure.

Here he was joined by a few friends, but the Hindoos had succeeded in making a breach in the mud wall, and were on the point of entering, when they were attacked
rear, and put to flight after a desperate struggle in which Ave hundred Mahomcdans and one thousand Hindoos were killed. Abd-ul-Kadir, the officer who had luckily come to his

in the

master's rescue, was at once raised to the rank of two thousand,

and the Government of Berar Avas bestowed upon him with the titles of Khan Jehan and the "Life bestowing Brother."
In the meantime, the city of Vijayanagar had been blockaded,

and the inhabitants reduced

to

considerable

distress, so that

8(>

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Kav.'i

Dcvn

felt

liiinsclt"

compelled

to

sue for j)eace; this was
arrears of tribute
])y

ii;rante(l

on

coiiclition

that he

hiden on his best

elephants,
all

would send all and conducted
State

his

son with

drums, trumpets, and
cam]).

the

pageantry to the Sultan's

This was done and the embassy was met outside the

Sultan's
after

camp and conducted

into

his presence.

The

Sultan,

embracing the Rajah's son, made him sit at the foot of the throne, and then invested him with a robe of honour, a jew^elled sword, twenty horses, and elephants, and other gifts. After
this the

Sultan drew off his army, and returned to (jiul])urga.

In 1424 the Sultan

marched against the Warangal King,
Arrived
at

who had withheld
halted,

his tribute.

Golconda the Sultan

and sent on Khan Azim Avith a portion of the main army against Warangal, about 90 miles distant. This ex])edition was entirely successful. Not only Avere the Hindoos defeated with great loss, but Warangal itself Avas taken, and the Rajah killed. The Sultan then moved his camp to the captured city "and took possession of the buried treasures of ages Avhich had till noAv been preserved from plunder, and accumulated yearly by the economy of the Rajahs" (Ferishta).
These treasures, hoAAever,
in
Avere only the accumulations of less

than one hundred years, for after the former sack of Warangal

1323 the

city Avas for

some time
Delhi.

the seat of a

Mahomedan
after

Governor appointed from
to the

Khan

Azim,

being

duly reAvarded, Avas despatched to reduce other forts belonging

Telingana country.
time

This duty he accomplished in about
returned to Gulburga.
a

four months' time, and

Ahmed Shah
and

From
The
ruins

this

Warangal

large

portion

of

the

Telingana country appears to have been incorporated

Avith the

Mahomedan kingdom

of the Deccan.

There Avere
a royal

of Warangal.

frequent risings of the Hindoos, subsequently, but
Avas

Ave

do not find that W^arangal

ever

afterAvards
its

city.

At the present day
to

very fcAv remains of

former

grandeur are

be seen.

The outer

Avail is

built entirely of

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
mud.
It is very high,

H7

and encloses an area of about 2^ s(|uare The inner wall is of stone, and encloses an area of miles. about one square mile or a little less. Almost the only ruins
are four beautifully carved porches in the centre of the inner
enclosure.

They probably formed

are placed

at

the
to

four cardinal points, and
the
palace.

the entrances

Close by
It is

is

a

large hall, possibly used as a treasure house.
built in the shape of an
ark.

massively

There
this
is

is

also a
all

small temple
that remains

with some fine carvings, and
of
this

nearly

ancient

city.

The

walls

themselves

show

signs

of

having been frequently
reliefs

rebuilt because old carvings

are built in

detached pieces

into

portions, thus

showing that

after the fort

and bassome of the upper had been destroyed,
There
is

the old dedris was used to reconstruct the walls.
great deal of resemblance in

a

those of the temple at

some of the stone carvings with Ilanamkonda about 3^ miles distant.
fast

This temple, which
is

is

now

falling into almost total ruin,

one of the most perfect specimens of Chalukyan architecture

in

Southern India.

Massive

pillars of

black granite, polished

like marble, are carved into all
skill.

The

shrines are

manner of shapes with masterly protected by screens of the most delicate
it, is

stone tracery, and the whole temple, or what remains of
a perfect

gem

of

its

kind.

The following

description

is

taken

from the "Historical and Descriptive Sketch of H.H. the Nizam's Dominions" (Syed Hoossain Belgrami and C. Willmott " Hanamkonda contains some very interesting remains, 1884) was the capital of the and, according to local accounts, The surrounding country before Warangal was founded. thousand-pillared temple was constructed by the last Hindoo
:

'

'

dynasty,

and an
that

inscription

on

a

pillar

at

the

gateway
in

mentions

Saka 1084, or
Chalukyan
detached

Rudra Deva was the reigning sovereign A.D. 1162. The temple was built in
but was never finished.

the

style,

It consists of three

cells of

very considerable dimensions, with a portico

S^<

JllsroL'Y
l»\

OF THE DECCAN.
-iOO
pillars

supported

l)i.'t\vcen

240 and
pattern.

arranged
])ortic(),

in

a
at

varied and complicated

Opposite the

hut

some distance from it, is a star-sliaped structure, containing a hall and four entrances, without any recess for idols, and This forms a sort of supported on about 200 pillars. mandapam, and was connected with the main temple by a massive pillared pavilion covering a huge bull of j)olished The pavilion has fallen down, but the l)ull is black hasalt. * tolerably intact, and is a splendid specimen of a monolith. The arrangement of the ])illars and the variety of spacing
are
in

pleasing
of the

subordination

to

the

general

plan.

The
is

])illars

mandapam

are plain, while those of the temple

are richly carved, but Avithout
in pairs that they are of the
details are

being overdone, and

it

only

same design.
especially

Some

of the other
to

of

great

beauty,

the

doorways

the

recesses, the

pierced slabs

used for windows,

and the very

elegant open

work by which the bracket shafts are attached The arrangement of three temples joined to the pillars. together is capable of giving a greater variety of effect, and of light and shade than the plainer forms, and the appearance of the whole is further improved by the terrace about 8 feet high and from ten to fifteen feet wide on which the temple
stands.

There

is

a

short
in

inscription

in

Sanskrit

on one of
walls.

the pillars,

and another
stone

old

Telugu on one of the
about
live

A

])lack

polished

pillar

feet

high covered

with inscriptions in old Telugu stands near the gate to the east
of the temple,
pillar full

and a very
inscriptions
titular

fine

well

is

close by.

A

similar

of

stands in

front

of

the

temple to

Padmakshi, the

goddess of the Kakatya dynasty."
is

The country round Warangal
populated, the scale
* Since this

at

present
the

very

thinly
It

being about SO
however,

to

square mile.

was
fall

Avritten,

this beautiful bull
It is

has been greatly

injured by the

of massive stones.

cracked

in

many

places iuul

unless steps are sliortly taken will

probably

be totally destroyed.

H

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
must,

91

however,

at

one

time

have

been
It
is

not

only

thickly

|)0})ulate(l

hut also highly

cultivated.

covered with the

remains of old irrigation

works

which
ruin.
artificial

are everywhere to

he

found

in the old

Hindoo kingdoms, hut which under Mahomedan
to
fall

rule were allowed

into

i\.hout

25

miles from

Warangal
is

is

one of the largest
in

lakes in India which
""

same work: Pakhal a lake same name in latitude 17*^ 57' 80'' N. and 79" 59' 80" E. longitude. The lake or tank is some twelve miles square. It is enclosed on all sides, except the by ranges of low and densely-Avooded hills. The western west,
thus described
the
situated close to a village of the
side
is

closed

l)y

a
to

strongly

constructed

'

bund.'

Tradition

alleges the

bund

have been
a

constructed
pillar,

1,600 years
stands
is

ago

by Raja Khaldya,
bund,
contains

and

stone

Avhich

on the
said
to

an

illegible

inscription,

which

commemorate bund is about
water in
the

the
a

name
is

of

the

person

who

built

it.

The
of the
It is

mile in length.

The average depth
and
forty
feet.

lake

between

thirty

described as 'clear with a slightly bitterish taste, and considered

by the inhabitants to be extremely nnwholesome. It abounds Avith fish, some of a very large description and excellent flavour. It also contains otters and alligators.' The hills which surromid the lake abound in game of every description, including a few wild elephants said to be the progeny of a pair of tame ones that escaped after the battle of Assaye. The Paklial Lake has been made by throAving a bund across a river which has cut its way over a western outcrop of the Vindhyas, between two low headlands. Mr. King, of the Geological Survey of India, writing of the lake a few years since, said: 'It is a splendid sheet of Avater lying back in

two arms on

either side of

the bund, while

a good big hill east south-east of from these are long bays reaching up behind

low ridges of outcro])ping
far-stretching jungle.

Vindhyas.

On

every side there

is

Even below the bund

for miles there

Ul

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
the
thickest
.-md

is

densest
of

jungle,
rice

only

broken

here
is

nnd
not

there
tlie

by
its

;i

few

]):ttelies

cultivation.

There

population even
waters.

in

the

country below

the tank to

make

use of

In the old

Telinga times, when Waraiigal

was one of the great centres of the Telugu people, there nuist have been something more stirring in the way of human life
than there
is

now

in

this

desolate region of widespread jungle.
in
;

For

six or seven
is

months
unhealthy
is

the

year

the

neighbourhood of
circumstance very

the lake
little

very

owing
on
for
in

to this

cultivation

carried

the neighbourhood.

There
In the

are, however, several small channels which convey water from

the lake to

some distance

irrigational

purposes.

centre of the

bund

are

the ruins of a small

pavilion styled
visit the

the Chabutra of Sitab

Khan.
first

The

])est

time to
four

lake

for sport
year.

is

during the
of
the
the

three

or

months
can

of

the

The nature
saying
to

the

country
that

may be imagined from
a

a

native

effect

red
the

squirrel

reach
of

Badrachellum on

Godavari from
tree."

neigli])ourhood

Pakhal by leaping from tree to
This vast jungle (which
for sporting purposes) has
is

now
is

reserved by H.

II.

the

Nizam

all

grown up

since the destruction of

the

Hindoo kingdom.
to

What

now

a marshy

unwholesome

forest Avas probably at one time a large expanse of rice fields.

But
of the

return

year, 1425,

In the following to Sultan Ahmed Shah. Ahmed Shah made an expedition into the country

Ghonds or what is now known as the Central Provinces. Here he is said to come into possession of a diamond mine, and to have destroyed several temples, erecting mos(pies in their places. After this he marched to Elliehpore, where he remained for nearly a year, and then returned to Gulburga.

From
had

this

we

see that the dominions of the

Bahmanee house

at this

time extended far

to the East,

and
this

North.

At

up into the Central Provinces what are now called the Berars in the portion the kingdom was bounded by Malwa
to

SULTANS FEROZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
on the
tribes
iiortli,
.'uul

93

Guzcrnt on the north-west.
still

The
held

hill

country

on the Western Ghauts, was prohably
in
a

])y

Mahratta
the
to

state

of

independence,

hut

towards

south

the limits of the

kingdom must have extended nearly
have
It is also

Goa,

whilst on the east they

reached to j\Iasnlij)atam and the
quite clear that the Delhi Sultans

Coromandel Coast.
exercised no
extensive kingdom.

authority

or

control

over

any portion of

this

]\Iul)iirak Shah was then Sultan of Delhi, and his time was fully occupied in subduing rebellious Rajahs and petty Mahomedan princes. A number of these small States, such as Guzerat and Malwa, had arisen between the Deccan and the North of India, and further toAvards the east there

were several independent
part
of

Hindoo Chiefs who occupied
Central Provinces.
rise
It

that
Avas

India

the vicinity of

now known as the Malwa that gave

to

Ahmed

Shah's next

war.

independent

Hoshung Shah was then Sultan of Malwa, and was as in his own territory as Ahmed Shah was in the Deccan. Iloshung Shah ])egan to be alarmed at the manner
which

in

Ahmed Shah
mind
the

Avas increasing in

power, and, perhaps,

bore in

grant which had
to the Sultan

already

been

made by

Timur of J\Ialwa he made overtures named Nursinga
rival.

of the Deccan.

Accordingly,

to the to

neighbouring Hindoo Rajah of Kurleh,
with him to check his dangerous

unite

Nursinga had already come into contract with the })revious
Faithful
alliance,

Sultan of Gulburga, Feroze Shah, had been beaten, and agreed
to

pay

tribute.

to

this

compact,

Nursinga refused

the

proferred

and

in

consequence

Hoshung Shah
but on the

invaded his
third

dominions.

T^vice he
to

was

re])ulsed,

occasion

he managed

take
to

surprise.

Nursinga then applied
that
this

the Hindoo Rajah by x4hmed Shah for assistance

on the ground
account of his

invasion the

loyalty

to

treaty

had been made solely on which had been made
to the relief to

with Feroze.

Accordingly,

Ahmed Shah marched
was actually able

of Nursinga, but before he

meet Hoshung

94

nTSTOTiV OF
liis

THE DECCAN.
maiiMged
to a
])crsiia(lc
liiui

Sliali,
it

religious

advisci-s

that

was an unholy and wicked thing for
with an unbeliever

to ally himself

m

Mahomcdan I'rincc order to make war upon
Tlushung Shah, asking

another true believer.

Ahmed Shah
and wrote

yielded to the persuasions
to

of his religious friends

him
Shall
this

to

retire,

did

in

Ahmed without coming to a fratricidal war. Tloshung Shah thinking that fact retire, but

was due to weakness, ])ursue(l him with a considerable This affront was force, and commenced to harass his rear. more than Ahmed Shah could starid, so, tlinging his conscientious scruples to the winds, he told his Mollahs and Kazis that he had done enough for religion by retiring, and he must

now

])rotect

his

own honour by

fighting.

Accordingly,

he

ordered a halt and drew up his army in order of battle. He left the main army in command of his son, Alla-ud-Din,

and

his

General, and himself took

command

of a select force,

which lie placed in ambush with the view of taking the enemy Hoshung Shah, expecting to find an enemy in in the rear. was surprised to suddenly come across an army in full retreat, His own army had been carelessly full order of battle.
arranged, not expecting to meet with any opposition.
theless he charged with
his attack,

Never-

much

gallantry, but in the
his

midst of

Ahmed Shah emerged from
Hoshung Shah and
his

the confused and serried masses in
to
flight.

ambush, and taking the rear put them entirely whole army fled in the
Shah,

utmost confusion, followed by

Ahmed

who

took

all

his

baggage, two hundred elephants, and the harem, besides putting some two thousand men to the sword. Nursinga, as soon as

from his fort, and intercepting the fugitive killed a large number, and thus made the victory complete. The Hindoo Rajah then visited the Sultan in his camp, and persuaded him to pay him a
he

heard

of

this

defeat,

made

a

sally

visit at

Kurleh.

After being splendidly entertained the Sultan
the

returned towards Gulburga,

Hindoo Rajah accompanying

SULTANS FEBOZE SHAH AND AHMED SHAH.
liim a consi(lcrii1)lc

95

distance,
It

marks of great honour.

and then being dismissed with was on this return march that
ancient

Ahmed Shah
by
its

halted at the

town of Bieder.
and
to

Struck

healthy situation

and by the abundance of water, the

Sultan resolved to build a
capital.

new

city here,

make

it

his

This was accordingly done, and the
in

new

city, Avhich

was finished
old

1431,
is

was called Ahmedabad
Damayanti, and
of
a

Bieder.

The
of

Hindoo city King Nal and
antiquity

said to be the scene of the adventures of

his

wife

the

metropolis

great

was in times Hindoo kingdom.

A

modern Bieder will be given later on. Although was not completed till 1431, the Sultan appears to have transferred his seat of Government to Bieder very soon after the building was commenced, because, already in 1429,
description of the
the

new

city

we

find

him

celebrating

there
of

the

marriage of his son with

the daughter of the Sultan

Khandeish— a marriage which
political motives, so as to

seems to have originated from
a

form

bond of union between the Sultan

of

Khandeish and the
Shah.

bridegroom, AUa-ud-Din, the successor of
this

Ahmed
the

About

time the Sultan divided the Government of his dominions
his

amongst
kept at

four

sons.
Avith

AUa-ud-Din,
youngest

as

next heir, was
as
his

Bieder,

the

son

Mahummad

colleague;

Muhamed Khan received Berar Avitli Ramgeer, Mahow, and Koollum, and Daoud Khan was sent to Telingana;
Avas

Malick-ul-Tijar

appointed

Governor of Dowlatabad.

In

1429 Sultan
the

Ahmed
of

sent an expedition into the

Konkan under
at
first

leadership

Malick-ul-Tijar,

which

Avas

very

successful, several elephants

sent to Court.
terrible disaster.

and camels laden Avith jewels being The end of the expedition, however, Avas a The Deccan General took the island of Mahim,
to the Sultan of Guzerat, Avho
this insult.

which belonged

thereupon sent

an army to revenge
the Deccan

Ahmed

sent his son, AlJa-ud-

Din, Avith reinforcement, but in the engagement Avhich ensued,

armv

suttered

a

total

defeat, losing the Avliole of

96

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
clcpluuits.

their l)ag"g;igc, tents, niul

Alinicd Shah

now came
and
the
lay for

down

to

the

Ivonkan
did

to

lead

tlie

war
Tlie
a

in

[)erson,

Sultan of

Guzerat
oj)})osite

the

same.

two

armies

some time

each

otiier

and

decisive battle

imminent, but the religious
concluded, under
of
their

men

interfered,

seemed and a peace was
in possession

which

both parties were
chief
result

left

territories.

The

of

this

war

was that

Hoshung Shah, the Sultan of Malwa, took advantage of the Deccan Sultan being employed elsewhere to invade the territory
of Nursinga, the brave
left

Hindoo Rajah

of Kurleh.
ally,

This Prince,
defeated

unassisted

l)y

his

Mahomedan
at
first

was

and

killed,

and

his country passed into the possession of the

Malwa

Sultan (1433).

Ahmed Shah
Sultans.

marched
left

to revenge his

death, but before a battle could be fought, peace

was concluded
possession of
to to
last

between the

tAvo

Kurleh was
this,

in

Malwa and

the whole

province of
after
a

Berar

was made over
this

Ahmed

Shah.

Soon

Ahmed Shah marched
and
was
his

Telingana to put
public act, for he
reign of

down

rebellion,

was takeu ill and twelve years and two months.

died,

in

1434, after a

CHAPTER

IX.

SULTAN ALLAH-UD-DIN
It will be

II.

remembered that Sultan Ahmed Shah appointed Muhammed Khan, his youngest son, to be the colleague of Alla-ud-Din, his eldest son and successor. Alla-ud-Din 1434
to

appears to have regarded his father's wishes, so far as
to

^^^^-

treat

his

royal

respect.

He
to

younger brother with great and almost bestowed upon him costly presents, and
conduct
again
the

despatched
Vijayanagar,
tribute.

him

war against the
that

King
is

of

who had
is,

neglected to

send his promised
there

There

however, an old saying,
in

no
for

more room for two Kings
two swords
in

one country than there

is

one scabbard.
it

Muhammed's
inflame
to a

position

was an

anomalous one, and

is

not,

therefore, surprising that there
his imagination,

should have been persons

ready to
as

and
to

to suggest to

him
a

that,

partner

King, he ought

have an equal share in the royal honours and privileges.
lent

Muhammed

willing ear

to

these

representations,

and

being flushed with his success over the Hindoos, whose country
he laid waste, and

who were compelled

to sue for peace

by
his

payment of
rebellion.

a large sum, he resolved to raise the standard of

Alla-ud-Din had sent with

Muhammed

two of

99.

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
iioblciiicii,

j)i'iii('ipiil

Kluijcli

Jchaii,

tlic

Vizier,

and Iniad-ul
liad

Mulk Ghorce the son
more than
Sultans.
office,

of

the
tlie

okl

Scyd-ud-Din, who
tlie

for

fifty

years been
hitter

Minister of

first

Hahmanec
from

The

was an

old

man who had

retired

and was only induced

to ticcompany the

by the strong persuasions of the Sultan.
having entered into
induce these two noblemen
to

young J^rince The idea of rebellion
to

Muhammed's mind, he endeavoured
join

him,

but they, loyal to
This so
to

their rightful Sultan, not only refused, but pointed out to the

young Prince the criminality
censed

of

his

intentions.

in-

Muhammed

that he caused both of

them

be put to

death, and then, not content with rebellion, committed the additional treason of calling upon the King of Vijayanagar to
assist

him with an army.

Aided

in this

manner by

the hered-

itary foes of his country,

he succeeded in capturing the forts

of Mudknl, Raichore, Sholapore, Beejapore, and Nuldroog. Alla-ud-Din was greatly incensed at this rebellion, and especially at the murder of Imad-ul-Mulk, and he at once

advanced with a large army
to an issue.

to bring matters with his Ijrother

A

furious battle

ensued,

but after an obstinate

army was totally defeated, the principal and Muhammed, followed by a few attendThe Sultan ants only, had to take to the hills for shelter. then returned to his capital, and not long afterwards, Muhamstruggle
the
rebel

leaders were killed,

med
and

submitted

himself
as

to

his
to

elder

brother,

was

sent

Governor

Telingana,

which

was pardoned, post had

become vacant by the death of Daoud Shah. Here he lived undisturbed, and is said to have spent his life in a round of This incident is interesting as accounting in some pleasures. way for the unnatural custom which we find so prevalent throughout Mahomedan history, of kings blinding and confining their brothers and near relatives, who might be supposed to have pretensions to the throne. The splendour of an Oriental
throne possessed fatal attractions
to those

whom

the accident

SULTAN ALLAH-UD-DIN
of birth liad
])lncc(l

II.

99

near to
'l^lie

it,

but
nearer

wliom
the

('ircuiustaiiccs

liad

removed
to sliow

to

a

distance,

Prince was

phiced,

the greater the danger to be expected, and experience seemed
that the only way of preserving a kingdom from war was to remove all possible pretenders. 'Vhe incident, however, forms a notable exception to the tragedies Avhich were usually the result of such rebellions, and of which we shall tind a terrible example in the next reign. Alla-ud-Din,
civil

in

this

instance,

treated his brother

with
is

extraordinary and
so often the case,

unusual generosity, and he does not, as
In

appear to have received ingratitude in return.

1436
returned

Alla-ud-Din

despatched
This
the

an

expedition

to

the

Konkan under Dilawar Khan.
and
after

General was successful,

subduing

Rajahs

of

Amede and
also

Sungeer with a considerable amount of booty.
great accomplishments,

He

brought

with him the daughter of the Rajah of Sungeer, a maiden of

whom

the Sultan took into his zenana

under the name of
he neglected his
a Princess of

Peri-chera,

or

the

''

Angel-faced^

This

lady soon became the Sultan's favourite wife, and for her sake
first

wife,

who,

it

will

be remembered, was

Kandeish

—a

neglect which was to bear serious

consequences.

Dilawar Khan was on his return made Vizier,

lost his master's favour and retired, by a eunuch named Dustoor-ul-Mulk. This person soon excited universal disgust by his insolence, and amongst other enemies, he was foolish enough to cause the anger of the Sultan's son, Humayun, Avho already showed signs of that violent temper which was afterwards to earn for him the title of the "Cruel." This Prince, disgusted at the

but he soon afterwards
his place

being taken

refusal of Dustoor to

comply w4th some request, caused the

Minister

to

be

assassinated

by

one

of

his

own

retainers.

Upon
In

this

a Deccanee nobleman,
matters

named Meamun
resumed
war
their

Oollah, was

appointed Minister, and
the

former
out

train.

following

year

(1437)

broke

with

the

1(10

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.

Sultnn of Knndcisli, to

whom

Malleckn Jchaii, the neglected
This Prince
Caliph Omar, and
that
his

wife of Alla-u(l-L)iii,

litul

appealed for vengeance.
of
the

claimed to be a lineal
accordingly
felt
it

descendant
a

as
set

personal
for

insult
intidel

daughter

should have been

aside

an

Princess.

He

at

once invaded

Berar with a large

army, assisted by a force

sent by the Rajah of

Ghondwarah.

The Governor, Khan Jehan,
in

was compelled

to shut himself

up
the

the fortress of Pernalleh,
of Nusseer

and the Kliutba was read in
Sultan of Kandeish.

name

Khan, the

AUa-ud-Din, on receipt of
Malick-ul-Tijar
to
it

this intelligence, at

once ordered
Berar.

conduct an
taking
the

expedition

to

recover

This General,
the
late

will

be remembered,
island

suffered a disaster in
of

reign

after

Mahim.

He now

represented to the Sultan that

this defeat

was mainly caused

by the jealousy of the Deccanee and Abyssinian nobles, and he, therefore asked that on this occasion his army should be
officered

mainly by foreigners.

Under

this

term were included
Deccan.
to

the Turks, Persians,

and Arabs

settled

in the

The

Abyssinians

and the Deccanees

seem always

classed together and to have

made common

cause,

have been and between

them and the
hatred.

so-called foreigners there

This request was granted, but

in the sequel

was always the greatest only added
to the present day.

flames to the existing jealousy

which has continued between

the Deccanees and the foreigners down

Malick-ul-Tijar's expedition met with eminent success.

Not

only was the Sultan of

Kandeish
Berar was

defeated,

but his kingdom

was invaded,

his capital,

Burhanpoor, was taken, and his palace
recovered,

razed to the ground.

and the

Cleneral

returned to Bieder laden with considerable plunder.
received by Alla-ud-Din with

He was
was

every

mark

of distinction,

rewarded with presents

;

the

Sultan's daughter

upon one
finally
it

of his

principal

officers,

was bestowed Shah Koolli Sultan, and

was ordered that

in future the

Moghuls should take

S UL TAN ALL A H- UD-DIN
the
It

II.

101

place

in

the

army

of

the

Deccances

and Abyssinians.

now becomes

necessary to glance at affairs at Vijayanagar.

Deva Raya was still King of this great country, and he appears to have come to the conclusion that if he was to make a successful stand against the Mahomedan Sultans he must
xYlthough, during the last hundred years Hindoos had been sometimes successful, the final issue of every conflict had been in favour of the Mahomedans. It is,

reform his army.
the

indeed,

surprising

that

after

so

many

successful

wars,

the

boundaries of the two States should have remained unaltered.
In spite of
to gain a

their

victories,

the

Mahomedans were never
and
after

able

footing in

Hindoo
still

territory,

a lapse of

nearly

one

hundred years the
forts

country

between

the

rivers
in

Kistna and Tungabadhra

remained a debatable land,

which the
of one
to their

were continually passing from the possession

King to that of the others. It w^as probably owing numbers that the Hindoos were thus able to make so successful a stand, but this in Deva Raya's opinion was not sufficient, and he wished to be able to carry the war
of his principal officers
that with such infinitely

into the enemy's country.

summoned a council and Brahmins, and asked why it was greater resources in men and treasure
Accordingly, he
his

than

the

Mahomedans,
"

armies

should so

constantly

be

defeated.

iority of the

Some said that the Almighty has decreed a superMussulmans over the Hindoos for thirty thousand
yet to
that,

years, or

more

their Scriptures;

which was plainly foretold by therefore, the Hindoos were generally
come,

subdued by them. Others said that the superiority of the Mussulmans arose from two causes one, all their horses being strong, and able to bear more fatigue than the weak, lean animals of the Carnatic the other, owing to a great body of excellent archers being always kept up by the Bahaianee Sultans, of whom the Rajah had but few in his army."
; ;

;

(Ferishta.)

Ueva Raya was

sensible

enough

to see the justice

1((2

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.

of the latter

opinion, and accordingly resolved to employ a body of Mahoniedan mercenaries. In order to attract such persons, he had a mos(pie built in the city of Vijayauagar, and allowed them the free use of their religion. Another
large

remarkable step for
ordered
a

a Hindoo Prince to take was, that he Koran to l)e placed on a desk in front of his throne, so that when Mahomedans appeared before him, they might go through the ceremony of obeisance without sinning against By these means he succeeded before their own religion. long in getting a Mahomedan force of two thousand men. These were employed in instructing and drilling the native levies, so that he managed to raise an army of sixty thousand

Hindoos well-skilled in archery, besides eighty thousand horse, and two hundred thousand foot, armed in the usual manner We are not told that he had any with pikes and lances. artillery, although there can be no doubt that this arm was
at this
It

time regularly used by the Mahomedans.

Deva Raya to get this large army ready, but at length when all his preparations w^ere made, he commenced the war in 1443, by crossing the Tiingabadhra
took some years for

and laying siege to Raichore, whilst the rest of his forces were employed in devastating the Doab. In order to meet this invasion AUa-ud-Din summoned all his He was not, forces from Telingana, Dowlatabad, and Berar.
however, able to collect more than
fifty

thousand horse, sixty

and a large train of artillery. Compared Avith the Hindoo army this was but a small force, but it had the advantage of consisting for the most part of veterans, who had The Sultan himself marched served through many campaigns. against Deva Raya, who was encamped in front of Mudkul,
thousand
foot,

and despatched Malik-ul-Tijar to raise the siege of Raichore. In this the latter was successful, and defeated the son of Deva Raya, who was wounded in the action and compelled to retire. In the meantime the Sultan was busy with the main Hindoo

SULTAN ALLAH- UD-DIN IL
army.

103

were fought.

During the space of two moutlis three general actions In the first of these tlic Hindoos were successful,

in the two last. In the third, the Deva Kaya was killed, which created a panic, and caused the Hindoos to take refuge within the walls of Mudkul. In the heat of the pursuit two of Alla-ud-Din's chief officers pushed on too far, and were taken prisoners.

but they were defeated

eldest son of

Upon

this

Alla-ud-Din sent
lives of his

a

message
they

to

Deva Raya

that he

regarded the

two

officers as each,
if

equal to one hundred

thousand Hindoos, and that
exact a full

were injured, he would

Deva Kaya was not unaware of how a former Sultan, Mahmood Shah, had made and carried out a similar promise, and so he thought it advisable A treaty was accordingly drawn up, in to come to terms. which the Hindoo King promised to respect the Sultan's territories
in return.
in future,

payment

to

restore

the

prisoners,
;

and

to

pay his tribute

regularly.

Peace was then made

the Sultan bestowed presents

upon the Rajah, and then returned to his own capital. During the remainder of the Sultan's reign, this peace was ^' strictly observed by Deva Raya. On his return from this campaign the Sultan gave himself up to idleness, and the pleasures of the harem he only appeared
;

war than that of Ferishta, for at the time it broke out, Abdar Razzak was staying at the Vijayanagar Court. He ascribes the initiative as having been taken by the Gulburga Sultan, who took advantage of the reported assassination of the Hindoo King to demand a heavy contribution. This traveller speaks of this departure of the Hindoo general or Datiaick with a large army, and his return with a number of captives. He does not speak of any reverses
have other evidence of
this

We

or of the death of the

King's son.

It

seems probable that the success
Ferishta

of this campaign was principally on the side of the Hindoos.
admits that they were successful at
a treaty being so easily
first,

and the fact of so advantageous granted would seem to show that the Hindoos

had further successes. Ferishta's description of the reorganization of the Hindoo army is probably intended to excuse or account for the Mahomedan
reverses.

104

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
puhlic once in four or live months, and spent
" in drinking
tlie

Ill

whole of
lips

his time

ruby coloured wines, pressing the

of silver-Lodied damsels, or listening to the melody of sweet-

voiced musicians."

Whilst the Sultan had thus withdrawn himself from business,
his Minister,

Meamun
along
force
of

Oolla had formed
sea-coast,

a

plan for reducing

the fortresses
Tijar

the

and

despatched Malik-ul-

with

a

seven
besides

thousand Deccanee and three
about seven
Jagnch,

thousand

Arab

horse,

thousand
a
jiort

of his

own

troops.

Malik-ul-Tijar

made

on

the

and from here sent forth most of whom he managed to reduce to obedience. Amongst these was a Rajah named Sirkeh, of whom he wished to make a convert to
Malabar Coast, his headquarters,
against
the

expeditions

various

Rajahs,

Islam.
said

This

religion

the

Rajah promised
shoukl

to

embrace, but
rival,

that

first

of

all

Malik

conquer his

the

Rajah of Sungeer, because otherwise when the Mahomedans should leave the country, Sungeer would cover him with
ridicule for having

become a renegade
it,

to

his religion.

The

road to Sungeer was said to lead to thick forests, and as MaJik

was unacquainted with

the

wily

Sirkeh promised to lead

him

there in person.

Accordingly, trusting in these promises,
his

Malik-ul-Tijar set out on
at the veay outset

perilous expedition, but

was deserted by most of the Deccanee

and

Abyssinian

troops,

who
own

refused
his

to

enter

the

woods.

Nothing daunted, Malik continued
seven thousand of
his

march, followed by some

troops.

For two days the road

was a fairly good one, but on the third Sirkeh led them through so horrible a jungle that, as Ferishta quaintly says, "a male tiger through dread of the terrors of it, would have

become a female; fuller of windings than the curly locks of the fair, and narrower than the path of love." Malik himself w^as ill of dysentery, and could not look after his army. When night came Sirkeh managed to make his escape, and

S UL TAN ALLAH- UD-DIN
left

II.

106

the

Mahomcdans, exhausted by
word
into
to

their

day's exertions, to

camp

as best they coukl in this desert region.

In the mean-

time, Sirkeh sent

the Rajah of Simgeer that he had
trap,

decoyed the enemy

the

and that the

rest of the

work was left for him. "At midnight," says Ferishta, "the Rajah with a great force, with which was also the treacherous Sirkeh, rushed from dens, passes, and caverns, on the Mussulmans unsuspicious of surprise, and buried in the sleep of
weariness aiul fatigue.

Nearly seven thousand of the faithful
sheep

were put

to death like

with knives

and daggers;

for

the wind being high, the clashing of them from one another, prevented

the trees, which separated

them from hearing the
fell

groans of their fellow-sufferers.

Malik-ul-Tijar

with
:

five

hundred noble Syeds of Medina, Kerballa, and Nujeef as also some few Deccanee and A])yssinian nobles with about two When the Rajah thought thousand soldiers of those countries. his bloody revenge had been glutted sufficiently, he retired
with
his

people from the forest."
survivors of this disaster, amounting to about three
retire

The few

thousand in number, managed to
refused to

by the way they had

come, and rejoined the Deccanees and Abyssinians, who had

accompany

Malick-ul-Tijar.

A

quarrel

at

once

broke out between the Moguls

(the foreigners)

canees, the former reproaching the latter

and the Decthat the disaster had
ex])ressed their

been caused by their defection.
determination of taking refuge
in

The Moguls

the fort of Jagneh and of

reporting the whole circumstances to the Court.

The Deccanees when they heard with their complaints, and at once
the Sultan, representing that
the rash expedition
in

this

resolved

to

be

first

sent a distorted report to

Malick-ul-Tijar had undertaken
of

spite

the

advice

of his Generals;

and that the Mogul survivors without waiting for the appointment of a new General had retired to the fort of Jagneh, where they had raised the standard of rebellion, intending to

1U(J

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
tlie

join

Koiikaii Rajahs.

This false re])ort was sent to two Dec-

cance noblemen —Sheer-iil-Mulk

and Nizam-ul-Mulk
the Sultan

(jihour

who, taking an opportunity
told

when

had been drinking,

him

the

story

embellished

by

their

own

exaggerations.

The

Sidtan, carried

away by

passion, at once ordered the

two

nobles to march against the rebels and put them to the sword.

The two noblemen were not slow to execute this commission, and marched with a large army to besiege the remnant of the Mogul force which had shut itself up in the fort of Jagneh.
After a siege
of

had not been able
Sultan, and the

two months, during which the Deccanees to gain any advantage, a false message

was sent to the fort that a pardon had arrived from the Deccanee Chiefs swore a solemn oath that the

Moguls might come out unmolested. Deceived by these asthe whole garrison, numbering some 2,500, with women and children, came and camped outside the fort. On the third day the Deccanee Generals invited three hundred of the chief Mogul officers to an entertainment, during which At the same time a body of they were massacred to a man.
surances

four thousand Deccanees

fell

upon the Mogul camjj and put
at the breast, to the sword,

every male, even to the children

and dishonoured the women.
infamous
in

the

eyes

of

the

What made this outrage more Mahomedan world was that

amongst the Moguls were a large number of Seyds or descendants of the Prophet. In this way the whole of the ill-fated
garrison were

destroyed,

with the

exception

of

about three
at

hundred Moguls under Kassim

Beg,

who had encamped
if

some
at

little

distance.

This small body, on hearing the alarm,
possible, of reaching

once

made

a march, with the object,

the capital.
of

In this they were successful, for, although a force
horse

one thousand

was

sent

in

pursuit,

they

received

timely aid from a friendly Jaghirdar, named Hassan Khan. The pursuing force was beaten off and its leader killed, and then
after a long

and weary march

this small

remnant of the Mogul

S UL TA N
Mriiiy

AL LAU- VD-DIN

II.

I(j7

readied Bicder.
liis

Wlieu the Sultan
all

lieai-d

the tnitli of the

The oiTiccr who had suppressed the reports sent by the Moguls was at once beheaded. The two Deccauee nobles were recalled and disgraced, and others who liad taken part in the plot w^ere put to death. As a retribution of Providence, Ferishta says that Nizam-ul-Mulk and Sheer-ul-Mulk were seized with leprosy the same year, and their
matter
rage passed

bounds.

sons walked
outcasts

the the

markets for shameful ])urposes among the
City.

of

Kassim

Beg,

who had

successfully

brought home his small force, was promoted the Governorship
of Dowlatabad,

oured.

In

and 1453 a

all

who had helped him were duly honeruption

dangerous

broke. out on

the

Sultan's foot
fatal.

In the meantime

which eventually four years afterwards proved he was confined to his palace, and
abroad
that

rumours

went

he

was
break

dead.

These

rumours
and
to

induced his grandson (by his daughter) Secunder Khan, wdio

was Governor of Bilconclah,
call in

to

into

rebellion,

the Sultan of

Malwa
of large

to help at

him.

Sultan

Mahomed,

who was
the

then

King
a

Malwa,

once complied and invaded

Deccan

with

army,

where
in

he

was joined by
at the

Secunder Khan.
at

Sultan

Alla-ud-Din,

spite of his illness,

once marched to

meet Mahomed Shah, and
a a

same
also

time despatched Khajeh Gawan,
hear of hereafter,
to

name we
rebellion

shall frequently

put

down

whicli
as

had

broken out in the Telingana country.

As soon
alive,

Mahomed

found that Sultan Alla-ud-Din
left

was

still

he retired and
his escape into

Secunder Khan

to himself,

who then made

Telingana,

where he was soon reduced to submission by Khajeh Gawan. The Sultan, with great generosity, forgave Secunder Khan, and even restored him to his Government. In the fohowing year Sultan Alla-ud-Din died from mortiSultan Alla-ud-Din was a

fication after a reign of nearly twenty-four years.

man

of wit

and

learnino-,

and

is

said

to

have been

possessed of considerable eloquence.

lie

108

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
sometimes
preaeJied
in
tlic

mostiue

on

Fridays
liis

and

liolydays,

and read out

tlie

Kliulba in

own
so

name, styling himself
to the servants of

"tlie just, merciful, patient,

and

liberal

God."

On

the

last

occasion

when he

ap})carcd, there

was a horse-dealer present whose account had
officers of the Court.

been

left

unpaid by the
the

This

man was

a zealous

Mahomedan, and
slaughter
the

like

many
the

others had been greatly

moved

l)y

of

the

On
said:

— "Thou

hearing

Sultan

read
the the

Moguls by the Deccanees. Khutba, he rose and
the merciful, the patient,

art neither

just,

nor the liberal King,
such vaunting
Sultan,
the

but

cruel

and the
yet

false,

who
to

hast

massacred the Prophet's descendants;
titles

darest

assume

in the pulpit of the true believers."

The

we

are told, was struck with remorse, and
to

commanded

merchant

be paid on the spot; saying that those would

not escape the wrath of
tation.

God who had
to

thus injured his repu-

He
till

then retired

his
to

palace,

which he never

left

again

he was brought out

be buried.

CHAPTER

X.

HUMAYUN THE CRUEL.
iimayun's reputation for cruelty was
so

well-known and feared that no

sooner was the late Sultan dead, than
1457

two of the

cliief

nmras

— Syef

^

to

Khan and jMuUoo Khan
contrived a plot to
seat his

UGO.

younger brother, Hassan Khan, on
the throne.

Whilst, however, they were so engaged,

Humayun
the palace
servants,

hearing the

news of
them.

his

father's

death

came
the

to

and

surprised

Being aided

by
poor

palace

who had
overpow^er

not been informed of the plot, he was soon able to
the
conspirators.

The

young Prince

Avas

dragged from the throne he had only occupied a few minutes,
blinded, and
tlie

conspirators w^ere then summarily dealt with.

A

more terrible fate unfortunate young Hassan, Humayun was wise in since he selected Khajeh
still

was,

however,

reserved

for

the

as will be told further on.
his

choice

of

a

Chief Minister,
already

Gawan,

who had
said
to

done

such
of

good

service.

Malick Shah,

be a

descendent

Khan, was a])pointed Governor of Telingann, now one of the most important provinces, but Secunder Khan,
Chengiz

110

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
left,

one of the Sultan's companions, wlicn Heir A])|)arcnt was
unprovided
of
for
for.

Secunder

Ahmed
many
;

Shah,
years

was the son of a daughter who liad married Jelhd Khan, and had been the Governor of the Bilkcmdah
klian
liimself

District

he considered
with

as

entitled

to

a

])rovincc,

being, equally

Humayun,

a

grandson of

Ahmed

Shah.

Disgusted at
rbeellion
at

being superseded,

Secunder Khan
to join him.

broke into
had

and induced his father

Humayun

once to march against this new rebel, and in consideration
pardon, and the province of

of his former friendship offered

Dowlatabad.
as a grandson,

Secunder Khan, however, claimed equal rights

and demanded the Telingana. This shows that althougli Warangal had fallen, there were still a number of unsid)dued Hindoo princes on the East Coast. Telingana was therefore a favourite province because there was booty to be gained. The Sultan's overtures being refused, a battle followed, in which Secunder Khan, who seems to have been a man of He actually great personal courage, was defeated and slain.
charged the Sultan, but

Humayun's elephant
the
battle.
flight.

lifted the rebel

from
to

his horse,

threw him on the ground, and trampled liim

death.
is

This
killed,

ended
the

As

is

usual

when
still

the

leader

army took
but
finally

Jellal

Khan

held

out a

little

longer,
life

submitted, purchasing a few
all

more years of
years' higli

by resigning

the hoarded wealth of forty

employment. But although in this instance, the was easily quelled, its example w\as followed elsewhere. Taking advantage of the Sultan's absence, a conspiracy was formed to release the young prince Hassan Khan and to set liim on the throne. Yusnf Turk, a slave of the late Sultan, lent himself to this plot, and effected the release of the blinded young prince, together with his friend and This lie managed by a strattutor, the Saint Hubeeb Oolla. agem, and having obtained possession of the harem, where
rebellion

the political

prisoners

were confined, he

set

at

liberty, not

HUMAYUN THE
only
tlie

CRUEL.

Ill

above two, bnt also two
seven

otlier

sons of the late King,

besides about
figures given

thousand

other ra])tives.
it

These

ai-e

the

by Eerishta, but

seems incredible that so large

number could have been confined together. The captives, once released, armed themselves with sticks and stones, and managed to beat off the Kotwal, who, on hearing of the outbreak, hurried up to suppress it. During the night, the escaped Some of them, and prisoners dispersed to different places.
a

amongst those Jellal Khan, an old man of eighty, and Yiali Khan, a son of the late Sultan, fell into the hands of the Hassan Khan and Hubeeb Kotwal, and were at once killed. OoUa shaved their beards and managed to get out of the city

Hassan Khan made himself known, and was soon joined by a large number of The rebels then the disaffected, amongst them Yusuf Turk. possessed themselves of the town of Pur and the adjacent country. It was to suppress this revolt that Humaynn returned
disguised
as

beggars.

Once

outside

burning with

rage.

He

first

of
all

all

])unished

the garrison,

consisting of two thousand men,

of

whom

he put to death

by the most cruel tortures that could be devised. The Kotwal was confined in an iron cage, and every day some member of his body was cut off, which he was made to eat, until at The first force despatched last he was released by death. against the rebels was defeated, which only increased the
Thereupon, he reinforced his army, but kept the wives and children of the officers in confinement, swearing
Sultan's rage.

army was defeated, or Khau. This threat had the made common cause with Hassan desired effect, and the rebels were defeated and compelled to
that he

would

kill

them

all,

if

the

Hassan Khan and his friends then fled towards Vijayanagar, hoping to find a refuge with the Hindoos, but passing Bijapur, then only a mud fort, on the way they were invited inside by the Governor, Seraj Khan, with a promise of profly.

tection.

This

promise,

however,

Avas

treacherously

broken.

112

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
fugitives

The

were
the

all

seized

at

night,
at

and sent
lie

witli

their

followers in cliains to the

Sultan

Bieder.

Tlie vengeance

wreaked
to
])alace;

by

Sultan

was

terrible,

oidered

stakes

be driven into the ground
elephants,

in the

large square opposite the

and wild beasts
oil

were

then

])rought

in,

and large cauldrons of boiling
parts.

were placed

in different

Upon

this the Sultan seated himself in the

balcony so

as to preside

over

the

execution.

The

fii'st

victim

was

his

unfortunate brother, Hassan Khan,
tiger,

who was thrown

l)efore a

wlio soon tore the wretched Prince to pieces. Yusuf Turk and his seven friends were then beheaded, and their wives and daughters publicly violated. Hubeeli Oolla had fortunately already been killed in Bijapur. The whole of the Prince's followers, even down to the cooks and scullions, numbering in all some seven thousand men, women, and children, were then put to deatli by the most fearful tortures —by sword, axe, boiling oil and water, and every means that
cruelty could think of.

In order to avoid the possibility
all

of

another revolt, almost
family

were put to and the Sultan spent the rest of his reign in practising the most abominable cruelties on the innocent as well as the
of the

other

members

of

the

royal

death,

guilty.
street,

"

He would
seizing

frequently stop nuptial processions in the
the
bride,

and

would, after deflowering her,

send her back to the husband's house.
to death for trivial faults

He

put his

women
were

and when any of
great
if

his nobility

obliged to attend him,

so

was
state

their

dread, that they

took leave of their families as
It

preparing for death."
of

was impossible that such a
this

things could long

continue, and in 1460, after a short reign of three years and
six

months,
"

monster of cruelty died, " some say by natural

disease,
ants.

but others that he was assassinated by his own attend-

CHAPTER

Xr.

SULTANS NTZAAr SHAH AND MUHAMMKD SHAH.

izam Shall was only a boy when
he ascended the throne, and
the

Regency was conducted by
his
niotlier,

1460
to

a

woman
who
things

of

great

ability,
all

1462.

consulted in

the Vizier Khajeli

Gawan and Khajeh Jehan, two men of
great experience
It

and

integrity.

did not take long to restore

peace and confidence, but the

neighbouring States, thinking
to profit

by the youth of the

hoped to find in a state of confusion, l^he first combination was made by the Rajahs of Orissa, Oriya, and the Zemindars of Telingana, who invaded the country by Rajahmundry, and plundered it as far as Kailas. This army advanced within ten miles of Bieder, but was there met by the young Sultan,
with a force of forty thousand men. Tn a preliminary skirmish

new

Sultan, resolved to attack his kingdom, which tliey

Hi.

HISTORY OF TU K D FCC AN.
lliiidoos

tliu

suffered

so

niucli

loss

tliat

tliu

wliolc

ariiiy

retreated, followed
loss,
'i'lic

by the

Malioiiiedaiis,

who
to

inflected great
I'efiige

allied

Jiajalis

were compelled

take
after

in a

small fort, and there
a

sue for peace,

wiiicli,

payment

of

large

sum,

Avas

gi-antcd.

The

General commanding

the

army was Khajeh Jehan. The next invasion was from the side of Malwa, aided by This also was met by the Rajahs of Oriya and Telingana. A battle ensued, in which the Sultan Nizam Shah in person. two wings of Nizam Shah's army were completely victorious; the centre, however, where the Sultan himself was, was broken and compelled to retire to Bieder, so that the victory remained
victorious

with the Sultan of Malwa,

who now

then advanced to the capital,
city,

where he succeeded in taking the
to the citadel.

but had to lay siege

Matters were

in

a critical state,

and many
inevitable,

thought that the fall of the house of

Bahmanee was

when suddenly help appeared

in

the shape of the Sultan of

Guzerat with twenty thousand horse.

He was

joined by Khajeh
the

Gawan with

the remnants of

Nizam Shah's army, and

two

then advanced to raise the siege of Bieder, the citadel of which

had been gallantly defended by the Queen mother and the young Sultan. The Malwa army was then compelled to relinquish the siege, and to retire towards Gondwara, followed by the allies. In the Hindoo country, the Malwa Sultan was purposely misled by a guide into a desert where he lost a large portion of his army, and had finally to retire to his country
with great
loss.

In the following year he again invaded the

Deccan, but was met near Dowlatabad by the combined forces
of Guzerat

and the Deccan, and
it

compelled to

retire.

This

was resolved to celebrate the young Sultan's marriage. This was done amid great pomp and rejoicing, which, however, was suddenly turned into mourning, for, on the night of the comsummation, the young King, who had
invasion over,

begun

life

with so

much

promise, suddenly died.

SUiyrANS NIZAM

SHAH AND MUHAMMED SHAH.

115

his brother,

Muliamined Sliah was only nine years old, when he succeeded and the affairs of Giovcriiiuent continued to be
conducted by the two Ministers, and the Queen mother
as in the last reign.

1462
to

U82.

servant he had hitherto

Khajeh Jehan, however, was no longer the proved himself. He seems

faithful
to

have

entertained personal hopes of ambition, aiul appointed his
friends and creatures to the chief posts at Court.

own Khajeh Gawan
in the adminis

was sent
tration.

to the frontier,

at the growing power of the Minister, resolved to remove him, and this was done by assassinating him in open durbar in the presence of Khajeh Gawan was now the principal Minister the Sultan. of the State, and under his able guidance, matters, went on

and had but little voice The Queen mother, becoming alarmed

pros])erously.

When
1

he was fourteen years old the Sultan was married to

a Princess of his
AP 1

own

family,

handed

over to

and thereupon the Queen mother liim the reins of Government and
Sultan

retired into privacy.

Muhammed is
On

said to have

been a

man

of great learning

and

taste,

Khajeh Gawan having
the whole, he seems

paid great attention to his
to
in

education.

have been actuated by noble impulses,

but he was quick

temper and hasty, and
It is

it

was owing
tlie

to this defect in his

character that he was destined to be
his house.

cause of the ruin of

necessary at this stage to go back somewhat
a

in order to trace the history of

young man, who was now This man was Yusuf Add Khan twenty-four years of age. Sewai, who was attached to the household of Khajeh Gawan (as I shall still continue to call him, though he had now received the additional titles of Malick-ul-Tijar and Khajeh The story of Yusuf Adil Khan's birth and adventures Jehan). He was born in 1443, and his father is a most romantic one. Avas no less a person than Murad, the Sultan of Turkey. Murad died in 1450, and was succeeded by his eldest son

nr,

msTORY of the
Viisuf

deccan.
seven years
lias
|)ut
ot"
ii<i;e,

Maliouicd.

wns

tlien

only

l)ut

in

conforniity witli the l)ar])ar()vis
in

custom that
to

so long pi-evailcd

Maliomedan

courts,

it

was resolved

the

young Prince

to death, in order to prevent the possibility arising of his being
a

Hainiant to the throne.

'V]\g

executionci's were sent to the

liareni

to

and told the Sultana that they had eonie with oiders bow-string the boy and show his body to the 8ultan. The
gi'ief,

mother, distracted with

begged for
in

a

day's delay, which,

on being granted, she employed
son.

devising a plan to save her

She sent for a slave-dealer and purchased from him a

young Circassian boy who bore a strong resemblance to the She then gave her son to the merchant with a large Prince. sum of money and begged him to take the boy away and This the merchant promised to do, and place him in safety. started on his journey with the young Prince on the same Next morning the executioners came again. One was night.
unfortunate Circassian, and then body which was buried without further examIn the meantime the merchant, whose name was ination. Khajeh Imad-ud-Din, had carried off the real Prince to Persia, all first of to Ardebeel, where he was placed under the
admitted,
strangled the
carried out the

who

venerable Sheikh Suffee (founder of the Suffee royal family),

and then

to the

town

of Saweh,

where the boy was educated
Whilst here the Sultana

with the merchant's

own

children.

fj'om time to time sent messages to her son

and received reports

She also sent his old nurse together with a large sum of money for the Prince's support. Yusuf remained at Saweh till he was sixteen years old, and from this residence
of
liis

progress.

derived his

name

of

" Sewai."

He
safely

then

resolved

to

go and

try his fortune in
in the Persian

Hindustan and having embarked
arrived
at

at Jeroon,

Gulf,

Dal)ul

a port on the

Malabar Coast
Avent to

to the south of

Goa

in

1458.

Prom Dabul he
into the royal

Ahmedabad

Bieder, where he was taken into the service

of

Khajeh Imad-ud-Din. who introduced him

SULTANH NIZAM HHAH AND MURAMMED SHAH.
household as one of
his
'I'lii-kish

117

skives.
tlie

Yiisiit"

soon gained
tlie liouse,

favour at Court, and was phiced under

master of

who, dying soon after, lie was appointed his successor in office. Yusuf then attached himself to the fortunes of Nizam-ul-Mulk Turk, Avho was the nobleman wlio had killed Kliajeh Jehan
in

open Durbar, by

command

of the Sultan

Muhammed,

soon

after he

came

attachment to
his

Nizam-ul-Mulk formed a great the young Prince in disguise, and called him
to the throne.

brother.

This

attachment

w^as

returned

and,

as

will

be seen further on, Yusuf,
title

who was now honoured
It

with the

of iVdil

Khan, was Nizam-ul-Mulk's
his

faithful friend

and

follower

until

death.

was

this

adventurous

young

Prince Yusuf
of

who was

destined before long to be the founder

another dynasty, which was to supplant the liouse of Bahmanee, and rule with splendour in the Deccan for nearly two hundred years, until at last conquered by the all-powerful Aurungzebe. This new dynasty was the Adil Shahi house of
Bijapur.

No
Mulk

sooner had Sultan

Muhammed Shah

arrived at maturity,

than he resolved upon conquest.
to Berar as Governor,

In 1467 he sent Nizam-ul-

with instructions to take the fort

had come into the possession of the Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk was accompanied by his young of Malwa. friend and companion, Yusuf Adil Khan, who was in constant attendance on his person. Siege was laid to Kurleh, and,
of Kurleh, which
after defeating several armies sent to relieve
it,

Nizam-ul-Mulk

managed by

torious soldiery

itself. The vicseem to have indulged in abuse of the conquered Hindoos, which so enraged two Rajputs, that they resolved to murder the ]\Iahomedan General. Asking to be

a

bold assault to take the fort

admitted unarmed to salute so brave a man, they were allowed
into his presence,

when snatching
it

a

sword from

a bystander,
fell

one of them plunged

into

his

body.

Nizam-ul-Mulk
were cut

mortally wounded, and the two

Rajputs

to j)ieces.

lis

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Adil
Kliaii

Yiisut"

and another Turkisii
of
tlie
tlie

otlicur,

named

Direa

Khan, then took
strong garrison

command
fort

army, and after leaving a
to Bieder, carrying with

in

returned

them the body of the General, and a large amount of plunder. The Sultan was so pleased at the bravery of these two young otHcers, that he })romoted them to the rank of one tliousand with the fortress of Kurleh and its dependencies in jaghir.
After this war, which was really in retaliation for the unpro-

voked invasion by the Sultan of Malwa during the ])revious
reign, peace

was made between the two Sultans, and a treaty drawn, based upon the former one, executed in the time of Sultan Ahmed. Under this treaty, Berar was confirmed to
the Deccan, and

Kurleh,

as
to

before,

given

to

Malwa.

Both

princes
future,

bound themselves
and
to
live

respect each other's countries in

and harmony together. The once carried out, Kurleh was restored to Malwa, and we are told that no disagreements ever after happened between the two royal families. Yusuf Adil Khan now attached himself to the person of Khajeh Gawan who held him in so high an estimation that he styled him his adopted son. In 1469, Khajeh Gawan was
in

peace

provision of the treaty were

at

despatched with a large army to put down the pirates of the

Western Coast. From time immemorial the pirates of the Western Coast of India had been the terror of the peaceful

from the Persian Gulf. Pliny speaks of them " as having committed depredations on the Roman trade to East India." At the time in question the Rajahs of Songeer and Khaluch are said to have maintained a fleet of three hundred
traders
vessels. Khajeh Gawan's expedition lasted for three seasons, and was eminently successful. He captured most of the ])irates strongholds, and also the capital of tlie Rajah of Songeer, when

he took ample vengeance for the treacherous slaughter of Malickul-Tijar,

on a former occasion.

He

also captured the impor-

tant port of Goa, which, at that time, belonged to Vijayanagar.

HULTANS NIZAM SHAH AND MUHAMMED SHAH.
After
tliis,

ii:>

he returned laden

with
witli

treasure to Bieder, wlicre

he was received by the Sultan
rejoicings.

great honour and public

The Sultan himself and
witli

the

the successful General
in his house,

a

visit,

on which occasion the
as

Queen mother honoured s])ent a whole week Queen mother called him
and
the following incident

brother.

As soon

the

Sidtan

left,

occurred, as told by Ferislita.

Khajeh
began

Gawan
to

retired to his

chamber, disrobed himself, and

weep with a loud voice. After this, he came out in the garb of a dervish, and calling together all the learned men, divines, and Seyds, distributed amongst them the whole of his jewels, money, and
property,

reserving

only

his

elepliants,

horses,

and

library.

He

then thanked

God

that

tions of his evil

passions,

he had escaped from the temptaand was freed from danger. On
tliis

being asked for the reason of
that Avhen the Sultan

strange conduct, he replied

visit, and the him brother, his evil passions began Queen mother had called and the struggle of vice and virtue to prevail over his reason great in his mind, that he became distressed, even in was so

had lionoured him with a

;

the presence of his

Majesty,

who

kindly

eiKpiired the cause
t(j

of his concern, on which excuse,

he

was obliged

feign illness in

when
to

the Sultan advised
his

him

to take repose,

and then

returned

palace.

He

had,

therefore,

he

continued,

parted with his Avealth, the cause of his temptations, that his
library he intended for the use of students,

and

his elephants

and horses he regarded
(Mily.

as the Sultan's lent to

him

for a season

From

this

time forward this great and g(jod
Fridays

man always
went about

wore plain dress, lived simply, and on
the city disguised, distributing
telling

money amongst

the poor, and

them

tliat

it

was sent by the Sultan.

In 1471

the Rajali of Oristela, in which

kingdom were

in-

cluded Rajahmundry and the present Godavery. Ganjam, and

Vizagapatam

Districts,

applied

to

the

Sultan

for assistance

against a slave

who had usurped

the throne.

The Sultan was

i-iu

iiisToh'Y
to

OF

'rill':

i>i<:ccan.

only loo ghid

have

an

oppoilunity

of

interfering'

in

the

affairs of this part

of India,

and

at

once desputclied an ai-my

under Malick Hassan
is

to the assistance of the Rajali,

whose name
pi'oclaimed

given as
I

I

limber.

The

rebel was defeated witliout difficulty,

and

limber

Avas reinstated.
tlie

The Rajah

thereu])on

himself to be a vassal of
to iieadcjuarters,

Sultan, and Malick Hassan i-eturned

with a large amount of plunder.

In recognition

of his success, he

was apponited Governor of Telingana. Yusuf Adil Khan, who had now been actually adopted ])y Khajeh Gawan, was appointed to Uowlatabad. lie took with him
several forts,

his old

comrade Deria Khan, and in a short time recovered which had become alienated since the Malwa invasion. One of these was the fort of Weragur, which was the ancestral residence of a Mahratta Rajah, named Jey Singh. He
appears to have been formerly tril)utary to the Bahmanee Sultans,
l)ut

assumed independence
and
treasure, if

after

the

Mahva
depart

invasion.

After

sustaining a siege of six months, Jey Singh offered to give
his fort

up

allowed

to

with

his family

fortunate

This was granted, and Yusuf Adil Khan was enough to acquire an immense booty and a new A similar success was gained country without any bloodshed. over the Chief of Ranjee, and Yusuf then returned to Bieder,

unmolested.

laden with spoil Avhich he laid before the Sultan.

Muhammed

Shah was highly pleased, and bestowed further honours upon Yusuf, at the same time remarking that whoever had Khajeh

Gawan

as a father could not fail to render important services.

Yusuf Avas then by command of the Sultan entertained for a week by his adopted father, at the end of which the Sultan himself honoured the Khajeh with a visit, during which the Minister bestoAved upon his master a vast number of valuable gifts, amongst Avhich Avere " fifty dishes of gold Avith covers set Avitli jcAvels, each large enough to hold a roasted laml); one hundred slaves of Circassia, Georgia, and Abyssinia, most
of Avliom Avere accomplished singers

and musicians

;

one hun-

SULTANS NIZAM SHAH AND MUHAMMHD
(lii'd

SJIAJL

121

Iioi'ses

of Aral)ia, Syria,

and

Turkey,

Jiiid

one liimdrcd
in

pieces of superb China, not to

be seen exce])t

the palaces

of great

princes."

After

this,

we

are

told

"tlie

favour of

Khajeh Gawan and Adil Khan became so great that they were courted and envied by all the nobility; and the Deccanees, like wounded vipers tormenting themselves, bound up the waist band of enmity against them." In 1472 the King of
Vijayanagar made
an attempt
to

recover

possession of Goa,

and sent

tlie

Ivajahs of

army
at

for that purpose.
its

once marched to
is

Belgaum and Bankipur witli a large jNIuhammed Shah Avitli Khajeh Gawan relief, and sat down before Belgaum,
a
fort of great strength,

which

described as

having been
over

encircled

by a

deep moat

which

there

was but one
is

passage covered by

redoubts.

The Rajah, who
and

called

by

Ferishta, Pirkna, at first

made

overtures of peace to the Sultan, the siege was prosecuted

which, however, were refused,
w4th vigour.
his

the

The Rajah had placed the greatest confidence in moat, but this the Sultan had filled in, and then breached walls in three places by mines, which, Ave are told, had
previously

never been

used

for

siege

purposes.

An

assault

was then made, in which, though he lost two thousand men, the Sultan was ultimately successful. Only the citadel remained, in which the Rajah shut himself up. Seeing, however, that defeat was inevitable, he went in disguise to the Sultan's camp, and being there admitted to an audience, he tendered his
submission.

This

w\is

accepted,

and the Sultan then took
its

possession of Belgaum, which, with
to

dependencies, he gave

Khajeh Gawan in jaghir. It was during this expedition that the Queen mother, who had accompanied the Sultan died. Her body was sent with great pomp to Bieder to be buried. A great deal of the prosperity of this reign was due to the able counsels of this lady, and there can be no doubt, that had she still been by the Sultan's side, he Avould not have committed a few years afterwards the great injustice which

12-2

HISTORY OF THE DMCCAN.
to

Kingdom. On his return to Bicder, the Sultan halted for some time at Bijapur, the climate and position of which pleased him Here he intended to stoj) foi' the wet weather, but greatly. was prevented, by the scarcity which prevailed over the whole This famine lasted for two years. of this part of the Deccan. No grain is said to have been sown during the whole of that time througliout the Bahmanee dominions, and thousands uj)on
was
lead
to
tlie

ruin

of

the

I^alunaiiee

thousands of people died of hunger.
this

Exaggerated

repcjrts of

famine and of the manner in which the Sultan's armies had been reduced, spread to the Telingana and Orissa country, and the Rajahs of Oriya and Orissa resolved to make a last
attempt to shake
off the

Mahomedan
and

yoke.

Accordingly, they

advanced with

a

large army,

compelled the

Mahomedan

np in the fort, and laid the rest of Telingana between the Godavery and Kistna waste. Muhammed Shah at once marched in person to oppose The Oriya Rajah this invasion, and the Jlindoos retired.
Governor of Rajahmundry
to shnt himself

shut himself up in the

fort

of

Kundapally, and
his

the Orissa

Rajah retreated across the

Godavery into

own dominions.

Here he was followed by the Sultan, who plundered all his towns, and drove the Rajah into the extreme limits of his kingdom. The Sultan had at hrst resolved to send for Kliajeh Gawan and establish him in this province, but the Rajah
hearing of his intentions

began to

sue for forgiveness.

This

was granted on payment of a large indemnity, of which twentyfive celebrated elephants formed a not unimportant portion,
since the

Rajah

is

said to
laid

have valued them next to his
to

life.

The Sultan
took,

then

siege

Kundapally,

which he also

and with his own hands destroyed a temple and killed some Brahmin devotees. This act was looked upon by everybody as one of sacrilege, and popular opinion traced the misfortunes that subsecpiently occurred to the divine anger at so wanton
an outrage.

SULTANS NIZAM SHAJl AND MUHAMMED SHAH.

12;j

Muliamnied Shall remained nearly three years at Rajahmundry, and during this time settled the whole of the Telingana country. He appointed Nizam-ul-Mulk as Governor of

Rajahmundry and Kundapally, with his son as deputy, and Azim Khan to Warangal and its dependencies, and then set
out on an expedition
to

subdue

Narsinga,

a

Governor of a
to
is

portion of the Vijayanagar

Kingdom. There seems
but
it

be some
generally

doubt as

to the site of Narsinga's capital, to
is

supposed

have been
situated

somewhere near the
below
the

pi-esent

Kurnool.
the rivers

Kurnool
Kistna

just

junction
to

of

and

Tungabadhra,

and

according

Cunningham
the Choliya

("Ancient Geography of India") stands on the
(Chu-li-ye) mentioned
in the seventh century.

site of

by the Chinese
This
spot
is

pilgrim,

Hwen

Tseng,
of by

also held by the same

authority to be the old town of

Zora— the Sora spoken

Ptolemy

—and
"still

he

considers
city

a

branch of the ancient family
Shorapore,
;

of Sora founded the

of

about one hundred
the Rajah of which,

miles to the west-north-west of Kurnool

he says,

holds his patrimonial appanage, surrounded by

his faithful tribe (Bedars),
thirty centuries."

claiming

a

descent of more than
in

The

last

Rajah of Shorapore died

1858,

after a vain attempt

at

mutiny,

and the
in

tragic story of his

end

is

told

by Meadows Taylor

the

" Story of Aly life."
alive,

There are

still

some

direct

descendants

but the Raj

is

now incorporated with the Nizam's Dominions, and the surviving members subsist upon small pensions. This Narsimlia or Narsinga was a man of considerable importance. Ferishta says
that he held the

whole of the country between the Carnatic

and Telingana, extending on the sea coast to Masulipatam. There seems to be some doubt, whether he was an independent
Prince or a Governor of
a

Vijayanagar province.
a

The

latter

seems

to

be probable,

for

few years hence we
first

shall find

him

ruling at A ijayanagar, as the
llari Ilara.

of a

new dynasty which

had replaced that of

1-Ji

HISTORY OF
MiiliMiiiiiicd
yiiali

Till'!

DNCCAN.
in

Tlioiigli

was successful
not
read
of

his

invasion of

Nursinga's

country,

we

do
tlie

any

engagcnient

Hindoo General, from which it seems probable that Nursinga was absent, possibly in Vijayanagar, following out liis own schemes of ambition. The Mahomedan army met with but little opposition, and is said to have taken Masulipatam, and then to have marched against the
between
tlie

Sultan and

sacred town

of

Conjeveram.
given

This

is

the

first

time that a

Mahomedan

force had reached this centre of Jlindooism,
of

and

fabulous accounts are
the temple, the
walls

the

riches

and splendour of

and roofs of which are described as having been plated Avith gold and ornamented with precious Conjeveram was taken by assault, after the Sultan stones. had killed a gigantic Hindoo in personal encounter. An

immense plunder fell Gold and jewels were
left

into the

hands of the conquering army.

in such profusion that the

Mahomedans
stayed

everything of less value behind.

Muhammed Shah
own

here for one week, and then marched back to his

country.

In this expedition the Sultan had been accompanied by Khajeh

Gawan,

to

was due.
so great,

whose counsel and assistance much of his success The Khajeh's power and influence, however, was that it had the effect of causing the long smoulderto

ing jealousy of the Deccanee nobles to break into open flame.

Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nireef-ul-Mulk, and others formed a plot
ruin him,

and the way it was carried out was as follows Khajeh Gawan's right hand was Yusuf Adil Khan, and as
all

long as these two were together, they were able to carry out
their plans

of reform.

These plans appear
view
of

to

have been
Sultan's

conceived
interest,

solely

with

the

promoting

the

and of abolishing many of the abuses that had crept One reform was into the Government of the provinces. especially distasteful, as it consisted in a check upon the numbers of men maintained by the military Governors. Every
Governor was required
to

keep up a definite number of men,

SULTANS NIZAM SHAH ANT) MUHAMMEB SHAH.
for eacli of

12r>

whom

an allowance was fixed

;

thus a noble of five

hundred
jaghirs

i-eceived a lakh

and
a

a

quarter of pagodas, and one of
lakhs;
if

one thousand, two and
fell

half

the

revenue of the

short of this amount, the deficiency

was made up

from the
found

royal treasury;

hut

on

the other hand, strict rules

regai'ding "

men

in

buckram" were

deficient,

the full j)ay

passed, and for every man and allowance were deducted.

Touched in their pockets, the nobles all joined in hating Khajeh Gawan, and an opportunity occurring of Yusuf Adil

Khan being
slave

sent against

Masulipatam,

tliey

resolved to carry

out their scheme.

They managed

to intoxicate an Abyssinian

who had charge
tliat it

of the Khajeh's seals,

and showing him

a paper, said
in

was necessary

to get the Minister's seal

addition to certain others.

The

slave without looking into

the paper atfixed his

away.

master's seal, and then took the paper This paper was blank, and above the seal a letter was

subsecpiently written

purporting to

be addressed by Khajeh

of the drunkenness and cruelty Deccan may be conquered with little trouble, as at Rajahmundry and at that frontier there is no General of any note. You may invade that quarter without
:

Gawan to the made to say

Rajali of Orissa.
" I

In this letter the Khajeh was

am weary

of

Muhammed

Shah.

opposition,

and
I

as

devoted to me,

will join

most of the nobles and the troops are you with a powerful army. When

we have

in conjunction reduced the Sultan,

we

will divide his
to tlie

territories equally

between us."

This

letter

was given
fell

Sultan by Nireef-ul-Mulk and Mastah

Hubshee when Nizamonce
into the trap,
at

ul-Mulk was present.
his rage being
artfully

The Sultan
increased

at

by Nizam-ul-Mulk, and

once sent

for

the

supposed
to

traitor.

Some

of

the Khajeh's
liiiii

friends hearing
to

what had happened, strongly advised
horse.

not

obey the order, but
their offers,

take flight, promising to help

him

with ten thousand
all

Gawan, however, refused and simply remarked: "This beard has grown
Khajeh

126

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
ill

wliitc

tlic

niispicious
it

service

of

tlie

father,

and

it

will

be

lioiiouiablc should

be dyed with

my

blood by the fortunes
decrees of fate, and to

of the son

;

there

is

no evading the
its

di-aw the neck

from
"

sentence,

is

impossible."

He

then at
relates

once went

to the Sultan's

presence,

and Ferishta thus
and
liis

what followed:
anyone
is

Muharamed Shah

sternly exclaimed:

"When
proved,

disloyal to his

sovereign,
?

crime

is

Tlie Khajeh replied what should be his punishment " " The abandoned wretch who practises treacliery against his lord, should meet with nothing but the sword." The Sultan then showed him the letter, upon seeing which he, after repeating the verse of the Koran (' O God, this is a great
!

forgery

')

said

:

"

The

seal

is

mine,

but

not

the

letter,

of

which

I

have no knowledge."
"
:

following verses

By

the

He concluded by God whose command

repeating the
the just have

obeyed with their blood,

false as the story of

Yusuf (Joseph)

and the wolf, is what my enemies have forged of me." As the Sultan was intoxicated with wine, and had resigned his soul to anger, and the decline of the house of Bahmanee was
near, he attended not to the

examination of

facts,

but rising

from the assembly, ordered Joliir, an Abyssinian, to put the Khajeh Gawan addi'essed Minister to death upon the spot. " The death of an old man like me is Sultan and said the of little moment to myself, but to you it will prove the ruin The Sultan attended of an Empire, and of your own glory." The not to his words, but abruptly retired into his harem.
:

slave then

drawing his

sabre,

advanced towards the Khajeh,

no

who kneeling down, and facing the Kibleh, said: "There is God but God, and Mahomed is the prophet of God."

When
God

the sabre reached blessing
of

his

neck,

he

cried:

"Praise be to
his soul

for the

martyrdom," and resigned
of his death,

to the divine

mercy.

At the time

Khajeh Gawan

was seventy-eight years old," This cruel murder of an old and faithful servant sent a

SULTANS NIZAM SHAH AND MUHAMMED SHAH.
tlifill
(»f

127

indignation

tlirouglioiit

tlic

whole

of

the

Sultan's

Dominions.

Two

ot"

the ])iincipal

nobles,

Imad-ul-Miilk and

Khodawiind KIkui, the (lovernois of tlie two provinces of Berar, at once removed with their troops to a distance, and refused to come to the Sultan's presence, until Yusuf Adil Khan should he sent for. This was done, and Adil Khan at once came, overwhelmed with grief at the death of his benefactor and adopted father. Overtures were now made to the
disgusted

noblemen,

but

although

all

their

demands were
and pitched from

granted, they refused to join the
their

Sultan's cam]),

own

at a distance, ])aying

their respects each day

afar off surrounded by their

ul-Mulk and Khodawund
to their

Government

in

own guards. Before long ImadKhan retired, without taking leave, Berar, and Yusuf Adil Khan having

Belgaum and Bijapur, marched army against Sivarajah, the King of Vijayanagar, who had broken into revolt. The Sultan, thus deserted by his principal Generals, was obliged to submit, and retired to
been confirmed
with his
in the jaghirs of

Firozeabad, " seemingly

spending
the

liis

hours

in pleasure,

but

inwardly a prey to grief and sorrow, whicli wasted his strength
daily."

From Firozeabad
succumbed
fell

Sultan

returned to his capital,

Bieder, and continuing to indulge in wine and debauchery, he
at last

to their

effects.

After a more than usual

indulgence, he

into

fits,

during which he frequently cried
tearing

out that Khajeh

Gawan was
1st

him

into pieces,

till

at

length he died on the

Suffer,

887

H.,

after a reign of

twenty years, and in the
verses

twenty-ninth year of his age.
is

The

date of his death, says Ferishta,
:

comprised

in the following

"The King
by

of

Kings,

Sultan

Muhammed, when suddenly
Deccan
'

he plunged into the ocean of death, as Deccan became waste
his departure,
'

the

ruin

of

was the date of

his

death."

CHAPTER

XII.

THE END OF THE HOUSE OF BAHMANEE.

BIEDER.
itli

the death of Sultan
tlie

Muhammay be said Mahmood Shah

fcyj

med, the liistoiy of
separate
to cease.

house of Bahmanee as a
son

f^

and

iHde])eiident dynasty

It is true that his

was placed on the throne,
Sultans; but these princes

as

a

boy of eight years of age;

reigned for thirty-seven years, and was succeeded by three other

were nothing more than puppets,
to the capital of Bieder,

and
its

their

dominions were confined

and

immediate vicinity. Taking advantage of the youth of the young Sultan, the powerful nobles of the different provinces

THE END OF THE HOUSE OF BAHMANEE.
asserted each his

129

own independence.
l)y

Tlie
series

tirst

few years of and

the

new

reign were signalized

a

of struggles

intrigues.
a

The

capital itself

was for many days the scene of
Turks and Moguls on the other.

bloody straggle between the Deccanees and the Abyssinians
to take

on the one hand, and the
Yiisuf Adil Shah was the
fusion.

first

advantage of this conthere

Supported by his old comrade and faithful follower,

Deria Khan, he retired to Bijapur and
read
in

had the Kutba

his

own name.

Malick

Ahmed,

the Governor of

capital of

soon followed his example, and founded the Ahmednagar, and the dynasty of the Nizam Shahee Sultans. In Berar Imad-nl-Mulk proclaimed his indej)endence, and read the Kutba in his capital Burhanpore, and finally Kootb-ul-Mulk, the Governor of Golconda, who for some years had been practically independent, in 1510 proclaimed liiniself Sultan of Golconda and the Telingana country, and was the

Dowlatabad,

first

of a dynasty called after his

own name.

In Bieder

itself

the Sultan

was a mere

to(jl

in

the

hands of his Minister, a

man named Cassim Bereed, who had been a Turkish slave, but who by intrigues had gradually risen to power. In 1490 an attempt was made by the Sultan to shake off the yoke of
this too

powerful Minister, in

which attempt he was helped

by one Delawar Khan.

At

first,

Cassim Bereed was defeated,
In
a

and had

to

fly

towards

Golconda.
killed,

second
royal

encounter,

however, Dilawar
defeated, Cassim

Khan was
Bereed

and the
the

army being

returned

to Bieder in triumph.

A

seeming reconciliation ensued between
Sultan,

Minister and the

and the former "seated securely on the niusmid of administration left nothing but a nominal royalty to Mahmood Shah. The historians of the Bereed dynasty reckon the establishment of it from this period." At the close of the fifteenth century, we find, therefore, five Mahomedan kingdoms in the Deccan, which had divided amongst themselves the territories of the Bahmanee Sultans.

\r^^>

HISTORY OF
far the

TIIH hFAJCAN.
tliesc

By
in
its

most importjmt of
It

was the
south.

J^ija])ui'

kingdom
the

of Yiisuf Adil Sliah.
tlic
iioi'th,

extended from Sholapore and (lulbni-ga
in

down

and its boundary the River Kistna. of Raichore and Mukdul were Mahomedan, but the country between the two rivers Kistna and Tuiigabadhra was still a debatable land. We have, therefore,
neighboui- w^as the
of Vijayanagar,
arrived at the
close

to Goa kingdom The forts

the

On

East

of

the

tirst

period

of the

Mahomedan
to

occupation of

the

Deccan,

and

we

shall

be better able

trace the further sequence of events

by following the fortunes
to

of the Bijapur kings, noting
in

from time
But,

time the occurrences
taking leave of the
will only

the neighbouring States.
in

before

Bahmanee Sultans — for
incidentally

future, their
to

names

occur

this

would seem

be the place for a description

of their capital,

Ahmedabad

Bieder.

We
its

f[uote

again from
:

the historical and descriptive account of

Hyderabad
prosperity

The
been
rose,

city of

Bieder in the days of
extent.

must have
to

of

vast

A

modern

writer,

referring
as
if

the

rapidity

of

its

erection,

says: — "Soon,

by

magic,

some miles
cities

to the north of

Gulburga,
world.

one of the most

splendid
of

of India or of

the

The great mosque

Ahmedabad Bieder was for centuries unequalled for simple gnmdeur and solemnity, and the more delicate beauties of the
Ivory Mosque, inlaid with gems and mother-o'-pearl, was long

one of the favourite themes with which travellers delighted
illustrate the

to

wealth and prodigality of the realms of

tlie

Far

East."
of the

Unfortunately, few authentic
city

details as to the extent

come down to us, Athanasius Nitikin, a Russian Armenian, who in 1470 visited Bieder as a merchant,
have
" gives in his diary

an

interesting

description of the country

and was

its

capital.

There were

villages at every coss.
tilled
is

laid out in fields,

and the ground well

The land The roads
described

were well guarded, and travelling secure.
as a noble city with great

Bieder

salubrity of climate,

and the king,

THE END OF THE HOUSE OF BAHMANEE.
Malimood Shah,*
of 300,000
as a little

131

man 20

years old, with an
is

anny

but there were

men well ccjiiippcd. many elephants, to
in

Artillery

not mentioned,

the trunks of which scythes

were attached armour."

action,

and

they

were

clad

in

bright steel

When Aurangzebe
as

invested the place in 1656 Bieder
in

was described

4,500 yards

circumference, having three
in the stone.

deep ditches 25 yards wide, and 15 yards deep, cut

Monsieur Thevenot,
" It
is

wlio
;

visited
is

Bieder in

1667, says:

a

great

town

it

encompassed
at

with Brick- Walls
distances

which

have

battlements,

and
There

certain

Towers

they are mounted with great Cannon, some whereof have the

mouth

three Foot wide.

is

commonly
Garrison

in this place a

Garrison of Three thousand Men, half

Horse and half Foot,
is

with Seven hundred Gunners

;

the

kept in good

order, because of the importance of the place against Deccan,

and that they are always afraid of a
lodges in a Castle without the

surprise.
it

The Governor
Government,

Town;

is

a rich

and he who commanded in it when I was there was Brotherin-law to King Changeant (Shah Jehan) Auran-Zeb's Father
but having since desired the Government of Brampour (which
is

worth more,) he had

it,

because in the last War, that Governor

had made an Army of the King of Viziapour raise the siege from before Bieder. Some time after, I met the new Governor upon the road to Bieder, who was a Persian of a good he was carried, aspect, and pretty well striken in years before whom marched several Men on foot, carrying blew Banners charged Avith flames of Gold, and after them came The Governor's Palanquin was followed seven Elephants. with several others full of Women, and covered with red
;

* This statement is entirely

opposed
did

to Ferishta's chronology.

Accord-

ing to the latter,

Mahmood Shah

not ascend the throne until 1482,

and was then only eight years of age. This is no doubt a mistake for Muhiimmed Shnh. who, in 1-iTO, had nlrendy been reigning for eight years, aiul wns th(>n 17 years of age.

U2
Seargc, and there

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
were
of

two
all

little

('hiklrcn

in

one that was

open.

The Baniboons
Plates
of
Silver

these
;

Pahnujiiins, were covered
after

with

chamfered
;

them came
all,

many

Chariots full of

Women

two of which were drawn by white
hist of

Oxen, almost

six

Foot high; and

come

the

Wag-

ons with the Baggage, and several Camels guarded by Troo})ers."

The majority
their capital are

of the pahices

gardens, baths, &c.,

and mnsjids, public buildings, with which the Bahmanee kings adorned
in

now

ruins, but there is sufficient

remaining

to o;ive an admirable idea of the vast extent

and magniiicence
all

of the city.

Perhaps the most remarkable of
built

the l)uildings
the

was the College or Madrissah, Minister of jMahmood Shah,
After the capture of

by

Mahmud Gawan,

Bieder

by Aurangzebe,

this splendid

I'ange of buildings Avas appropriated to the

double purpose of

powder magazine, and barrack for a body of cavalry, when, by accident, the powder exploding destroyed the greater part The explosion of the edifice, causing dreadful havoc around. Sufficient of the work remains, 1695. happened in the year however, even at the present day, to afford some notion of The outline of the square, and its magnificence and beauty. some of the apartments, are yet entire, and one of the minarets is still standing. It is more than one hundred feet in height,
a

ornamented with
white
of green

tablets,

on which sentences of the Koran,

in

letters, three feet in length, standing forth on a ground

and

gold,

still

exhibit to the spectator a good sample

of Avhat this superb edifice

was.

The College
at

is

one of the

very

many

beautiful remains of the grandeur of the
flourished

Bahmanee

and Bereed dynasties, which
render a
travellers.
visit to that

Bieder; and they

city

an

object

of

lively interest to all

Sir

Richard

Temple,

who

visited

Bieder

in

1861, says:

"The

bastions of the

fortress

had a

rich colouring

subdued
hills

bv age,

beino; built of the red laterite of

which the

are

TUE END OF THE HOUSE OF BAHMANEE.
there foriued.
(|iiite

133

The

style of the mos(|ue

was grand and

severe,

different

from the polished and graceful manner of the
times.

Mogul
in

architects in later

the place

was the College.
covered
of

The chief object of beauty The exterior of the building
coloured glazing in

had once been
floral

with
there

exquisitely

devices,

which

was

still
is

much remaining

to

delight the spectator.
its

This building

perhaps the

finest of

kind surviving in India."
Bieder contains eight gateways four of which, however, are

closed.

The Fateh

gate

bears

a

Persian inscription

to

the

effect that it was constructed by the Subedar of Bieder in 1082 Hijri (A. D. 1G71). The Shah Ganj gate was constructed The Thalghat gate was built in the in the year previous.

same year

as the Fateh.
effigies

The Sharzah or Lion

gate,

which

is

decorated with

of lions cut in the stone buttresses of

1094 Hijri (A. 1). 1682). which are very strong, arc still well preserved, the battlemented walls of the city and the citadel having a most striking appearance, as they are approached. On the bastions, of which there are a large number
the gateway, was erected in

The

fortifications of

the

place,

many

pieces of ordnance,

made

chiefly of bluish-coloured metal

name engraved upon them,
to

and highly polished, are found; some of them have the maker's together with the charge of powder
be used.
fort

The ruined buildings in the The Rang j\Iahal, so constructed of trap.
its

have

all

been

called

fronts adorned w^ith coloured
to

tiles,

contains

which are said
temple.

have formed portions of
also

from having some apartments an old Hindoo
of
a

The
well
is

citadel

contains

the

ruins

mint,

a

Turkish bath, an arsenal and several powder magazines.
is

There

also a

the citadel
is

150 feet deep. Another building of note in the mnsjid close to one of the old palaces, which
to,

probably the one alluded

as having been long unequalled
It

for grandeur aiul solemnity.

has evidently been a building

of considerable beauty, but

it

is

now much damaged,

the roof

l;{l

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
fallen
ill

lias

some
and

places,

and the building
north-east
of

lias

suffered con-

siderably by decay and neglect.

Between

five

six

miles

the city are the
to
is

the western gate

tombs of the Bahmanee kings who died at Bieder. Close is the tomb of Amir Bareed Shah, wliich
It
is

|)robal)ly the best.

of an

imposing height, and has
of the

a

richly

ornamented

interior.

The tombs

Bahmanee

kings,

of

which there are ten altogether, are
of
to those at

platforms, and consist

all built on large ol)long huge square buildings surmounted

by domes similar
is

Golconda.

The
this

largest of

them

that of
to
is

Ahmed

Shah,

who removed
and build

the capital from Gul-

burga

Bieder in

1482,

mausoleum, upon

which

inscribed in Persian the following couplet:
''

Should

my

heart ache,

my remedy
I

is

this.

A
The tomb
and

cup of wine and then

sup of bliss."

of the Minister

Mahmood Gawan (Khajeh Gawan)
became a martyr."

contains a Pei'sian inscription signifying "the unjust execution,"
that "without fault he
is

Bieder

celebrated for the manufacture of a kind of metalis

ware which

styled Bidri-work.

an alloy of copper, lead,
of most elegant designs,
gold.

The metal is composed of tin, and zinc. It is worked into articles and inlaid with silver and occasionally
consist
chiefly

The

articles

manufactured
There
is

of

vases,

hookahs, basins, &c.

unfortunately not

much demand

now

for these elegant manufactures,
is

small quantity

turned

out.

Many specimens
large

and proportionately but a of it have

been sent

to

England, and a

number

of

articles

were

made

in 1875 for presentation to the Prince of Wales.

End

of part

I.

^r()J)KKN

TdMI! AT SKCCNDKK Al'.A I).

PART
HlSTOliY OF BIJAPUR

11.
IT.S

AND OF THE DECCAN DOWN TO SUBJUGATION BY AURUNGZEBE (A. D. 1500—1680).

CHAPTER

XIII.

YUSUF ADIL SHAH OF BIJAPUK.

HE period of two hundred years
wliicli

this portion of the history

Deccan comprises was one of great restlessness, and is full
of
tlie

of

important events.
in

We

have

shown
empire, there arose
five

the

last

chapter, that

out of the ruins of the

Bahmanee

Almost the was taken up by internecine wars amongst these Mahomedan Kings. During the first portion of the sixteenth century the Hindoo Kingdom of Vijayanagar profited by the weakness of the various jMahomedan States, and rapidly The original Hari Hara dynasty had come to an rose in power.
whole of
this period

Mahomedan kingdoms.

end towards the
at its zenith

close of the fifteenth century. It

was probably
visit in

about the time of Abdur Razzak's

1444.
to his

Allusion has already

been made to

this

traveller

and

r.iH

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
accounts of the

gloNA'iiifi;

splendour of

tlic

Vijiivaiiii<4'nr

Court,

.

Under

the successors of J)eva Raya, the

King

wlio entertained

Abdur Razzak, and who

successfully

fought against Sultan

Alla-ud-I)in of Gulburgah, the

Hindoo power began to decline. Under Malikarjuna (1451—1465) and Yirupaksha (1405—
1

479) several reverses were sustained, and the Russian traveller

Athanasius Nikitin,
that
tlie

who was

in

the

Deccan

in

1474,

says

King

of Bieder attacked

and took Vijayanagar,

killing

some 20,000 Hindoos. The Sultan of Bieder at was Mahomed Shah the King, who, by the murder Gawan, brought about the ruin of the kingdom.
account of this Prince
is

this

time

of Khajeli
Ferishta's

a very full one, but, strange to say,

mention of any capture of Vijayanagar. We read of two wars waged by Mahomed Shah against outlying
he makes no
provinces of Vijayanagar such as

Belgaum (1472) and Kurnool

and Conjeveram
account
is

later

on (1474
It is,

— 75),
last

but nothing

is

said of

a siege of the capital.
a

therefore, probable that Nikitin's
to

mistake,

and the defeat alluded

was of the
Hari Hara

Vijayanagar army only.

The

King

of

the

dynasty was Virupaksha, and he was succeeded or supplanted

about 1480 by Narasimha or Narsinga, the founder of a new
dynasty.

This

Narasimha
sent
of
all

is

the

same

man

against

whom

Sultan

Mahomed Shah
and
in

an army.
East Coast.

He was

the Governor

of Kurnool,

the

This expedition has

Narasimha is said by some to have been a slave of the last King Virupaksha, and by others to have been a Telugu Chieftain, and it is possible that he was a descendant of the old Choliyan family, which was
Chapter XI.

been described

Deccan in the seventh century. At all events about 1780 Narasimha was the rk facto sovereign of Vijayanagar, and in a very short time he had established his rule over the whole of Southern India, for
portion
of the
the Portuguese called the country
as

ruling in the Kurnool

south of the Kistna as far

Cape Comorin the Narsinga country.

How

long Narasimha

YUSUF ADIL SHAH OF BIJAPUR.
reigned

Vii)

seems

stated that he
in

1487,

l)ut

By some autliorities it is to be doubtful. was succeeded hy his son of the same name Dr. Burnell is of opinion tliat Virupaksha
It
is,

reigned until 1490.

however, certain that a Narasimha

reigned until 1500, when he was succeeded by Krishna Deva

Raya, the greatest and most powerful of all the VijayanagaiKings. About Krishna-Deva Raya there can be no doubt. Not
only does

he

live

in

tradition,

but
to

his

name
the

is

found

in

numerous inscriptions, and authentic (Hindoo) histories
regarding
his

exist

reign.

But,

strange

say,

Mahomedan

autliorities, to

regarding this

them, and his

whom we owe so much, are absolutely silent King. His name is not even mentioned by The various reign is passed over in silence.
of,

Ministers are frequently spoken

say that the Ministers possessed the actual authority the
real

and the Mahomedan writers and kept
is

Rajas

in

subjection.

This

especially
its

noticeable

towards the end of the Hindoo period just before

downfall.

Mr, Sewell, however,
inscriptions

in his

"Antiquities of Southern India"
this

(Vol. 2) points out that,

however
of

may

have been, in the
are
ahs^ays

the

names

the

ruling sovereigns
until

mentioned.

It is

certain that

from 1509

1530 Krishna

Deva Raya ruled over the whole of the south of India, from
coast to
coast.

He

does

not seem to have meddled
unless
first

much

Mahomedan Kingdoms, own Kino-dom was tliorouo;hlv
with the

attacked, but his

consolidated.

Krishna Deva

Raya's conquest extended
shall see later

on how
through

Cut tack, and we he defeated the Bijapur Sultan and
as

far

north

as

retook Raichore with an enormous army.
that
it

was

jealousy

that

the

Some writers think Mahomedan writers
A^ijayanagar

omit

all

mention of

this victorious

At

the

same time

as the

Hindoo King. Hindoo Kingdom of

w\as threatening the

Mahomedan supremacy

in the south, the

foundations of another

Plindoo powder were being laid in the

West.

During

this

period of two hundred years, the Mahrattas

liU

UtSTOltY OF

TRE DEC CAN.
into

grew

from

scattered

freebooters

a

great

nation,

and

early in the sixteenth century
settled at Cioa.

tlie first

of the

European nations
Bahnianee
unfortunate,

The
tive

division therefore of the great

Kingdom
the

into

smaller

ones was

singularly

andj weakened by their
constant
it

own
with
a

jealousies
their

struggles

neighbours,

was

not

difficult

and (juarrels, and by Hindoo and European task for Aurangzebe to
After this slight glance
first,

eventually conquer them, one by one.
at the state of affairs,

we

will

now

revert to Bijapur the

the

greatest,

and the

last

but one of the new

Mahomedan
of

Kingdoms
It

to survive.

has

been

narrated

how

after

the

murder

Khajeli

Gawan, Yusuf Adil Shah, in 14S9, declared his independance. The romantic early history of this King has also been narrated, and his subsequent reign of twenty-one years fully
justified the

promises of his youth.
stands on the
site

Bijapur,
of an old

the capital of

the

new Kingdom,

Hindoo town,
There are
still

called Bichkhanhalli,
to

and

five

other villages.

be found some inscriptions from the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and some Hindoo columns of victory, from which
the

name

of the city
at

is

derived

— Vijaya-pur, or City of Victory.
himself
to

Yusuf Adil Shah
the defences of

once

set

work

to

complete

his

new

capital,

which for many years had
King.

been the seat of
built the citadel,

a or

Governor of the Bahmanee
Ark-killah,

He

which was subsequently im-

successors, until it became "a proved and perfect treasury of artistic buildings " (Silcock in Boinhay Gaz-

beautified

by

his

etteer),

and commenced the

city walls,

which were not com
to

pleted untd fifteen

years later.
to
it.

As was

be expected, the
once attacked by
of
of

new King was not allowed
without

maintain his independence

having
Bereed,

to fight for

He was

at

Kassim
Sultan.

the

all

powerful

Minister

the

Bieder

Narasimha,

the

Regent or Ruler
but
the

Vijayanagar,

joined

Bereed in

this

enterprize,

combination was

YU8UF ADIL SHAH OF BIJAFUU.
bcntcn off witliout

U\

mucli

difficulty, hikI for

two or three years
felt

Adil Shall was
self

left in

peace.

In

1792, Adil Shah

him-

strong enough

to

attack

Vijayanagar,

and taking advanIleem
Rajah,

tage of certain dissentions,
Ferishta
calls

endeavoured

to suiprise Raichore.

the

Ruler of

Vijayanagar

and

speaks of him as the Regent or guai'dian of the young Rajah.

The woi'd Heem is clearly a corruption of the word ]Vara-s!iiin, and the fact of a "young Roy" or Rajah being spoken of, would seem to show that nominally the old dynasty had not yet been set aside, and that Narasimha conducted the Government in the name and under the authority of the titular King. Narasimha advanced to relieve Raichore, and crossed the Tungabudhra, accompanied by the young Rajah. An engagement followed, in which the Sultan's attack was at first repulsed, but on the Hindoos scattering in search of plunder, the Sultan charged them with his reserve, with such desparation that they broke and fled in all directions. The plunder that was left behind was enormous, no less than two hundred elephants, one thousand horse, and sixty lakhs of oons (equal to one million eight hundred thousand pounds). Ferishta says that in this engagement, the young Rajah was wounded, and died on the road to his capital, after v.diich "Heem Rajah" seized the Government of the country. Although there seems
ruler
to ])e

no doubt that Narasimha, the former
Kurnool,
it

or

Governor
date
of

of

Avas
will

the

de facto Ruler of

Vijayanagar from about 1480,
fix

be ])robably safest to

the

the

extinction

of

the

Hari
the

Hara or

first

Vijayanagar, dynasty, as 1492.
wdio then succeeded
of the

Whether

"Heem Rajah"
his son

was the original Narasimha, or

same name, cannot now be decided, and does not seem

to be very material.*
•''

Tho

insoriptions

eolloctod
11.)

by Mr. Robert Sewoll

('•

Lists

of Anti-

quities

of Madras. " Vol.

two

sons, the elder

show conchisively that Narasimha I. had of Wxc ssmie name, and tlie younger named Krislina

142

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
plunder obtained by
to
A(iil
Sliali

^J^lic

in

immense use
large portion
capital,

him,

in

estabHshing

liis

war was of new Kingdom. A
this

cers to

was spent in strengthening iuid beautifying his and by liberal presents he attached several able offiNor did he foi-get the old master, from his fortunes.

whom
two

he had rebelled, but sent
robes

Mahmood Bahmance
with
precious

at

Bieder

splendid

embroidered

stones,

two

horses shod with gold, and saddles and bridles set with jewels.

Indeed, for some time to come, the Adil Sliahi Kings, although

independent, continued to acknowledge the Bahmanee Sultans,

and afforded them assistance whenever called upon. Shortly afterwards, Sultan Mahmood Bahmanee paid Adil Shah a visit
at

Bijapur,

where

he

was
a

royally

entertained.

When

the

Sultan was about to leave

number

of costly presents were

sent to him, but with the exception of one elephant he refused

them

all,

on the ground that he would not be able

to

keep

them, as Kassim Bereed would be certain to seize them, and
that, therefore,

Adil Shah had better keep them in trust, until,

"like a faithful servant, he could deliver

him from

the usur-

pation of his Minister."

In 1495 Dustoor Deenar, the Governor of Gulburga, revolted
The author of the Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. XV,, Part. II., distinctly in 1487, Narasimha I. was succeeded by his son Narasimha Dr. Burnell, however (Dravidian PaleoII. who reigned until 1508. graphy), carries on Virupaksha, the last of the Hari Hara dynasty until 1490. Now, Dr. Burnell is a singularly careful and reliable authority,
Deva.
states that

and

it,

therefore, seems that

the

explanation as given in the text

is

a

correct

one, and that from

1480

until the date of the battle betwcsen

Adil Shah and
of Virupaksha,
the

"Heem Rajah"
and on

the Narasimhas were Regents on behnlf the son Vira Narasimha
II.

his death,

throne

and

founded a new dynasty.
Shah,
the

We

find

exactly the

mounted same
After

confusion in the succession of the
the death of
first

Mohamedan
dynasty

Sultans of Bieder.
until

Mahomed

continued

late in the

hiilf of the sixteenth century, but the Bereeds were the real Rulers and actually date their dynasty, from 1489, and are called by the Mahomedan historians, the Bereed Shahs of Bieder.

YUSUF ADIL SHAH OF
from the Bahnuinee
rule

BIJAPUlt.

143

and assumed the royal title. Sultan Mahmood, or rather Kassim Bereed, the real Ruler, called upon Adil Shah for assistance, which was at once given, and
the

combined forces defeated and took

the

rebel

prisoner.

Kassim Bereed wished to put Dustoor Dcenar to death, but from motives of policy Adil Shah interceded, and not only obtained his pardon, but contrived to get his Government of Gulburga restored. Two years afterwards a marriage was arranged between Adil Sbah's daughter (an infant in the cradle) and Mahmood Shah's son, Ahmed, and a secret arrange-

ment was made under which Adil
session of
this

Shah was to take posGulburga and of Dustoor Deenar's provinces. In
powerful Minister,
his
estates.

way,
off

the

Kassim Bereed, woidd be
alarmed at
this,

cut

from

Bereed,

at

once

retired

by

Adil

from Bieder and collected an army, but was defeated Shah near the town of Kinjooty (1497), and
taken

Mahmood Shah was
(Bieder).

back

in

triumph

to

his capital

In the following year the different Deccan sovereigns

came to a definite arrangement, under which they divided the Deccan between themselves. Adil Shah received the provinces
of

Dustoor Deenar, including

Gulburga; Imad-ul-Mulk, the
Shah,
of

Sultan of Berar, received Mahore, Ramgeer, and the surround-

ing country;
as his share

and

Ahmed Nizam
of

Ahmednagar, got
all

Dowlatabad, Antore, Kalneh, and
Guzerat.
Bieder, but

the country

up
to

to the

borders

Kassim Bereed was allowed
all

come back to his post at was left to him was a small
the
This, however,
it

the territory that

strip of land

round the

capital,

with, however,

country then in the possession of Kutb-

ul-Mulk.

was not much of
first

a gift, because in

order to obtain

he would
resided

of

all

have to dispossess This was a feat
a

Kutb-ul-Mulk, who
(1510) Kutb

in

Golconda.
for

which Kassim Bereed never
declared
his

effected,

few years

later

independence,

and

founder of the Kutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda.

became the The unfor-

in
tuiiatc
this

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
naliiiianec Sultan, therefore,
in

was the
his

])riiici])al

loser

by

wai-,

wliich

Adil

Shall

had

rendered him assistance.
great
vassal

This

help

was

dearly

bought,

and

Kings

enriched themselves at their over lord's expense, leaving him
the barren honour of ruling in a capital to which scarcely any
territory

was attached with a Minister who was virtually

his master.

Dustoor Deenar made one more attempt to regain
inces, and, assisted

his prov-

by three thousand horse sent to him by
son
of

Ameer Bereed,
of

the

Ivassim

succeeded to his father's post),
the

(who had now met Adil Shah on the banks
Bereed

Bhimrah.

A

tierce

engagement ensued,

which

was

won

chiefly

by the valour of the Sultan's brother, Guzzunfir
Ferishta thus describes the end of the battle
received a severe wound, kneeling

Beg, by whose charge the enemy was put to rout and Dustoor

Deenar

— "Ghuzzunfir Beg, who had
down with
the rest of the
congratulation,

killed.

of

Sultan's head in
his eyes

Amras, performed the ceremonies waved money and jewels over the offering for the victory. Adil Shah kissing and
his noble brother in

and forehead, clasped

embrace,
all

and superintended the dressing of
vain;
(iiihen

his

wounds, but

was

and the hero, according
their death

to the declarations of holy writ

comes

alnde), after

three days

theij shall 7iot delay an instant nor and nights, having drunk the Sherbet

of

martyrdom, speeded

to the

world eternal."*
left

This victory was the flood of Adil Shah's fortunes, and

him firmly
the Kistna,

established in his kingdom, which
to Goa,

now extended from

Gulburga and Sholapore

being bounded on the east by

and on the west by the mountains of the Konkan.
Beg
the
Sultan's brother, but
it it

* Ferishta calls Guzzunfir to

is

difficult

understand

how

this

could be, because Adil Shah,
to escape

Avill

be remem-

bered,
infant,

was sent away from Constantinople and only arrived in India, alone,
the
Sultan's

being killed as an

after

a

series of adventures.

Perhaps, however, he was

adopted brother, as

we

are told

by Ferishta that Adil Shah was adopted by Khajeh Gawan.

10

YUSUF ADIL SHAH OF BIJAPUB.
Til

147

1502, Adil Shah
to

which was
to the

resolved upon a very important step, change the religion of the State from the Sunnee

Shcah creed.

During

his

stay

in

Persia,

Adil

Shah

had imbibed the Sheali doctrine, and was a House of Suffeewee, which had now succeeded
ment.
This change of religion at
his
first

disciple of the
to the

Governat

excited great animosity

amongst

brother

Sultans
is

in

the

Deccan,

who

once

declared against
foiu' brothers."

him what

known

as the

"holy war of the

In introducing this change Adil Shah behaved

with singular moderation.
very bigotted, but Adil
that,

Converts or Perverts are generally
let

Shah publicly
faith

his subjects

know

whatever he might believe, he was not going to interfere

with their beliefs.

"My

for myself and your faith for

yourselves," was his tolerant

maxim, and the result was that, withdrew from his service, the majority remained loyal. At fii'st the combination of tlie other Maliomeden Sultans seemed likely to crush Adil Shah,
although a few of his
officers

who throughout seems

to

have preferred maintaining a wellsmall standing army to the large

disciplined but numerically

and disorganized hordes that were then the fashion. Adil Shah's army was rarely more than 25,000 in strength, and he therefore, had to tight a cautious game. He never gave his
enemies the chance of meeting him
carrying the war into their
in a

pitched battle, but
constantly avoided
off

own

territories,

an engagement, hovering round the
its

allied

army and cutting
they

supplies.

Retreating before them

as

advanced,

he

led the allied kings, not into his

own

territory,

but into that
favourably in-

of Imad-ul-mulk, the Sultan of Berar,
clined towards him.

who was

Negociations were then commenced, and

the allies were told that the
Shall,

war had been made against Adil
grounds,
as

not so

much on
to

religious

because
in

Ameer

Bereed wished
sion,

possess

himself of Bijapur,
rival.

which case
of concesrites,

he would become too dangerous a
Adil Shah sent orders
to

By way
Sunnee

restore

the

and

148

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
all

then
their

cause of

(|iiaiTcl

hoing removed, the
retired
left

allies

broke up

confederation

and
thus

each

to

his

own dominions.
promptly
in

Ameer Bereed was
so successful, that

alone,

and

Adil Shah

seized the opportunity to surprise his camp,

which he was
to esca])c with

Ameer Bereed

just

managed

the Sultan of

Bieder and a few followers.

The whole war

only lasted three months, and Adil Shah returned in triumph
to

Bijapur and

((uictly

continued the practice of the new faith

without further opposition.

Although the
as his

rest

of

Adil

Shah's

reign

was quiet

as far

own countrymen was

concerned,

he was brought into

contact with another power which was but the pioneer of the In 149S on the 26th August, Vasco present rulers of India.

de
a

Gama
landing

sighted

Mount

Dely, in South Kanara, and effected
of

on
the

the

island

Anjidiv.
the
is

Subsequently,
of

they

landed on
Adil Shah

mainland,

near

mouth
called

the

Kalinadi.

— or

Sabayo

— as

he

by the Portuguese

writers, sent an expedition against the foreign invaders, which,

how^ever,

was destroyed. The leader of this expedition, a Mahomedan Jew, was taken captive and brought by Vasco de Gama to Euro])e, where he was converted and received In 1503 Vasco de Gama the name of Gasper de Gama. returned, and effected a treaty with the Honavar Chief, then From this time each year saw a a subject of Vijayanagar.
fresh arrival of
the

Portuguese

ships.

Ferishta says that in

1509 they surprised and took Goa, but were afterwards driven The Portuguese writers out by an army sent by Adil Shah.
are
silent

regarding

this,

though

they

speak

of

a

victory

sail despatched against them in 1506 by Adil Shah and commanded by a Portuguese renegade named Abdullah. In the midst of this continued fighting on the Western died at Bijapur of a dropsical Coast, Yusuf Adil Shah complaint (1510), and was succeeded by his son, Ismael Adil Shah, a boy of about 14 years of age.

gained over sixty

YUSUF ADIL SHAH OF BIJAPUB.
YusLif Adil Sliali ranks high
soldier
iu

149

the Deccan, not only as a

Hassan Gangu, the founder of the Bahmanee dynasty, he was just, humane and tolerant, but enjoyed the additional advantage to be gained from being highly educated. He wrote elegantly, and was not only a good judge of verses,
but also as a statesman.

Like

but liimself a poet and improvisatore, singing his
to his

own

verses

own

music.

We

read of none of the acts of bigotry

and cruelty which disgrace the memories of so many of the Deccan Kings. Even his change of faith, so calculated to
excite fanatacism

tolerance
his

and moderation,

and bloodshed, was carried out with such as to excite no opposition among
a
art and literature, and and numbers of learned and scientific

subjects.

He was
their

patron

of

especially that of Persia,

men found
liberally

way

to

his

Court.

He

spent his

money

on buildings and public works, an example which
his successors, so that his

was followed by
exception of that

dynasty, with the

of of

the

Kutb Shahs
budding
art

of

Golconda, has

left

nobler memorials

the

than any other in the

Deccan.

Lastly, his private character

was eminently temperate
a

and virtuous.

He was

the

husband of one wife,

Hindoo,

the daughter of a

Mahratta chieftain, by

whom

he had one

son and three daughters.
only of great
beauty,

The lady
of

is

said to have been not

ability, and we shall mind when we come to the history of the next reign. The title bestowed upon her after having embraced Islam was Booboojee Khanum. The three

but of singular

have a proof of her strength

daughters were sul)sequently married to the three Sultans of

Ahmednugger, and Bieder (Bahmanee), so that family ties joined the Mahomedan kingdoms closely together. Adil Shah was seventy-five years of age when he died, and Ferishta says of him that he was "handsome in person, eloquent of speech, and eminent for his learning, liberality, and valour."
Berar,

CHAPTER

XIV.

THE NIZAM SHAHS OV AHMKDNAGAR.

HE father

of

tlio

first

Nizam
Brahmin,

Shah
wlio

was
in

a

was
one

taken prisoner
of the wars of

Ahmed

Shah Bahmanee, made a Mussulman, and educated as a royal slave under the name of Malick Hoossein. He was
a
^

lad

of

considerable ability,

and being

educated together
a considerable

with the Sultan's eldest son,

Mahomed, acquired

knowledge of Persian and Arabic.

When Mahomed

ascended

the throne (1462) Malick Hoossein was promoted to the rank of

one thousand, and placed in charge of the royal falconry, from which he derived the name of Beheree {Beher meaning a falcon). He was subsequently made Governor of the Telingana provinces, and after Khajeh Gawan's death, succeeded him in office with the title of Malick Naib. Under Sultan Maliomed he was the Prime Minister, and received the

THE NIZAM SHAHS OF AHMEDNAGAlt.
additional
title

151

of

Nizam-ul-Mulk.
lie

Whilst

the

fatiicr

was

thus employed in the capital,
to the

sent his son, Malick

Ahmed,

Konkan, where he carried on a very successful war
hill

against the

Chieftains, reducing a

number

of forts, gaining
at

a considerable eventually

amount

of

treasure

(especially

Seer),

and

reducing the whole country as far as the

coast.

In 1486, Nizam-ul-Mulk rebelled, and after having seized the
city

of

Ahmedabad
the

liicder,

was
join

eventually

assassinated,

as

related in the account

of

the reign of
to

Mahomed

Shah.

The
and
to

son,

who was on

way
as

his fath(;r, at
titles

once retired

to Kliiber,

where he assumed the
did not
as

of the deceased,

was generally known
which,

Ahmed Nizam-ul-Mulk
yet

Beheree,
the
in

although he
title

assume
for

it,

people
hills

added the
the seat
of

of

Shah.

Khiber was situated
w^liich,

the

not far from the town of Junar,

some

time,

was

Government
shall call

of

the

new

Sultan.

Ahmed Nizam

Shah, as
title

we

him,

although he actually claimed the

a few years subsequently, was an able and gallant soldier,
his

and some of
of robbers,

sudden raids resemble those of that prince
Mahratta Sivajee.

Kassim Bereed was now the moving power at Bieder, and he sent an army under Nadir-ul-Human to reduce this new rebel. After some fighting, this army was completely defeated, and its General slain, whereupon a larger force under eighteen of the principal noblemen was sent to reduce Ahmed to subjection. Ahmed Shah, however, by a clever stratagem, managed to elude this
the

army, and getting into

its

rear

with a picked force of three

thousand cavalry,
(Bieder).

made a sudden attack upon the capital Here he was admitted by the guards, and for a
in possession of the
city.

day remained

He

appears to have
only
the
off

behaved

with

considerable

moderation,

releasing

members

of his father's

family, but at the
of

same carrying
with
all

the wives and families

the

noblemen who had been sent
he
treated

against him,

whom

as

hostages

honour.

152

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
by
this

Stuiig

daring escapade,

the

l^ieder

Sultan

removed
iiis

the (jlencral in

command

of

his

army, and appointed in

place Jehangir Khan, the

Governor of Telingana,

who had

a

considerable reputation for bravery and ability.
vastly

Ahmed

Shah,

outnumbered, now

retired into the hills of the

Konkan,

whither he was followed by Jehangir Khan,
of a

who

for a space

month blockaded him.
thinking

On

the rains setting in, Jehangir

Khan,
his

himself

safe,

relaxed

a

good

deal

of

his

discipline, with the result that

one night

Ahmed Shah

surprised

camp and

finding the

army

in a state of intoxication, put

the whole, including the General, to the sword.

On

the site

was won, Ahmed Shah laid out a garden and built a magnificent palace, which he called Bagh Nizam. This was in 1489, and from this date, acting under the advice of Adil Shah, of Bijapur, whose policy it was to
where
this victory

weaken the power of Bieder as much as possible, he commenced reading the Khitha in his own name, and assumed This assertion of the White Umbrella as a sign of royalty. his nobles, whereu])on independence, liowever, offended some of the Sultan replied that he had assumed the umbrella, not as a sign of royalty, but in order to shelter himself from the
sun. that

The nobles then withdrew their objection on condition "As he he would allow his subjects to do the same.
to this, in his country the

could not well refuse," says Ferishta, " permission was given

and from that time
beggar carry
it

King and

the

over their heads; but to distinguish the Sultan

from
it,

his subjects, the royal

umbrella has a piece of red upon
all

while

the
all

others

are

white.

This

custom

spread

throughout
In

Deccan, contrary to that in the
resolved

Moghul Empire,

where no one but the sovereign dare use an umbrella." *

upon the reduction of Dowlatabad, which for some time had been in possession of
1493
* Scott translating Ferishta
i>s

Ahmed Shah

in

171)4

adds a note to this

offoct

:

"This

the case at present, except in the English dominions,"

THE NIZAM SHAHS OF AHMEDNAGAR.
two brothers,
married.
to

153

one of whom, Malick Wojali,
child

his sister,

was
l)oth

On

a

being born, the other brother Malick
w^ould

Asliruff, afraid tliat he

be removed, assassinated

brotlier

and nephew,
of

in
lier

consequence of whicli the wife souglit
brother

the

protection

Ahmed

Shah.

Tlie

Sultan

thereupon advanced to besiege Dowlatabad,
besieged by Adil Shah.
to

but on his way

gave assistance to Cassim Bereed at Bieder,

who was then
continually find

The

policy of the

Deccan Kings was

maintain the balance of power, and so

we

them taking first one side and then {\\q other, so as to prevent After any of their rivals from becoming too powei-ful. raising the siege of Bieder, Ahmed Shah advanced upon Dowlatabad, but found it too strong to be taken by assault.
Accordingly he resolved to build himself a city nearer the
fort,

and by continuing a
country

constant
to

state

of

siege,

and by
to

devastating the
capitulate.

around,

compel

the

garrison

This led to the building of a city about half

way

between Juna and Dowlatabad, situated on the banks of the River Seer. This city is said to have been completed in two
years' time,

when, according

to Eerishta,

it

"rivalled in splen-

dour Bagdad and Cairo."

Calling

it

after his
this

own name,

the

new
of

City

was called Ahmednagar.

From

time the siege

occasionally

Dowlatabad continued for more than seven years, interrupted by other small undertakings, and the fort was not finally taken until 1449 or 1500, when, upon the death

of Malick Ashruff, the keys were surrendered to

Ahmed

Shah.
of

From this time Dowlatabad continued in The remainder the Ahmednagar Kings.
reign
in

the of

possession

Ahmed

Shah's

improving the condition of the country.
son
seven
years
of
age,
to

was a comparatively peaceful one, and he employed it In 1508 he died,

leaving a

whom
not

he

made

his

nobles take an oath of allegiance.

Ahmed Shah
ability,

has

left

a

reputation

only for singular
It is related

but also for great virtue and self-control.

15i

HISTORY OF THE UECCAN.
of
liini

that

when he rode

tlirough
left,

tlic

city

"lie

never looked to the right or the

lest his eyes

upon another man's wife." Upon one occasion when a young man, he had captured the fort of Kaweel, and among the captives was a young lady of extraordinary beauty
might
fall

with

whom

he

fell

desperately

in

love.

Upon being

told,

however, that she had a husband

who was

also a prisoner, he

not only restored her to him unmolested, but dismissed them

both with
he

valuable

presents.

Towards
to

his

officers

he was
after

generous and forgiving.
failure,

Instead of

dismissing a
efforts,

man
this

stimvdated
to

him

further

giving
in

another chance

retrieve

his

character,
all

and

him way

enjoyed the strong attachment of
that the

his nobles. Ferishta says
this Sultan,

custom of duelling was introduced by

who, when young
plaints, ordered

men came

before

him
first

wdtli

mutual comhis adver-

them

to fight the quarrel out in his presence,

deciding in favour of the one

who

wounded

sary. In consequence of this encouragement, a crowd of young men attended the hall of audience each day, hoping to win fame and distinction in the Sultan's presence, until at last matters came to such a pass that every day two or three combatants w^ere killed. At length the Sultan, disgusted at

so

much

slaughter, ordered that all such combats should take
his

place, not in

presence,

but on a plain outside the

city.

Regulations for such
relations
in

duels

were
to

laid

down, bystanders and

were not allowed
prohibited.
the

interfere,

and

all

blood feuds

consequence of the death of one of the combatants was
This

strictly

favour in

Deccan,

custom of duelling found great and spread throughout the country
skilled

where
sword.

all

noblemen were especially
which
six

in the use of the

Ferishta speaks of having been an eyewitness to such

a duel in

grey-bearded
of

men were
custom
as

killed in the streets

of Bijapur.

He

speaks
that

the

an "abominable"

one,

and

trusts

under "the auspices of wise and just

THJ^
])rin('cs,
it

NIZAM SHAHS OF AHMEDNAGAli.
l)c

155

may

altogctlicr

done away
purified

witli,

so

that

this

country resembling paradise
ination."
It
is

may be

from such abom-

now

time to revert to Bijapur, where about the same
Sliali

time
a

tlie first King, Yusuf Adil minor son, whose fortunes we

had died, also leaving
for the present follow.

will

THE

CiliANI)

STAND VIJAVANAGAK

IfUINS.

CHAPTER XV.
BIJAPUR FROM 150D

— 1534.

ISMAEL ADIL

SIlAll.

11

K

exact age
Shall,
is

of

Israael
his

Adil

when

father died
l)nt

not given,

he appears to liave

old. The late King on his deathbed had appointed one of his most trusted nobles as Ismael's Guardian and Regent, and had made the other Amras swear to obey him. For some time Kamil Khan for this was the Regent's

been about 13 or 14 years

name

— governed

well

and

wisely.

He

lived

on

terms

of

friendship with the other

Mahomedan

Kings, and appears to

have gained considerable popularity amongst the nobles as well
as the people.

The Portuguese were confirmed in the possession of Goa, and a treaty was drawn up with them, Avhich was faithfully observed on both sides. As times went on, however,

BIJAPUR FROM
.111(1

1506—1534.

ISMAEL ADIL SHAH.
the

157

tlic

period approached

when

young King would
by the sweets of
tliroiie.

attain

liis

inajonty, Kainil Khan,
to entertain tlie

attracted

])ower,

began
his

ambition of usur})ing the

With

this object in

view, he from time to time distributed amongst

own relations and adherents the estates of those noblemen who died, or who were convicted of crimes. With the
examples of Narasimha, in Vijayanagar, and Cassim Eerecd,
in Bieder, before

him, he resolved upon founding a
alliance

new
his

dynasty.

Accordingly, he formed an
after

w4th

Ameer
and

Bereed, and

having

confined

the

young
citadel,

Sultan

mother,

Boobajee Khanum,
against

in the

he marched with an army

Sholapore,

which he reduced after a siege of three
to
all

months, and then returned to Bijai)ur
usurpation.

finish his

work

of

He

first

of

all

banished

persons

who were

adherents of the late King, and then raised a large force with

which he held the command of the

city.

All

preparations

being made, Kamil Khan, consulted the astrologers as to which

would be the best day
ogers gave as
their

to depose the

opinion that for the

combinations of the stars
therefore,
it

young King. The astrolnext few days the were against Kamil Khan, and that,

would be advisable to wait. Accordingly, the first of the next month was fixed for the revolution, and in the meantime Kamil Khan shut himself up in the citadel so as to escape the danger threatened by the adverse conjunction The Queen-mother, however, had been informed of the planets. of what was contemplated, and resolved to seize the opportunity of
this

temporary

seclusion
to

to

strike

the

first

blow.

Accordingly, she applied

Yusuf Turk, the foster-father of her son, and asked him to help her. Yusuf replied that he was an old man, and that his life was at her service. The Queen thereupon told a female attendant to go and make en([uiries regarding Kamil Khan's health, and just as she was
leaving for the purpose,

added,

as

an after-thought, that she

should take Yusuf Turk with her, as he was anxious to obtain

158

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
to

pci'inissiol)

go to Meccn.

Tlic

woman

nccordiiigly

went,

and

after having delivered the

Queen's message and present,

intro(hi('cd

Yusuf

to

Kamil Khan.
and
that

The Regent
as

at

once gave
to

Vnsuf

tlie

required permission,

he

held

out

him

the betel leaf as a sign
a dagger
it

he might go, Yusuf pulled out

which he had concealed under his cloth and ])lunged Kamil Khan's body. Yusuf and the female attendant were at once cut down, but it was too late, and the would-be As soon as the news of usurper had met his deserved fate. this murder was spread abroad, an immense commotion arose. The Queen closed the gates of the royal palace, and though Sufder Khan, the son of the late Regent, at once attacked the palace with the object of getting possession of the young Sultan, he found it obstinately defended. The citadel and the royal palace were situated in the same enclosure, and Sufder Khan, keeping the citadel gates shut against the city, endeavoured to take the palace by storm, so that there was
into
a

bloody struggle taking place inside the citadel walls, whilst
in a state of excitement.

outside the citizens were assembled

The Queen had only

a

few adherents, but the guards made

common
stinately.

cause

with her,

Whilst the fight

and defended the palace most obwas going on, a party of Deccanee
to
clind)

matchlock
to the

men managed

the wall

and afford

relief

Queen and her

])arty.

The Queen and the Sultan's
Avitli

foster-aunt, Dilshad Aga, the latter

a veil over her head,

animated and encouraged the defenders by their presence and
promises.

Sufder Khan now brought up cannon,

witli

which

he managed to break down the gate, but as he was on the point
of entering, the gallant Dilshad fired a volley of arrows

and gun

shot into

his

party.
eye,

One
in

of

these

arrows wounded Sufder

Khan

in the

and

order to recover himself he took

refuge under a wall.

It so happened, however, that the young King was seated on the wall just above the place, and, seeing his enemy beneath him, he succeeded in rolling over a large

BIJAPUR FROM
stone, whicli,
liittinp;

1509-15.^54.

I8MAEL ADIL SHAH.
liead,

UU

Sufder Klinn on the

killed

him on

the spot.

to their heels.

As soon as tlieir leader had fallen, The city was then cleared of
to

his troops took

the rebels, and

the mutiny was at an end, thanks to the bravery of the

Queen

and Dilshad Aga, and
Sultan.
to the

the

ready wittedness of the young
(juiet,

When
mosque

everything was

the

to return thanks for his escape,

young Sultan went and then conside he

ducted the funeral procession of his foster-father Yusuf to the

tomb

of a saint outside the city, by

whose

was buried,

and eventually a dome was raised over the graves of both. During the rest of his reign, the Sultan went once a month
to visit the

tomb

of the faithful Yiisnf (1511-12).
of

Ismael Shah was

no opposition

now about seventeen years was made to him on the score of

age,

and

age.

Ameer

Bereed, on hearing of the failure

of the plot, at once raised

the siege of Gulburga, which he had attacked,

Bieder.

and retired to The Vijayanagar King who had made an attack upon
fort,

Raichore pressed the siege and succeeded in taking the

which
masters

during previous
fifteen

hundred
times.

years

must
is

have
still

changed
calls

or

twenty

Ferishta
this

the

Vijayanagar King
as

Heem

Raja,

but

clearly a mistake,
in

Heem

Raja, or rather
his

Narasimha, had been succeeded

1508 by

brother Krishna

Deva Raja.
first

This capture of
exploits,

Raichore was one of Krishna Deva's
a prelude to a long career of victory.

and only

Ameer
assistance,

Bereed,

repulsed from

Gulburga,
succeeded
to

called
to
in

Kings of Ahmednagar, Berar, and Golconda

upon the come to his
collecting
a

and

after

some

delay

large

army,

with

which
at

he

advanced

besiege

Bijapur.

Ismael Shah met this army a short distance from his capital,

and though only
attacked
flio;ht,

the

head of twelve thousand horse, he
he put the whole force to

with

such vigour that

and took the Sultan of Bieder, together with his son Ahmed prisoners. The whole of the camp and baggage fell
11

162

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
of the
coi)(|iier()rs,

into the liaiids
capital
in

and

Isniuel returned to his

triumph

The

two

royal

prisoners

were treated
sister as the

with the greatest courtesy.

Splendid presents were made to
asked for Ismael's

them, and Sultan
Avife of

Mahomed

The espousals having been celeson (Ahmed). two Sultans went together to Gulburga for the marriage ceremony, which was carried out with much magnifAs a guard of honour, Ismael sent a troop of five icence. thousand horse to conduct the newly-married pair, and Sultan
his

brated, the

Mahomed

to Bieder,

and Ameer Bereed was so alarmed
he

at the

approach of

this force that

made

haste to evacuate the city.
therefore freed from the

For a short time Sultan

Ahmed was

tyranny of his Minister, but as soon as the Bijapur troops had taken their departure, Ameer Bereed returned, and the
Sultan
reverted
to

his

former

state

of

subjection.

A

few

years of peace followed, one of the

most important events of which was the reception by Ismael Shah of an embassy from the Persian monarch, despatched on purpose to thank him for an act of courtesy shown to an ambassador, who a few years
before
in

had been

detained at

Bieder.

This embassy arrived

1519, and was met by

Ismael Shah twelve miles outside
Persia
in

the capital.

The King
that

of

his letter

addressed the

Sultan as a Sovereign Prince, and Ismael was so pleased with
this

recognition

he ordered

in

future
all

on Fridays and

holidays prayers should be recited in
royal family of Persia.

the mosques for the

his long-intended project

In the following year (1520), Ismael attempted to carry out of recovering the forts of Raichore

and Mudkul. For this purpose he assembled an army of more than fifty thousand horse and foot, and encamped on The river, however, was in flood, the banks of the Kistna. and the enemy was in command of all the ferries. Instead
of waiting for

a

favourable opportunity,

Ismael one evening

when

fired

by wine gave orders

to force a passage

by means

BIJAPUB FBOM
of rafts.

1509-1531..

I8MAEL ADJL
liis

HHAII.

163

Heedless of the remonstrances of
his

officers, Isuiael

plunged

own

elephant into

the

river

and succeeded

in

Here he was attacked by the whole of the Hindoo army, and though the Sultau and his army fought Avith the utmost bravery, tlie whole were
either cut
to

crossing with about two thousand men.

pieces

or

drowned, with the exception of the
After this
repulse Ismacl had to

Sultan and seven
give

soldiers.

up

all

further thought of vengeance for the present, and

retired to Bijapur after having
in
,

sworn an oath never to indulge wine until this defeat should be revenged. In 1523 an alliance was made between Boorahan Nizam
sister

Shah and Ismael, and the
the former in marriage. the
alliance

of

the latter was given to

This marriage instead of cementing

between
for

the

two

Kings,

unfortunately
to

led
fort

to

another war,

Ismael had

promised

give

the

of

Sholapore as dowry with his
to keep,

sister.

This promise he neglected

Nizam Shnh, calling in the assistance of the Berar Sultan and of Ameer Bereed, who was always ready
and
so
to join

any one of the Deccan Kings against another, advanced
take
it

with an army to

by

force.

This

time,

Ismael Shah

was more successful, and
into disorder

after

having put the allied camp

by a night surprise, he attacked early on the following morning, and defeated the enemy with great slaughter, This concluded the taking all his elephants and baggage. war, and the Sultan returned in triumph to Bijapur. In 1528, Nizam Shah and Ameer Bereed attempted another
invasion of Bijapur, but were again

defeated with great
Avith

loss,

and Ismael then formed an
to

alliance

the

Berar Sultan,

whom
In
the

he gave his remaining
following year,

sister in

marriage.

we

find

that

Ismael

Shah sent

a

large supply of
assist

money, together with

six

thousand horse, to

Nizam Shah against an invasion of the Sultan of The invasion was repelled, but Ameer Bereed, who Guzerat. had also joined Nizam Shah, endeavouring to corrupt Ismael's

ir.j

HIS Ton Y OF
bt'foi'c
tlu'ii'

Tin-:

df.ccan.
Isiiuicl

troops
iMid lo

return,

Siilf;m

I'csolvcd

fo

put

;iu

this
to

restless

old intriguers
lie

plots.

J)iiidin<>; ovei'

iSizniu

Shall

neutrality,

aeeordingly
laid

assembled an nriuy of ten
to
Jiieder.

thousand cavalry, and
at

siege

Ameer Bereed
assistance

once

Hed

with

the

object

of

bringing

IVom

(lolconda.

After some delay a i-einforcement of four thousand

Teliniianas arrived,

and attacked Ismael's force

at

the same

time as

tlic

garrison

made

a

sally,

lioth attacks were, however,
city

beaten off with great
invested.

loss,

and the

was

still

moi-e closely

Imad Shah,
and

the Sultan
visiting

of Berar
in

now

attem])ted to
to

conciliate Ismael,

him

his

camp, asked him
replied

forgive

Ameer

Bereed.

The
was

Sultan,

however,

that

Bereed had done him and his family more injuries than could
be enmnerated

— which
this

(piite

true

— and
Shah

refused to
to

make
his

any terms.
he

Upon
by

Imad Shah
Ismael

retired

Oodgir, where
that

was joined

Bereed.

hearing

enemy had joined Imad Shah resolved upon surprising him, and despatched Assud Khan, who throughout all these wars had taken a most distinguished part, with a body of two Assud Khan reached Bereed's camp thousand picked horse.
at the conclusion
tinels

of a big banquet.

All the guards and sen-

were asleep amidst their broken wine pots, and Bereed
intoxicated,
to

himself Avas so hopelessly
a state of insensibility,

that he Avas carried in

tied

his bed,

and did not recover
the road to Bieder.

consciousness, imtil he Avas a long

way on

Bereed

at

first

thought that he had been carried aAvay by
shame.
after

evil spirits,

but on being told of the real state of things, Avas

overcome

Avitli

On

the

morning

the

arrival

of the surprise party in

Ismael Shah's

camp.

Ameer Bereed,
After he had
the

noAv

a

man
Avith

of a very
his

advanced age, was placed before Ismael Shah
tied
tAvo

hands

behind his back.
hours in the sun,

stood

in

this

Avay for

Sultan

ordered him to be put to
for this ])urpose.

death,

and an executioner advanced

Bereed

BlJAl'UR
then
l)('^\iie(l

FROM
his

Vm
liis

I.V';i.

ISMAKI. AlHL SIIAII
be spared, and offered
to
if

\^\:^

thai

lit'o

iiiiglit

this

were done

to

persuade
'I'lie

sons

hand over the

fort

and

citadel of Bieder.
tliat

sons,

on being called upon, replied
little

their father's life

was of but
of

more worth,
die

since in

the

ordinary

course

nature
a

he

must
in

soon.

Ismael,

thinking that this

was merely
position
Avas

ruse

order to gain time,
to

ordered Bereed to be put to

death,
that

but consented
the

have

him placed
extremity to
effect,

in

such a
he

sons

could

see the

which
the

reduced.
offered
their

This had the
give

desired
fort

and

sons

now

to

up the

on

condition only that they and
to

women
carry

should be allowed

depart with the
this
mani'.er,

clothes

on their persons without search.
to
off

In

they

managed

a

considerable

portion of the royal robes and jewels, and with

them

retired

unmolested to Oodgir.
Ismael
Berar,

Shah,

who had
the

been

joined
great

by

Imad Shah

of

now

entered

himself on the royal
representative of this

pomp, and seated musuud of the Bahmanees. Of the real
city

with

we hear nothing, he had away with the Bereeds. An immense amount of treasure and jewels were found in the fort, of which Ismael Shah would not take any portion, but distributed it amongst his followers and the Berar Sultan. It is narrated that he told the poet Molana Seyd Kumi that he might take as nuicli from the treasury as he could lift with both hands. The poet replied that as he had groAMi old and weak in the
ancient house,

probably been taken

Shah's service he should
granted, and the poet
until he

be allowed two attempts.
said
that

This was
Avait

then

he should like to

quoted a
it

had quite recovered his strength. The Sultan then verse to the effect: --"There is danger in delay, and
the
petitioner,"

hurts

thereupon

tlie

poet

made

shift

to

carry as nnich as he could.
for

Nor was he

entirely unsuccessful,

we

are

told

that

at

each attempt

he

carried

away bags

containing 25,000 gold oom, equal to about

£

10,000.

ini;

1 [IS

TORY OF THE DECCAN.

At Iiuad Shah's intercession, Isinacl now |)ni(l()ne(l Ameer Berccd, and gave liini the Govennnent of Kalean and Oodgir, hut made him swear fealty to him and also to accomi)any
iiim with

three

thousand horse on an expedition
of three

to

recover

Kaiclmr.
re-taken

This expedition proved successful, and Uaicliui- was
after

a

siege

months,

it

having been for
It

seventeen years in the possession of

the Hindoos.

will

be

remembered
he

that,

on

a

previous occasion,
to

when he had been
from Avine until
having
This
Avhicli

defeated, Ismael

Shah had sworn
revenged
the

refrain

should

have

defeat.

been

accomplished, he held a grand l)anquet, at

Imad Shah,

Ameer Bereed, and

Assud Khan, were present. Fifteen hundred captives were taken, and Ameer Bereed was again granted the Government of Ahmedabad and Bieder, on condition, however, that he would surrender Kalean After this, Imad Shah and Ameer Bereed and Candahar.
his

Commander-in-Chief,

were allowed

to return to their respective countries.

Once
fulfil

at

liberty,

the

wily

old

intriguer

Bereed forgot to

the promise he

and entered into an
nagar (1531).

alliance

The
Avas

had made of surrendering the two forts, with Boorahan Shah of Ahmedresult was another campaign in which

Boorahan Shah
that Ismael

defeated.

An

alliance

Avas

then formed
Avhicli

between the two Sultans, one of two conditions of

was
Avas

Shah

Avas

to

be at liberty to conquer Avhat he
In consequence
noAv
of

could of the
to

Kutb Shadi dominions, and Boorahan Shah
Berar to his kingdom.
Ismael
siege

add
this

(if

he could)

of

agreement,
laid

Shah,
to

avIio

Avas

joined
the

by

Ameer Bereed,
Ismael Shah
fell

Koilconda,

one
to

Kutb

Shahi's forts (1538).
ill

Before, hoAvever this fort could be taken,

and died on the way
king

Gulburga (1534).
to

Assud Khan body of the
Avhere, after

at

once raised the siege, and returned with the

deceased

and

his

two sons

Bijapur,

burying his

master

near his father, Yusuf Adil

Shah, he installed the eldest of the young princes on the throne.

BIJAPUB FBOM

1509 -153k

TSMAEL ADIL SHAH.

1(>7

Ismael Adil Shah was prudent, patient, and generous.

He

was more inclined to forgive than to punish, and (JiicirtictGr his clemency was sometimes taken advantage of. He had artistic tastes, and was skilled in poetry and music. He was also very fond of painting and of making arrows and saddle cloths. He was quick at repartee, and had a large stock of quotations, which he made in an apt and appropriate manner. In manners, he was more polished than the Decannees, and had been early trained in the Turkish and Persian habits and customs. Although he did not make much head against the Hindoos, he was acknowledged as the principal of the

Mahomedan

kings of the

Deccan, and though jealous of his
to

power and often combining
admitted his superiority.

oppose him, they seem to have

His reign lasted for twenty-five years.

OENEAI.OCiY OF

'rill':

HKKKKl) DYNASTY.

\Usiir2>ers of the Baliinatti Kin<jduiii\.

(Bieder).

1.

Kasim Bereed

1492—1504
(bod)
(son)

2.
3.

Amir Bereed

1504—1549
1549—1562
1562 1569

Ali Bereed Shah
Ibrahim Bereed

4.
5. 6. 7.

(son)

Kasim Bereed

(In-other)

— 1569 — 1572
1609

MiRZA Ali Bereed
Ali Bereed
After No.
7.

(son)

1572—1609

Bieder was incorporated with Bijapur.

(Note.

Kasim Bereed was oriu-inally a Georgian Slave but rose to be minister of Mahmud Bahmani, during whose reign the other Deccan Kingdoms revolted. Kasim kept the king Mahmfd II a prisoner and virtually ruled till his death in 1504. His son Amir continued to reign under three other puppet kings until 1527 when the last king Katam Ullah fled to Ahmednagar when Amir assumed royalty. Ismail Adil shah conquered Bieder and restored it to Amir Bereed as his vassal. Amir died in 1549 liaving lost almost all his territory and his son assumed
the
title

of Shah).

CHAPTER XVI.
THE KINGDOMS Or HERAR AND GOLCONDA
OF BIJAPUR.
It
is

AND CONTINUATION

necessary

the foundations of the two

which

liave

backwards in order to trace kingdoms of Berar and Golconda ah'eady been frequently mentioned in the ])revious
to

now

glance

chapter.

Berar was the smallest and least important of the

Mahom-

edan kingdoms of the Deccan, and

its

independence was the
in

most

short-lived.

Like

his

rival

king

Ahmednagar, the

170

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
ol"

founder

tlic

I

mad

Slialii

dynasty of

J3erai'

was

a

Hindoo

by descent. lie is said te have been a Canarese Ibalmiiii He taken in war by the J^alnnanee Governor of Berar. adopted Ishnn, and ra])id]y rose to liig]i office, receiving tlie
title

of

Iniad-ul-Mulk.

He

asserted

liis

indejjendence about

same time as Yusuf Adil Shah (1484), and in the partition 1498 he was recognised by the other kings, and received of as his share Mahar and Ramgarh, or the territory between The first Iniad the Godavery and the Pain Gunga rivers.
the
Shall died early in the
his son, Alla-ud-din,
16tli

century,
the

and was succeeded by
throne throughout the
as

who was on

whole of the reign of Ismael Adil
last cha])ter.

Shah,

related

in the

This prince was constantly at war with
it.

Ahmedoutlying

nagar, and generally got the worst of
districts of

He
it

lost his

Mahar and

Pathri,

and had
found
at

to call in the Sultan

of

Guzerat,

whom
His

he

afterwards

very

difficult

to

get rid of.
as nearly as

dominions comprised the province of Berar
as
it

possible

exists

the

present

day,

lying

between the Rivers Taptee on
the south.
the
river

the

north

and Godavery on

Pain

The present southern boundary of the province is Gunga. The capital was at Ellichpore, and
agriculture,

with the exception of this city there were few other towns of
importance.

The people were quiet and devoted to and as the province lies out of the line of march kingdoms, it had enjoyed a long period of peace.
square miles.
Sultan Alla-ud-din

of the great
It

formed
his son,

a sort of irregular square comprising an area of about 20,000

was succeeded by

Daria Imad Shah (1550), and he in turn was succeeded (1568)

by

Burhan Imad Shah. The infant king was confined by his Minister, Tufal Khan, who usurped the Government. He w^as, however, attacked by the Kings of Bijapur and Ahmednagar, defeated, and after some time spent in flight, was put to death together with the young ])rince whom he had dethroned (1572). From this time Berar was
his infant son,

THE KINGDOMS OF
annexed
to

BEIIAII

AND GOLCONDA.

171

Ahmednagar, to which kingdom it belonged, until it in turn was conquered by an army from Delhi in 1607. Tliis brief summary of the history of Berar must suffice for the present, and further notice of any events of importance
will

be

made

as they

have reference to the general thread of
play a

the story.

A
and
^
,

kingdom
lasting
^
.

that

was destined
in

to

much more important
that
ix

part

Indian
,

history

was
i

of

Golconda,

which, under a different dynasty and another

name
c

Golconda.

exists

unto the
Sultans,

present

day.

During the time of
capital

i

the

Bahmanee

Golconda

was

the

of

the

Governor of the Telingana provinces, and
to the eastern coast

his rule

extended

with ports at Musalipatam and Coconada.

The Hindoo Kings

of

Warangal had disappeared, but
and gave
the

a

number

of petty chiefs survived.

These Chiefs were continually break-

ing out into rebellion,
a

Mahomedan Governor

good deal of trouble.

one of

The Telingana province was therefore considerable importance, and the Governor was an
high dignity.
of this

officer of

The founder
of Sultan

new kingdom was Barra Malick Kull

Kutb-ul-Mulk, a Persian by descent, who entered the service
century.

Mahmoud Bahmanee towards the close of the 15th When in 1490 an attempt was made to assassinate
Barra, Malick was one of those

Sultan

Mahmoud,
Gliazi

who
For

saved

the King, and

eventually
jMalick

quelled the

rebellion.

this

he

was created
threw
Kiili
off all

Kutb-ul-Mulk, and sent as Govin

ernor to Telingana.

When
still

1489 the other Deccan Sultan
to the

semblance of submission

Bahmanee
it

house,
until

Kutb-ul-Mulk
first

remained

loyal,

and

was not

1510
His

that he finally declared his independence.

thought was to strengthen the fortifications of his

capital Golconda,
it

and

to

improve

its

buildings.

The

fort as

now
it

exists

later

baffled

shows signs of great strength, and 170 years the whole of Aurungzebe's army, and was

I7:i

iiisronY or

riii:

diu'CAN.
oi"

()iil\

won

l)\

tr(';i('lui-\
ot"

.

In

llic

iiiidcllc
is

the

lorl

is

;i

hill,

From the

t(»|)

which the countrv
but

visible for miles Mroiiiid.
in

The

Kiiii>;'s

palaec niid most of the houses

the
still

interior of
intact,

the fort arc

now

in

ruins,

tlic

walls are
a

and

seen from the outside,

the

whole has

very gloomy appear-

ance, as the high walls frown doAvn on the waters of the lake

which washes the noil hern

])()rti()n

of the

fort.

The

first

campaign of the new Sultan was an unprovoked
in

Deva Raya, of Vijayanngar. After a great which the Hindoos wei'c worsted, the Sultan succeeded in capturing the two forts of Kovilconda and Ganpoora, and then returned with a considerable amount
one, against Krishna
battle near Pangal,

of plunder.

In the following year, the Jiajah of

Khammamett
the

broke into rebellion, and on being defeated managed to make
his escape

and organized

a

ccmfederation

of

all

Hindoo

Rajahs.

A nundier

of actions ensued, in which the
at
last

Mahomin

edans Avere successful, and

a

treaty

was signed,
north,
of

which the River Godavery was made the northern boundary.

No

sooner had peace been out again
in

restored

in

the

than waiBijapur,

broke

the

south.

Sultan

Ismael,

instigated

by the King of Vijayanagar, laid siege to Kovilconda. Kutb Shah advanced to its relief, tuid during an engagement
received
for
life,

that followed,

a

sword cut
of

in

the

face

which

dis-

tigured
off.

hiin

part

the

nose and cheek being cut
in

It

was whilst

this

siege
ill

was

progress

that Sultan

Ismael Shah was taken
minister and general
the
the
in

and

chief)

died, and Assnd Khan, (his deeming that a settlement of

more importance than the capture of and retired to Gulburga, after making peace with Kutb Shah. This Sultan continued to reign for eleven years longer, and during almost the whole
succession
fort,

Avas

of

raised

the

siege,

of that time he Avas occupied in quelling the rebellions of the

Hindoo Chiefs. Under Krishna Deva R lya, the Vijayanagar kingdom was gradually spreading in extent, and Kutb Shah

THE KINGDOMS OF BEBAB
fouiid
Iiiiiiself

ANT) GOLCONDA.
coiiiiiniiiicatioii

173

being

cut

off

from
to

with

tlie

seasliore.

lie does not

seem

liave

held

iniicli

land south

of the Kistna,

and

tiie

Vijayanagar influence rapidly extended
it

along the coast,

until

predominated as far north

as

the

Godavery.

In 1543 Kuli Kutb
in

Shah was assassinated whilst
at

saying his prayers

the

mosque

Golconda,

in ('()nse(|uence

of a plot oiganized by his son, Jamshid Kuli

who succeeded
Telingana
lie

him.

This

first

Golconda Sultan had ruled

in the

Province for sixty years,
a

during sixteen of which

had been

Governor,

and forty-four an independent

])rince.

He was
to the

ninety years of age

when he
it

died.

As we have now brought
death of Ismael Adil Shah,

the string of events
will

down

be as well
the

to revert to the

Bijapur Province,

rouiul

which

for

next forty years the

principal interest centres.

We

have already told

how Assud Khan

considered

it

ad-

visable to raise the siege of

Kovilconda, and return with the

late Sultan and the two young princes to The names of those two princes were Mulloo and Ibrahim. The former was the eldest, and had l)een designated as his successor by the dying Sultan. He was, however, a passionate, licentious young man, and there was a general feeling against making him Sultan, but Assud Khan thought himself to be bound in duty to carry out his master's last connnands. Assud Khan was now the most prominent man in the kingdom. On frequent occasions he had during the reign of Ismael Adil Shah given instances of his military talents and devoted bravery. He now, and during the rest of his life, showed himself to be a statesman, not only of ability, but also of integrity. During the march to Gulburga, he kept both the young princes in a kind of honourable confinement, and prevented them from having access to one another, or to the rest of the army, for he was afraid that intrigues Avould be set on foot Arrived at Gulburga, a consultation was held

dead body of the

Gulbui'ga.

174.

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
tlic

with

ladies of
to

the

harem and the
tlie

Cliiet"

ii()])ility,

and

it

was decided
soon

follow the wishes of

late

Sultan and

j)larc

the eldest son,
it

Midloo,

on

the
that

throne.

This

was done, but

became apparent Khan were amply justified.
be thoroughly
family
vicious,

to

dcbaucheiT.
with
his

Disgusted at
to his

the apprehensions of Assud The young King showed himself and gave himself up to reckless his conduct, Assud Khan retired

Jaghir of Belgaum,

and

left

Sultan

months were passed, the young tyrant had made himself thoroughly hated, and had The crisis alienated from him all the adherents of his house. was brought by his sending to Yusuf Turk, a nobleman of
to his

MuUoo

own

devices.

Before

six

high

rank,

to

demand

his

son

for

the

satisfaction

of

his

unnatural
the

lust.

On

this

demand

])eing treated with contempt,

King

sent a

father's liead.

body of followers with orders to bring the These men were beaten off, and Yusuf Turk
his

retired with his family to

estates

in

a state of righteous

indignation.
Avho, in the

The

Sultan's

grandmother,

Booboojee Khanum,
to

former reign had shown herself
her

be so capable

of action,

now made up
Avliicli,

mind

that the

young Sultan must
Assud
Khan,

be deposed.
his

Accordingly,

she

wrote to Yusuf Turk to give
consulting

assistance,

after

and

obtaining his co-operation,

he

promised

to

do.

On

an ap-

pointed day, Yusuf
large force.

Khan suddenly
Avitli

entered the capital with a

He met

little

or no opposition, and Mulloo

was

at

once seized, together with his youngest brother.
This
six

They
so

were both blinded, and the second brother, Ibrahim, was then
proclaimed amidst universal
full of

rejoicing.

short

reign,

infamy and disgrace, lasted only
first

months.

The new Sultan's from the S/ieea/i to
Sultan Ibrahim

act

was
the
-

to

change the State religion
to

the

^unnee creed, and his next was
all

dismiss

foreigners
in

t-,.
^^ersians,

Abdil Shah (1535).

Moguls, &c.,

^t

o-i-

such

as

Turks,

^

his

service, witJi

the exception of

400 men,

whom

he retained

THE KINGDOMS OF BERAB AND GOLCONDA.
as u special guard.

175

In their place

lie

enlisted Deccanees

and

Abyssinians.
as foreigners,

The latter race never seem to have l)een reckoned and throughout Deccan liistory we always find

making common cause with the Deccanees. Under the latter name it must not be supposed that the Hindoos of the Deccan were included. The appellation is used exclusively
tliem

with reference to the descendants of the

first

Mahomedan

or
to

Afghan
the

families that

had accompanied Sultan Alla-ud-Din
dismissal

Ueccan.

This

wise step, for the

summary men thus
of

was by no means a sent aAvay formed some of the
Bijapur army.

best fighting material

the

Rama Rajah
service,

of

Vijayanagar at once enrolled

them
also

in

his

and not

only gave them great indulgences,
a

mosque
to

in

his

city.

He

but allowed them to build had a copy of the Koran

placed before his throne, so that Avhen his

Mahomedan

servants

came

pay their respects, they could do so Avithout a breach

of the rules of their

own

religion.

In this way he succeeded

in collecting a well-disciplined force of three

thousand

Mahom-

edans, which proved of considerable use to him.

Soon

after

in Vijayanagar
affairs of

Ibrahim Shah's accession, a revolution broke out which led to the Sultan's interference in tlic kingdom.

that

Rama Rajah
to

the

son

of

Krishna

Deva Raya, had succeeded
a descendant of the
tion

the throne in 1530,

and being

usurping dynasty, strengthened his posidaughter of the old Hari ITara family.

by marrying

a

Ferishta speaks of the throne being then held by an infant of
the original dynasty, and goes on to say that on

Rama Rajah
a

endeavouring

to

put

this

family entirely aside,

revolution

broke out amongst the nobility, whereupon
leaving

Rama Rajah

put

an infant descended from the female line on the throne, and,

him in charge of his own uncle, Hoje Permal Row, went on an expedition against some refractory Rajahs in the Malabar and Madura countries. During his absence a rebellion took place in the capital. Hoje Permal Row was induced to

17()

HISTOnr OF
till'

TIIK DI'JCCAN.

lil)(.'i;ik'

youiii;"

Ixaj.-ili

;ni(l

place

liiiii

on

tliu

tliionc

Scvcrnl

otliiT

Ivajalis (lu'ii

joiiRHl

tlic

revolution, aiul
liet'oi'e

for a time

Rajah was
liad the
{•'inding,

(le|)iive(l

of power,

long, lioje l\'iinal

Rama Row
own
of

young King strangled and
however,
that

usurj)e(l the throne himself,

he
still

was

too

weak
field,

to

hold

his

against

Rama

Rajah,
to

who

kept the

he invited Ibrahim

Shah
march.

to

come
This

his

assistance,

offering

him

a

subsidy

three lakhs of oous, {£ 40,000) for each day his.

army should
was by no

was an

offer

which Ibrahim Shah
received

means
to

loth

to accept.

He marched
there

with a considerable army

Vijayanagar,

was

by

Permal

Row and
Mahomedan

entertained for seven days.
sovereign,

This alliance with a

however, excited such dissatisfaction amongst the Hindoo Rajahs that a strong protest was made, and Permal Row, trusting to their promises that if he Avould dismiss the Sultan they would recognize him as Rajah, paid his new ally fifty lakhs of oo.is {£ 1,700,000) and alloAved him to return.

No
than

sooner,

however,

had

Ibrahim Shah crossed the Kistna

Rama Rajah and
Permal

his confederates returned

and

laid siege

to the capital.

Row

shut

himself up

in the citadel,

becoming "mad from despair, blinded all the royal and horses, also cutting off their tails that they might be of no use to the enemy. All the diamonds, rubies, emeralds, other precious stones and pearls, which had been
and
elephants
collected in the

course

of

many

ages, he crushed to poAvder

between heavy mill stones and scattered them on the ground.

He

then

fixed

a

sword-blade

into
it

a

pillar

of

his

apartthat
it

ment, and ran his breast upon

with

such

force,

pierced through, and came out of his back;

thus putting an
the

end

to

his

existence

just

as

the

gates

of

palace

were

opened
revolts

to his

enemies" {FerhJita).
claimants
until

Rama Rajah
Ave
final

then became

undisputed King of Vijaganagar, and
or
rival

hear of no other
doAvnfall

the

of

the

kingdom nineteen years

later.

THE KINGDOMS OF BERAR AND GOLCONDA.
Ihraliiiii Sliali

177

took

;i{lvnnt;igc of the

confusion
to

in Vijnyan.'ig.'U'

to

send

;ui

army under Assud Khan
This, however,
his brother
lie

surprise the important
to

fortress of Adoni.

was not able
far

do, as

Raina Rajah despatched
calls

Venkatadri

(or, as

Ferishta
his
in

him,

Negtaderee)

with

a

force

exceeding

number.

Assud Khan then commenced
the
night,

a retreat,

but being

harassed closely by

Hindoos, was able to surprise their
take
the

camp one

and

General's

family

captive.

Thereupon negociations were opened, to be followed shortly by a peace, and Assud Khan returned to Bijapur. Assud Khan was now the principal man in Bijapur, and
as always occurs, his

envy and jealousy.
allow his

power and influence excited considerable For some time the Sultan refused to
stories against his jMinister,

mind

to

be poisoned with

After a time, however, they prevailed, and Ibrahim Shah sent

Assud Khan, intending on The plot, however, had been
for

his arrival to

put him to death.

overheard,

and Assud Khan,

forewarned, retired to Belgaum, where he was too strong for

even the Sultan
set

to

attack

him.

Various intrigues were then
of

on foot

in

order to

gain

possession

the too-powerful

Minister,

and one Yusuf was granted
of

a jaghir near

Belgaum

for the express purpose
prise.

enabling him to carry out a sur-

This, indeed,

he attempted, but was beaten off with

disgrace.

A

disagreement of

this

kind was an opportunity which the
giving

ever-watchful and jealous neighbouring States were not likely
to let

pass.

Accordingly,

out that Assud

Khan was

})re})ared to join

them, Nizam Shah and

Ameer Bereed invaded
the Sholapur dis-

the Bijapur territories,
tricts,

and

after

investing

Assud Khan was now placed awkward position. The invading princes appear to have used his name without authority, but if he refused to act with them, they were in a position to compel him or to

marched upon Belgaum.

in a very

annex

his jaghirs.

Accordingly, he temporized, and although
12

17S

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
joined the enemy's
to
caiin),
lie

lie

wrote

to

Iiii;i(l

Shall of Ik'iar

begging him

come

to

the assistance of l^ijapiir.

This

I

mad

Shah
about

at

onec did. when Assud
tlic

Klian joined him, and

i-epi-e-

sentcd to him the whole of
this crisis.

circumstances that had brought
tlien

Imad Shah
being

took Assud
of
his

Khan
at

before

Ibraliim,

wlio,

on

convinced

loyalty,

once

him with favour. 'I'liis at once changed the aspect Ibrahim followed of affairs, and the invaders had to retreat. them well into their own territories, and Ameer J3ereed, dying on the road, Nizam Shah had to sue for peace. This was
received

granted on condition
pore,

of

I'estoring

the five districts of Shola-

and promising not
This peace,

to again

invade the Bijapur dominions
last

(1542).

however,

did not

long, for in the

following year

Nizam Shah made an

alliance with Ali Bereed,

Avho had succeeded his father Ameer,

Kutb Shah
routes

of Golconda,
all

and Rama Rajah of Vijayanagar.
JMjapnr territory by three
Sholapore,
different

These princes

entered

—Nizam Shah by Kutb Shah by Gulburga, and Rama Rajah by the
Ibrahim Shah,
sent
for
at the at a loss

usual bone of contention, Raichore.

how
the

to

meet these
he

three

invasions,

Assud Khan,
bottom of

Avhose advice

was that Nizam Shah being
should

confederacy

be

pacified

lirst.

Rama Rajah

could be bought off by concessions

Kutb Shah could be

dealt

with

and promises, and then alone. As Ibrahim was
field,

unable to meet the combination in the
have been the best advice possible.
himself
satisfied

this

appears to

Nizam Shah professed

by the restoration of the Sholapore district, and Rama Rajah was bought off by some small concessions. Assud Khan then marched against Jumsheed Kutb Shah, recovered from him Gulburga and its districts,

and then followed him up to the walls of Golconda, within which he compelled him to take shelter after defeating his army and wounding the King in an engagement. Assud Khan then returned to Bijapur, where he was received wnth

THE KINGDOMS OF BEBAll AND GOLCONDA.
great distinction.
In
a

179

short

time,

liowcver,
tlie

tlie

war

l)roke

out

afrcsli,

Nizam Shah being aoain
Shall
loss.

agressor.

This time
force

the attempt was

upon Uull)urga, but the invading
on the banks of
gallantly,
tlie

was

met by Ibrahim
this

Bhimrah,
credit for

and
the

defeated with great
Imttle

Ibrahim Shah fought
but
the
given, to

])ersonally in

with

great
w\as

victory Avas due,

and

Assud Khan.

This victory

appears to have turned Ibrahim's head, and he behaved with

such arrogance to the ambassadors of Nizam Shah, that they This time, retired in disgust, and the war broke out afresh.
fortune
defeated

was against
in

Ibrahim,
of
six

and

his

armies

were

twice

the

space

months.

Ibrahim

attributing

these defeats to the disaffection of his
a

number

of

them

to

be

put

to

Hindoo officials, caused death, and others to be
general

tortured in the
disgust.

public

square.

This cruelty excited

Assud Khan retired to Belgauin, and a conspiracy was formed to depose Ibrahim and place his brother, Abdulla, on the throne. The conspiracy w\as discovered, and Abdulla went to Goa, wdiere he was sheltered by the Portuguese, and there commenced a correspondence with Nizam Shah and Kutb Shall. An attempt was made to gain Assud Khan over to this conspiracy, but though he was again in disfavour
with the suspicious Sultan, this loyal old veteran refused the
])roposal with indignation.
to

But Assud Khan's name was one
sick,

conjure with, so high Avas the general feeling of affection

and confidence.

He

himself was

but the Portuguese,

after having proclaimed

Abdulla,

Bijapur, and giving out that

marched with him towards Assud Khan was on their side,

number of the disaffected nobles to join their Nizam Shah hearing of Assud Khan's illness at once army. marched upon Belgaum hoping in case of his death to secure
induced a
this

important

fortress.

On

his

arrival

Assud

Khan was

somewhat better, and Nizam Shah then attempted to win the For this ])urpose he sent a Brahmin as garrison by biibery.

180

HISTORY OF
t'liiissarv,
l)V

TJfE

DEC CAN.
when
put
to

Iiis

who had
Assiid

ncai'ly

succeeded,

ihe the

|)l()t

was
This

discovered

Khan,

who

al

once

l^rahiniii

and seventy of the act showed clearly
hearing of
it,

soldiers

he iiad

c<)rrii[)ted

death.
loyal,

that

Assud

Khan was

still

and on
Abdnlla.

the

Bija})ur

nobles at once

forsook

The Goanese, disappointed of a junction with Nizam Shah, had now to I'ctire, and Nizam Shah deserted by his allies, had also to return to his country. In the mean time, Assud Khan was really dying. The man who had so often saved the State when alive had rendered it a final service on Ids death-bed, for if, as had been originally intended, Nizam Shah had effected a junction with the Portuguese, Bijapur must have fallen, and Abdulla been placed upon the throne. The whole incident is especially worthy of record, because it is the first occasion in wdiich we find a European nation
taking an active
policy which
years.

share

in

the

intrigues of a Native

State,

a

has had

such successful results in subsequent
felt that his

When Assud Khan
a

end was approaching,

he

sent

message
well,

to

his

master,
so
at

Ibrahim,

whom

he had

served so

but

who had
All
that

often

requited
off

his services

with ingratitude.

The Sultan
late.

once set

for Belgaum,.

but arrived too
the
favour,

he could

do was to comfort

mourning family with
but
this

comfort

and assurances of royal />7/i7afs must have been of a nature not
are told that the Sultan took the
his

altogether gi'atifying, for

we
ail

opportunity of

annexing

deceased

servant's treasures

and

estates for his

own

use.

Assud Khan had for nearly forty years been one of the most prominent characters in the Deccan. He was universally
respected not

only for his

military

talents,

but also for his

judgment and wisdom. He lived with a magnificence that was almost royal, and his household servants alone numbered more than two hundred and fifty persons. In his stables were sixty elephants of the largest, and one hundred and fifty

THE KINGDOMS OF BERAlt AND GOLCONDA.
of
a

181

smaller size,
in

besides
to

four

liiindred

Aral)

and Persian

horses,

addition

kitchen there

number of countrj-breds. Tu his was consumed each day one hundred mauuds
a
fifty

(8,0001bs.) of rice,

sheep,

other

})rovisions
left are

in

pro})ortion.
to

and one hundred fowls and The treasures and jewels
of

which he
in
this

said

have been
a
striking

immense
to

value,

and

respect

he formed

contrast

that other

Khajeh Gawan, who, under the Bahmanee Sultans, may well be compared with him. No sooner was this war terminated than another broke out.
great

nobleman,

In accordance with Assud Khan's

last

wish, Sultan Ibrahim
to,

made an

alliance with,

and gave

his

daughter in marriage

Ahmedabad Bieder. This at once excited the jealousy of Nizam Shah, who thereupon made an alliance with Rama Rajah of Vijayanagar, who recommended him to attack
Ali Bereed, of

Kallean,

a

fortress

belonging

to

Bereed.

Ibrahim marched

to assist his son-in-law, fort

but suffered a severe defeat, and the

was taken by Nizam Shah. Ibrahim, compelled to retire, made a diversion into the enemy's country towards the west. He devastated a considerable amount of country, and succeeded
in

surprising

Porundeh, a
surrendered
to

fort

which
a

subsequently

became
left a

very famous as Sivajee's favourite stronghold.
garrison,

Here he
as

which

without
this

struggle

soon

as

Nizam Shah advanced

retake

important post.

Next

year (1551) the war recommenced.

As

usual, the Vijayanagar

kul.

army commenced operations by besieging Raichore and MudThe Hindoo Prince then marched to join Nizam Shah, and the two armies took Sholapore without much trouble. In 1553 Boorahan Nizam Shah died, and his successor, Hoosein Nizam Shah, made peace with Bijapur, which, however, did not last long. Hoosein Shah having degraded his father's Commander-in-Chief, Khajeh Jehan, the latter escaped to
Bijapur, together with a

younger brother of the Sultan.

It

did not require

much

persuasion on the part of these refugees

182

HISTORY OF THE VECCAN.

to induce Ihraliiiii 81iali to support tlic claims of this pretender,

was held out to him as a Shah Ali (for this was his name) Sultan of Ahmcdnagar, and marched with an army to Here he was met by Hoosein take possession of Shola])ore.
especially as the fort of Sliolapore
bait.

He

at

once

proclaimed

Nizam Shah, and an engagement ensued,
Shah
reality

in

which Ibrahim
have
occurred
liad in

was

worsted.

The defeat appears

to

through a mistake.

His General, Seyf Eyn-ul-Mulk,
left

broken the enemy's centre, but was
a precipitate

unsupported.

Ibrahim Shah being told that he had gone over to the enemy,

made
The

retreat,

leaving his

General in the lurch.
the enemy's ranks,
at

latter

managed

to cut his

way through

and followed

his master,

who, however, received him
but

Bijapur
estates.

with such disfavour that the General retired to his

own

Ibrahim sent an army after him

it

was defeated, and
fate.

another and stronger force met with the same

Eyn-ul-

Mulk now

asserted

his

independence, and so dangerous did

matters look, that Ibrahim Shah had to march against him in

person with the whole force that he could

raise.

The

Sultan,

however, fared no better than his generals, and w^as severely
defeated with the loss of his baggage and royal paraphernalia.

Ibrahim himself escaped and

fled

in

haste to Bijapur, which

was

at

once invested by the rebel.

In this last extremity,

Ibrahim applied to

Rama Rajah
at

of Vijayanagar for assistance.

The Hindoo King
clever

once

complied,

Venkatadri with a large army.
night
attack,

and sent his brother The Hindoo General, by a
surprising

succeeded

in

Eyn-ul-Mnlk's

camp, and put the whole of the army to the sword, the rebel
himself just managing to escape with two hundred followers.

Eyn-ul-Mulk
assassinated

to

fled to Ahmednagar, where, however, he was by order of the Sultan (1551). Ibrahim Shah, thus saved by the Hindoos, gave iiimself up debauchery, and very soon fell ill. He called in a nundier

of doctors, but

as

they

were not able

to

cure

him, he

])ut

THE KINGDOMS OF BEEAR AND GOLCONDA.
tlieiii

183

to dentil,

beheading some and liaving others trodden to
treatment was not calculated to
court in a body.

death by

ele])liants.

As might be expected,
encourage the
left
rest,

this

who

left his

The Sultan,

without medical aid, was
in

equally unable to cuie himself,

and died

1557

after a reign of twenty-four years.

As long

Ibrahim Adil Shah was a passionate and headstrong man. as Assud Khan was his chief adviser, his reign was
a prosperous one, but after he

had

(luarrelled with

(Jlicirtictcr.

him, and especially after Assud

Khan's death, he
at

degenerated into

a

licentious

tyrant.
little

Although constantly
no military
talents,
left to

war, he seems to have
all his

had

or

and
him-

successes were due to his Generals.

When
Sultans
rapidly

self,

he seems generally to have been defeated.
in

The frequent
appealed to

manner

Avhich both he
for

and

his

rival

the Hindoo kingdom had been growing in importance. Whilst the Mahomedan States, like Kilkenny cats, were destroying each other, the Hindoos were rapidly becoming the arbiters oftheDeccan. During Ibrahim Shah's reign several impoitant changes were made, which were destined to prove of importance in Deccan These were the employment of Brahmins and Hinhistory. doos in the Revenue and Accounts Departments, the use of

Rama

Rajali

assistance

shows

how

the Vernacular in the preparation of accounts, and the enlist-

ment

of Bergecs or Mahratta soldiers in the army. In AJimed-

nagar,

the

Nizam Shahs adopted
appointed
origin
a

Sultan even
PesJuca, the

the same policy, and the Brahmin Minister with the title of
title

of

the

which
of

Avas

subsequently to

become
either

so famous.

The

Bert/ees
all

were enlisted from among

the Mahratta villagers,

almost

which

Avere situated in

Bijapur or Ahmednagar

territories.

They were mer-

cenaries,

own

horses,

and replaced the old and ranked more
rank

Silladarees,
as

who

])rovided their

gentlemen soldiers than as
Mahratta
tr()o])s,

ordinary

and

tile.

These

which

in

184

ILISTOUY OF
iiuiiil)crc(l

rni'J

DECCAN.
introduced an entirely
to
in

Jiijnpiir

as iiiimy as 80,000,
wliicli

new system
perfection

of

warfare,
the

was subsequently brought
This

by

great
as

Sivajee.
as

system consisted

eluding the enemy

much

])()ssible,

and

in

harrassing

him

in

every way,

whilst

supplies; night surprises
in front of the

on the line of march; cutting off and a general harrying of the country

enemy.

This led to a desultory predatory kind

of warfare, in

which the country and the cultivators suffered

more than
Avhicli

the armies.

The change
did
the

of

the State religion, to

allusion

has

been made,
of
fact,

not

have any

political

results.

As

a matter

Bijapur Sultans seem to
sects,

have belonged alternately to the Sheeali and the Sunnee

Ibrahim Shah's son and
Sheeah, and
his

successor

at

once

reverted

to

the

successors

belonged sometimes to the one,

and sometimes
to

to the other sect.
spirit

The only

effect of this

was

bring about a

of

tolerance,

not only towards each

other, but also towards the Hindoos.

(iKNKAI.OGY OF TIIK IMAD «HAH1 DYNASTY.
{Btifar —dqiital

Ellkhpore and BuHunqwre).

1.

Fathullah Imad Shah
liy

Baii.mani

(a

Hindoo boy capturcfl
King- in a

the Balimaiii

war with Vijayanaj^ar and
Revolted.

turned Mahomedan.

1483—1504.
2.

Alla ud din Imad Shah 1504—1528
3.

Dariya Imad Shah 1528—1560

Burhan Imad Shah 1560—1568

Bibi

Doulat

married Hussain
Kinir of

Ahmednasar,

(N.B.

In Burhan's reign Tufal Khan seized the throne but wan killed MuRTAZA Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar and Kingdom annexed.

by

CHAPTER
THE FALL
In the year 1560,
lieight of
its
01'

XVII.

VIJAYANAGAR.

the

Vijayanagar

Kingdom was

at
all

the
liis

splendour.

Rama Rajah had subdued

rebellious chief's,
to

Cape Comorin.

and ruled without dispute from the Kistna He had gradually extended his sway up

to the

moutlis of the Godavery, was in alliance with the Hindoo Rajahs, who still maintained their independence north of that river, and Avas married to the daughter of the King In Madura, the rulev of the whole of the south of Orissa.

THE FALL OF VIJAYANAGAB.
was
a

187

Deputy of Vijayanagar.
is

In

Taylor's "Oriental

Manu-

scripts" there

an interesting account of the manner in which

Visvanatha Naick, a General of the Hindoo King, reduced his

own

father

obedience.
or about one

who had assumed inde])endence in IMadura to The date of this transaction is fixed at A.D. 1432,
hundred years
after the

founding of Vijayanagar,
is

Even

at this

time the Vijayanagar Rajah's rule

said to have

extended over "fifty-six kingdoms, and he entertained in his
service forty thousand
ten
cavalry,

four thousand elephants, and

soldiers innumerable. The bounded on the east and west by the sea, though the ports on the Western Coast were limited to those The between Goa to the north and Calicut to the south.

thousand camels," and foot

kingdom was

only portion of the Southern Peninsula which did not acknowledge
the

sovereignty of

Vijayanagar

appears to

have been

that portion of the Western Coast in which the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore are now situated. The whole of this enormous territory was sub-divided amongst minor Rajahs

and petty Chiefs,
feudal
service
to

all

of

whom

paid

tribute,

and rendered
to

their

over-lord.

From time much

time they

occasionally asserted their

independence or turned refractory,
ditficulty.

but they Avere generally reduced without

The

country was Avatered by several magnificent

rivers, the Kistna,

The mountains in the Pennair, the Poniar, and the Cauvery. Mysore and Travancore formed vast forests, which were full of wild elephants; the valleys were rich and fertile, and there runs throughout the whole extent from north to south a belt of gold-bearing quartz which must have been extensively

worked.

From

a

country so rich in natural resources

Kings derived an enormous revenue. We have already given extracts from the accounts of some of the travellers
the

who
all

visited Vijayanagar in the early part of the 15th century,

of

whom

speak in enthusiastic terms of the splendour and
ca])ital.

riches of the

An immense amount

of the gold

and

188

TOBY OF THE DECCAN.
was melted
into
solid

silver

masses,

and

buried

in

cellars

under the King's palace. gold and jewels, the Hindoo Kings were always liberal in their The rivers expenditure on agricultural and irrigation works.
were
to
all

Hut though

fond of accuinulating

dammed
rice

at different parts,

and

irrigation channels

dug

the

fields,

and

where

no

rivers

existed,

the

whole

face of the country

tanks and

reservoirs,

was covered with a network of irrigation some of enormoas size, covering many

square miles in extent. At the beginning of this century, Avlien
Sir

Thomas

(then Captain)

Munro was appointed
after the
is

to settle the

Districts

he thus
capital,

describes

which had just been ceded the country which

situated

Mysore War, around the
Ananta-

Vijayanagar

(the present districts of Bellary,
:

"To attempt the construction poor, Cuddapah, and Kurnool) of new tanks is perhaps a more hopeless experiment than the
repair of those

which have been
can
to

filled

up, for there
to

is

scarcely

any

'place

where a tank
been

he
this

made
In

advantage that has
sub-division

not already

applied

piuyose by the inhahitants"
the

[Cuddapah Manual,

page

10).

of

the

Cuddapah
Principal

District,

where the author
Officer,

w^as for

some years the
All

Revenue

there

were

in

an area of 3,574

square miles no less than

4,194

tanks of various sizes.

these public works Avere built and maintained

by an ingenious

revenue system, under which none of the cost of maintenance
w'as

borne by the Government, and only in the case of the

larger works, the cost of construction.

Under

this

system called
allotted rent-

Basbandham
and
the
in

a portion of the land irrigated

was

free on condition of

the

grantee

keeping
it.

the tank in repair,
of the

many

cases of constructing

The remainder
in this

land paid the usual rent to

Government, and

manner
to its

Government

Avhilst

improving the country, added
little

own revenues with but
Politically

additional expenditure.

speaking,

the

importance
as
its

of

Vijayanagar

had

inpreased in the sanie

way

prosperity had done. During

THE FALL OF VLTAYANAaAR.
the time of the J^iilinianec Kinf];s, although

189

there were uumei--

ous wars,

tlie

was
two

rarely

over-ste])ped

boundary of the 'ruiiga])M(lliru or the Kistna by either side. The fighting was
to

almost entirely confined
rivers,

the

country lying between these

known

as the

Doab.

With
its

the ruin of the

J^ali-

luanee

dynasty

and the constant quarrels of the Mahomedan
place, the importance
virtually

Kings,

who

established themselves in

of Vijayanagar rapidly increased.

The Doab became
forts of

Vijayanagar territory,

and though the

Raichore and

Mudkul were

frequently

retaken by the Bijapur Kings, they

w^ere not held for long.

In course of time
find

Rama Kajah assumed

the aggressive, and
side,

him being called in, first on one and occasionally being subsidized by both. The reason why the Hindoo Kings had been able for so long to more than hold their own against the Mahomand then on the
other,

we

edans, in spite
latter,

of
to

the

greater

bravery and
their

discipline of the

seems
after

have
so

been
a

enormous
under

recuperative

power.
were,
field,

Having
that

vast

population

their rule, they

each defeat, able to bring new

hordes into

the

by mere force of numbers they were able to compel the Mahomedans to retire. The time, however, had now come for the final blow which w\as to crush Vijayanagar for
so

ever,

When
of the

and we will now narrate the incidents that led up to it. Ibrahim Adil Shah died in 1557, Hussein Nizam
in

Shah was ruling
confusion

Ahmednagar.

He
a

at

once took advantage
accession
to invade

attendant upon

new

the Bijapur territory, which he did in conjunction Avith

Kutb

Shah, who, however, soon deserted him, and he had to retire
within his
his

own dominions.
Ibrahim,
at

Ali Adil Shah,

who had succeeded

father

once resolved to revenge the unprothe

voked

same time endeavoured to regain Sholapore and Kallean. For this purpose he formed an alliance with Rama Rajah and Kutb Shah, whilst Hussein Shah made overtures to Imad Shah of Berar, and strengthened the
attack,

and

at

100

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
l)y
tlic

.•illiniK'C

giving
v.mIuc
is

tlic

hittci'

his

dniiglitcr
(o

in
t\\v,

iiiarringc.

A
A)i

proof of

Avliich

vvns
in

attached
Ihe

fiioiidship of

Rama Rajah
A(hl
Shall

to
in

he found
order
at to

unusual
his

sfe|)

which

took

gain

aUiancc.
to

A
tlie

son

of

Rama Rajah happening
accompanied hy
to
f)nly

this

time

die,

SuUan,
the

one hundred followers, went
the

all

way

Vijayanagar

to

])ay

Rajah a

visit of

condolence.

He

was hospitably received, and Fcrishta says that the wife of

Rama Rajah
But

adopted Ali Adil Shah as her son,
tw^o

in

order to

cement the friendship between the
this visit instead

Kings.
tlie

of

strengthening

friendship was,

in reality, the

cause of

its

dissolution.

Rama

Rajah,

who was
a

now an

old

man

of

over
of

ninety years

of age,

dis])layed

and made Adil Shah feel The author, from whom Ave have so often quoted, says that, when leaving the city, Rama Rajah did not accompany the Sultan, and that this affront rankled in his mind, though he did not consider it prudent to show any It will 1)e remembered signs of dissatisfaction at the time. that a similar want of respect excited the anger of Feroze Shah Bahmanee, Avhen he paid a visit to Deva Rajah, one hundred and fifty years previously. The local tradition adds another reason Avliy Adil Shah bore a grudge against Rama
consideral)le

amount

arrogance,

that he Avas a suppliant.

It is said that they were riding together through the and the Sultan seeing a number of pigs, observed to the Rajah that he could not understand hoAv Hindoos could The Rajah is said to eat the flesh of such uncleanly animals. have replied: "You Mahomedans eat fowls, do you not?" Of course the answer was in the affirmative. "Well," said the Rajah, "fowls pick their food from out of the dung of

Rajah.

city,

the

sw^ine,

so

that

they must be even more uncleanly than

the pigs which
as

you despise."
religion,

This

the

Sultan treasured up
to

an insult

to his

and resolved

avenge

it

when

the opportunity should come.

THE FALLlOF VTJAYANAGAR.
III

191

1558, the wnv which
oiif,

htul

hecii

delayed

l)y

iiegociations

broke

since

Nizam
Rajah,

iShali

indignantly
to

refused to restore

Slioh'i])()re.

Rama
a

true

his

])romise, assisted Adil
Shall,

Sliali

with
to

large

army, and

Kutl)

who

liad at first

promised
other side.

join

Nizam Shah,

speedily

forsook

him for the

This combination was too strong for
Tiic

Nizam Shah
waste and

to Avithstand.

whole of his territory was

laid

ravaged, and he himself
nagar.

was shut up
allies

in

his capital,
all

Ahmed-

Here the Hindoo

committed

kinds of excesses,

mosques were desecrated, and Syeds and holy men slaughtered, All this whilst their wives and daughters were detlowered. excited the indignation of the Mahomedan princes, but what probably intlamed them still more was the pride and arrogance He would not allow them to be of Rama Rajah himself. seated in his presence, and made them to Avalk in his train,
until he gave

them permission
as

to

mount.
his

At the

close of the
to give
this

war, he compelled both
certain districts

Kutb Shah and Adil Shah
of
assistance.

the price

In

up way

up Adil Shah had whilst

Kutb

Shah

gave

Kovilkondah,
to

and Kunbore, resign Outingpur and Bakrukobc.
Bankul,
filled

This termination of the war

Adil Shah with disgust.
for

He had
l)een

gained nothing for himself,

Sholapore had
to

not

taken,

and Ahmednagar had managed

hold out, but,

on the other hand, he had been made
co-religionists.

to resign
in

two

districts,

and had been disgraced and dishonoured

the eyes of his

He
and,

is if

said to have been a
so,

man
but

of considerable intelligence,

his

eyes

cannot
of

have

been

opened

to

the

inevitable consequences

the growing

in the face of the suicidal quarrels of the

power of Vijayanagar ^lahomedan Kings.
rival,

Accordingly, he conceived the idea of a league of the

edan

Kings with which
all.

to

crush

the

Mahomwho was now
the idea

overshadowing them

The first prince was revealed was Ibrahim Kutb Shah, of

to

whom

(lolconda.

He

at

l!12

HTSTOnr OF THE DECCAN.
siixiiiticd
liis

oiu'c

coDsciit,

;iii(l

offered
alliance

liis

services

;is

;i

me(li;it(>r

to

()l)taiii

not

only

tlic

of

Nizam
Sjiali

SJimIi,

of

Aliniednagar, but also the restoration to Adil
of 8holaj)ore.

of the fort

In order

to

effect

this

design, he despatehcd

Mustafa Khan, one of the most
Hijapur.

intelligent
to

of

his

iiohles,

to
in

Adil

Shah,

proving

himself
to

be

thoroughly

earnest, the ambassador,

went on
days,

negociation lasting for

some

Ahmednagar, and after a an arrangement was made.

Hussein Nizam
as a dowry.
to

81iali

agreed to give to Ali Adil Shah,

Chund

Bibi, his daughter, as wife,

and with her the
Sultan
great

fort of Sholaporc
liis

In return,
eldest

Adil Shah was to give
son.
iMurtiza.
])om|),

daughter
double-

Nizam Shah's

This

marriage was carried out with
treaties

and the mutual
in

having been solemnly
In

ratified, the

two princesses started
order to join
a
])rize

on the same day from their respective homes,
their

husbands.

Chund
has

Bibi

Adil
fort

Shah gained
of

infinitely

more valuable
the

than

the

Sholapore.

The

history

of

world

preserved

Queens, who have also been heroines,
to take a place in the

memory of many and Chund Bibi deserves
the

foremost of their ranks.

Tradition in

the Deccan

still

honours her, and more recently the story of

her

life

has been told in enthusiatic terms by Colonel

Meadows

Taylor.

The holy league being thus formed, was

also joined

by Bereed Shah of Bieder. The Sultan of Berar does not seem to have been invited, and took no part in it. In the
year 1564 the four princes met in the plains of Bijapur and

then marched to Tellicotta, on the Bijapur bank of the Kistna.

Though
lasted
it

the

preparations

for

this

undertaking

nuist

have

some time, Rama Rajah seems to have at first treated But when convinced of the fact of the alliance, he despatched his younger brother, Tinmia Rajah, with a large army, said to have consisted of one hundred thousand foot, twenty thousand horse, and five hundred elephant, to guard the passages of the Kistna. His second
with contempt.

THE FALL OF VIJAYANAGAli.
brotlier,
Venk;itM(li'i,
lie

l!»:{

sent

with

another

large

arniy

as

and himself followed with the whole The allied armies by a series of clever feints draw the Hindoos away from the only ])ractical)le managed to ford, after which, returning by a forced march they succeeded in crossing the river without opposition, and then drew up Hussein Nizam Shah, as was their forces in order of battle.
reserve,
his

of tlie rest of

forces

and commanded the centre; Ali Adil Shah commanded the right, and Kutb Shah with The artillery was fastened Bereed Shah the left wing. together by chains, and drawn up in front of the line, flanked
due
to

his

age,

took

the

lead,

on each side by the war elephants.
heard an account
of

I'erishta,

who

doubtless

the
of

battle
it,

— "Rama reproduce:
in the centre.

very graphic account

from eye-witnesses, gives a which we cannot do better than
his
left

Rajah

entrusted
his

to

his

brother

Eeltum (Timma?) Rajah, and

right to his other brother,

Venkatadri, asjainst Ali Adil Shah, while he himself

commanded

Tavo thousand war elephants and one tliousand

pieces of cannon were placed at different intervals of his line.

About twelve
to

o'clock in the day,

Rama Rajah mounted
officers,

a litter

in spite of the

remonstrances of his

who wished him

be on horseback, as much safer; but he said there was no occasion for taking precautions against children who would Both armies ])eing in motion, certainly fly at the first charge.

soon came to battle,
vast flights

begun the attack by of rockets and rapid discharges of artillery which
and
the infidels

did not discourage

the

allies.

A

general

action

took place,

and many

were slain on both sides.
his

Rama

Rajah, finding a

different behaviour in the

descended from
throne set with

litter,

enemy from what he had expected, and seating himself upon a rich

jewels,

embroidered

Avitli

gold

ordered his treasurer to
that he might

under a canopy of crimson velvet, and adorned with fringes of pearls, place heaps of money all round him,
on such of
his

confer rewards

followers,
13

as

I!tl

lllS'l'Oh'Y

or

TIIH IH'JCCAN.

deserved
t^old

his

.•ittciitioii.

There

were also

ricli

oniniuciits

of

and jewels
allies

tor the s.-ime ])iir|)ose.

The
they

iiilideis,
I'iglit

inspired

by the generosity of
of the

their

prinee, eharged

tiie

and

left

with

such

vigour,

that

were thrown
Xizani

into

disorder; and Ali Adil Shah and
of
victory,

KutI) Sliah

hegaii to despair
Sjiaii

and
in

])repare

for

retreat,

ihissein

remained
of

tirni

the

centre,
it

and pushed so vigorously,
to

that

Kama

Rajah, that

began

be confused;

upon which

mounted his litter, which was soon after let upon tlic approach of a furious elephant belonging to Nizam Shah, and before he had time to recover himself and mount a horse, a body of the allies took him prisoner, and conducted him to Chela Roomi, who commanded the artillery. He carried him to Nizam Shah, who ordered instantly his head to be struck off and placed upon the point
the Rajah again
fall

by the bearers

of a

long spear,

so

that

his

death

might be proclaimed
to

to

the

enemy.
their

The Hindoos, according
destroyed,
field

custom, when they

saw
allies

chief

fled

in

the

utmost confusion and

disorder from
Avith

the

of

battle,

and were pursued by the
their blood.
It is

such successful slaughter that the river which ran
of battle

near the

field

was dyed red with
authorities
that

computed by the best
infidels

one hundred thousand

were

slain

in

the

fight,

or

during the pursuit.
private

The

plunder was so great that

every

man

in

the allied

army became
and

rich in gold, jewels, effects, tents, arms, horses,

slaves, as the

Sultans

left

every
a

person in possession of

what he had acquired, only taking

few elephants for
of
this

their

own

use.

Firmans,

with
to

accounts
their

very

important

victory,

were despatched
as

several

dominions, and the

Sultans after the battle marched onwards into the country of

Rama Rajah
penetrated to

far

as

Anagoondy, and the advanced troops
which they plundered, razed the
all

Vijayanagar,

chief buildings,
IVaths/afiotK)

and committed

kinds of excess."
Faria-y-Suza

{Scoff's

The Portuguese

historian

(Kerr

THE FALL OF VLTAYANAGAR.
VI., 422) writes:
to a very

195

— "The
l)y

trade of India in 1566 was reduced

war between Vijayanagar and the Mahomechui Kings of the Deccan. The Vijayanagar King, who was tlien ninety-six years of age, was at first 'I'hc defeated and slain. successful, but in the end was
low ebb
the desohiting

Mahomedans
although
elephant
millions

spent

five

montlis

in

plundering Vijayanagar,
carried
Avith

the

natives

had

previously
jewels
royal

away
a

1,550

loads
of

of

money and
besides
the

above

luindred

gold,

chair,

whicli

was

of

inestimable

value.
as

In his
large
as

share

of the

plunder

Add

Shah,

got a diamond,

an ordinary egg and another of

extraordinary

size,

thougli

smaller, together with other jewels
whicli
still

of inestimable value."
all

The temples

remain almost

show

traces of this search for plunder,

and every hole and
years afterwards,

corner seems to have been ransacked.
the city

Two

was

visited

by the Venetian
still

traveller,

Caesar Predericke.

He

speaks of the houses as

standing, but in parts of the

city there

were nothing but tigers and wild animals.

Timma

Rajah, brother of

Rama

Rajah,

had then come back, and
In
this,

was endeavouring

to re-people the city.

however, he

never succeeded, and he also had to retire further south.

The

battle of Tellicotta

was a crushing blow

to the

Hindoo

rule of South India.

family withdrew
in the

first

The representatives of the old reigning to Penna Konda, and then to Chandragiri

North Arcot District, which remained the capital for more than two hundred years. But the country attached to this portion of the Hindoo family was very small in extent. After the defeat of Rama Rajah, all the vassal Rajahs asserted
their

own

independence.

^lysore,

themselves into independent

States,

Madura, and Tanjore formed and the country round

Vijayanagar was parcelled amongst petty chieftains and zemin-

was a loss rather than a gain to the Mahomedan States. For some time to come the mutual jealousy whicli existed amongst the Sultans
dars.
If anything,

the

fall

of Vijayanagar

1!)(;

jrn^Tony or tiik nECCAN.
llu'iii

])iVM-nU'(l
Ills

IVom
It

;ill()\viii^

(lie

one or

tlic

other (o extend
l)otli

(lomiiiioiis.

is

true

that

sul)se(|iieiitlv

(joleoiula

and

BiJajHir did

annex considerable
])enetit

tracts of the

Vijayanagar

territory,

bnt they did not

to anytliing like the extent

we should have imagined
the Sultans to be

after such an utter collapse.

Again,

the near presence of a ])owerful

Hindoo Kingdom com])elled

always in a state of preparedness for war.

This check removed, they seem to have reduced their armies,

and
each
to

to have spent their strength in perpetual struggles
otlier,

between

thus
to

fall

victims

making it easier for them, subsequently, Uama Kajah, the the Emperor of Delhi.
a

last of the

Vijayanagar Kings, seems to have been
ability

man

of

very considerable

and force of character.

A

passage

from the writer above mentioned, Caesar l^redericke throws some light upon the disputed question, as to Avhether he was a usurper or a descendant of the Second or Nursimha dynasty, He says that Rama Rajah and his two brothers, Timma and Venkatadri, had been captains of Krishna Deva Rajah (1509—30),
and that on
his death

they assumed the power, and kept his
in prison,

son, an infant,
to the people

named Sadashiva Rajah,
once a year.
This

showing him
reason of the
(1535).

explains

the
to

rebellion

of

Hoje Perumal Rajah alluded

before
kill

He

took advantage of

Rama

Rajah's absence to

the

young
of his

King, and to seat himself on the throne.
death has been
narrated.

The manner

When

this

occurred,

Rama

Rajah,

who had married Krishna Deva's daughter
"Antiquities of South
India,"
Vol.

(see Sewell's Tables,

H.,

248),

would be the
to

next representative of the family.

There seems

be

little

doubt that
struggle to

if

the

battle

of Tellicotta

had ended

differently,

Rama Rajah would

have crushed the
for

Mahomedan

States.

The

them was one

very existence.

Rama

Rajah's

arrogance in his later years shows to what an extent he had
asserted his supremacy over
final

the

Mahomedan Kings, and
])artly

his

disaster

seems

to have

been

due

to the

contempt

THE FALL OF
ill

VIJAYANAG All.
clear
tli;it

197

wliicli

a

man

must have been of extraordinary energy and bodily power to have
he lield
tlieni.

It

is

lie

taken a leading part in

the

battle,

at

so

advanced an age.

As
still

already stated, a descendant of the last Vijayanagar dynasty
lives at

Anagoondy,

close

by the ruins of the old

city.

UENEAlAXiV OK TllK
I''ir>it

VI.)

A YA.NACiAK KINGS.

ihiiKd^fji

15n<KA

Sangamma
].

ILVIUIIARA I

2.

A-D. 1336—50
3.

BUKKA 1350—70

Hakihaba il 1379—1401
!

4.

Deva Kajau
1401

I

— 1412

5.

VijAYA Bhupati
1418

6.

Deva Rajah —1447
ViRU'PAKSHA

II

7.

Second dynasty.
1.

Narasimha
1487(?)— 1509

Krishna deva Rajah 1509—1530
daughter Tiruma lamba

Third dynasty

=

Rama Rajah
1530—1564
Killed at
I

Tellikotta

{Taken from SewelVs

tables).

CHAPTER

XVIII.

AHMEDNAGAK AND BIJAPUR FROM THE FALL OF VIJAYANAGAR
TILL THE DEATH OF ALI ADIL SHAH (1580).
It was not long after the
fall

of Vijayaiiagar that dissensions

again broke out between the Malioiiiedan Kings of the Deccan.
Shortly after his return to
died,

Ahmednagar Hussein Nizam Shah
his son,

and was succeeded by
is

Murtaza (1565

— 1588),

the name of the Madman. For the first few years of his reign, Murtaza was a minor, and the regency was conducted by his mother, Khunza Sultana. Ibrahim Adil

who

known by

Shah,

taking advantage

of

Murtaza's

infancy,

led

an

army

::()i)

in STORY
\'c'iils:it;i(lri,

Oh'

THE DECCAN.
l)r()tlicr,

Mgniiist

IvaiiiM

R;ij;iirs

in

tlic

Ii()|H'

of
:i|)-

amiexing more of the Vijayanagar
pcaled to Alinicdnagar for
licl}),

territory.

Venkatadii

and, true to the old

Deccan
\'enretire.

policy of ])reveiitiiig any one of the roial

Kings from becoming

too ])owerful, the
katadri,

Queen Regent
Bijapur
troops
a

sent an

army

to assist to

and the

were

compelled

Peace was then concluded, and
of the

stipulation

made

that neither

Mahomedan Kings should conquer any

of the

Hindoo

The two ]\Iahome(hin armies then coalesced and marched against Berar, where Tufal Khan, The combined the Prime Minister, had usurped the authority. country, marched back to armies, after having ravaged the
territory without inutual consent.

Ahmednagar, where Ali Adil Shah, the Bijapur King, attempted young Sultan Murtaza. Khunza Sultana, to surprise the however, was warned in time, and managed to escape at night with her son and the Bija])ur King returned to his
capital re infectd.

For the next three years continual fighting

took

place

between
at

Ahmednagar and
in

Bijapur with

varying

success,

until

last,

1569,

Kishwar Khan, the Bijapur
territory with a large

General, invaded the

Ahmednagar
in

army.

The Queen Regent, with the young
this

Sultan,

marched

to

oppose

invasion,

but whilst

camp, Murtaza, having gained

over some of his nobles, suddenly asserted his oAvn independence,

took his mother prisoner,
himself at the head of the
fort

and having sent her away, placed
army.
Pie

then laid siege to the
assault,

of

Dharur,

which he carried by

the

Bijapur

General being killed by an
^lurtaza was
assisted

arroAv in the heart.

In this Avar

by Kutb Shah of Golconda, and the
to

two

Sultans

then

prepared

attack

Bijapur.

Dissensions

however, soon arose between them, and on Murtaza attempting to
seize the person of
to leave his

Kutb Shah,

the latter

made

his escape,

but had

camp behind, which was plundered by
Ahmednagar.
In
the

the

Nizam

Shahis. Murtaza then concluded peace with Ali Adil Shah, and

returned

to

following year an attack

AUMEDNAGAR AND BIJAPUIL
was made by
fort

201

the

Aliinednagar troops
Avliicli,

upon
proved

tlie

Portuguese
failure,
off

of

Revdauda,
according

however,

a

the

General,

to

Ferishta,

having been

bought

by

large presents, especially of Spanish wine.

After this repulse

Murtaza appointed Chengiz Khan
succeeded
to
in effecting

to

be his Minister and he
Chengiz Khan seems

several

reforms.

have been a
jealous

man

of considerable ability, and he soon saAv

that the
likely to

policy

pursued

by the

bring about their

own
of

ruin.

Deccan Kings was Accordingly, he formed
conquer as much of

a treaty with Ali Adil

Shah
to

Bijapur, under the terms of
to

which the
to

latter

was
to

be allowed

the Vijayanagar country as he could, whilst

be

at liberty Avas

annex
a

Berar (1572).
this

Ahmednagar was Sultan Kutb Shah
but he, on his

of Golconda
part,

not
in in

party to

treaty,

subduing the Hindoo Rajahs towards Ali Adil Shah being thus free, the mouth of the Godavery. attacked the strong fort of Adoni, which up to that at once
time had been considered

was employed Eastern Coast, and

extending his

dominions towards the

impregnable.

Adoni was defended

by eleven strong walls, and the citadel is situated on the top It had long been used by the Hindoo kings as a of a hill. As it seemed impossible to carry the place of safe refuge. fort by storm, it Avas closely invested, and at length yielded Flushed with this success, Ali Adil Shah peneto hunger. trated further into the Carnatic, and took several forts, and
amongst them Darwer,
strongest
forts
in

was held to Binkapore the Carnatic.
which
Gandikota,

be one of the
also
fell

to

his

on the right bank of the This fort Pennair river, in the present district of Cuddapah. is also one of considerable importance, and later on Avhen it
arms,
together

with

belonged

to

Golconda,

it

was
It

still
is

more strongly

fortified

by

the celebrated

Mir Jumla.
is

situated on the top of a hill

just at the entrance of the gorge, through

which the Pennair

rushes.

This gorge

very narrow, and the sides of the hills

1>02

lllS'l'OliV

OF
Tlic

'I'lll':

ni'A'VAN.
the
for

.'ire

;iliii()St

pcrpciulicular.

ii;iiiic

itself
;iii(l

siji-iiilies
it

tori

of

(lie

gorge (Gandi-gorge;
to

Kota-forl),

was
It

maiiv

years held

be of considerable impoitance.
later,

was

here, a

hundred years
Whilst the
his conquest

that

tlie

European

traveller,

Tavernier,

had an interview with Mir Jumla.
Bijapur

King was thus

successfully extending
his

into the Carnatic,

Murtaza Shah had turned

arms against Berar, where Tufal Khan was still at the head of the Government, and kept the person of the young King, Imad lie was soon driven from Ellichpur, Shall, in confinement.
and
for

some

months

wandered

about

together

with

the

yonng Sultan, from place to place, lie applied to Khandeish for assistance and shelter, but the King refused both, for At last fear of the vengeance of jMurtaza Nizam Siiali. Tufal Khan applied to the Emperor Abkar for help, and a letter was written to Murtaza Shah ordering him to desist. It is, hoAvever, a far cry from Berar to Delhi, and Murtaza
took no notice of the
not recognize.
Sultan
fell

command,

the authority of which he did

both

died,

Soon afterwards Tufal Khan and the young into Murtaza's hands, and wdiilst in confinement But though Murtaza had said, by poison. it is
into contact with another

thus met with a temporary success, his neglect of the Imperial

command brought him
but the whole of the
offered
to
his
letter,

power which
at

was destined ere long to overshadow, not only Ahmednagar,
Deccan.
as

Akbar, stung

the

slight

soon as

he heard of the death of

Tufal

Khan and

of the last of the

Imad Shah
affairs,

Sultans, resolved

to take an active part in

Deccan

and for that purpose

began to march towards Berar with an army of observation The ostensible reason assigned was hunting, but the (1576).
real

reason w^as to gain a footing to the south of the Vindhyas.

Murtaza

Shah

had,

moreover,

allow^ed

himself
his

to

jealous of the

power of Chengiz Khan,

Minister.

become It was

whispered to him that Chengiz Khan contemplated assuming

AHMEDNAGAR AND
royal

BLJAPUU.
later

203

honours

in

Bernr,

and,

wlien

on,
left

the

Minister

suggested to the Sultan that he slionkl be

there with an

army

to

defend the recent conquest from attacks, either on
of

the part

Khandeish or Delhi, the Sultan deemed

this to

be a confirmation of the accusation.
the Minister's physician to
give

He
of

accordingly ordered

him
told

a dose of poison in his the of
order, at once

medicine.

Chengiz

Khan when
his

submitted.
intentions,

He

protested

innocence
fatal

any
after

rebellious

and swallowed the

draught,

leaving a

body should be sent to Kerbela. * After his death, the King found out his mistake, but it was too late, and Murtaza retired in disgust to his capital, where, for some time, he shut himself up in his palace. During this time his favourite, named Sahib Khan, with a
message
to the

King

that his

*rerislita

follows:

— "The

(Scott's

Translation)
servant,

gives the

latter

in

full.

It

ran

as

faithful

Meeruk, the sun of whose

age has

passed through sixty mansions, and was hastening to the seventieth, having
that the draught

head of submission on the threshold of your Majesty, represents mixed with the water of life, he has knowingly drunk, and with eager desire. Having placed the treasures of duty and
laid the

loyalty to the Sultan

by whose bounty

I

was cherished
life

in the casket

of

my
hope

bosom,

I

shut

my

eyes

from the

observance of strangers.

As

lasting as the grave
I

may

well be to me, so be the

of your Majesty.

this much from the Sultan, that, esteeming me, both in life and among the number of loyal servants, he will act according to the maxims I send by my own hand that he will send my body to Kerbela that he will esteem certain Amrahs named in the petition, as worthy of distinction, and entertain my foreign servants among his own guards." The murder of Chengiz Khan is another example of the inveterate feud between the Deccanees and the foreigners. As soon as a foreign Mahomedan by his ability and honesty raised himself above

death,

;

;

the heads of the Deccanee nobles,
hatred.

he was the object of their relentless

The

most

faithful

services

were
instill

not

able

to

overcome the

suspicion which they

were

able

to

in the

minds of the Sultan.

and we constantly
accused.

find the

devoted servants, to discover when, too

King himself ordering the death of his most late, that they had been unjustly

iiui.

insTonv OF
associates,

tiik nj-JccAN.
all

hand of dcpnivud
ill

coiiiiiiitU'd

kinds of excesses

the

city,

not scrupling to

seize

the

daiigliters

and even

the sons of noblemen for the vilest purposes. One no1)leiiiaii of ancient family was even killed, whilst protecting the honour of his daughter, and another was ordered to change his name,

because

favourite.

liapi)ened to be tlie same as that of the insolent The Sultan himself seems to have been half-insane. On one occasion he left his palace alone, and made his way He was, hoAvtowards the tomb of the Saint Imam Reza.
it

ever,

recognized by a country-man,
in

and persuaded
he found

to return.

The indignation
favourite, Sahib
to

the

city

at

the insolent behaviour of the
it

Khan,

Avas so great, that

necessary

escape,

but the Sultan
to return.

followed

and overtook him, and

induced him
of the

Salabat Khan, destined to be one of
Ministers, Avas the representative

the best of the

Ahmednagar

nobleman

had

to retire

favourite,

as against Sahib Khan, but for the time he from Court. TJie Sultan, in order to please his noAv made an unprovoked attack upon Bieder, Avliere
AA'as

Ali Bereed

ruling.

The malcontents
had
to

in

Ahmednagar took

advantage of this absence to proclaim the Sultan's brother,

Boorahan Shah, and Murtaza
capital to suppress the

return in haste to his

rebellion.

In this extremity, the Sul-

tan had to send the favourite
of troops

again for Salabat

Khan, Avho insisted upon

being dismissed.
sent Avith

This
as

was done, and a body
escort,

him defending him, they murdered
Avere

an

but instead of
Avay.

him

on

the

Salabat

Khan succeeded

in quelling

the revolt Avithout difficulty,

and

Boorahan Shah fled to Bijapur, Avhere he was kindly received

by Ali Adil Shah.

Salabat

Khan

noAv

became Minister of

for several years. Ahmednagar, and ruled the country Ferishta says: "The country of Mheerut Avas never so Avell governed as by him, since the reign of Sultan Mahmoud Bahmanee." For the time the threatened interference of Akbar was

Avell

AHMEDNAGAR AND
averted.
that his

BlTAPUR.

206

Either

he thought

tJie

time had

not yet come, or

army was not strong enough. At all events he did not cross the Vindhya mountains, and shortly afterwards marched back to Delhi.
It is

now time

to revert to the affairs of Bijaptir.

We

left

Ali Adil Shah in the midst of his
It

conquests in the Carnatic.

must ahvays he remembered

that the

Mahomedan
forts

conquests,

not only in the Deccan, but
conquests by a foreign

also throughout India,

were the
fort

army
left

of

the

and strongholds.
once
or a
garrison
ryots

The country
taken,
it

itself

was

untouched,
like

and the

was

either

razed

Vijayanagar,
on.

being

left

there,
till

the

army marched
their

The Hindoo

Avere left to

their fields as before,

and the only difference

to

them

Avas,

that they jDaid

land-tax to a
artizans

Mahomedan,

instead of
still

a

Hindoo

landlord.
as

The
it

plied their crafts

formerly,

and merchants was only the members

of the royal families
large

who

retreated before the conquerors.

A

number
that

of the landed

proprietors

were also allowed to
to

remain, Avith authority to collect the land revenue on condition,

however,

they

paid

a

fixed

rent

the

Grovernment.

Over each small district was placed a Mahomedan Govcrnoi', who was supported by a small body of troops, with which
he kept order.
the
It

Avas

the

presence

of these outposts, Avith

army

at

headquarters ready to back them up, that kept

no occupation of the country by the Mahomedans, and no settlement of the conquerors in The Hindoo population remained a nation as the rural parts. separate and as apart as it had been Avlien they were ruled by their own countrymen. Their customs and their religious rites remained the same. When the Avave of Avar swept over
the country in order.
Avas

There

their villages, then
in

temples and shrines were desecrated, but

those

places

Avhicli

had not been
still

army, the old structures
peace,

remained,

they

Avere

not

molested.

by the foreign and during times of Some of these Hindoo
visited

i20r>

HlSTOnV OF THE DECCAN.
proved
R't.-iiiuM's

Zoiiiiiidnrs
llicir

faitliful

scrv.-nits,

.-iiid

hi'oii^lil

witli
aiiiiics.

iliciii

own

to

serve

in

the

Miilioniedaii

In

way tlie constitution of the Maliornedan armies of the Deccan underwent a gradual change. Wlietlier it was owing between tlie foreign and tlie Deccanee to constant feud
this

Maliomedans, or whether foreigners found greater attractions
in

the armies of

the

great

Delhi

Emperors, cannot now be

said,

but

it

seems certain that there was no longer the same
volunteer

(juantity

of

adventurers

from foreign

parts,

from

It therefore became the from among the Hindoo warlike tribes the Beydars, Mahrattas and Rajputs. The chief commands were still bestowed upon Maliomedans, and there were also special regiments composed exclusively of Maliomedans amongst whom were also Arabs and Abyssinians. The armies, however, were very largely made up of Hindoos, and not only did this

whom

to recruit the

Deccan armies.
ranks
largely

custom

to recruit the

cause a change in their system of Avarfare, but
ally to a

it

led eventu-

weakening of the army
as

itself.

The Mahratttas, or
cavalry,

l^ergees,

they are

termed by the Mahomedan historians,
themselves
as

especially

distinguished

irregular

and
have

Avere greatly

employed

in the hilly country
at

which ends
to

in the

Western Ghauts.
had any
a jaghir,
(or

Mahomedans

no

period seem

partiality for hills
estate)

and jungles.
that

When
it

they received

they preferred

should be in the

plains, if possible,

not far from the capital.
seats,

Even

then, they

seldom resided in their country
hunting or purposes of sport.
Courts
Avitli

except occasionally for

They preferred the vicinity of and their luxury. They therefore left the wilder portions of the Deccan in the hands of these Hindoo chieftains, stipulating only that each Zeminthe
all

their

intrigues

dar should bring a certain

number

of retainers into the field.

In this way there gradually grew up a hardy race of mountaineers, ahvays the
in

best

stuff

for soldiers, wdio, brought
Avere

up

their

own

faith

and

traditions,

yet

taught the art

AHMEDNAGJR AND
of

BIJAPUB.
a

207

war by

their conquerors,
to

and only awaited
the
fact,

time of danger

and of weakness
their

raise

standard of revolt,

and assert

own independence.

This was, in

the origin of the

Mahratta nation, and the Sultans of Bijapur and Ahmednagar

may he

said to have educated

and brought

into existence the

nation which, before long, was to take, not only their places,

but very nearly to acquire the sovereignty of India.
It was about this time (1578) that the first signs of the coming danger showed themselves. A number of the Bergee chiefs broke into excesses, and an army was sent into their The disciplined forces of hilly country by Ali Adil Shah. Bijapur could make no head against these hill robbers, and

after skirmishing

for

nearly a year,

they had to retire with
the
Sultan's

considerable

loss.

Mustafa

Khan,
of

Minister,
in

perceiving

the

impossibility

using regular

troops

so

inaccessible a country, then

devised

the perfidious scheme of

enticing the chiefs to Bijapur, and of there slaughtering them.

To

this

plan

Adil Shah

agreed,
of
a

and

an instrument having

been found in the
refused to

person

Brahmin, named Vasoojee

A few and amongst them the principal chief, Handeattum (Hanumanta?) Naick, Avho retired with his followers to Bilkonda. The rest came to Bijapur, and there
Punt, he was despatched to entice tliem by promises
fall

into the snare,

they were
are given
to in

all

assassinated.

No

details of this foul act of treachery

by the Mahomedan historians, and it is merely alluded passing. There can, however, be little doubt that this act

of cruelty

must have long

lived in the

memory

of the jVlahrattas,

and was possibly a principal factor in exciting a race-hatred which was to serve eventually to bind them together as a
nation.

Up

to this time

there

seems
find

to

have been a certain
the Hindoos,

amount

of cordiality between the

Mahomedans and

but soon after this period,
changed, and
it

we

this spirit to

be entirely

may

not therefore be unreasonable to assign

this treacherous act as

one of the causes of

this

estrangement.

t>nK

HISTORY OP THE DECCAN.
Ali
a

In 1580,
servants
in

Adil

Sh.-ili

died,

;iss;issin;itc(l

by

one of

liis

hiawl,
in

and
ninth

was
year.

succeeded
Ali

hy

his

ne])lie\v,

Ibrahim,
of

tlien

his

was a ninnificent
at

jjatron
still

arcliitecturc,

and

many

of

his

l)nil(lings

Bija])ur

remain.

The Jnmma

moscjne,

the

large

masonry pond near

the Shahapur Gate, and the water-courses which caiiied water through all the streets of the city are attributed by Ferishta During liis reign, the first and)assadors were to this King.

sent

from Delhi

to

Bijapnr,

and many learned men

visited

his court

from Persia, Arabia, and Turkey.

GENEALOGY OF THE

Nl'/AM SHAHl DYNASTY.

(Ahmednagar),
1.

Amad Behari
1490-1508

(revolted from the liulmiaiii

Kino-dom)

2.

By

his wife

Amina

Burhan I 1508—1553

By

his wife

Mariyam

3.

Husain 1553—1565

Abdul Khader
11.

Shah Ali

Murtaza II 1599—1607

4.

MURTAZA I 1565—1587
5.

7.

BlTRHAN

II

1590—1594

Miran 1587^1589
6.

Ismail

8.

Ibrahim
1594

1589—1590
9.

Ahmed Ibn Shah Tahir
10.

1594—1595 Bahadur 1595—1599

(N.B.

After

Bahadur Ahmednagar was annexed
his

to

Delhi, hut Malik
of

Amher
II

maintained
afterwards
in

independence
sole ruler at
his

at first

as

deputy

Murtaza

and
death

as

Dowlatabad and Aurangabad

until his

1626 when

son

was conquered and the whole of the kingdom

annexed

to Delhi).

14

(iKNFALOdV OK

TIIK ADII. SIIAIII

DYNASTY,

i

I'.i.i

aimh).

1.

Aiii'i,

MrzAi'j'AK Yi'sfi' Ann,

1489—1511

ISMAEL AdIL ShATI
1511

— 1534

daiio-liter

married

Ahmed Shah Bahmani

Mariyam married BrRHAN Shah of Ahmednagar

3,

Malu Adil Shah
1534—1535
4.

Ibrahim Adil
1535

— 1557

a daiii;bter

Married Ala-ud-din Imad Shah of Berar

Ali Adil 1557—1579

Tahmasp

G.

Ibrahim Adil 1579—1626

Ismail

7.

Muhammed Adil
1626—1656

8.

Ali Adil 1656—1659
SiKANDER 1659—1686.

9.

MAIN STREET.

HYDERABAD.

CHAPTER

XIX.

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND AND THE FALL OF AHMEDNAGAR.
Ill

1580, the year after the death of Ali Adil Shah, there

died also Ibrahim Kiitb Shah of Golconda.
in succession

He

Avas the foiiitli
It

from
in

his fatlicr,

the first King, Sultan Kuli.

has been narrated liow Sultan Kuli was assassinated whilst in
the

mosque
This

Kuli.

1543, and was succeeded by his son, Jainshid King reigned for seven years only, until 1550.

212

Iff

STORY OF
was

'ffff;'

f>ECCAN.
ciigaji,^'^

Dmluy:^

this

tinu'

he

l"re(|uciitly

in

the various

quarrels hetwceii

Hijapiir,

niedcr, and Ahmo(hia«i;ar, cither on
a to

one side or the
sagacity,

otlier.

He was

man
he

ot"

considerahle

j)olitieal

and always contrived
(|uari'el

on the wiiniing
to

side,

so

that out of each

he managed

dvnw some advantage
reign,

for himself.
his

For almost the wliole period of Jamshid's
living
at

brother, Ibrahim, was

Vijayanagar, protected by
-lamsliid died,
his son,
six

the

Hindoo King Rama Rajah.
])roclaime(l
J

When
King,

Sultan Kuli, was

l)ut

reigned

only for

months.
ular;
tlie

lis

Minister, Saif
revolted,

nobles

called

Khan, made himself very unpopin Ibrahim and placed him
to

on the throne.
protection
wdiicli

At

tirst

in

gratitude

Rama Rajah

for the

he had received, the relations between Vijaya-

nagar and Golconda w^ere of a very friendly character.
after his accession Ibrahim

Soon

Shah was

invited

by Nizam Shah

to join in an alliance against Bijapur,

and was only dissuaded
Rajah.

from so doing by a letter from
is

Rama

The following

the text of the letter:

"Be

it

known

to

your Majesty that

since the

two courts of
Avas

now many years Bijapur and Ahmednagar have been
it

is

in a constant state of warfare, and that the balance of power

between them
paign on the
either.
It

so

equal,

tliat,

although every year each
habit of

of these sovereigns

had been
that

in

the yet

making

a cam-

others

frontiers,

no advantage accrued to

now
scale

appears

youi'

Majesty (whose ancestors

never interfered in those disputes) has marched an army to

Nizam Shah, without having any cause of enmity against Ibrahim Adil Shah of As a friendBijapur, who has accordingly sought our alliance.
turn
the
in

favour

of

Hussein

ship has long subsisted between

our court and your Majesty,

we have thought

tit

to

lay

these

arguments before you

to

induce your Majesty to relinquish the offensive alliance which your Majesty has formed, and by returning peaceably to your capital, show a friendly disposition towards both parties, who

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
will

213

at'terwards

coiiclndc

a

pence

and

put
II.,

an
p.

end
476.)

to

tliis

protracted war."

Qlktorkal Sketch, Vol.
to this
in

Ibrahim Kutb Shah yielded

request,

and not only
his

withdrew
troops to

his

army, hut

the

following year sent a body of
in

assist

Rama

Kajah

the

revolt

of

uncle, to

we Kutb Shah engaged witli his own affairs, but in the meantime Rama Rajah's power had gone on steadily increasing. The letter cpioted above sliows what the Hindoo Rajah's policy was, and we have seen how he played off Rijapur against
For the
next few years
tind

which we have already alluded.

Ahmednagar,
until he

first

siding with the one, and tlien with the other,
affairs of the

had made himself the arbiter of the

Deccan.

And now we

tind another instance of liow in politics

there can be no sentiment and no feelings of gratitude.

Rama
we have
sit

Rajah's arrogance increased with his power, until, as
seen, he

would not allow the Mahomedan Sultans

to

in

his presence, or to mount their horses until he gave the order. Then it was that Ali Adil Shah, the adopted son of the Hindoo Rajah's mother, proposed the alliance of Mahomedans against the infidel, and Ibrahim Kutb Shah, who owed his

very existence

to this

Rama
the

Rajah,

concluded

the negociations.
Tellicotta,

The
the

result of

alliance

was the battle of

and

downfall
to

of

Hindoo
in

Kingdom.

Golconda
its

does not

seem

have benefited nuich

an extension of

boundaries

Kutb Shah had his hands full with the Hindoo Rajahs on the Eastern Coast, all of whom had been allied with Vijayanagar. AVhilst he was subduing these, Ali Adil Shah spread his coiupiest into the Carnatic, and the Golconda boundary towards the South still remained the
towards the south.
Kistna. It
rich
this
is

probable that Kutb

Shah began
and

to realise

how
and
the

country

was
of

in

gold

precious
history,

stones,

throughout the
comparatively

rest

the

Golconda

we
the

find

Sultans more engaged with their

own

affairs

and abstaining
in

speaking— from

interfering

constant

21-1.

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Aliiiicdiiagnr.
\\\]

disputes hctwocii liijapur and
of the
wealtli

liave

spoken

of

the

Golcoiidu
are
a

coiiutiy

in

jewels
it

and gold.
as avcII
to
at

The mines
state
at

of

Goleoiida
that

proverh,

hut
a

is

onee

thei'e

never

was

diamond mine

Golconda, or anywliere witliin
celebrated diamond mines were

eiglity
all

miles of the fort.

Tlie

situated in the country that
of

now forms
Nellore,

the

British

districts

Kurmd, Cuddapali, and
to,

and the diamonds were brought
Golconda,
tlie

and

stored

in,

the royal fort of

but as the merchants mostly

re-

sorted

there,

they gave

name

of

Golconda diamonds

to

stones that were really found elsewhere.

From
w^ars.

the battle

of

Tellicotta

u})

to

the end of his reign,

Ibrahim Kutb 81iah was engaged

in

very few of the Deccan

The

policy

of

the

Golconda
as

Kings seems always to
as

have been to mix
affairs.

themselves

little

possible in

Deccan
devote
at

The consequence was

that

he

was

able

to

himself to the improvement of his country.

The

fort

Gol-

conda was entirely rebuilt and strengthened, many
w^cre erected there,

fine palaces

and several large irrigation tanks, among
sheet
of
w^ater

them being
derabad;

the

beautiful

now^

known

as the

Hussein Sangur Tank, situated between Hyderabad and Secunthe

dam
the

at

Budwal,
world.

e\.c.,

&c.

Ferishta says
like

that

during his prosperous reign
the

"Telingana,

Egypt, became

mart

of

whole

Merchants
it;

from Turkistan,

Arabia,

and Persia resorted to

and they met with such
it

encouragement that they found
frequently.

in

inducements to return
foreign
parts
daily

The
at

greatest

luxuries

from
of
his

abounded Shah died

this

King's

hospitable

board."

Ibrahim Kutb

in

the

thirty-iirst

year

reign,

and out of

thirty children, six sons

and thirteen daughters survived him. must now return to Bijapur. When Ali Adil Shah died (1579), the most popular personage in Bijapur w\as his wife,

We

Chand Bibi, who, it will be remembered, was the sister of She was a woman of great inte]the Ahmednagar Sultan,

THJ!]

STORY OF (JUEEN CHAND.
She acconipaiiicd
the
licr liusl)aii(l in his

215

ligeuco and activity.

cam-

paigns and rode by his side to battle.
a large

During times of peace
were entrusted
to her,

portion

of

public

affairs

and she gave audiences and transacted business in o])en durbar. She was beloved by all, not only for her daring, but also for
her justice

and

firmness.

When
of

her

husband died, Chand
associating with herself

Bibi assumed the direction

affairs,

Kamil Khan Deccanee.
Sultan,

Every day, except Wednesdays and

Fridays, public halls of justice were held, at which the

young

who was only

nine years

old,

appeared seated on the
to the

throne.

For some time
She called
fled,

matters went on well, but then the

co-regent appears to

have been guilty of some insult
in

Queen. and

Kishawar Khan, and on
off

his

appearance

Kamil Khan

but was overtaken four miles from the city

killed, his

head being cut

and carried back.
but he
very

Kishawar

Khan was now made
nobles,

co-regent,

soon began to

indulge in ambitious designs.

He

excited the hostility of the

who

advised
of

the

Queen

to

send for Mustafa Khan,
of this,

the Governor

Binkapur.

Kishawar Khan hearing
had
this

despatched an order to a Jaghirdar living near Binkapur to
assassinate

Mustafa Khan

— and

order sealed with the

royal

seal.

The order was
at

carried

out,

and Mustafa Khan

was bow-strung whilst
for

prayers.

Matters

now came
in

to an

open outbreak between the Queen and Kishawar Khan, and
a

time the latter was successful.

Acting

the

young

King's name, he procured an

order confining Chand Bibi in

the fort of Satara on the accusation that she had invited her

brother to invade Bijapur from Ahmednagar.

Kishawar Khan

had now possession of the King's person, and for some time
exercised despotic })ower.

As soon
they
at

as the

troops heard of the

Queen's imprisonment,
determined to depose

once marched upon Bijapur,
In this

movement they were supported by the people whose love for Queen Chand was unbounded, Indeed, when Kishawar Khan rode through the
tlie

tyrant.

216

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
ill

city

coniijaiiy

witli

tliu

youiip;

King,

lie

was greeted by the

populace with
dirt

hoots
at

and

hisses,

and even the

women threw
Khan).

and ashes

him,

reviling
a

him
holy

as

the

oppressor of the
(j\Iustafa

Queen,

and the murderer of

Seyd

Kishawar Khan, seeing that the whole peo})le and the army were against him, escaped from the city, and leaving the young

King

in

one of the royal gardens,

fled first to

Ahmednagar,

went on to Golconda, where he was soon afterwards assassinated by a relative of IMustafa Khan. At this point I cannot do better than quote the words
but being refused shelter there,
of one far better qualified to write the history of the

Deccan
give the

and who,

in

his historical

romance

of

"A

Noble Queen,'' has
I

done

full

justice to the
:

memory

of Chaiid Bibi. *

extract verbatim

"Delivered from Kishawar Khan, the young King
sent
for
his

at

once

aunt,

and

her

office

of

Regent was resumed.
and
the
factious

The new
all

Minister, Ekhlas Khan, was an Abyssinian, and, like
tribe,

his

violent

and

uncontrollable,

dissensions which ensued between

Deccanees and Abyssinians,
streets,

which led

to

bloody contests in the

encouraged the
at a

invasion of the

kingdom by the Kings

of Berar, Bieder, and

Golconda, and the close investment of the city followed
time when there were not two thousand ti'oops for
a brave and faithful soldier,
its

defence.

Ekhlas Khan, though turbulent as a Minister, was, however,

and the

city

was well defended.

The Queen, accompanied by her nephew the King, went from post to post at night, though the weather was the severest of
the

rainy

season,
of

cheei-ing,

encouraging,
the

and
the

directing

all.

Two
in

divisions
off

cavalry without

walls

did good service

cutting

su])plies
flanks,

and
at

forage
last

from

enemy,

and
city

harassing
wall
w^as
fell

their

but
a

twenty yards of the
rain,
in

down
Colonel

after

night

of

heavy

and an assault

imminent, but, owing to dissensions
late

the enemy's camp,

The

Meadow

Taylor.

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
(lid

21!

not
tlic

take

|)lacc'.

iMoaiiwliiU^

(lie

(^)n('cii,

takiii«>;

advantage
hut

of

respite,
tlie

not

only
of

gnarded
tlu;

the

hieacli

in

j)erson,
tlie

collected
herself,
])lete(l

masons
to
left

city,

and

setting

(example

and freely distributing rewards,
in

had the breach coniof

time

])revent

any

chance

attack
all

by storm.
entreaties

She had never
rest

the spot by day or night, and

for her to s[)are hersi^lf

from the inclement weather and take
the

were unavailing.
sore straits to which

"The

hingdom had been reduced
])arty

by the violence and obstinacy of the Al)yssinian
the

now
to

struck them so forcibly, that their leaders went in a

l)()(ly

Queen and
safe.

laid

doAvn
Avith

their

authority,

beseeching her to

do what she pleased
Avere

them

so long as she
this

and the King
earnest sub])ossessed

The Queen received
spirit.

evidently
Minister,
in less

mission in a generous
the contidence of
all,

A
of

new
the

who

was appointed, and
old

than a month

an
at

army
the

of twenty thousand

troops had collected
spirited

capital.

The Queen's devotion and
confidence
in
all,

personal

valour had

inspired

which now amounted

to positive enthusiasm.

The

city

than

a

year,

its

weak

garrison

had been invested for more was often mutinous and
the

despairing,

a

large

breach

had

occurred in

works,

and
this

anarchy ])revailed throughout the whole kingdom.
noble

Yet

woman had redeemed
the

all

by her personal example, and
allies

the siege was raised,

several

retiring to their

own

dominions.

And now
it

the

Queen hoped
yet.

for peace.

"Alas!
military

was not to be

Dilawar Khan,

one of the

usurping the executive

commanders, attacked the Minister, and blinded him, power. Many other atrocities were
of

committed, and again the Queen's authority was reduced to
the

mere control
spite

the

palace

and

education of the King.

Hut, in

of

many

cruelties,

Dilawar Khan was an able
be respected,

administrator; the resources of the kingdom were again devel-

oped,

its

Goveriunent begaii

to

and no more

2i»0

If I

STORY OF THE DhVCAN.
its

attacks

were

made upon
crowded

jjossessions.

'I'lie

events

I

liiive
tlie

detailed were

into the space of four years,

and as

King was
she
so
still

approacliini;'

the

age

at

wiiich
it

his

majority couhl

be dechired, the Qneen ho|)ed, that with
intensely

the rest and peace
to
her.
liut

longed

for

would come

there

was

more
at

to he done.

"Not

nija})ur,

hut

in

her native city Alnnednagar.

The

King Murtuza asked for the hand of Khodeija Sultana, the sister of his ward the King, for his son the Prince Hussein, and considering that all trouble at Bijapur was at an end, the

Queen Chand accompanied
being escorted

the

bride-elect,

the

Royal

party

by the choicest
to

of

the

Alnnednagar cavalry.

She had hoped
that

hnd peace

in

her old home; but she found
faction,

home more convulsed with
always violent,
life

and more distracted
left
it.

within and without, than
JNIurtuza,

when she had had become in
at

Her

brother,

reality

mad, and had
to

attempted the
his father in

of his son

Meeran, who,

in revenge, attacked

the

palace

Ahmednagar, and caused him

be suffocated in a hot bath.
is

An

account of this revolution

given minutely by the historian Ferishta,
of the palace guards, and which
is

who was
not,

in

comits

mand

very dramatic in

details,

but

too

long for

extract.

He

does

however,
long

mention the Queen Chand,
at

who

nuist

have been in the fort
did not

the

time

of
act

the
of

tragedy.
parricide,

The
and,

new King
after

survive this
seized

a

few months, was
amidst
the

by
the

his

Minister

and

publicly

beheaded

execrations of the people.
arose;
fort

After his death a frightful tumult

was

carried
chiefly

by

the

mob, and hundreds of
perished.

persons of distinction,

foreigners,

A

period

of anarchy then ensued,

when

Ismail, a son of Boorhan,

who

was brother of Murtuza Nizam Shah, and, therefore, nephew^ of Queen Chand, was declared King; and Jumal Khan, head of the Deccanee party, constituted himself Regent and Minister, This revolution w^as opposed by Bijapur and Berar;

THE STORY OF QUEEN
and the troops of the
but peace
wearied by constant
hitter

CHANT).
Juiiial

221

were defeated by
Bijapur,
atrocities
to join
it,

Kliaii;

was coiichided
strife

witli

and

Queen Chand,
slie

and

which

liad

no

power

to control,

was allowed
Avitli

the liijapur

army then
in peace.

in the field,

and returned

though with no authority,
to

to the capital,

there, as she trusted,

end her days

She was received by the people with their former enthusiasm,
and by the young King with no diminution of
but she took no part in public
his old affection;
affairs, which, under the young At Ahmednagar other revolutions

King, were very prosperous.
followed with
Avliich

this

tale

has

no

concern.

Ismail,

who

had succeeded, was,

after

some

time,

attacked by his father,

Boorhan, who had obtained the

aid and

sympathy of Akbar,

Emperor
reigned

of

Delhi,

and was

deposed,
in

and Boorhan himself

till

his death in

1594
will
its

comparative peace.

He was

succeeded by his son Ibrahim, a weak, violent prince, and the
fortunes of the kingdom
of the present story
to

be understood from the course

At Bijaj)ur Queen Chand lived in peace, and only assumed local authority at the request of her nephew, whenever his temporary absence -was
close.

necessary on tours of his dominions or in the

field.

"Such were
I

the

real

antecedents

of

our 'Noble Queen.'

trust they

may
be

not

be considered out of place in a work

professedly of fiction, but tend to

make more

intelligible that

Pew

strange and confused. England know that the contemporary of our Queen Elizai^eth in the Deccan kingdoms was a woman of equal
otherwise,
jjerhaps,
in
ability, of ecpial political

which would

talent,

of e(|ual, though in a different

sense, education

and acconqjlishments, who ruled over a realm and
as intelligent,

as large, a population as large, as

and as rich
her
all

England; a

preserved

woman by her own

who,

surrounded by jealous enemies,
valour

personal

and

endurance

kingdom

from

destruction

and

partition;

who through

temptations and exercise of absolute power, was at once simple.

222

IIIS'I'OIIY

OF

'I'llh'

PHCrAN.
she

•roiicroiis,
I'clitrious,

t'i'Miik,

;iii(l

iiicrcil'iil

as

was

cliasU-,
all

virhious,

and

cliaritablu

— one

who,

aiiioiiu;

the

women

of

India, stands out as a jewel

without Haw and beyond
is

})i'i('e."

Tn

tlie

extract g-iven
at

above reference
of

made
a

to the ti'a<i;edy

which occurred
account seems
to tlic favourite

Ahmednagar,
Murtaza
person
to

which

more

detailed

to be called for here.

Wc

have already alluded

of

Shall,

Salicb

Khan.
of

After this

minion's death, he was succeeded by another,

a dancer,

named

Futteh Shah.
over his
royal

This

took
obtain

advantage
large

his

influence

master

grants

of

lands and

gifts of jewels.

At

length, he asked for

two necklaces which

had formed a part of the plunder of Rama Rajah, and which were composed of the most valuable rubies, emer.dds, and The Sultan ordered them to be given to him; but pearls.
Salabat

Khan,

the

Minister,

unwilling

that

such

treasures

should be alienated, substituted two strings of
their place.

mock

jewels in

Futteli
to

Shah soon discovered
King,
out
the

this imposition,

and
the

complained
jew^els

the
laid

who,
his

thereupon
inspection.

ordered
Salabat
the
all

all

to

be

for

however,

concealed
this,

most
so

precious,

and
to

Khan, King on
the rest

discovering
into the

became
all

angry that he threw^
save

tire.

His Minister endeavoured
destroyed.
It

them,

but

the

pearls

were

now
of

became
all

apparent

that the Sultan was a

mad man,
control.

and,

indeed, from this time

forward he threw
allow his
or to send her
first

off all

First

he refused to

son Meeran's marriage with the Bijapur Princess,

back again unless Ibrahim Adil Shah would

hand over the fortress of Sholapore, wdiich, it will be remembered, had been given as the dowry of Chand Bibi. Salabat This led to a declaration of war from Bijapur.
Khan, recognizing the impossibility of serving a madman, now resigned office, and wns sent in honourable confinement to the

fort

of

Rajapur.

The new

Minister,

Kassim Beg,

at

once

concluded peace with Bijapur, and then proceeded to celebrate

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
the
lonf>-

223

deferred innrringe.
lie

The

iSultairs

iiiiuhiess

now took

another form, and

conceived an

unnatural jealousy of his

son, Meeran Hussein,

who had
in

just been married.

He made

the

young prince sleep when he was asleep, set
and
calling

a

tire

to

room near his own, and then, it. The young j)rince awoke
was rescued by the favourite
Dowlatabad.
the
to

in time,

for

help

Futteli Shah,

and made
the

his escape to

On

ascer-

taining that

victim had
his

escaped,

Sultan

was highly
otRce.
rc])re-

enraged,

and

ordered

Ministers

send orders to have

him killed, and when they refused, deposed them from The new Minister, Mirza Khan, wrote to Bijapur, and
sented

how

everything was in confusion, owing to the Sultan's

insanity,

and asked for a despatch of a force to the borders. This request was complied with, and then, under the pretence
of meeting this hostile
force,

Mirza Khan
not,

left the city

with

the available

troops.

He
to

did

however,

march
in the

far,

and

the historian I'erishta,

who was

then employed
the

Ahmeddelay.

nagar Court,

was sent

enquire

reason

of

the

Ferishta soon suspected the treachery, and managing to escape

from the Minister's camp, returned
matters to the
sent for

to the capital

and re[)orted
was,
the

The Salabat Khan from
Sultan.

latter,

now thoroughly alarmed,
It

his place of confinement.

however,

too

late.

Mirza

Khan,

instead

of

attacking

Bijapur forces,

advanced by forced marches to Dowlatabad,
j)rince,

and

at

once returned with the young

Meeran Hussein.

Ferishta was appointed to guard

the palace, but he says that
so.

being deserted by

all,

he could not do

The young prince
all

then entered with forty followers,

putting

to

death

who

came

in his

way. Ferishta's
of the

life

was spared,

as

he had been

But the same mercy was not shown to the Sultan, though bound to him by a closer and "Having holier tie. Ferishta thus relates the last scene:
a schoolfellow
prince.

reached the presence of his father, the prince behaved to him,

both

in

word and

action, with every possible insult

and abuse.

224

irrsrorn'
Shall

of

'riiK

i^eccan.
at liini

Nizam
till

was

silent,

and only looked

with contempt,

tlie

prince pntting- his naked sa])re across

his l)reast, said:

'I

will

put you

to

death.'

Ni/ani

Shah,

then
of

hreathinp;
it

a

deep

sigh,

exclaimed :—' Oh, thou
let

accursed

God,

would
j)rince

be better for thee to
relenting for a

thy father be for his few remaining

days thy guest, and to treat

him with

respect.'

The

moment
for

at

tliis

expression, stop})ed his liand,

and witlidrew from his father's apartment. Not having patience,
however,
mortal
to

wait

his

death,

though
to

he
])ut

was then
into

in

a

illness,

he
and,

commanded
a

him
fire

be

a

warm
to

batliing-room,

shutting fast
great

the

doors

and winch^ws

exchide
the

all

air,

lighted

under the bath, so that by the steam and heat.
year 996 (1587).
in

Sultan

was speedily suffocated
in

The parricide was perpetrated
deceased Sultan
Roseli; but his bones
to
w^ere

the

The

was buried with great pomp
afterwards

the garden

taken

up and carried
those
of his

Kerbella,

where
of

they

were

deposited

near

father and grandfather.

The
and
at

reign

the

new
only

Sultan
did
the

lasted

only

two
give

months
Avay
to

three

days.

Not

he

at

once

cruelty and debauchery, but

whole country

Avas horrified

the crime by which he had gained the throne,

l^erishta

appears to have

made

his escape, together with

Queen Chand,
In the

and went to Bijapur, where they were gladly received.

meantime at Ahmednagar there was a revolt against Meeran The Minister, Mirza Khan, seized his person, and, as Shah. mentioned above, cut off his head in public, and sent for the
two surviving sons
years of
age,
Avas

Boorahan Shah, the brother of the late Sultan Murtaza, one of wdiom Sultan Ismael, a boy of twelve
of

proclaimed.

A

counter revolt

Avas

made
and

by a Deccanee named Jamal Khan and there ensued a The Deccanees got the best of riot and massacre.
they at once
could find.

terrible
it,

commenced to slaughter all the foreigners they The Minister, Mirza Khan, managed to escape.

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHANB.
but was
caiiglit,

225

hroiiglit

l)ack,

and cut

to pieces.

Sonic of

his friends

Altogether in

were rammed into cannons and blown into the air. the space of seven days, nearly a thousand

foreigners were nuirdered.

At

length,

matters quieted down,

and Jamal Khan then recognized
himself as
^linister.

Isniael as Sultan,

and appointed

The usurpation, however, did not last Boorahan Shah, the father of Ismael, was then with long, the Emperor Akbar, who offered to give him an army to Boorahan declined the retake the throne of his ancestors. army as likely to excite the people's jealousy, but went alone in order to see what he could do by his own personal inHe was at once joined by a large number of nobles, fluence.
and though
killed
at first repulsed,

he soon afterwards defeated and
entered
into confinement,

Jamal Khan.

He

then
sent

his son Ismael,

who was

Ahmednagar, deposed and ascended
and the fortunes of
after

the throne in his place (1519).

But we must now revert

to

Bija})ur

Queen

Cliand.

When Queen Chand
of affairs to be

returned

to

Bijapur,

having

escaped the massacre at Ahmednagar,

she found the position

somewhat
still

altered.

Sultan

Ibrahim was now

old
self,

enough

to take over

the conduct of public business him-

and though he

maintained cordial and even affectionate
latter

relations with his aunt, the

very Avisely withdrew from
of State, although in private
so.

any public interference

in

affairs

she gave her advice whenever called upon to do

Ibrahim

was a young man of considerable

ability

and ]jromise.

He

had advanced with an army
in-law,

to

assist

in placing his brother-

Meeran Hussein, on the throne
of

of

Ahmednagar, but
as

when he heard
him, as he
himself was
said,

the
all

latter's

act

of

parricide,

related

above, he declined

further

alliance

with him, and leaving

to the

vengeance of the Almighty, retired to
after

Bijapur (1587).

When

a

short

time,

Meeran Hussein
advantage
15

assassinated,

Ibrahim,

taking

of

the

Jiid

HISTOJIY OF
Jit

TIIF.

I)

FCC AN.
witli

(lissi'iisioiis

Aliiiu'(lii;ip;;ir

;i<j;aiii

ndvanccd

an

ai'iiiy.

Very

little

seems

to

have been done

in this canipaiuii,

prohahlv

to the jealousy between the two leading Jiijapur Generals, Delawar Khan, the jMinister, and BuUeel Khan, who had been recalled from the Malabar district, where he had been engaged Ihdleel with some refractory Rajahs, to {issist the main army. Khan was favoured by the Sultan, whose object it was to
owiii*;-

weaken the power of Dilawar Khan. The Minister, on the other hand, endeavoured to cast odium on his rival by re})resenting
in
tliat
if

he had shown more energy
able
in

in

the campaign

]\Ialabar,

he would have been
to
assist

to bring
tlie

more

tribute,

and a larger contingent
nagar.

invasion of

Ahmed-

BuUcel Khan retorted that
recall,

this

was due

to tlie sud-

denness of his

and,

throAving

himself on
.

the Sultan's

mercy, was rewarded by a rich KMlai

Dilawar Khan for a

moment

stifled

his

resentment,
off Bulleel

and Avhen the audience was
to his

broken up, carried
to celebrate their

Khan

own

tents in order

reconciliation
off

by a
guard,

sjjlendid feast.

Bulleel

Khan was
army
rival

thus thrown
l^ijapur.

his

and returned with the
Dilawar

to

Arrived

there,

however,

Khan

threw away the mask of friendship,
without the
King's knowledge,
blinded.

and suddenly seized his
and caused him to be
he resolved to get
This

This outrage greatly incensed the Sultan, and though
Avas

for the time he

unable to resent
the

it,

rid of his insolent Minister at

earliest opportunity.

opportunity soon came.

In 1589, as already related, Boorahan

Nizam Shah, who had taken refuge with the Emperor Akbar, advanced to recover the throne of Ahmednagar, from his son,
Ismael, who, as related above, had been proclaimed by Jamal

Khan.
battle.

Jamal Khan
to

advanced

to

meet the Bijajmr

troops,

and contrary

At
to

first

dispersed

and attacking

Ddawar Khan gave him but when his followers plunder the camp, some of the enemy rallied, Dilawar Khan wdio was left Avith only a few
Ibrahim's
orders,

he was

successful,

THE STORY OF QUEEN
followui's,

CHANI).

229

him to take fiiglit. In tlie iiieuntime, the Sultan with the main body of the army had retired, and Dilawar Khan was only able to join him after much diffifoiupelled
culty.

The Sultan now determined
this

to

shake himself free of

Dilawar Khan, and for

purpose arranged with Amir-ulto
his

Oomara,

Eyn-ul-]\Iulk,

to

come over
whilst

camp.

This he

did one night

by

stealth,

Dilawar Khan
dalliance

(who though
a

more than eighty years of age
love)

was not past the pleasures of
with
"beautiful

was engaged
Deccan,

in

amorous
he had

virgin of

whom

long sought
late,

after

and just

obtained."

Next morning when too

Dilawar Khan found
at

that his royal captive

had escaped, and

once proceeded to

bring

forces

him back. He found the Sultan with Eyn-ul-Mulk's drawn up behind, and he at once told him that "marching by night was improper," and that he should therefore return The Sultan incensed at his insolence exclaimed: "Who will deliver me from this traitor?" Whereupon one Asout Khan spurred up to the Regent, and struck him with his sabre. The horse reared and threw Dilawar Khan, who, in the confusion that followed managed to escape, leaving his son. Khan, beIbrahim Shah was hind, who was taken and put to death. now for the first time really independent, and news arriving that Boorahan Shah had defeated Jamal Khan, and taken possession of Ahmednagar, he sent him letters of congratulation,

and retired to Bijapur.
the

meantime Dilawar Khan had taken refuge with Boorahan Nizam Shah, who, forgetful of the assistance given l)y the Sultan of Bijapur, employed him to reduce the fort of Sholapur, which for so long had been the subject of This led to another contention between the two kingdoms. war, and the Ahmednagar troops took the initiative, and headed by the traitor Dilawar Khan, marched upon Bijapur. Ibrahim Adil Shah pretended to take no notice of this invasion, and allowed the enemy to advance as far as the river Bhimah,
In

•j;j(i

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
in
tlic

preteiKliii<^-

meantime to give liimself np to ])|{;iisure. In tills way Dilawar Khan was misled into tliinking that Ibrahim was too weak to oppose him, and when messengers eame
from
his

his late

master offering to take

liini

back into
to

liis

service,

he at once

consented,
absoUite
his ca])ital,

hoping
])ower.

in

this

way

be restored to
his
l)y

former
in

Ibrahim

received

former
ordering

Minister

bnt soon disillusioned him

him

to

be

blinded.

Dilawar Khan in vain represented that

he had come to court solely on his Majesty's assurance of

pardon and
sight could

safety.
life

The Sultan
neither.

told

him

that

he had only

promised him

and property, and that depriving him of
Accordingly,

effect

he was blinded and

sent to the fortress of
until he died.

Satara,

where he remained a prisoner

Ferishta was an eyewitness of these proceedings,

of

which he gives a graphic account, the side he was on being
Ibrahim

that of the Sultan of Bijapur.

Shah having thus rid himself of his rebellious subject, at once marched against the invaders. Boorahan Shah was compelled to retreat, and dissensions breaking out in his camp, was only too glad to sue for peace. This Avas granted after some delay, on condition that he razed the fortress he had built on the banks of the Bhimah. To this the Sultan had to consent, and, after with his own hands pulling down the first stone, he marched back to Ahmednagar in disgust, "heartily repenting of his unprovoked invasion of the territories of Ibrahim Adil Shah." Peace being restored at home, Ibrahim Shah turned again to the reduction of the Malabar Rajahs, whom Bulleel Khan had left only partially subdued. The duty was entrusted to Munjuni Khan (1593), who succeeded so well that in a short time he had taken the fort of Mysore, which was then in
possession of Vencatadri Naick,
the brother's son of the late
recalled by

Rama Rajah

of

Vijayanagar,

when he was

news

of a fresh rebellion.

THK STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
It

231

will

1)0

roiiicinl)crc(l

that

the late Sultan Ali Adil

Slinli,

the

liushaiid

of

Queen

Cliand,

had

left

no

sons

but

two

nephews, the eldest of whom, Ibrahim, succeeded him.

The

younger of these two, Ismael, was appointed

to the

Govern-

ment
young

of IJelgauni, where, however,

he was kept in a kind of

honourable confinement.
prince,

This restraint becoming irksome, the

having associated several
the
fort

noblemen with him,
his

suddenly

seized
9th,

and

jjroclaimed

independence

(Ramzan
a

1593).

A

general revolt

now

occurred, and for

time

it

enemies.

seemed as if Ibrahim would be crushed by his The old nobleman, Eyn-ul-j\lulk, disgusted, probably
little

that he was allowed so

share in the Government, secretly

favoured Ismael, under

whom

he hoped to enjoy more power.
to revenge his
assist

Boorahan Nizam Shah, anxious
tion,

former Inunilia-

also

marched an army

to

the pretender, and the

noblemen generally espoused his cause. The Hindoo Rajahs also broke into revolt, and the Portuguese, anxious for some excuse to interfere, promised to send a reinforcement to Ismael. But the young Sultan Ibrahim managed to extricate himself
from
his

awkward dilemma with
to strike the

considerable
aiuit.

skill.

He had
Cliand,

an able and courageous adviser in his

Queen

and he resolved
effect

rebels

singly before they could

a junction.

force to meet

Eyn-ul-j\Iulk,
at

young prince

Ilummeed Khan was despatched with a who had now openly joined the Belgaum. Ilununeed Khan pretended to
and,

favour the rebellion,

thus

misled,

Eyn-ul-Mulk

left

the

protection which the walls of

Belgaum
distant.

afforded, and advanced

towards Ilummeed Khan without Avaiting for Boorahan Shah,

who was
it

only a few

marches
the

He
to be

])robably thought

more
the

advisable to bring

rebellion to a successful issue

by the help of
to
rival

Hummeed
of

Khan, than
receive

under obligations

King
in

Ahmednagar.
to

But he
the

was deceived.

Preparations were

made

sup})osed rebel

Hum-

meed Khan

a splendid pavilion

which was pitched for the

232

HISTORY OF
in

TILE DECCAN.
(listaiice
t'loiii

purpose

a

largo

})laiii

some

Hclniiuiii.

As

soon as Ilmniiiecd Kliaii had advanced near enough, he threw
off all disguise,

and suddenly charging the unsuspecting Eynhis

ul-Mulk,

threw him from

horse,

and cut

off'

his

head.

The young prince Ismael was also taken prisoner, and then Ilmnmeed Khan at once returned the rebels tied in dismay.
to Bijapur, whei'o

he was received with great honour, and the
of

head of Eyn-ul-Mulk was blown from the great gun iMa/ik-ijSIaidan
(the

Lord

the

Plain),

IJoorahan

Nizam

Shah

hearing that the rebellion had been ((uelled, tliereupon returned
to
in

Ahmednagar,
his

wliere,
lie

wasted by
afterwards
his

illness

and the dissensions
(1594).

country,

soon

died

Boorahan

Shah was succeeded by
accession to the

son

Ibrahim,

who

signalized his

throne by treating the Bijapur ambassadors
returned
to their

with such rudeness that they

own

country.
at

This affront led to

another war,

and Ibrahim Adil Shah
avenge the
insult.

once marched

Avith

an army to

The two

armies met on the frontiers, and a very hotly contested battle
ensued, in which the
ful,

the left

to flight.

Ahmednagar forces were at first successwing of the Bijapureans being broken and put The right wing, however, commanded by Hummeed
their

Khan, stood
of
battle

ground with such obstinacy that the and
the

tide

turned,

young
killed

Ahmednagar King

rashly

advancing with only a small retinue was surprised by a troop
of

the

Bijapur horse,

and

by an arrow, upon which
created the utnuist con-

the

Admcdnngar army took to flight. The death of Ibrahim Nizam Shah

fusion in Ahmednagar.

Two

factions arose, each proclaiming

was Bahadur Shah, the infant son One a rival king. of Ibrahiiu, and the other was Ahmed Shah, a boy twelve years of age, who, it was pretended, was the grandson of Hussein Nizam Shah's brother. Mian JManju was then at the
of these

head of

affairs,

and

Avas the protector of the
it

Ahmed

Shah.

On

being proved that

young pretender Ahmed had no claim

THE STORY OF QUEEN
to royal descent,

CHANI).

233

u

third

faction

put forward another infant

as the riglitful

heir of

Ihraliini,

and Mian Manju, thereupon
restoration
son,
to

despairing of bringing about

a

of

order,

sent
tlien

a
in

message
Guzerat,
affairs,

to

Prince

Murad,
an
his

Akbar's

who was
interfere
in

waiting for
to

opportunity
assistance.

Deccan
too

come

to

Aiurad

was
with

only

glad

to

accept

the

invitation,

and

marched

an

army

of thirty thousand

men, with the ostensible object of placing
Empire.
repented

Ahmed

on the throne, but with the real intention of annexing
to the Delhi
IVEian

Ahmednagar
the capital,

But before he could reach
of
his
it

jManju
chief

venture,

and after
to

consulting

with the
to

noblemen,

was resolved

ask

Queen Chand
State

undertake the Regency and to defend the

from

J\Iurad

and the Mogul army.
tifty

Chand Bibi must

have been at that time nearly
in Bijapur,

years of age, and was happy

where she was beloved by all. But she w^as a Princess of Ahmednager by birth, and she immediately responded to the call that was made upon her, though it involved
the taking
set off for

the State,

up of a post surrounded by danger. She at once Ahmednagar, and when she had taken charge of Mian j\lanju started for Golconda and Bijapur to
In

endeavour to obtain help.

the

meantime, the
it

toils

closed

round the
in
city in a

city of

Ahmednagar, but
This courageous

had a noble defender
at

Queen Chand.
the
infant

woman

once placed the

proper state of defence, and at the same time pro-

claimed
city

Bahadur

as
to

King.

Murad
siege,

invested

the

and

actively

commenced
of

push the

but in spite

of his large train of artillery, he w^as able to accomplish very
little.

The kings

Golconda and Bijapur had now^ become
that

thoroughly alarmed, and despatched armies to raise the siege,

and Murad hearing
few^

these

reinforcements Avere
arrival.

on the

way, resolved to attempt a storm before their
days
of
fire

"In a

mines were carried under the bastions on one
fort,
all

face

the

Avere

charged with powder,

and built

234

msToh'Y or

riiK

dkccan.
train

with mortar aiul stones, except
hiid,

iii^t;-

where the
night
of

was

to

l)e

and

it

was resolved

to

lire

tliem on the foUowiiin; morntlie

ing (20th February 1596).

During

Kwaja Mahomed
l^esieged,

Klian

Sliirazi,

admiring the
of

rcsohition

the

and

unwilling that they shoukl he sacriticed,
walls,

made

and informed them
Bil)i,

their
set

danger.

his way to the At the instance

of

Cliand

who
to

herself

the

example,
\ly

the

garrison

inunediately

began

countermine.

daylight

they

had

destroyed two of the mines, and were searching for the others,

when

the prince, Avithout communication with
line,

Khan Khanam,

ordered out the
besieged
w^ere

and resolved
act of

to

storm without him. The

in

the

removing the powder from the
the prince ordered

third and largest mine,

when

them

to be

sprung.

Many
leading

of

the
fell.

counterminers Avere killed and several

yards of the wall
of

When
of
in

the

breach was made, several

the

otficers

the

garrison

prepared for
veil

flight.

But Chand
forward
to

Bibi,

clad

armour,

and with a
fugitives to a

thrown
dashed
returned

over her face,

and with a drawn sword

in her hand,

defend the breach.
as the

The

man

and joined her, and

storming party held back for the

other mines, the besieged had time to throw rockets, powder,

and other combustibles into the
bear upon
the breach." *

ditch,

and to bring guns to

From

the early morning until sunin

down, the heroic Queen remained
her
soldiers

the breach, encouraging the

and endeavouring
other,

to

repair
assault

damage.

For
until

some reason or
pared to
resist

the

general

was delayed
until

the afternoon, by which
it,

time the defenders were better preo'clock

but from about tw^o

sunset

force after force of Moo-uls was hurled against the breach to

be each time repulsed,
bodies of the
attack,
slain.

until

the

moat was

filled

with the

Queen Chand was foremost

Throughout the whole of this desperate amongst the defenders.
by Jainos Cainpboll.

* Bomhaij Gazetteer Vol. XVII.,

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHANT)
Her
At
grcoii-vcil

237

was seen evcrywliorc,
its

iind late

lier

voice was heard,

calling out in

shrill

treble
in,

her
the

husband's battle cry.
repulsed in each

length, as

darkness set
retire

Moguls,

attack,

had

to

discomfited,

and by next morning the

breach had been repaired and rendered impracticable. Prince Murad, finding that his assault had failed, and that the rein-

forcements were within
the siege.

a day's march,

now

resolved to raise

He
to

first

sent ambassadors to the Queen,

who

Avere

ordered

compliment

her

on her heroic defence, and to
Forces would style her

inform her that

in future the Imperial

Begum as before, and at the same time to recpiest a truce for burying the dead. This was granted, and after it had expired, a regular treaty was drawn up, under which Prince Murad agreed to retire on
a Sultana or Queen, instead of
receiving the
cession
of

the

Sovereignty

of

Berar.

At

first

Queen Chand refused

these terms, but eventually she consented,

and Prince Murad, whose army was weakened, not only liy want of provisions, but also by internal dissensions, withdrew
to

take

possession

of his
first

new

acquisition,

which gave

to the

Delhi Emperors their
afterwards Prince
ing,

firm footing in the Deccan.

Soon

Murad

died from the effects of hard drink-

and for three years

Ahmednagar remained unmolested
than dissensions broke

by the Moguls.

No
favour

sooner had the invaders retired,

out amongst the
of

Ahmednagar

people.

Main jManju was

in

young Ahmed being recognized Sultan, but the Queen would have no one but Bahadur, the infant son of the late Sultan. In order to settle this dis])ute, the Queen sent
for

her nephew,

Ibrahim Adil
to

Shah,

of Bijapur,

who soon
it

arrived with a sufficient force

keep the peace betAveen the
not a lineal descendent

two

factions,

A

lengthened eiKpiiry was then held, and on

being proved that
of the

Ahmed Shaw was
family,

Nizam Shah's

an

estate

was

settled

upon him,

and Bahadur was placed upon

the throne.

Eor a short time

238

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
now peace
tlic

there was

in

Ahnietlnagar and (^neen Cliaiul turned
of the affairs of
tlie

her attention to

restoration

kingdom.

for in 1597,

But she was not fated to complete the reforms slie commenced, war again broke out witli tlie Moguls in consequence of encroaclnnents made by them.
succeeded his brother

Murad
to

as

Prince Daniyal had Governor of the Deccan, and
of

his

policy

was
if

to

take

advantage
annex,

every

opportunity

to

reduce,

and

possible

Ahmednagar.
place.

the final struggle with the

Moguls took
of

But before Queen Cliand

had again
of

to call in

the

assistance

her nephew, Ibrahim,
in

Bijapur,
at

against

her

turbulent
Solieil

subjects

Ahmednagar.
a considerable

He

ouce complied, and sent

Khan with

force,

and with orders

to place himself entirely at the

Queen's
against

disposal.

Mahomed
this

Khan,
was

the

Queen's

Minister,
to

whom

chiefly

force

intended,

refused
to the

admit

it

Mogul Commander-in-Chief in Berar, offering if he Avould come to his help to hold the country as a vassal of the Emperor of Delhi. This piece of treachery, however, became known to the garrison, who then seized Mahomed Khan, and handed him over to the Queen. In this way the Queen's authority was restored, but unfortunately the invitation to the Moguls was only too readily accepted. A Mogul force was sent to seize the town of
into the citadel,

and despatched a letter

Paithri,

which had not been included
Solieil

in the

Berar Concession,
his

and thereupon
recapture
it.

Khan was ordered by
expedition

master to

In this

he

was

assisted

by an army

from Golconda, the Sultan of which had begun to be alarmed by the close neighbourhood of the Delhi army. The allied
force consisted of no less than 60,000 cavalry, besides infantry,

and the engagement that ensued was a decisive one for the
fate of the Deccan.

the Godavery, not far
forces
w^ere

The battle was fought on the .banks of from the town of Sonpat. The Delhi
the

commanded by
old
Avarrior,

Khan Khanan,

assisted

by

the redoubtable

Raja Ali Khan, of Khandeish,

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
by
Riijti Jag'iuiatli,

239
*

and

otlicr
:

Hindoo

subsidiaries.

Al)ii-1-I''a/I

thus describes the battle

"The army
army

of

Nizani-uI-Mulk
(Hijapur)
tlie left.

(Alimcdnaii-ar)

was

in

the

centre; the Adil Klian's
of Kutb-ul-Mulk on

was on the

riglit;

and the
River

On

the 21th l^ahaman (2Gtli
of the

January,

1597),

after

tlie

first
tlie

watch
battle

day

tlie

Godavery was passed, and
the right

began by an attack on
they

wing of the enemy.

Hut
ke})t

held

their
fire.

ground
Great

firmly in a strong ])osition, and

up

a

heavy

bravery Avas exhibited on both sides, and a long and desperate
struggle was maintained.
superiority of

them waver.
and did
not

The enemy was numerous, and the his fire checked the Imperial ranks, and made Jaganath and several other Rajputs drew rein,
while
the

move,

Adil

Khan

troo})s

made an
a

onslaught upon

Raja Ali Khan of Khandeish.
fell

He made

stubborn resistance and

fighting

bravely,

with thirty-five

distinguished officers and five hundred devoted followers.

"Mirza Shah Rukh and Khan Khanan had been successful in their })art of the field, so also had Saijid Kasim and other The enemy was under the impression that the Rider leaders. of Khandeish Avas in the centre and thought that Mirza Shah Rukh and Khan Khanan were involved in his defeat. During
the darkness of the night, the opposing forces remained separate

from each
In
the

other, each supposing that

it

had gained a
the scattered
that

victory.

course

of the

night

many

of

troops

rejoined their standard.

Under the impression
to

Raja Ali
troops

Khan had gone
plundered
Jalal,

over

the

enemy,
Nilawi.

the

imperial

his

baggage.
left,

Dwarka Das,
to

of the advance and Said

of

the

retired

Ram

Chandar,

who

fought

bravely

and

had

forces under

Raja Ali

wounds with the Khan, remained among the wounded
received

twenty

during the night, and died a
* Elliot

few^

days

after.

and Dowson.. Vol.

YI..

page 95.

240

.

HISTORY OF
the

TlfE

DECCAN.
l'\)i"r'(\s

"When
all
ni<>'lit

moi'iiiiiu; (;iiiu'

linpcrml

7000

in

iimiilxT,

found tliumselvcs

in

face of 25,00(1 of the (Mieniy.

Tliey luid
the river

suffered from thirst, and they
'I'he

now
and

eai'i'ied

Sup;ani.

enemy was oidy
took
*

half-hearted, and
to
f1if>;lit

heiiip;

dismayed
little

by

this

demonstration,
*

made hut
conflict,

resistance^

*

Worn

out hy

the

proti'aeted

the

imperial Forces were unable
the

to pursue. Foi-ces
in

At the beginning* of
15,000,

camjiaign
the

the

imperial

numbered only
number.
Still

while

enemy were
and

60,000
captni'cd

they

had

gained

victory

had

forty

elephants

and

much
a

artillery."

This quotation

has

been given
in

at

some length
Deccanee

as

good
was

specimen
conducted.

of

the

manner

which

warfare

undisciplined.

The troops were, no doubt, brave, but very Though outnumbering their opponents, they
to take

were unable
to their

advantage of their

first

successes, OAving

want

of cohesion

and

discipline.

The

extract

is

also

important, as showing the
received from the Rajputs,
It

support

which Akl)ar's wise rule
the flower of his army.

who formed

was only Aurungzebe's subsequent bigotry and intolerance
After this
defeat,

that alienated this hardy race of soldiers.

the allied army dispersed, and Nehang Ahmednagar Minister and General retired to the capital, where he formed a plan to seize Queen Chand and the young King. The Queen, however, shut the gates of the citadel against him, and refused to allow him to enter. Whilst Ahmednagar was thus torn by civil Avar, the Imperial Troops were steadily advancing. They were now commanded by Prince Daniyal and the Khan Khanan (1599). Nehang Khan fled to Junar, and the Imperialists tlien invested Ahmednagar, and the unfortunate Queen had to sustain another siege. And now unfortunately the garrison was divided in

Khan and

the

itself.

A

portion wished to fight the matter out to the bitter

end, l)ut the

Queen seeing

the hopelessness of resistance was

THE STORY OF QUEEN CHAND.
inclined to

241

with Prince
give

make terms by again contirming the treaty made Murad at the previous siege. Her idea was to up the fort, and retire with the young King to Junar.
of

Hamid Khan, one
the head of the
at

the

principal

officers

in

the

fort,

and

opposite faction,

came

to

once ran into the streets exclaiming that

and know the Queen wished
of this,

to betray the people.

The

excitable and turbulent soldiers of

Ahmednagar, forgetting all the noble devotion which Queen Cliand had always shown, at once assembled in front of the palace. Headed by Hamid Khan they rushed inside, sword in hand, and not tinding the Queen in the audience hall, There they were they broke open the private apartment. confronted by this courageous woman who was undismayed, though she saw that the end had come. Too excited to listen to her, the crowds rushed on, and Hamid Khan cut her down, and so died Chand Bibi, one of the noblest characters
in 'the

History of India.
its

Deprived of

courageous defender,

the

fort

of

Ahmed-

nagar did not hold out

much
the

longer.

In

a

few days the

mines were sprung, and

making but a feeble A' scene of indisresistance, the fort was easily carried. treasury was pillaged, criminate slaughter then took place, the and the young King Bahadur was taken and sent to the Emperor Akbar, who was then at Burhanpore. Bahadur was subsequently sent to the fortress of Gwalior, where he regarrison

mained
the

in

honourable confinement until his death.

From

this

time (1599),

Kingdom

we hear nothing more of the independence of of Ahmednagar. The Moguls had now taken

firm footing in the Deccan, and the beginning of the end had

commenced.

16

CITADEL AND MOAT,

BIJAPUR,

CHAPTER XX.
RETROSPECTIVE SKETCH OF THE DECCAN.
Before
leaviiip;

Aliinediiagar, wliicli
in

how
the

disappears from
affairs,

all

independent share
sketch of the
civil

the

history

of

Deccan

a sliglit

administration
will

of

kino-dom under the

Nizam Shahi Kings

not be

out of place,
:

and

I

cannot

do better than (juote from Mr. Campbell

"The Ahmednagar dominions extended
of Berar, and the whole
of

over the greater part
in

what was afterwards included

RETROSPECTIVE SKETCH OF THE DECCAN.
the
S//6//f/

243

of Auriingal);t(l,
Kliandeisli,

.l;ilii;i,

and sonic
district

oflicr

distrifts in
in
tlie

Nassik

and

and
to
less

tlio

of

Kalyan

Konkan
Kings,

from
thougli
tlie

Hankot
perhaps

I^asscin.
i-eguk'U'ly

Under
than

the

Ahmednagar
under

afterwards

the Moguls,

country was (hvided into districts or sirkars.

was distributed among sub-divisions, which were generally known by Persian names, par(/ana, kari/dt, mmniat, viaJial, faluka, and sometimes by the Hindu names of prant and des/i. The hilly west, which was generally managed by

The

district

Hindoo officers, continued to be arranged by valleys with their Hindoo names, Khora, Mara, and Marval. The collection of revenue was generally entrusted to fariners, the farms someWhere the revenue was not times including one village. was generally entrusted to Hindoo officers. farmed, its collection
Over the revenue farmers was a Government agent or JwiJ, who, besides collecting the revenue, managed the police and settled the civil suits. Civil suits relating to land were generThough the chief power ally settled by juries or pcuichajjefs. in the country was Mahomedan, large numbers of Hindoos
were employed
in

the

service

of the State.

The garrison

of

hdl forts seem generally to have been commanded by Hindoos,

Marathas, Kolis, and Dhangars, a few places of special strength
being
reserved
hill

for

Mahomedan commandants,

or

JdJledars.

Besides the
left

under loyal

some parts of the o])en country were Maratha and Brahmin officers with the title
forts,

of estate holder oy jaf/Mrdar, and of district

head ox DesJnuMkJi.
tenure, the value

Estates w^ere generally granted
of

on

military
to

the

grant being in proportion

the

number
lay

of

troops

which the grant-holder maintained.
hate,

Family feuds or personal

and,

in

the

case

of

those

whose lands

near the

borders of two kingdoms, an intelligent regard for the chances
of

war often divided Maratha
family
of
to

families,

and led members of

one

take

service

under

rival

Musulman
rewarded

States.

Hindoos

distinguished

service

were

with

the

244
Iliiuloo
lilies

inSTOUY or
of
/Y//V/,

TIIK DECCAN.
;iii(l

ii(iirL\

/v/r

or rao.

Niiiiil)crs

of

Hindoos were eiuploved
Gazcffcer,
vol.
xvii.)

in

llie

Aliniediiii^ai'

armies." [Jiomhaj/

In
M'liieli

tlie

same year
destined

as Alnnednai'ar
to luive
tlie

fell,

an ineideiit oecuired
effect

was

a

most important
Blionsla,

upon
a

Indian

liistory.

Dnring

Iloli festival

of that year (JMarcli-

April), a Maratlia,

named Majoli
to
his

who oonnnandcd
officer,

small body of Silledar horse,
five,

took his son, Shahji, a hoy of

to

pay his respects

connnanding
Jiji,

Ijukhji

Jadhavrao.

Liikji's little danghter,

a child of three, was

present, and whilst the

elders

w^ere talking, the

two children
in joke:

hegan to play together.

Lnkhji asked

his daughter

would you like that boy for your luisband?" and on the girl saying "Yes," Majoli at once rose and called the guests to witness that Lnkhji had offered his daughter in
marriage to his son Shahji, which offer he, as Shahji's father,
accepted.

"How

Taken thus

at his

word, Lnkhji and his

Avife w^ere

exceedingly angry, but Maloji remained unshaken,
tually (1604) the marriage really took place.

and even-

The

issue of this

marriage was the great
nation.

Sivaji,
I

the

founder of the Maratha
(ibid)

Mr. Campbell,
court like

whom
that
of

have fpioted above says

that

Lukhji's
falling

objections

were overcome by purchasing from

"a

Ahmednagar,"

a

command

of

5,000 and the title of Rajah for Maloji, and that then, Lukhji having no longer any excuse "for not performing what he

was urged

to

by
is

his

sovereign,"

consented to the marriage.

The passage
an error,
eign at

(juoted

word

for

word from
p.

Grant Duff's
it

"History of the Marathas"

(vol

L,

78),

but

is

clearly

for, as we have seen, Ahmednagar in 1604, to

there was no longer a sovergive or to withhold promotion.

What seems most
received his

probable

is

that Maloji, in the interval be-

tween 1599 and 1604, did good service for the Moguls, and
promotion from them for assisting them
their
in the

settlement

of

new

conquest.

The

story

of

Sivaji has.

RETROSPECTIVE SKETCH OF THE DECCAN.
however,
(iJrant

215

been

so
it

cxliaustivcly
is

told

by

tlic

great

historian
it

Duff, that

out of our province to go into
to

here,

and the incident
epoch
in

is

only alluded
of

as

marking an important

the

history

the
Sivaji,

Deccan.
in
is

We

shall,

of course, of our

frequently
history,
l}i3a})ur,

come
is

across

the

future

course

but except as far as he
it

brought into contact with

not
told.

proposed to

recapitulate

what has already
After
little

been so well

To

return

to

Ibrahim

Add Shah
the

at

Bijapur.

the

catastrophe at Ahmednagar,
share in the affairs of the

Sultan

took but

active

Deccan.

Alarmed
overtures
to

at the

growing

power

of

the

Moguls,

he

made

the

Emperor
marriage
sent by
at

Akbar, and an alliance was agreed upon, one of the conditions
of wdiich
to the

was that he should give
bring
the
Princess,

his

daughter

in

Emperor's son, Daniyal.
to

An ambassador was
but

Akbar

he

remained so long
to bring
at

J^ijapur that

another,

Asad Beg, was sent
orders
to

him and

the Princess
night.

back,

with

stay

Bijapur only one

The Princess seems to have been very reluctant to upon this marriage, and when at length she was despatched with the ambassador, accompanied also by the historian Perishta, together with rich presents, she managed one night to escape from her guardians in order to return to her father. In the morning, how^ever, she was caught and Avas eventually At this time Bijapur safely handed over to her husband.
enter

must have been at the height of its splendour and magnificence. Asad Beg, coming from Delhi, where Akbar's court was at the sunmiit of its grandeur, speaks most enthusiasticHis description is worthy of being ally of the Southern city.
quoted, as
it is

not likely to be tinged with any partiality.
Avhicli
it

"That

palace,

they

called

Hajjah,
court.

was so arranged

that each house in

had a double
vi.,

Where

there are

* Elliot iind Dowson, vol.

p.

l()3,

et seq.

246

HIS Ton y OF THE DECCAN.
tlicy
cull
it

two courts
gate
of

in

those parts
lofty

llajjali.

All round the

my

residence

were

buildings
airy

with

houses and
It

porticos; the situation

was very
Its

and healthy.
is

lies

in

an open space

in

the city.

northern portico

to the east

of a bazaar of great extent, as mucli as thirty yards wide and

two ko8 (four miles)
green
pure.
tree,
It

long.

Ik^forc each

shop was a beautiful
as are not seen or

and the wliole
any other town.

bazaar

was extremely clean and
sho])s of cloth sellers,

was hlled with rare goods, such
in

heard of

There were
bakers,

jewellers, armourers, vintners,

fishmongers and cooks.

To

give

some idea

of the whole bazaar I will describe a small

section in detail.
sorts,

In
a

the

jewellers'

shops were jewels of
articles,

all

wrought into
mirrors,

variety

of
alse

such

as

daggers,
birds,

knives,

necklaces
doves,

and

into

the

form of

such as parrots,
valuable jewels,
the other.
rare

and peacocks,
of
this

&c.,

all

studded with

and arranged upon shelves, rising one above
the
side
in

Ey

shop

will

be a baker's with

viands

placed

the

same
a

manner
all

upon

tiers

of

shelves.

Further on a linen draper's with
in

kinds of cloths

shelved

like

manner.

Then
filled

clothier's.

Then

a

spirit-

merchant's with various sort of China vessels, valuable crystal
bottles,

and costly cups,

with choice and rare essences

arranged on shelves, while in front of the shop were jars of
double-distilled spirits.
filled

Beside that shop will be a fruiterer's

with

all

kinds of fruit and sAveetmeats, such as pistachio

nuts and relishes,
side

and sugarcandy and almonds.
beautiful

On
Avith

another

may be

a wine merchant's shop, and an establishment of

singers

and dancers,

women adorned
all

vai'ious

kinds of jewels, and fair faced choristers,

ready to perform

whatever

may

be desired of them.

In short, the whole bazaar

was
all

filled Avith

wine and beauty, dancers, perfumes, jewels of
and viands.
drinking,

sorts,

palaces,

In one street were a thousand
dancers,
lovers,

bands of people

and

and pleasure-

seekers assembled; none

quarrelled or

disputed Avith another,-

RETROSPECTIVE SKETCH OF THE DECCAN.
and
this state of

247

things

was perpetual.
a

l\'rliaps

no place

in

the wide world eould

j)resent

more wonderful

spectacle to

the eye of the traveller."

At Bijapur Asad l^eg for the first time came across tobacco. "Never having seen the like in India, I l)rought some with me, and ])repared a handsome pipe of jewel work. The stem, the finest to be procured at Achin, was three cubits in length,
beautifully dried and coloured,

both ends l)eing adoined with
to

jewels and enamel.

1

happened

come

across a very

handsome
also a

mouth-piece of
the stem
;

Yaman

cornelian,

oval shaped, which I set to

the whole

was very handsome.
it

There was

golden burner for lighting

as a

proper accom])animent. Adil

Khan had
whole
tray.

given

me

a betel bag of very superior
if

workmanship
lit,

this I filled

with fine tobacco, such that
I

one leaf be

the

will continue burning.
I

arranged
to

all

elegantly on a silver
in,

had a

silver

tube

made

keep the stem

and that
present.

too was covered Avith purple velvet."
description of the

Then follows

a very amusing-

Emperor's reception of
to

this novel

Akbar ordered Asad Beg

prepare and give him a pipeful,

but no sooner had he begun to smoke, than the physician

approached and forbad him to do

so.

Then followed
and
at
last

a discussion

between the druggist, the

physician

the

priest.

The general

verdict of these learned

men was
said:

against the use

of tobacco as being an

unknown

thing,

and, therefore, unfit-

ting for his Majesty to try.

Asad Beg

"The Europeans
it;

are not so foolish as not to

know

all

about

there are wise

men among them who seldom
qualities, pass a

err or

commit mistakes.

How
all its

can you, before you have tried a thing, and found out

judgment on
kings,

it

that can be

depended on by
Things must

the

physicians,

great

men and
of
to

nobles?

be judged of by their good or bad

([ualities,

and the decision

must be according
replied:

to the

facts

the

case."

The physician
Europeans,

"We

do not

want
is

follow

the

and

adopt a custom which

not

sanctioned

by our own wise

248

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
without a
trial."
I

men

said:

"It

is

a

strange
at

thing, for

every custom in the world has been
other;

new
is

one time or the

from the days of
invented.

Adam
a

until

now, they have gradually
introduced

been

When

new

thing

among

peoples and becomes well-known in the world, everyone adopts
it;

wise

men and

physicians should determine according to the
of a thing;

good or bad

([ualities

the good qualities
root,

may

not

appear at once.

Thus the China
and
is

not known anciently,
in

has been newdy discovered,

useful

many

diseases."

This answer so pleased Akbar
blessing,

that

he gave Asad Beg his

and said: "Did you hear how wisely Asad spoke? we must not reject a thing that has been adopted by the wise men of other nations merely because we cannot find The result was it in our books; or how shall we progress?" that the noblemen of Delhi took kindly to the new practice of smoking, but his Majesty, we are told, 'did not adopt it.'
Truly,

After Asad Beg's vivid description of the charms of Bijapur

one can understand

why

it

was that the

first

ambassador from
It

Delhi was so reluctant to come away, and

why Asad had been
is

ordered not to stop longer than one night.
his

said that

predecessor,

Jamal-ud-Din,

w^as

paid by the Sultans of

Bijapur and Golconda at the rate of
a year,

£

105,000 to

£

140,000

and

this

probably accounts for the reason

why he

spent three years in the Deccan, and wdiy Asad's orders were
so peremptory.
to give to

The message which he

tells

us he was directed

Jamal-ud-Din was very

significant:

"If thou dost

not return to Court with Asad, thou shalt see what will hap-

pen to thee and thy children." and the
tw^o

This had the desired

effect,

ambassadors returned together.
mission
that

Asad Beg had
is

been so successful in his
have said:

he was sent to the
reported

Deccan a second time, on which occasion Akbar
to

"You went

before, in great discomfort to fetch

presents, because it

Mir Jamal-ud-Din and the daughter of Adil Khan and the was necessary. But this time you must go in

BETROi^PECTiVE SKETCH OF THE DECCAN.
state to the four provinces of the

24!)

Deccan, and remain
to
collect

in

each

pLice so long as

may he

necessary,

whatever they

may have
keep,
I

of tine

elephants

and rare jewels throughout their
witli

dominions, to bring back

you.

Their money you

may

want nothing but

their

choice
of

and rare elephants
this

and jewels.

You must
rest
I

secure
give
is

things
to

kind for the
not
relax

Government, the
your
out of your grasp

you.
fine

You must

effort as long as there
in

one

elephant or rare jewel

the
told,

Deccan,"
for

How

Asad fared

in this

embassy we are not
tributary state
this to

soon afterwards the great

Em-

peror died, but the instructions give a very clear idea of the

which the Sultans of the Deccan had by

time been reduced.

Mr. Stanley Lane Poole estimates
tribute

that at the accession of

Aurungzebe the
This

from the Deccan

amounted

to

about ten crores of rupees (say
p.

£

10,000,000

(Aurungzebe,

128),

sum

divided between

Golconda
probable

and Bijapur, which were the only two independent kingdoms
left,

would amount
is

to a considerable impost, but

it

is

that

was very irregularly paid,

especially towards the latter

end of the seventeenth Century.
Ibrahim Adil Shah lived until 1626, and during his time Bijapur was at the height of its glory. Ibrahim was a great
patron of architecture,
splendid group
is

and some of the

finest

buildings

in

Bijapur arose during his reign.
is

His tomb, the Ibrahim Roza,

Fergusson,
It

of buildings, Avhich, according to Mr. more elaborately adorned than any in India. was commenced soon after Ibrahim's accession to the throne a
thirty-six

and took
inscription,
this,

years

to

complete,

and

according to

an

the

cost

was 1,50,900 k/ms, or about ^52,815;
(vol,
xxiii,

however, represents only the cash expenditure, since the
p,

workmen, as pointed out in the Gazetteer were probably paid in grain. Ibrahim is
a
of

611),

said to have

been
years

man
his

of

learning

and
stormy,

taste,

and
latter

though

the

first

reign

were

the

were spent

in

almost

liod

HISTOUy OF THE DECCAN.
])Ciicc.

])r<)tV)uiHl

Wlioii

lie

died

lie

left

<i

full

treasury,
is

n

tioui'isliing

country, and an

army

wliose

strength
foot.

stated at
is

80,000 horse and upwards of 200,000
cherislied as one of the best of
tlie

His

memory

l^ijapur

kings {ibid).

The

noble example of Queen Chand,
King's youth, no doubt
left

who was

the guardian of the

a

deep impression upon him, and
in

he himself has

left

a

jioem

which he praises her
to

virtues,

which

is

full
it

of love and

gratitude

her memory.

AVe
:

re-

produce
111

here as translated by Mr.
gardens of the
blest,

II.

1\ Silcock, C.S.
Jiom'is

tli(^

where the happy
in

dwell,

In the pakces of men, where earth's fairest ones are seen.

There

is

none who can compare

beauty or in grace

With the noble Chand Sultana, Bijapur's beloved Queen. Though in battle's dreadful turmoil her courage never failed. In the softer arts of peace she was gentle and serene. To the feeble tender-hearted, to the needy ever kind. Was the noble Chand Sultana, Bijapur's beloved Queen. As the rliaiiipuk flower in fragrance is the sweetest flower that As the cypress trees in form all other trees excel.
So
In
in disposition tender, in

blows.

beauty without peer.
praise no

Was

that gracious

Queen whose

human tongue can
land,

tell.

memory

of that mother

who with
in

watchful tender care

Ever guarded her poor orphan
I,

a

weary troubled
lines indite

Ibrahim the Second, these feeble

To

the honour of that Princess, the noble

Lady Chand.

CHAPTER XXL
THE STORY 0¥ MALICK AMBER.

At
as he

tlie

time of the

fall

of Alimednagar, one Malick

Amber
Amber,

was the Governor of Dowlatabad.
is

Malick,

or

Sidi

often called, had been originally an Abyssinian slave.
a

He was
trative

man

of considerable

talents,

especially in adminis-

matters.

During the
he remained
II,

time of Queen Chand he was
the

her faithful deputy, and when
the capital
fell,

Queen was murdered, and
to the old dynasty,

faithful

and

proclaimed Murtaza
to be the King,
city
is

grandson of the second Nizam Shah,
tixed his capital at Kirki, a

The new King
Aurangabad.

which had been founded
as

by ^lalick Amber, and which
Malick
of
little

now known
is

Amber was
the

the Regent

and virtual ruler of what portion
It

probable that at

first

this

kingdom was left. kingdom consisted of
JNIoguls in

but one or two

districts
it

with

which the
the

Ahmed-

nagar did not think

worth their while
settling

to interfere, as they

had
into

sufficient

to

do

in

western portion of the
the

kingdom.

In 1607, Malick

Amber

placed

King Murtaza

confinement,

where he
his

remained for the next nineteen
His rule appears to have

years; and then declared his independence, ruling the country
that

was

left

in

own name.

been a wise and able one, and especially so as regards revenue

252

llltiTOliY

OF THE DECCAN.
survey and settlement of the

matters.

lie

made

a

tlioroiigli

country under his cliargc,

Avliich

remained
is

in force until

the

middle of
as the
is

this century,

and his name

still

highly-spoken of
itself

founder of the country's prosperity.
fertile,

The country

very rich and

and consists for the most part of the
Circumstances favoured Malick

valley of the

Upper Godavery.
Soon

Amber,

for soon after his accession to

power dissensions broke
took away the attention
affairs of the

out amongst the Moguls.
son, Sultan

after Jehangir's accession, his

Khusroo, revolted.
for

This

of the

Emperor
the
to

and

by

time

some time from the he had quelled the
so

Deccan,

revolt,

Amber had

managed

make himself

strong that he was never really

conquered.

Gradually he extended his possessions until they

reached within eight miles of the fort of Ahmednagar to the
west; and
to

Bieder on the
Bijapur

east,

whilst

in

the

south they
the
fre-

bordered on the

country.

Malick
of

Emperor
some
him,

Jehangir's

especial

object

detestation.

Amber was He

quently mentions him in his memoirs, but scarcely ever without
adjective of abuse, such as "black-faced," "wretch," or

"cursed fellow."

Numerous

expeditions

were

sent

against

but though he was sometimes defeated, he
successful as not.

was never
In 1609,
of the mis-

conquered, and he was as often

Jehangir recalled the

Khan Khanan on account
the
of

management
thus

of affairs in

Deccan.
affairs

Jehangir in his diary
at

summarises the

state

that

time:

— "From
of

the time of the conquest of

Ahmednagar by my
Safawi,
late

late

brother

Daniyal to the present time, the place had been under the

command

of

Khwaja Beg Mirza
since

a

relation

Shah
to

Tahmasp, of Persia; but
canees had
invested
the

their

successes, the Deceffort

town.

Every
at

was made

defend the place,

and

Khan Khanan and
Parwez
jealousies
supplies,

who were
to relieve

Avith
it.

Prince

the other Amirs Burhanpur marched forth

leaders,

Through the and from want of

and dissensions of the

the

army was conducted

THE STORY OF MALIC K AMBER.
hy
ill

253

ii)|)roj)cr

roads, through iiiountains and difficult passes, and
it

a sliort time
that
it

was disorganized, and so
compelled
to
retreat.

niucli in

want of
of

food

was

The hopes
place.

the

garrison Avere fixed on this

force,

and

its

retreat filled thcni

with

feai-.

They desired
his

to

evacuate

the

Kliwaja Beg
in

Mirza did

best

to

console

vain, so he capitulated on terms

and encourage them; but and retired with his men and
I

to

Burhanpur.
the

When

the

despatches arrived,

found that

Khwaja had fought bravely and done him to a mansah of 5,000 and gave him

his best, I

promoted
Jehan, the
the

a suitable Jagir." *

A

letter Avritten to

Jehangir at this time by

Khan

Second-in-Command,
disasters have

shows the

state

of

affairs:

— "All

happened through the bad management of the
Either confirm

Khan Khanan.
him
the
to

him
to

in his

command
I

or recall
If

court,

and appoint

me

perform the
will

service.

30,000 horse are sent as a reinforcement,
course
of

undertake in

two
to to

years
take

to

recover

the

Imperial territory

from the enemy, the frontier, and
dominions.
I will If I

Kandahar, and other fortresses on make Bijapur a part of the Imperial
this
in

do not complish

the period named,

never show

my

face

at

court again."

This suggestion

Avas adopted,

and the Khan Khanan was
It

recalled.

being appointed in his place.

does

not

Khan Jehan a})pear that Khan
no doubt,

Jehan was able
in part, but as

to fulfill all his promises; he did so,

for

reducing the
Ave

whole of the Ahmednagar
the latter left untouched,

country, let alone Bijapur,

find

and in the former Amber Avas as strong as ever. In 1612, Jehangir speaks of the defeat of another Imperial expedition
in
it:

a

battle

fought near DoAvlatabad.

Jehangir thus notices
himself in comre-inforcements

"Amber the black-faced, Avho had placed mand of the enemy, continually brought up
till

he had assembled a large force, and he constantly annoyed
ami Dowson. Vol. YI..
p.

* Elliot

323.

254

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
witli
liiui

AI)(Iu11mIi
lie

rockets and various kinds of ticry missiles,
to a sad condition.

till

reduced

So, as the Iniperiid force
tlie

had received no reinforcement,
force,
it

and

enemy was

in great

campaign."
peace were
accepted.
assassinate

was deemed expedient to retreat, and prepai'e foi- a new This was done, and soon afterwai'ds ])roposals of

made by

the Deccanees,

which ap])ear
an

to

have been

Two

years

afterwards

attempt

was

made

to

Malick Amber, which, liowever, failed, and the Emperor in recording it adds: —"A very little more would have made an end of this cursed fellow." In the same year
(tenth of the reign

army of the and a body of Bargis (Mahrattas), a very
the

we find a victory recorded over "wretched" Amber: "Some good officers
1616),

=

liardy race of people,

who
with

are great movers of opposition and strife, being offended Amber desired to become subjects of my throne. * * *

Having thus brought them in to the interests of the throne. Shah Sarvar Khan marched with them from Ealapur against
And)er.

On
the

their w^ay they

were opposed by an army of the
it,

Deccanees: but they soon defeated
panic to

and drove the men
vanity

in

camp

of

Amber.
the

In

his

and pride, he

resolved to hazard a battle with

my

victorious army.

To

his

own

forces he united

armies of Adil
artillery,
five

Khan and Kutb-ul-

Mulk, and with a train of
royal army, until he
p. 344).

he marched to meet the
or six koss of it" {ibid,

came within
of

A

hotly contested engagement ensued, which resulted
defeat
'

in the total
'

the

Deccanees,

and the
Malick

flight

of the

black-faced

Amber, who

left his capital

Kirki to be occupied

by the Imperialists.
for peace,

After

this

defeat,

Amber sued

which was granted, and the Imperial troops withdrew, but they had no sooner withdrawn than another outbreak occurred. Jehangir had gone to Cashmere, and Malick

Amber
The

thinking this a favourable opportunity,

made an inroad
in Burhanjnir.

into the Eerars,

and shut the Imperial garrison up

rebels

remained for six

months

in this part of the country,

THE STORY OF MALICK AMBER.
and
uiiiiexcd several dislricts of
in

255

Rerar and Kliaiidcisli.
l^'ince

Matters

were
Kirki

so critical u

state,

that

Shall Jchan

was sent
"tliat

to reconcincf the Deccan.

At

first

(1()21)

he was sncccssful.
the
re-

was invested and taken,
wliicli
its

and

so

destroyed

town
cover

had taken

twenty years to build will hardly

splendour for another

twenty years."

And)er now
^^oss

again had to submit, and was compelled to cede fourteen
(28 miles) of Imperial territory and pay an indemnity of
lakhs of rupees.

fifty

In
to

1622,

Shah Jehan broke
this rebellion

into rebellion,
assist-

and Amber seems
ance.

have given him very consi(k'rable

For the next three years
were
at
first

continued, and

operations
profited

conducted
to

in

the

Deccan.

Amber

by the confusion

annex fresh

territory,

and pushed

on his boiuidarics to within a short distance of Ahmednagar.

Shah Jehan was beaten and compelled to raise the siege of Burhanpur, upon which he left the Deccan, and the Imperialists were able to pay attention to Malick Amber. The following
In 1623,

Khan (Elliot and Dowson, Vol. VI., how important a person Malick Amber had become: "Malick Amber proceeded to the frontiers of Kutb-ulMidk, to receive the annual payment of his army, which was now
quotation from jMutamad
pp. 414-15) shows

two years
Bieder.
in

in arrears.

After receiving

it,

and making himself

secure on that side by a treaty and oath, he proceeded towards

There he found the forces of Adil Khan, who were
so

charge of that country, unprepared,
city.

he attacked them
thence he marched
best
to

unawares and plundered the
against
officers

From
sent

Bijapur.

Adil

Khan had

his

troops

and
(to

along with
the

Mulla

]\Iahonied

Lari

Burhanpur

assist

Imperial

Forces),

and not deeming himself strong
he shut himself up in the fortress
Lari and his forces."
at

enough

to resist the assailant,

of Bijapur,

and doing

all

he could to secure the place, he sent

a messenger to recall

Mahomed
to

Sarbuland
at

Rai

Avas the Imperial

Governor

Burhanpur, and he
sending

once

allowed

Mahomed

Lari

return,

with him a large

256

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Ami)cr now
I'aised

portion of his ariuy.

the siege of Bijapnr,

and retreated to his own country, but was followed by the combined Adil Khani and liis Imperial troops. Amber, hardly
pressed,

was

at

length

compelled

to

give

battle

about ten

miles from

the Bijapur troops,

Ahmednagar. iMahomed Lari, who commanded was killed, and his fall throwing his folMalick
of

lowers into
victory.

confusion,

Amber

obtained
his

a

complete
sent

"IMalick

Amber,

successful

beyond

hopes,

his prisoners to

the

fortress

Dowlatabad, and marclied to

But although he brought up his guns and pressed the siege, he met with no success. He, therefore, left a part of his army to complete the investment, whilst he marched against Bijapur. Adil Khan again took
lay siege
to

Ahmednagar.

refuge

in

the

fortress,

and

Malick
of

Amber
the

occupied

all

his

territories as

far

as

the

frontiers

Imperial dominions

in the
laid

Balaghat (Berar).
to

He

collected an excellent

army and

siege

Sholapur,

which

had

long

been a subject of

contention between

Nizam-ul-Mulk and Adil Khan.
(ihid).

He

sent

a force against Burhanpur, and having brought

up guns from
Orders were
Malick

Dowlatabad, he took ShoLapur by storm"

now

sent to the Imperial Forces to stay

all

further proceedings
his death,

until the arrival of reinforcements,

and until

Amber seems
occurred in

to

have

been
the

1626,

and

supreme in the Deccan. This same historian whom we have
it:

quoted above, thus records
the death of
his age,

— "Intelligence
This

now

arrived of

Amber, the Abyssinian,
the

in the eightieth year of

on

31st

Ardebthist.

Amber was
in

a slave,

but an able man.

In warfare, in

command,
no
rival

sound judgment,

and

in

administration,

he had

or equal.

He

well

understood that predatory warfare, which in the language of the

Deccan
of his

is

called hargi-giri.

He

kept

down

the turbulent spirit

of that country, and maintained his exalted position to the end
life,

and closed

his career in honour.

History records no

other instance of an Abyssinian slave arriving at such eminence."

THE STORY OF MALIC K AMBER.
During
11,

257

tlic

whole of

this

time (1007-20)
cliietly

tlie

King Mui-taza

had been kept

in conhnenicnt,

in

the fort of

Dow-

hitabad,

Maliek

Amber
of

where he spent his time in drink and sensual excess, Futteh Khan and Chenglu'z left two sons

Khan
in

whom

the former, the elder, succeeded to his father's
liowever,

authority.

The King,

managed

Khan.
to

which he was aided by a favourite Futteh Khan was then seized and sent
the fort
of

make his escape, slave, named Ilamid
to in confinement

Khiber.

Here,

however,

he did not remain

long, but

making

his escape,

he raised the standard of rebellion.
again capturing Futteh Khan,
fort

Ilamid Khan appears to have been an able man, and succeeded
in

raising an

army and
in

who was now
6th

confined

the

of

Dowlatabad.

Shah

Jehan was then on the
February,
1628.
principal Generals,

Delhi

throne,
his

having succeeded on
accession,

Soon

after

one of his
refuge

Khan
Kirki

Jehan,

who

for

some time had been
took
with

Governor

of

the
in

Deccan,

revolted,

and
troops,
at

Murtaza Shah

and Dowlatabad.

This led to con-

siderable fighting with the Imperial

who were
had
the

sent to

capture the rebel,
to the

and Khan Jehan

length
in

to escape

Punjab.

This

was

in

1630,

and

same year a

terrible

famine ravaged

the

Deccan
{idid.

and

Guzerat.

We

are

told

by Abdul Hamid Lahori

Vol. VII., p. 24), "that the

inhabitants of these two countries Avere reduced to the direst ex-

was offered for a loaf, but none would buy rank was to be sold for a cake, but none cared for it; the ever bounteous hand was now stretched out to beg for food, and the feet which had
tremity. Life
;

always trodden the way of contentment, Avalked about only in
search of sustenance.
for
goat's
flesh,

For a long time dog's

flesh

was sold

and the and

pounded

bones of the dead were
this

mixed with
at

flour

sold.

When
to
his

was discovered, the

sellers Avere lirought to justice.

Destitution at length arrived

such a pitch that

men began

devour each other, and the
love.

flesh of a son

was preiered to

The numbers

of the
17

2r>8

HiST(n>'y

or
in

'riii-:

deccan.
and every

dviiig caused ohstriictioiis

the

ro.-ids,

man

wliosc

dire sufferings did not

terminate

in

dcatli,
to

and who retained

the poAver to

move,

wandered
'J'liose

off

the

towns and villages
heeii

of othcj' countries.
their fertility

lands

whicii

had

famous for
continenient,

and plenty
time

now

retained no trace of prodnction."

Durinp;

this

I'utteli

Khan

had

Ix'cii

in

but through an intrigue by means of
the King's zenana,
lie

his sister,

who was
that

iji

not only Avas released, l)ut was appointed
iMitteh

Commander-in-Chief.

Khan,

liowever,

felt

this

chauge was only a teuiporary one.

The King jMurtaza was
and so
to save hiuiself,

now very

old,

and

was given up
evil

to all kinds of debauchery.

He was
Futteli

surrounded by

advisers,

Khan

placed his master in the same prison from wdiich

he had just been liberated.
correspoudence
the country
that
if

He
Delhi.

then
Court,

at

once entered into
to hold

Avith

the

Imperial
of

and offered

as

a

vassal

"In answer he was
rid

told

he wished to prove his sincerity he should
of

the
II.)

Avorld

such

a

worthless
direction,

and wicked being (Murtaza
Futteh Kliau secretly
that he

On

receiviug

this

made away

Avith

Nizam Shah, but gave out
{ibid,

had died a natural

death"

Vol. \l\., p. 27).
Avliat

Futteh Khan, however, soon

repented of
of Murtaza,

he had done,

and placed Hussein, the son

a

boy ten years of age, on the throne, and Avhen

the ambassadors from Dellii arrived, he refused to hand over
the fort.

Khan

to

Shah Jelian thereupon sent an army under Mahabut reduce Dowlatabad. Futteh Khan's change of mind
attitude of the Bijapur

appears to have been caused by the
forces, Avliom

Add Shah had

sent against Dowlatabad, but avIio

noAv

made an arrangement
of

to assist

Futteh

Khan

in its defence,

against the Imperialists.
a

Shahjee,

Avho Avas rapidly becoming
in

person

importance,
did

appears

this

matter on the side
the

of Bijapur, and

the Imperial

army.

good service But in spite

in harassing

march

of

of

all

opposition, the post

Avas at last invested,

and the siege commenced.

The defence

Scarped Rock Dowlatabad Fort.

THE STOltY OF MALIC K AMBER.
was a very obstinate one, and wlicn
was taken,
Vol.
Fntteli
at
tlie

26]

last

the

lower fort
to the

Klian retired

uj)per fort which
{idid,
vi.,

was held
41)
thus

to

young King be inipregnal)le. Abdul
with
it:

p.

describes

— "The

Ilaniid
of

okl

name

Dowlatabad was Deo-gir, or Dlinnigar. It stands upon a rock which towers to the sky. In circumference it measures 5,000 legal ^az, and the rock all round is scarped
the fortress of
so carefully,

from the base
is

of

the

fort

to

the
it

level of the
ditficulty.

water, that a snake or an ant would ascend

with

Around
and

it

there

a

moat forty
into

legal yards {zara) in width

tiiirty

depth,
is

cut

the

solid

rock.

In

the

heart of

the rock there

a dark and tortuous })assage like the ascent
is

of a minaret, and a light

required there in broad daylight.

The
is

steps are cut in the rock itself,
gate.
It is

and the bottom

is

closed

by an iron
entered.
structed,

by

this

road and way that the fortress
could

Ey
it,

the passage a large iron brazier had been con-

wluch,

when
fire

necessary,

be

placed
l)razier,

in
its

tlie

middle of

and a

being kindled in the
all

heat

would

effectually

prevent

progress.
&c., are of

The ordinary means
no avail against
Eutteh
it."

of besieging a fort

by mines,
strength

But

in spite

of

the

of

the

fort,

Khan saw
later

that further resistance

was
In

useless,

and that sooner or
therefore, to get as

he would have to yield.

order,

good

terms as possible, he offered to submit.

The

offer

was accepted,

the keys handed over, and the Klmfha was read in the
of

name
to

The young King Hussein was Gwalior to join the young prince who had been sent to place from Ahmednagar, thirty-four years before.
the

Emperor.

sent

the

same

Futteli

Khan was loaded with honours, and was offered mand in the Imperial army, which he was about
when he developed symptoms
in the head.

a high comto undertake,

of insanity

from an old wound

He

was, therefore, allowed to retire to Lahore,

where he
lakhs
of

lived for

many

years in recei})t of a pension of two
In'other,

rupees.

His younger

Chengiz Khan, had

262

HISTORY OF
tJie

TUh' DECCAN.
serviee,

already entered

Kiuperors

where he was appointed
title

nn

Amir
was

of two
tlic

tlioiisand,
tlic

with

the

of

Mmisoor Khan.
this time,

Tliis

end of
their

Nizam Shahs, and from
sunk
into
a

the

whole

of

tei'ritory

piovince

of

the

Empire.

The

story of Maliek

And)er
he
is

is

very

sliglitly

mentioned hy
however, be

Indian historians,

and
Deliii

fre(piently spoken of as being a

Governor of the

Emperor.

There

can,

no doubt that for nineteen years he not only ruled in his

own

name, but that he very nearly i-econcpiered

tlio

whole of the

Ahmednagar Kingdom.
as far as

He nmst
he
is

liavc

carried his concpiests
to

the

sea,

for

spoken of as doing damage
evidently

the

Imperial

shipping.

He was
he
lived,

held

in

great re-

spect in the Deccan, and both Golconda and Bijapur paid
tribute.

him
no

As

long as

the Moguls could

retain

firm hold, and he went uear

to

forming a large independent
few^ years longer,

kingdom which, had he
sibly have

lived a

might pos-

been able to withstand the Imperial arms.

But

it

was not
of the

to be,

and wdien he died, the
passed

last

capable defender

Deccan

away,

so

that

the
fall

end now became
of

merely a question of time.
beginning of the

With the end had commenced.

Dowlatabad the

CHAPTER

XXII.

THE BEGINNING OF THE END.

The
several

fall

of

Dowlatahad was followed by the reduction of
Slialijee

other strongliolds.

was negotiating for the

but was anticipated hy the Moguls, wdio Governor of the fort to hand over possession to induced the Shahjee then managed to get hold of a relative of them.
surrender of Jalna,
the the

Nizam Shah, and keeping him
hill

in

contincment
to

in

one of

forts,

proclaimed him
This
led
to

as

successor

the

Ahnied-

nager Kingdouj.

an

expedition hy the Imperial

army,

commanded hy
against

Prince
fort

Shah
of

Shujah,

and the Khan
hut

Klianan,
siege

the

hill

Purenda,

though the

was pushed with
they

a

considerahle
effect
a

amount
1685,

of vigour the

besiegers were not able
setting
iji,

to

breach, and on the rains

had

to

retire.

In
to

we

tind

that

an

ambassador was sent from Delhi
with Jirma/hs specifying
pay, and for the

both Golconda and Pijapur
of
in

the

amount
read

tiibute

they should

Muitha
the

behig

the
still

Emperor's name.
independent,
times,

Nominally, an
officer,

however,
similar
to

Kings

weie
of

but

to

ouiat

Kesidents
court

of

modern

was
the
that

appointed

reside

the

each,

who kept

Emperor informed
these officers

of

what

was

going on.
to

We
whom

read

were met by the Sultans

they were

litil.

ins 'WHY OF
with
cvci'v
five

TJfl'J

DECCAN.
;

iU'vivdiivd
Kiitl)
It is

iiiaik
/lO.ss

of I'cspcct

hotli

Adil

Sliiili

iiiul

SIimIi

i;<»iii<;-

from

tlicir

cjipitals

to iiicct

tlii-iii.

also

si^-iiificaiit

that

from
title

this

time

we

find

tliat

the

Delhi historians omit the
Kinjis,

of

Shah, and merely style the

Adil
a

Khan and
of

Kutb-nl-J\lidk.

Hnt

though

l?ija])nr

made

show

submission,

the

King'

j)i'ivately

kept

up

negotiations with, and sent assistance to, the Mahratta Shahjee.

This led to a punitive expedition against him by an Imperial

The country was ravaged and laid waste, and finally Adil Shah had to sue for peace, which he obtained by payment of
Force, and there Avas a good deal of desultory fighting.

twenty lakhs
restrain

in

jewels,

ele|)hants,

&c.,

and by promising to
Imperial territory.
If

Shahjee from
agreed
Junar,
to

molesting
the
to

the

Shahjee
such
as

surrender

Ahmednager
be
at

strongholds,
to

&c.,

he
if

was

liberty

enter the

Sultan's service, but

he did not,
crushing
his

the Sultan was to assist
rebellion.

During the whole of this transaction, the Emperor himself was present in the Deccan with the main body of his army, but on peace being settled, he agreed to return to Delhi, and thus relieve the country from the enormous strain which the presence of
the

Imperial

army

in

the

huge

Imperial
left

camp
son.

laid

upon

it.

In

his

place

the

Emperor

his

Prince

Aurungzebe,

as

Viceroy and

Governor of the Deccan.
forts, fifty-three of

that the Imperial province in the

Abdul liamid [ibid, p. 88) states Deccan contained sixty-four
hills,

which are situated on
plains.
It
is

the remaining

eleven being on the
(1)

divided

into

four s/ibas

Dowlatabad with
call

they

the sub a of
to

Ahmednager and other the Deccan. The capital

districts,

wdiich

of this province,

which belonged

Nizam-ul-Mulk, was formerly Admednager,

and afterwards Dowlatabad; (2) Telingana, this is situated in the Balaghat (the capital was Nander with the fort of Kandahar)
(3)

Khandeish, the capital of which was Burhanpur, and the

fort Asir; and (4) Eerar (the capital of

which was Ellichpur,

THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
and the fortress Gawil).
is

2«7

Tlie

revenue of the four provinces
five

stated

to

have amounted to

crores

of

rupees (equal

five millions sterling).

Shahjee did not
bined forces of
for him, and he

submit without a struggle, but the com-

the

Emperor and Adil Shah were

too nuich

was at length compelled to surrender Junar, same time to give up the young Nizam whom he had j)roclaimed. The young prince was then taken by Aurungzebe to Delhi, and eventually sent to join his two other relatives
and
at

the

in Gwalior.

Shahjee now entered
in

the

service of Adil Shah,
in

who employed him
the Carnatic.
his life, leaving his
his

the

campaign he was carrying on
son
Sivajee

Here Shahjee continued
younger
In
the

for almost the rest of

under the care of

mother

at

Poons.

Carnatic,

Shahjee proved him-

self a

most useful servant.

He

reduced Mysore, Arcot, and

the whole of the Tanjore country

down

to the

River Cauvery,
as

the latter portion being bestoAved upon
a personal jaghir.

him by the Sultan

For more than seven years Shahjee did not see this time grew up to manhood, and developed qualities which enabled him to infinitely surpass
his son Sivajee,

who during

his father in daring,

intrigue,
tin-one

and

in

statesmanship.

Mahmud
succeeded
this

Shah was now on the
his father in

of Eijapur.

He had

1626, and reigned until 1656.

During

long

period of thirty years, the Sultan, though not very successful
against the

Imperial

army,

extended

his

dominions far into
into the field, but
in

the south and east.

He

did not himself part
of
his

a;o

remained for the

greater

time

the capital,

where he raised many handsome buildings. Amongst those is the celebrated Gol Gumbaz, or, as it is often called, the Bol

Gumbaz
some
world.

{Go/ means
of
is

round,
tlie

and
than

JJo/

speaking).

This

is

in

respects one

most

remarkable buiklings
that
of

in the

The dome
the

bigger

the Pantheon at

Rome, and
tiiat

covers an area of 18,225 feet (one-eigiith
Pantlieon.)

more than
bodv of

of

The

tomi)

—for

in

it

the

268

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

Malimud was buried
itself is

— took

ten

years

to

build.

The dome

iu

l)uilt in pendatives* of a very peculiar form, and Mr. Fergusson's opinion, they are the happiest thought in

dome-building that has yet come to
teer (Vol XXIII.)

light.

thus

describes

the

The Bomhay Gazetway it is built: "In

ordinary Saracenic domes, the lines of the square are carried

up to the dome, and the octagon, at the springing of the dome, has the same diameter as the square; at Bijapur this space is contracted by inscribing in it two squares resting on alternate piers of an imaginary octagon. These by their intersection form an iimer octagon whose angles are opposite the centre of the sides of the larger octagon. By these means an enormous mass of masonry is hung as a bracket inside the square. The inward drag of this mass is counteracted by the circular gallery, but at the same time it balances the
tendency of the
walls outward.

dome

to

spread

at

the base, and thrust the
serves for a landmark,
It is,

This beautifnl

l^iiilding

and

is

seen from a distance of twenty-five miles.

how-

ever, necessary to stand at

some

distance

from

it

in order to

take in

the

exact

proportions.

When
though
St.

too

close,

the

dome
out-

seems to sink into the body of the building.

Its great
it

ward

defect

is

Avant of height,

in this

is

said to be

superior to either the Pantheon or

Sophia."
vice-royalty lasted for

Prince

Aurungzebe's tenure

of

the

about seven years.
time
the

When
young

he was appointed, he Avas a youth
w^as

of seventeen, and his rule
at
this

only

a

nominal one.
to

Indeed
of the
after

Prince
to

seems

have been more
vanities

devoted to religion than
world.
It

the

pomps and

was whilst he was
Aurangabad,
retiring

residing
that

at Kirki, which,

him

is

called

extraordinary idea of

Aurungzebe conceived the from the world as an ascetic,

and, indeed, did for about one year actually live in a cell in
*

A pondative

is

an architectural device by which a square

is

gradually

contracted into a circle,

THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
tlic

269

rocky

liills,

tliat

abound

in

tlio ncMg-lihoui'liood.

TJic sacred

caves of Pjllora and Ajunta are situated not far from Auran-

gabad, and about the whole neighbourhood
of

tliere

exists a sort

amn

of asceticism and sanctity, and

it

is

possible the

young
it

prince's

imagination

was

fired

by
to

this

ti-adition,

tliougli

related to a religion

different
in

his

own.

During the

first

Viceroyalty

of

Aurungzebe

the

Deccan,

matters seem to

have been comparatively quiet,
ten years during which

and they remained so for the Aurungzebe was employed in the military

operation in Ealkh.

In 1654, however,

Aurungzebe was again

appointed Viceroy of the Deccan, and the causes which led to
this

appointment

call for detailed notice.

We

have seen how
of the Seven-

from time

to time

during

the

commencement

teenth Century the Golconda armies had taken a share in the

Deccan, and how Malick Amber levied from the country. Subsequently peace was restored, and the Sultan became a tributary of the Empire. Abdulla Kutb Shah was then reigning at Golconda, or rather at BhagThis town is situated on nagar, the old name of Hyderabad. the south or right bank of the River Musi, one of the tribuThough surrounded by a wall, the city taries of the Kistna. could never have been used for jmrposes of defence. It was founded originally by Mahomed Kutb Shah at the end of the sixteenth Century, and named by him after his favourite wife or mistress, Bhagmati. The city has no architectural pretensions with tlie exception of the Char Minar or four minarets,
various w^ars of the
tribute
situated in the heart of the
city
at

the
or

meeting of
]\Iusji(l,

tlie

four

main thoroughfares, and the
a description
Avill

Jumma
of

Mecca

of wliicli

be given later on.

In the seventeenth Cen-

tury Hyderabad

was a

centre

mercantile
all

enterprise,

and

merchants and dealers flocked there from

parts of the world,

one of the special attractions being the market for diamonds which

was held

in the fort of

Golconda, Ave miles distant.
oil

these adventurers was the son of an

merchant of

Amongst Ispahan, who

tiO

HIS TO in' OF THE DECCAN.
to (jolcoiida

came

about the year KJoO.

I

Ic

was a man

of extraor-

dinary talents, and in a short time rose to a position of a great

wealth and influence. 'VUc
is

name hy which he
the

is

known

in history

Mir Jumla, and
history
of

lie

forms
during

one of the principal characters in
scventeentli

the

India

Century.

Tlie
in

travellers

Tavernicr and

Thevenot

who

visited

Golconda

1648 and 1067 have left beliind graphic accounts, not only of Golconda and Hyderabad, but also of Mir Jumla, who at the fij'st date mentioned was the principal personage in the State,

The former
and no
less

says:

— "Mir

Jumla was a person him
several
times,

of

great wit
affairs.
1

understanding in military than in State

I

had occasion to speak to
less

and
all

have no

admired

his justice

than his despatch to

people that

had to do with him; while he gave out several despatches at one time, as if he had but one business on hand. ^ * * On

upon him again, and were immediately admitted into his tent, where lie The Nawab was sitting sat with his two secretaries by him. according to the custom of the country, barefoot like one of our tailors, with a great number of papers sticking between his toes, and others between the fingers of his left hand, which papers he drew sometimes from between his fingers and sometimes from between his toes, and ordered Avhat answers should be given to every one." It was during Mir Jumla's period of power in Golconda that the valuable diamond mines were
the 15th, in the morning,
to wait

we were admitted

acquired and developed.

These mines,

as already stated above,

were situated at a considerable distance from Golconda, but under Mir Jumla's orders they were most carefully and systematically

worked.

It

is

not clear whether the Minister did not

work some of them on his own account; possibly he farmed them from the King. Thevenot speaks of his having twenty maund's weiglith of diamonds which he had obtained either from Mir Jumla also the mines or from conquests in the Carnatic. owned a large jaghir adjoining the Carnatic, ahout BOO miles long

AiiLL IIasaji

Kutob

Shoisi,

THE BEGTNNINa OF THE END.

273

by 60 miles wide, yielding a revenue of forty lakhs of i-upees, and lich in diMinond mines. His power and wealth were so great
that he

was able

to

entertain

a force

at his

own expense

of

5,000

hoi'se.

As was only

natural, this

enormous power and
of the Deccanees,

wealth of a foreigner excited

the

jealousy

mind against young man of dissipated habits and incurred the King's displeasure. Mir Jumla saw that his disgrace and fall were inevitable, and he therefore resolved to throw himself into the arms of the Imperialists. Prince Aurungzebe had just arrived in the Deccan, and
and endeavours were made
liim.

to poison the King's

His son,

Mahomed Amin, was

also

a

accordingly

Mir Jumla wrote

to

him and

invited

him

to

invade Golconda.

runs as follows:

— "You

Bernicr gives

a copy of the letter,* which
five

need but take four or
a

thousand
an

horse of the best of your army, and to march with expedition
to Golconda,

spreading
froui

rumour by the way
goes in
to

that

it

is

ambassador
about
Dabir,

Shah Jehan who
matters
first
is

haste

to speak

confidential

the

king at Bhagnagar.
to
is

The

who

is

the

to

be
to

addressed,

make anything
creature and
to

known

to the

King,

allied

me, and
nothino;
it

my

altoo;ether

mine.

Take care of
I

l)ut

march with
it

expedition,

and

will

so

order

that

without making

shall come to the gates of Bhagnagar, and when King shall come out to receive the letters according to custom, you may easily seize on him and afterwards or all his family, and do with him what shall seem good to you; in regard that his house of Bhagnagar, where he commonly

known you
the

resides,

is

unwalled and unfortified."

Bernier goes on to say
at

that on receipt of this letter,

Aurungzebe
his

once marched as

proposed,

and Mir Jumla kept
ambassador,
Revolution

word, everything falling
advised
forth
of
into

out as
of
*

predicted.

"The King, being
came
of the

the arrival
a

this
'•

pretended

garden
I.,

History of the late

Empire of Mogul." Vol.
18

pp. 38-39.

274

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
custom,
received
liiiii

iwconVuvy to

with
liaiuls

liouoiir

jiiid

li;iviH<>-

unfortnnately put liimself into
or twelve slaves

tlie

of

tlie

cueniy, ten
liini,

were ready

to

fall

upou and

seize

as

tenderness, could not
the
})arty,

had been projected, but that a certniu Oiiirah touched with forbear to ci'y out, though he was of
and
a

creature
this
is

of

the

Amir:

'Doth not your

Majesty see
!

taken

'

Auruugzebc ? Aw'ay, or you are Whereat the King being affrighted, slips away, and
that

gets hastily

on

horseback,

riding

with

all

his

might to the

fortress of Golconda."
true,

It is ])ossible

that this account
to

may be
of

for

Aurungzebe

Avas
it

(piite

equal

such

a

piece

treachery.

No

doubt
of

is

the story which Eernier heard, and
to

in his position

surgeon

the

Emperor he

\vould have

good sources at his command. But it must always be remembered that in every country, and especially in India, stories which are current at court are generally
exceptionally

tinged with exaggeration.

In this case not only
is

is

there internal
is

evidence that the story
history of Inayat Khan,

not

correct,

but there

also the

which gives a very different version
the

but one which contains
sibility of

element upon which the more

sensational one could easily be built.

Apart from the impos-

Prince Aurungzebe being able to start on a raid of
it

this

kind wdthout

being

known,

we know
of
this like

that

he

was
no

essentially a cautious

man,

and one who
for
if

laid his plans after

much

deliberation.

An

expedition
a

kind would,

doubt, have had

attractions

man

Sivajee, but not so far as

for Aurungzebe, and
to

further,

he

had succeeded
poAver,

have got the King actually in his
allowed

he

would not

have

Jumba came

Now, Inayat Khan says Mir Aurungzebe because he had fallen He was received into the displeasure of his master, the King. with high honour, and a kliilat, and wansah of 5,000 \vas bestowed upon him. It is very possible that on the occasion of this visit Mir Junda laid before the Prince the plan of an
him
to

escape.

himself

to

The last King

op Uulcuxda u MPKISUNED BV AURUNGZEBE,

TILE

BEGINNING OF THE END.

277

invasion; ])ut as yet there was no excuse.
as

Sultan

Abdullah
])laced
all

heard
his

that
son,

^lir

As soon, liowever, Junda had gone to
Aniin,
in

Aurungzebe, he

Mahomed

confine-

ment, and attached

his Minister's property.

This furnished

the excuse for interference, and we are told that the Prince at once despatched " a quiet letter to Kutb-ul-Mulk regarding the release of the j)risoners,

and the restoration of

Mahomed

Amin's goods and chattels." At the same time he reported the matter to Delhi, and asked for permission to march with
an army to
insist

upon the order being carried

out.

This

permission being granted, the Prince despatched his eldest son,

Mahomed
near

Sultan, with an advance force with orders to

encamp
father

Hyderabad,
arrived

and

insist

upon
at

the

letter

of

his

being obeyed.

Al)dulla

Shah
a

first

delayed, but
of

when

the

army
and

within
as to

short

distance

Hyderabad,

he

complied so far
j\Iir

send

out

Mahomed Amin,
is

but not his

Jumla's ])roperty.
the
fort

The Sultan
and

said to have taken

refui>-e

in

of

Golconda,

to
at

have
the

sent

out

a

same time to have made a sortie which attacked the camp of the young The attack Prince whilst the jewels were being presented. was beaten off, but as the messenger was su})})osed to have been an accomplice, he was j)ut to death. If Bernier's story
messenger with a box of jewels, but

were
but
it

true,

Mir Junda must have

still

l)een with

the Sultan,

seems clear that previous
fiight

to the

despatch of this advance

force he had joined Aurungzebe.

There can be no doul)t that

was a very rapid one, and that after he had escaped, the city of Hyderabad was partially plundered
the Sultan's

but there seems to be no ground for the accusation of treachery

on

the

part

of

Aurungzebe.
partially

When
obeyed

iVurungzebe heard
his

that the

Sultan
his

had only
son with

orders,

he at

once joined

the

main body of the army, and
fighting ensued, in

proceeded

to invest the fort.

Some

which

the Imperialists were not always successful, but the siege was

278

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
pressed
to

l)C'mi>-

actively

wlii-ii

orders
not
to

eaine
j)rcss

from
the

Delhi

to

the

Priiiee

allow

terms,

and

matter to the

This j)rol)al)ly was due to the jealousy Avhieh Prince Dara Shukoh entertained of Aurungzebc, and as the former was the emperor's favourite son, he was able to influence his From Taveniier's account it would appear father's actions. that Aurungzebe was by no means so successfid in his siege
end.
as the historian Inayat
is

Khan

tries

to

make
of

out.

This history

overladen

with

fulsome

flattery

Aurungzebe,
or
the

who

is

never mentioned without some (puilifying adjective such as the

"ever
soon

victorious,"

"the

fortunate

Prince,"

"ever

triumphant."
after

Tavernier visited Goleonda for
the

the third time

of the war, and his account, from eyewitnesses, cannot be open to the Tavernier suspicion of partiality which that of a courtier is. speaks of one distinct repulse, in which the Imperialists had

conclusion

obtained, no doidit,

to flee for several leagues
battle-field.

after

leaving

their General on the

Under Inayat Khan's
writing

plastic
is

pen,

this

defeat

becomes
his style

a victory,

and as the passage

a

of

which makes every enemy a
it

good example of "wretch"

and every Imperialist a "hero,"
" After two or three days had
force
of

is

worth reproducing:
appearance on the
to

elapsed in this manner, a vast

the

Kutb-ul-Mulk's
fort,

made

their

northern side of the
the

and were about
the
latter,

pour down upon
in

entrenchment

of

Mirza Khan, who

was engaged

the

defence of that cpiarter;
their hostile intention,

when made an

becoming aware of

aj)plication for reinforcements.

The renowned and successful Prince immediately despatched some nobles with his own artillery to his support, and their
reinforcements

having
affray.

arrived

at

full

speed,

took

part
of

at

once

in

the

Under

the

magic

influences

his

Majesty's never-failing good fortune, the

enemy took
began

to flight,

whereupon
:fniscreants

the
to the

ever-triumphant

troops

putting

the

sword, and allowed hardly any of them to

77//';

BEGINNING OF THE END.
After
('liasiiif^

279

esciipc

(Iciitli

or

cnjjtivity.

tlic

vain
alonji;

wrctclics

as far as tlic fort, tlicy

brought the prisoners
into

with one
his

elephant

tliat

had

fallen

their

hands

into

lloyal

Highness's presence.
to (JO

Oh
this

tliis

date a irio^ty jjersou was deputed
'J'his

and fetch Mir Jumla!'
stage a
it

last

sentence proves two

things: one, that at

of affairs

Aurungzebe considthrough

ered

advisable

to
l)e

have

third

party

whom

negociations

could

carried

on;

and

secondly,

that Mir

Junila was not with the King of Golconda, which he would have been had Bernier's story been true. Pending JMir Junila's
arrival

there

w\as

continued
*

fighting
to

and
an
also

also

negociations.

The King's mother
with the

was admitted

audience, not only

Aurungzebe The terms offered to the King's mother were an himself. indcnnhty of one crore of rupees in cash, jewellery, and matron," as she is termed, elephants, which the "chaste agreed to pay. The narrative of Inayat Khan goes on to say: "At this time the news of Mir Jumla's arrival in the vicinity
Prince's son

Mahomed,

but

with

of

Golconda was made knowai

;

so

the

Prince
for

forwarded

to

him i\\c frman and khilat that Mir Jumla then joined the Prince's camp, and soon afterwards
court."

had come

him from

peace was definitely settled,
given
lakhs
in

Abdullah Shah's daughter being
son

marriage
rupees
in

to

Aurungzebe's
jewels

Mahomed.
given
as

Ten
her

of

money and

w^ere

dowry, and then Aurungzebe evacuated his camp, and retired
to his seat of

Government.
is

Tavernier's

account
in a

So far Inayat Khan; but when examined, it becomes clear that the

native historian

courtier-like

manner has glossed

over

the whole proceedings.
the

The

traveller says:

"Some

days after

enemy had

laid siege to the fortress, a gunner, perceiving
his elephant visiting the
us that
this

Aurungzebe upon
*

outworks whilst the
She was
of

Tavernier

tells

lady

was a Brahmin.

great intelligence, and owing to her influence the Brahmins were largely

employed by the King.

28U

HISTORY OF
was on
tlic

TILE

DECCAN.
if

Kiiiji;

bastion, said

to the latter tliat

his

Majesty

wisliecl

he coukl destroy the Prince witli a shot of the cannon,
tlic

and

at

same moment he put himself

in

])osition

to tire.
to

Hut the
nothing

King seized
of

him by
gunner,

the

arm,

and
of

told

him

do

the

sort,

and that the

lives

Princes

should

be

respected.

The
army,

who
at

was

skilful,

obeyed the
killed

King,

and
shot.

instead

of

firing

Aurungzebe,
farther
attack,
in

he

the

General of his

who was
camp

advance,
w{is

with a

cannon
to

This stopped the
the
wdiole

which he

about
death.

deliver,

being

alarmed

by

his

Abdul Naber Beg, General of the army of the King of Golconda, wdio was close by with, a flying camp of 4,000 horse, having heard that the enemy were somewhat disordered hy
the loss of their General, at once took advantage of so favourable an

opportunity,

and going

at

them
five

full

tilt,

succeeded

in overcoming them; and having

put them to
leagues

flight,
till

he

fol-

lowed them vigorously for four or

nightfall.

A few days before the death of this General, the King of Golconda, who had been surprised, seeing himself pressed, and supplies being short in the fortress, was on the point of
giving

up Mahomed,

the
his

keys;

but as

we have

before

related, jMirza

son-in-law,

tore

them from

his

hands,

and

threatened to slay

him

resolution; and this
viously
a great

if he persisted any longer in such a was the reason wdiy the King, who pre-

had but
affection

little

liking for him, thenceforward conceived

for

him,

of

wdiich

he

gave

daily

proofs.

Auriingzehe having then been

obliged to raise the siege, halted

some days
which he
as

to rally his troops
set himself to

and receive reinforcements, with
Golconda.
w'as

besiege
as
it

The

vigorously

attacked

vigorously

defended".
in

fortress w^as *

Tavernier then goes on to describe the

manner

which Mir

Jumla brought about a peace; how^ the marriage was celebrated, and how Mir Jumla then returned with Aurangzebe
* Edition of

V. Ball, LL.D., 2 Vols. (MaemillaD, 1889).

THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
to his seat of

281

Government at Bniliaiipiir. There can be no (loul)t tliat Anrungzebe was checked in his operations against Gok'onda by orders from Delhi, and this clieck was most
likely

due

to

the

jealousy
to

of

his

elder

bi'other.

It

would,

however, be necessary
current.

assign

a

reason

which could pass

This reason might
unfair

have been that Aurungzcbe had
Sultan.

taken

an

advantage of the

which Bernier heard and has recorded. Jumla may ])ossibly be genuine, but it is impossible that the scheme could have been carried out as suggested in it, and
it

Hence the story The letter of Mir

was not

until

Mir Jumla had

left

the

Sultan

that

the

was actually carried out. From this Mir Jumla threw in his lot with Aurungzebe. He first of went to Delhi, where he presented the Emperor with
invasion

time forward
all

a

splendid diamond, believed to be the Koh-i-noor which

is

now^
to

amongst

tlie

British

crown

jewels. *
adviser,

Mir Junda continued

be Aurungzebe's confidential

and no doubt much of

the latter's success was due to this clever schemer's advice. This aid w^as afterwards rewarded by Aurungzebe when he

gained the throne by the viceroyalty of Bengal.

For a time therefore Golconda
zebe's

w'as

spared,

and Aurung-

chief

attention

w^as

devoted
not

to

Bijapur

and

to

the

turbulent Sivajee,
a great deal of

who was

uoav beginning to give the
is

Moguls

trouble.

It

within

the

scope of this

work by a

to follow Sivajee's fortunes; this has already

been done

far abler pen,

and

it

must

suffice

here to say that the
insufficient to

whole of the Mogul forces in the Deccan were
curb his growing power; and he
not only against them, but also
Bijapur.
against his

continued in open rebellion,

own Sovereign

of

As soon as Aurungzebe returned to his menced an expedition against Bijapur, one
which
w^as that the Sultan
* Bernier, and also Ball's Tavernier, Appendix

province, he comof the excuses for
in restraint,
II.

had not kept Sivajee
I..

Vol.

282

IIISraHY OF TIIK UFA 'CAN.
liis

and was (lioivforo rcsponsihlc for
of Jiijaj)ur

dcprcdatiojis.

Tlic Siillaii

was Ali Adil

a boy of nineteen.

who was tlien Tavernicr and Thevenot, who botli visited
^liaJi
11.

(1050-1072),

Bijapur about this time, say that he
late Sultan's

liad

been

a(h)j)ted

by
is

tlie

wife

before

her

husband's death.
liistories,

There
but
it

no

confii'niation of this in the
pi'obaljle

Mahoniedan

seems

that this

formed one of the reasons of Aurungzebe's
on ascending the tin-one the iiew
or
sent tribute to the Bm])eror.
p.

invasion; another was that

Sultan liad not paid

homage

Mr. Campbell,

in the

Bomhai/ Gazetteer (Vol. XXIIL,

429)

speaks of the young King as being the son of the late Sultan

Mahomed, and

calls

the invasion an utterly unwarrantable one.
his

He

does hot, however, give

authority for this statement,
is

and a certain amount of credit
travellers

due

to the

two European
years

who

could have
is

had no reason for misrepresenting
explicit. *

matters.

Tavernier

very
the

"Some
she

before

the death of the

King,

Queen,

as

had no children,
all

adopted
affection,

a,

young boy, upon
and

whom
the

she had bestowed
I

her
said,

whom

she

brought up, as
in

have already
the
sect
this

with the
{Sheah).

greatest

care

doctrines

of

of

Ali

On

the death of the

King she caused
as

adopted

son to be

declared

King,

and Sivajee,

he then possessed

an army, continued the war, and for some time caused trouble
to the regency of this

Queen.
the

But
treaty
all

at last

he made the
concluded,

first

proposals for

peace,

and

was

on the

condition that he should retain
as a vassal of the

the country he had taken
receive half the revenues

—and the
present)

King,

who should

young King, having been established on the throne by this peace, the Queen his mother undertook the pilgrimage to Mecca, and I was at Ispahan when she passed on her return."
Thevenot says the same, f "The King (who reigns in Bijapur at was an orphan, whom the late King and Queen
* Ball's Edition. Vol.
I.,

p.

183.

t Lovell's Translation, 1686.

THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
adopted for their son, and after the
death

283

of the King, the

Queen had
hut

so nnich interest as to settle
as

he being
tlie

yet

very young,

the

him upon the throne; Queen was deehired

Regent of
hath
92).

kingdom.

Nevertheless, there has been a great

deal of weakness during her

Government, and Rajah Sivajee

made the best on't for his own elevation" f])art III., p. Now, adoption is not recognized in Mahomedan law,
it

and

putting forward a claim that

would therefore seem that Aurungzebe was justified in the kijigdom had lapsed to the Certainly similar claims have been put forward by Em])ire.

Govermnent during the last hundred years, as regards not only jMahomedans but also Hindoos, under whose law adoption is a recognized custom. Aurungzebe accordingly
the
l^ritish

marched an army into Bijapur, and refusing all overtures made by the young King, who offered almost everything short The defence was an of surrender, laid siege to the capital.
obstinate one,

and the
a bid

city

when news
zebe was to

arrived of the illness

was on the point of surrender, If Aurungof Shah Jehan.
it

make

for the throne,

was necessary for

him

to

at

once proceed to Delhi, and accordingly he

made

a

hasty peace, received from the

young King his professions of homage and a large payment of tribute, and then marched Prince Dara Shukoh, the eldest his army back to the north. son of Shah Jehan, seems to have made a very correct forecast
of

Aurungzebe's intentions.

Mahomed

Saleh

Kambu

* says

that the Prince told his father that

Aurungzebe would first of all help ^lurad l^aksh, who was then Governor of Khandeish, to rebel, and then, making use of the money he had received from Golconda and Bijapur, Avould march with a large army
to Delhi in order
is

to

assume the Government.

This, indeed,

what actually occurred. The above-mentioned author says: "Although the Emperor showed no haste in adopting those views, he was quite willing to send the letters (of recall).
* Elliot and

Dowson,

vol.

vii,.,

p.

129.

28t

HIS TOBY OF
ivsist

Till':

DKCCAN.
Pi'iiU'C

lie could not

the

influence

Dnra

liad

ohtaiiicd

over

liini.

So
off

Icttors of tlic
l)y

imploasaiit import ahovci (Icscrihcd
of

wore seuf
directing

the

hands

sonic

Inipci'ial

messengers.

The messengers readied Prince Aiirungzcl)c
in
tlie

as

he was engaged he

()j)eration

against

Hijapur,

and
of

had

tlie

])lacc

closely

invested

(1050-57).

The

arrival

the

letters

disturbed the
Prince, so

minds of the
confusion

soldiers,

and greatly incensed the
Accordingly, Aurungzehc

nuicli

arose."

started on the expedition Avhicli was to gain for

him

a throne.

way he passed through Dowdatabad, where he left Jumla in confinement. This, however, was merely a blind, for there can be no doubt that he was lieljxjd by the crafty With the story of this Persian, both in advice and money. expedition, and with the unlia])py fate of Dara Sliukoh and
his
j\Iir

On

we have nothing however, strange that we again
]\Iurad Puksh,

to

do

in

this history.

It

is,

find

years before
victorious

—the

treasures of

the

as they had done 350 Deccan being used by the

own

father,

Governor for the pur])0se of rebellion against his and for parricide. The curse that rests upon the

Deccan gold had not yet been removed, and it is easy to understand how it has become a matter of belief amongst natives of India, that hidden treasures are guarded by demons.

They

demons of avarice and ambition. In the meantime the Deccan for a period of twenty years had a breathing time. The end was not yet to be.
are the

GENEALOGY OF THE KUTB SHAHI DYNASTY.

(Golconda).

1.

KtiLi

KuTB Shah 1512—1543

KuTB

u'd Din blinded hy 2.

2.

Jamshid

Haidar

3.

Ibrahim

1543—1550
4.
5.

1550—1581

MUHAMMED KULI
1581

Mahummud
Abdullah Kutb Shah
1

— IGll

G.

1672
in

7.

Abu Hasan, died 1672—83
I

confinement

CHAPTER
THE END OF

XXIIT.
BI.JAPUR.

urungzebe's absence

from
tunity,

the

Dcccan,

was Sivajce's opporand
he
at

once commenced a
series of raids, not

only

into

Im-

perial territory,

but also against
Biju])ur.

mined

to

The Sultan determake an effort to
which

crush him, and for this j)urpose
collected a large army,

he entrusted

to

Afzul Khan,

one of his most trusted and
experienced
Generals.
a

Afzul

Khan,
talented

though
soldier,

brave

and

was

by no

means
set

a

match for the wily

Mahratta. In 1659 Afzul out on his expedition with

Khan

an

army

of 5,000 horse and

7,000 picked foot, besides a large supi)ly of rockets and light Sivajee gradually retreated until he had enticed the artillery.

THE END OE BIJAPUB.
Malioiiiedaii
hills,

287

Gciicral

into

tlic

detilcs

of

tlic

JMuluilKilcsliwar
in

and then when the

latter

had arrived
small

front

of the

hill

fort of Pratabgarh,

he proposed a conference in which to

discuss the terms

of j)eace.

A

plateau below the fort

was elected
that the

as the place of meeting, and it was arranged two Commanders should meet there unattended by

any followers.

Afzul
arrive

Khan,
at

unsuspicious

of

any treachery,

was the
as he

first

to

the

place of meeting.
hill,

Soon

after-

wards, Sivajee was seen descending the

stopping frequently

approached
to

as

if

in fear.

Arrived

at the plateau,

Afzul

Khan came forward
as
if

to

meet

him, and then as Sivajee advanced

embrace him, he suddenly plunged the sharp tigerclaw dagger he held in his right hand into Afzul Khan's
back, and at the

same time followed up the stroke with
in his left.

a

blow of the dagger he held
to

Afzul

Khan attempted

draw his sword, but it was too late, and he fell covered wounds at the Mahratta's feet. Whilst this tragedy was taking place, the IMahratta troops had been gradually closing round the Mahomedans, and just as the latter were struck dumb with the foul act of treachery that was being committed before their eyes, a sudden onset was made. The Mahomedans, horror-struck and taken unaware, at once took
with
to flight and were almost entirely cut to pieces, only a small

remnant escaping
walls of Bijapur
to raise another

to tell the tale.

Flushed with

this success,

Sivajee broke into the open country and plundered

up

to the

itself. The King, however, Avas soon able army which he enti'usted to Fazl Khan, the

son of
the
his

Afzul

Khan, and himself accompanied
able
to

his

troops to

field.

Sivajee at once retreated, and

when he had regained
war
their
indefinitely.

hilly

country was
it

prolong the

Whenever
ful
;

came

to a battle, the

Royal Troops were successto

but
and,

the

]\Iahrattas

then

retreated

inaccessible

hills,

eluding the

fresh

place.

Although

Fazl

Mahomedan forces, broke out in a Khan distinguished himself by

288

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
and
skill,

bravery
(letinite

ho

was
it

not

able

to

bring the war to a

eonclusion, and

dragged on until 1662, when a peace

was conc'hided, under which Sivajee's con(|ucsts were confirmed
to

him on condition

of his recognizing the Sultan as his Suzerain.
wliole of
tlic

By tliis treaty Sivajee became Ruler of tlie Konkan Coast from Kalyan to Goa, and above

"

the Saliyadris

from the Bliima to tlie Varna, a strij) of huid about 130 miles long by 100 broad." * This peace lasted for six years, and thougli during this time Bijapur still continued to show signs of its former splendour, it was gradually crumbling away. It
still

continued to be a

centre

of

commercial
it

enterprise,
this

and

the

European

travellers
its

who
the
its

visited

about

time speak

of the wealth of

merchants, and especially of the jewellers.
city

Tavernier,
to

who

visited

about 1648, does not appear

have been struck by
the

architectural beauties,

and mentions
is

only

goldsmiths and jewellers.
is

Thevenot's account

so

similar to that of Tavernier's, and

otherwise so vague about

the

surrounding

country,

that

one

cannot

help

suspecting
Tavernier,
visit.

that he merely wrote

down what he heard from
after

whom

he

certainly

Baldoeus,

the

met in Surat Dutch traveller in
of

the

latter's

1660,

says

that

the

Bijapur kingdom was 250 leagues long and 150 broad, and that
its

army

consisted

150,000 horse,
traveller
also

besides
says

a large
that a

numKingforce

ber on foot.

The same
in

the

dom abounded

saltpetre

works.

In

1666,

Mogul

advanced against Bijapur under the
he refused to
quite

command
all

of Jey Singh,

and though the Sultan offered to pay
accept

arrears of tribute,

any terms.

But Bijapur was not yet
in

dead,

and rousing himself
to

despair
it

the

Sultan suc-

would seem that Sivajee also contributed. With these combined armies, the Sultan was able to defeat the Moguls, and the plague breaking out, they had to retire to Aurangabad, pursued by the Bijapur
ceeded in raising a large force,

which

*

Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer^ Vol. XXIII.

THE END OF BIJAPUB.
forces.
]]ut
tlic

289

cft'ort

was not a national one, and
Bijapur
to
Sivaji,

in

the

reaction that

followed
first

was so weak that the Sultan and stooped indeed
a yearly tribute of three lakhs

had

to

make

concessions

so far as to agree to pay
of rupees

him

on condition that he would abstain from levying
throughout
his

chouth

*

dominions.
(1672)

Soon

after

this,

the
his

Sultan Ali Adil Shah

died

and was succeeded by
age.
rival

son, Secunder Adil Shah,

next

four

years

the

a boy five years of kingdom w'as torn by

Por the
factions.

Khawas Khan was
two other Ministers,

'the

Regent,

and a

rivalry

between the

formed

by the

Abdul Karim and Mumfur Khan, was Brahmin agents of Sivajee. The quarrels
fierce

between these two were so
himself helpless,

that

the

Regent finding
to

made

overtures
to

to the

Emperor, offering

give the Sultan's elder sister

one of his sons in marriage.

The

was accepted, and an army was despatched under Khan Jehan to annex the kingdom and bring back the prinoffer
cess.

Before,

however,

the

army could reach Bijapur
and the people rising
and electing Abdul Karim
to

the
in as

Regent's treachery was
indignation,
assassinated

discovered

him

their Regent, flocked together

oppose the Moguls.
for

Abdul
and so

Karim
the
der.

at

once

made every

disposition

defence,

patriotically

was he backed up, that he was enabled
in

to defeat

Mogul General and send him

retreat across the bor-

Bijapur not as yet being ready for conquest, Aurung-

zebe

now attempted
but
in

diplomatic

measures,

and an Agent or

Resident was sent to Bijapur
ship,

nominally as a mark of friend-

reality

to

intrigue

and gain over the nobles.
idle.

During these times of disorder Sivajee had not been
*

was the one-fourth of the revenue which the Mahrattas It was a districts which were at their mercy. kind of blackmail, and by paying, the district obtained immunity from their raids. A hundred years later, this chouth was levied throughout the gr<'nt('r part of India, from the Cauvery to the Ganges.
Chouth

always levied in the

19

290

HIS TOBY OF THE T)ECCAh.
liad declared liimsclf a

He
in

Rajali

ii»

1G74, and was now hnsy

securing the

country
a
it

of

Tanjorc
to
in
liis

and Gingcc
Shalijee.

wJiicJi
It
is

had
not
of
is

been granted as
unusual
to

Jagliir

father

find

stated

liistories

that

the

kingdom

Tanjorc was conquered by the Mahrattas.
scarcely correct.
of Gingec were

This, liowcver,

Tanjorc
in

and the hitherto impregnable fort
conquered by a Bijapur army deShahjec,
of

reality

spatched by
this

Mahmud

Adil Shah, 1637.
to

who about
after

time
of

liad

submitted

the

Sultan

Bijapur,

a

career

rebellion,

which has already been described,

Avas

appointed to the chief

command
carried

of this expedition.

He was
and

eminently successful, and
the

the Bijapur armies through

Carnatic as

far

as

Tanjorc.

Subsequently Tanjorc

Gingee were granted to Shalijee as a Jaghir by the Bijapur
Sultan in reward for
his
services.

Tanjorc was therefore a
it

portion of the Bijapur kingdom,
as

and Shalijee merely held

a

fief

of the

Sultan.

Indeed,
revolt,

when during
the

his

father's his

absence
father,

Sivajee

broke

into

Sultan

recalled

and holding him responsible for

his son's actions, con-

fined
built

him

in

a

dungeon,

the

door

of

which was partially
he

up (1648),

Eventually,

however,

was released and
Sivajee's claim to

sent back to Tanjore to quell a rebellion.
this

Jaghir was therefore a very shadowy one, but the weak-

ness of the Bija})ur State
of
it.

enabled

him

to

make

the best use

He marched
troops

into the Carnatic

the Bijapur

and succeeded in ousting from Vellore, Gingee, and Tanjore, and
only

placed his brother

Vencojee in charge of the country as his

own
time,

deputy.
as

This was

done
the

after

some considerable
to
i\\c

Vencojee
as
it

considered
is

himself entitled

whole

Jaghir, but

not

wuthin

scope of this history to
{\\g

follow the fortunes of the Mahrattas,

matter need not be

now
the

discussed, and

is

only referred to in order to show that
in

Mahratta dynasty

Tanjore

was

not

the

result

of a

Mahratta conquest of the country, but of a Mahratta rebel-

THE END OF
lion
ag-aiiist

BTJAl'UR.

291

the the

Suzerain
Sultan's

})o\vcr,

which was only rendered

possible

by

weakness.

As

a

matter

of

fact,

Vencojce became the founder of the Tanjore dynasty, which
has

only

recently

l)ecome

extinct

by the

death

of

the last

female descendant, the Princess of Tanjore.
In the
still

meantime matters
in

in

Bijapur

were thrown into a

greater state of confusion by a repulse wdiich the l^ija])ur

troops

met

an attack upon Golconda.
alliance

The Golconda

Sul-

tan had

made an

with

Sivajee,

the object of which

was to divide the Bijapur kingdom between them.
pation of this attack
the
Bija])ur

In antici-

Regent, together with the

Mogul General Dilawar Khan, undertook an expedition against Golconda, but were compelled to retreat by Madhanna Punt,
the Golconda Minister.

On

their return to Bijapur an emeute

broke

out

in

the

army,
quelled
of

which

was

largely

in

arrears,

and

it

was

only

by

Masud

Khan,

the
to

wealthy

Abyssinian
arrears,
if

Governor

Adoni,

agreeing

pay

the

he was appointed Minister.

This arrangement was
l)nying off a portion
in re-

accordingly made, and
of the forces and
storing quiet.

Masud Khan by

disbanding the

remainder succeeded

means pleased, Dilawar Khan,
structed to
the

The Enqjeror Aurungzebe, however, w^as by no when he heard of this arrangement and informed
his General, that

he should have taken advan-

tage of the opportunity to interfere himself;

he was now
tribute

in-

demand payment
of

of

arrears

of

and

also

fulfilment

the

arrangement
a

regarding

the

Princess.

Masud Khan
once regained
lost

refused to
his

carry out this latter request, and at
portion
of

])opularity,

which had been
Dilawar

by the disbandment of the troops.

Thcreu])on

Khan advanced with an army
tarily

to lay siege to Bijapur,

and the
possible,

Princess, though personally strongly against the match, volun-

went over

to

the

Mogul Camp,

in

order,

if

to save the City
sacrifice,

however,

from the horrors of a prolonged siege. The was of no avail. She was courteously

29-1

irrSTOh'Y
;ui(l

OF THE DECCAN.
an
escort
to
])ress
iij)plied
if

received
Afog-iil

sent on with
still

to

Aiirungzebe, hut the
sieg-e

iinny

continued
the

tlie

with vigour
to Sivajcc,
assist-

(lG7t)).

In

desj)iiir
tlie

Regent

for

help

and offered
ance.
his

Raichorc Doab

he would come to his

This offer Sivajee

accepted,

and

taking

possession of

new territory, ravaged the country to the rear of the ]\[ogul army right uj) to the gates of Anraiigahad Dilawar
;

Khan, however, continued
the

to

])ress

the siege of Rijapur and
as soon as j)ossible.

Regent implored
at length,

Sivajee

to

return

This the Mahratta did, and so

galled
to

the rear of the

Mogul

army, that

being

unable
city,

make any

im})ression

on the gallant defenders of the
pelled to retire.
cost.
]]ija])ur

Dilawar Khan was comat a

was thus again saved, but

heavy

The

cession

of

the

Doab was
a large

exceedingly unpopular,

for

it

reduced Bijapur from
in

kingdom

to a

mere

iso-

lated province, shut

on both sides by Mahratta territory.
at the

So great was the general disgust
the Regent

heavy price paid by
to resign

Masud Khan,
Adoni.
In

that he

was compelled

and

to return to

the

new

ministers at Rija})ur, Shirza

endeavoured to
to his father.

meantime Sivajee had died, and Khan and Seyd Mackhtum, regain popularity by recovering from his son
the
failed,

and successor Sambhajee, a portion of the territory granted

The attempt
it

and

Avas especially injudi-

cious because

alienated
lost

Sambhajee,
only
ally

who never
wdiose

forgave

it,

and thus Rijapur
enabled
it

the

help might have

to hold out against the

Emperor.

The end was

now^ near.

Por three years Bijapur enjoyed a

brief time of peace, but

it was only the lull before the storm. Anrungzebe had never relinquished his intention of subjugating the Deccan. He was led to form this resolve, not only on account of his personal ambition, but, as he openly said, from religious motives. The "vile dog" Sivajee had for years defied his authorities, and that still "viler dog" Sambhajee treated it wath an even greater want of respect. The Mahrattas

THE END OF

BIJArUIi.
at
all

293

were "accursed heathen" Avho must
away.
Ihit

hazard he swept

Auruiigzehe regarded the Sultans of Golconda and

Bijapur with feelings of detestation, almost ecpial to those he
entertained

towards the
they

Mahrattas.
heretics,

Though they were not
for

actually infidels,

were

not

only

did they

belong to the unorthodox sect of Shias, but they also allowed
infidels to thrive in their dominions.

In Golconda the princi-

pal Minister was a Hindoo, and in both States a tolerance was

shoAvn toward Christians,

such as was not to be found

else-

where

in the

given in

Mahomedan world. Colonel Meadows Taylor "A Noble Queen" a most interesting account of
afforded
at

has
the

protection

by

the

Bijapur
there

Rulers

to the Christian

community

jNIudkal,

and

were

many

other similar

Settlements throughout the kingdom.

The following note from

the Bomhai/ Gazetteer (Vol. XXIII., p. 435)
here:

may be reproduced

"According

to Colonel in

Meadows Taylor
to

the Adil Shahi kings
of

were tolerant

regard

different
to

sects

Mahomedans
still

and the same tolerance seems
missions from Goa.
It is

have been shown to Christian

evident from the churches that

remain in the Deccan, that the movements of the Jesuit friars and their communication with the people were not restricted, and
that in

some instances large communities were made their

converts,

which

One mission church is at still remain firm in their faith. Aurangabad; another, the members of which are distillers and weavers, at Chitapur on the Bhima, al)ont twenty miles southeast of Gulburga; a third at Raichur which consists of potters; a fourth at Mudkal, the largest, containing upward of 300
members, Avho are shepherds and weavers; a fifth at a place between Raichur and Mudkal, who are farmers. In all these
places there are small churches furnished with translations in
excellent Canarese of the
tures, Avhich
in

Breviary and
of

of Homilies and lec-

the

absence

the

priest,

are read

by

lay-

deacons

or

monks duly

accredited.

They have

also schools

21)4

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
tlicin.

attached to
are

These
of

clnirclics,

iiiuler

the hite Concordat

now permanently
all

subject to the jurisdiction of the Arch-

bislio]) of Goa,

them
All,

possess firmans

or grants of en-

dowments by
custom and
into the

Ibraliini,

and

Mahmud
arc

Adil Shah; some of
local

lands, others of

grain,

cloths

and percentage upon the

excise

revenues,

which

still

enjoyed under

the local grant.

The

early Portuguese missionaries introduced

Deccan, where

they

still

flourish, the Cintra orange,

and the black and white fleshy grapes of Portugal."

A
of

similar

tolerance

to

heretics

was

also

shown by the
to a certain

Golconda Sultan, and Tavernier

tells

a most interesting story

how

the Sultan

formed a strong attachment

Father Ephraim, and when afterwards the same Father was im])risoned by the Jesuits of St. Thome, and sent to the
Inquisition at Goa, the

Sultan
to

ordered Mir Jumla, wdio was

then

settlement,

kill and burn the whole Jesuit months the Father was not released. The threat had the desired effect, and the authorities in Goa had to go in procession to Father Ephraim's prison, open the doors and bring him out in triinnph (Ball's Edition This dallying with Chapter XV.) of Tavernier, Vol. 1.,

in

the

Carnatic,

if

within two

heresy was an abomination

in

the

eyes

of the bigotted

Em-

peror, and he resolved to go in person and
of the infidels and
heretics

sweep the Deccan
there. *

that

abounded

In 1683

Aurungzebe's preparations were made, and he started on that
great expedition which lasted for twenty-four years, and

from

* To this day it is remarkable what a number of Hindoo superstitions and habits have crept into the Mahomedan families of the Deccan. There can be no doubt that during the three hundred years of independence there was a far closer intimacy between the two races than existed anywhere else in India. There seems to have been not only a mutual toleration but a strong affection between the Hindoo subjects on the one hand and the Mahomedan rulers on the other which was weakened

only towards the decline of the Bijapur kingdom, by unnecessary cruelty

towards the rising power of the

Mahrattas as related anpra

in the text.

THE END OF BIJAPUIL
which
lie

295

never returned.
that
("

So vast was the army
the

tliat

accom-

panied the Emperor,

advance was necessarily slow.
")

Mr. Stanley Lane Poole
tion of

Anrungzebe
city

has given a descrip-

the
it

enormous moving
need not

which

accompanied

the

army, and

therefore

be

reproduced here.

But
fine,

though the mills of the gods grind slowly they grind very

and the gradual advance was
everything in
its

like

an avalanche that destroyed
the
of

way.

In

1685
fall

campaign against
Sholapur.

Bija-

pur was commenced by the
Bijapur troops, aroused from
of the

At

first

the

their

quarrels

by the presence

common enemy, had some few
outposts

successes,

and defeated

the

Mogul

on

the

banks

of

the

Bhima;

but
city.

gradually the net was gathered closer round the devoted

The Bijapur army
of
efficiency,

is

said to

have been

in a

very high state

well

officered

and

full

of brave

and

efficient

But they had gradually to fall back, and Bijapur was closely invested by Prince A'zam. The defence, hoAvever, was nobly conducted, and the Mogul army suffered greatly from Avant of provisions, for the neighbourhood of Bijapur season had been a bad one. Por some is a desert and the
soldiers.

time

the

Imperial
until
at

Bijapur,

last

Sholapur, came in

make no impression upon Emperor who had remained at But still the person to conduct the siege.
army
could
the

defence

was vigorously had been
its

conducted.

Although

a

practicable

breach

effected

no

storm

was
and

attempted.

But

hunger did
capitulated.

work more

effectually,

at last

on the 15th

October, 1686, the garrison,

reduced to the
inhabitants

last extremities,

The Emperor entered the

city in state,

moving

through crowds of weeping
great
nobles.

and proceeded to the

Durbar hall, where he received the submission of the The unfortunate Sultan Sikander was brought before him laden with silver chains, and was ordered to be kept in
confinement in his

own

capital.

He
for

received an allowance of
his

one lakh of rupees per

annum

maintenance, but did

2y(>

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
loiip;

not

survive

to

draw
Tliis

it,

for

a

few end

yeeirs

afterwards
l)y

lie

died, not without

suspicion

of

liaving

l)een

])oison('{l

the

Emperor's
indc])cndent

orders.

was

the

of

J^ijapniit

as

an an

kingdom,

and

from
Ogill)y,

lienceforth

l)erame

Imperial province.

The English Geographer
"Bija])ur had
pearls

writing in 1689, gives the

following account of Bijapiir compiled from old travellers

many
valne.

jewellers

Avho traded in diamonds and

of

great

The

diamonds

were

brought from

Golconda and were sold to Surat or Cambay merchants, Avho The arms used by the re-sold them in Goa and elscAvhere.
people,

both by horse

and

foot,

were broad swords, pikes,

lances with a sf[uare iron at the end about a span long,

bows

and arrows, shields and

darts.

Their defensive arms were coats of

mail and coats lined Avith cotton.

When

they marched afield they

carried calico tents, under Avhicli they slept.

They used oxen
was on

to

carry their baggage. Their

common mode

of fighting

foot,

when they marched, some Avalked, others rode on horses, and some on elephants, of which the King kept a large number. The King was very powerful, and able in a
though
short time to bring eighty thousand to two hundred thousand

armed men into the iield, both horse and foot. The King had diverse great guns in his magazine, and about tAvo hundred cannons, demi-cannons and culverines. The King was called Adelcan or Adel Shah,' meaning the Lord of Justice, or the King of Keys that is, the keeper of the keys that locked the treasure of the Bisngar (Vijayanagar) King. The land had no written laws, the King's will was the laAv. At the capital civil justice was administered by the high sheriff or Kotwal, and criminal cases were administered by the King. The criminals were executed in the King's presence with great cruelty, throAving them often before
' '
'

elephants

and

other
off

Avild

beasts

to

be

eaten,

and

some-

times

cutting

their

arms,

legs,

and

other

members.

TJIU

END OF
liis

BIJAPUli.

297

A

(lel)tor

who

failed to ])ay

debt within the period

named

by the judge was whipped and his wife and chiklren were sold by tlie creditor as slaves. Persons taking oaths were
placed in a

round
Avitli

circle

made on
on

the

gromid and repeated
and the other
laid

some words,
their breast

one

hand

aslies

on

{Bombay Gazetteer Vol, XXIII., p. 434.) It is clear from Bernier's resume of the history of the Deccan that most erroneous impressions existed in Delhi regarding the history and the condition of the Deccan. Bernier of course tells us what he heard, and there seems to be little
doul)t

that

,

these

false

stories

were purposely propagated in
invasion
of

order to
popular.

make Aurungzebe's
Bernier's story
is

Mahomedan

states

regarding the

origin of the

Deccan
:

Kingdom
centuries

utterly

opposed

to the real facts.

He

says

"Two

have scarcely ela])sed since the great peninsula of

India, stretching

from the Gulf of Cambay on the West, and

extending southerly to the Cape of Comorin and to the Gulf
of Bengal near Juggcrnath on the east, was with the exception
perha])s of a fcAv

mountainous

tracts

under the domination of

The indiscretion of Rajah, or King, Ras the last Prince under whom it was united, caused the dismemberment of this vast monarchy, and this is the
one arbitrary despot.

Ram

among many sovereigns professing different religions. Jlam Ras had three Georgian slaves in his service whom he distinguished by every mark of favour
reason
it is

why

now

divided

and

at

length

siderable districts.

whole of the
possession of

the Government of three conOne was appointed governor of nearly the territory in the Deccan which is now in the the Mogul Daulatabad was the capital of that

nominated to

;

Government which extended from Bieder, Paranda and Surat as far as the Nerbudda. The territory now forming the Kingdom of A^isia])our was the portion of the second favourite, and the third obtained the country comprehended in the present Kingdom of Golconda. These three slaves became exceedingly

298

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
and powerful and as
tlicy

ricli

professed

tlic

Maliomedaii faith
sect,

and declared themselves of the Chyas (Shea)
that of the Persians they received of a great number They could not even
tlie

which

is

countenance and support
service

of
if

Mogols

in

the

of

Ram

Ras.

so disposed, have

embraced the

religion

of the Gentiles, because the gentiles of India admit no stranger
to the participation of their

mysteries.

A

rel)ellion in

which
of

the three Georgian slaves united, terminated in the

murder

Ram

Ras, after which they returned to their respective Govtitle

ernment, and usurped the

of C//a/i or King." *

—A more
cannot

incorrect or garbled account of

Deccan history
was
a

tlian this

be imagined.

Bernier,

however,

most

accurate

and

conscientious observer, and his record of contemporary events
is

more reliable than those of the Maliomedan historians. He was moreover for many years at the Imperial Court and had access to the highest and best informed of the nobility. It
is

therefore clear that he can only have recorded the version
as
it

which he heard and
histories being
still

is

impossible, (from the fact of the

extant) that the true history of the

Deccan

could not have been known,

there seems to be good ground

for the belief that this garbled version was purposely published
in order to give a colour to Aurungzebe's invasion

and conquest,

for which, once interrupted, he

was

at that

time only wanting

another opportunity.
* Berniers Travel's.

— Constables

Oriental Miscellany.

— Constable & Co

X891.

Vol.

I,

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.

— A.

D.

168G.

T

tlie

same

time
sent

as

.Viiruiigzel)e

an

army from

Sliolapur

to attack Bijapur

he

also sent an army nnder Prince IMnham-

med
derabad.

j\Inazzam
against

and

Khan Jehan
was
tlie

Hy-

Abn'l
reigning

Hassan
Sultan,

having succeeded

his

uncle

AbduUa
principal

in

1672.

His

two
Hin-

Ministers

were

doos,

named Madanna and Akanna,
employing
infidels

and

this fact of

^med one of the protests which Aurungzebe put forward for his destruction. Abn'l Hassan appears to have contemplated relieving Bijapur, but his forces were met by the Imperial army between the two kingdoms, and though greatly superior in numbers, the Hyderabad General was beaten with considerable loss. The- Imperial troops, however, were not

:]0(i

HISTORY OF
cii()iii;li

TllK DECCAN.
this
;ulvaiitii<^X',

stn)n<;"

to

follow
field

up
of

and

rciiuiiiicd

ciicaiiipcd

on

the

battle

for

some months.
and
he
to

This
a

delay

excited

the

Emperor's
the
a

anger,

despatched

strong letter of

censure to
sent

Prince
to

and

Khan
a

Jelian,

who

tlieren])on

message
they

Muhammcd
conclude

Ihrahim, peace

the
if

Hyderabad

General,

that

would

certain districts 'which

Ahmednagar were restored.
sign

had been seized from the ])rovince of Ibrahim taking this offer as a
peremptorily,

of

Aveakness,

refused

and
for
in

thus

left

the

Imperial forces no other resource than to

recommence
the

hostilities.

There seems to have been good
displeasure at

reasons
for

the Emperor's
})attle

the

Prince's

inaction,

that

followed the Imperialists
troops
fled in

won an
to

easy victory, and the Sultan's

confusion

Hyderabad,

whither

they

were

ollowed by the Mogul army.
that Ibrahim, the

At

all

events, his

There is some reason to suspect Hyderabad Gencrah had been bought over. master, the Sultan, was so enraged at his
then
actually

discomfiture that he sent an order for his arrest, and Ibrahim,
afraid of

the

result,

went
of

over

the

Prince's

camp and made
Abu'l Hassan
at

his submission.

On
city

hearing of this defection,

once

left

the

Hyderabad and took
Golconda,
step appears to have

refuge Avith his servants
situated about four miles

and family
distant.

in the fort of

This

been taken

against the

advice

of his

Hindoo

Ministers, Avho

would rather that he should have retreated to Warangal, in the Telingana country, where he could easily have collected a fresh army with which to raise the siege of the capital. The flight was so hurried that it was only next day tliat the nobles As might be of the city heard that their Sultan had gone. expected, a panic ensued, and knowing that the Imperial army was close at hand, they followed him pcllmell, leaving
their palaces

and their

effects behind.

A

scene then occurred

which

was

somewhat

similar

to

that

which took

])lace

in

Paris after the Franco-Prussian war, in the days of the

Com-

THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.^A.
inline.

D. 1686.

M
of
tlie
it

The
wliicli

city

was for sonic
of

lioiirs

in

the
that

liands

raljhlc,

rose

and looted every
the

tiling

couUl lay

hands upon.
first

The pah^ces
pillaged, then
nobility.

two Hindoo Ministers were
the
])alace

of

all

followed

of

tlie

Sultan

and those of the

More than four

millions sterling

are said to have been carried off in this manner, and everything
Avas in a state of anarchy.

"The women
city

of the soldiers
to

and

of the inhabitants

of

the

were subjected
horse,

dishonour,

and great disorder and destruction prevailed.
gentlemen,
property,

Many thousand
carry
liands
off their

being
in

unable
greatest

to

take

and
the

the

distress

took

of

their

children and
veil

wives,

many

of

whom

could

not

even seize a

or sheet to cover them, and fied to the fortress." *

As soon as the Prince heard of what was going on he marched upon the city, but before he could arrive, it had been for some time in the hands of the rioters. They do not seem to have made any opposition. "Nobles, merchants, and poorer men, vied with each other as to who by strength of arms and by expenditure of money, should get their families
and property
into

the

fortress.

Before

break

of

day,

the

Imperial forces

attacked

the

city,

and a frightful scene of
for in every part and road

plunder and destruction followed,

and
his

market
nobles.

there

were lakhs

and

lakhs
to

of

money,

stuffs,

carpets, horses

and elephants belonging
express

Abu'l Hassan and

Words cannot

how many women and
])risoners,

children of Musulinans and

Hindoos were made

or

how many women
cut to
pieces
Avitli

of high and low degree were dishonoured,

carpets of great value,

which Avere too heavy
daggers,

to carry,
bit

were

swords and

and every
the

was

struggled for."

The Prince
a considerable

a])pointed

officers

to

prevent
order

})1

under, but

time

elapsed

before
that

could be restored,
the
rioters

and

there

seems

little

doubt

when

were

*Kliafi

Khan— Elliot

and Dowson. Vol. VII.

302

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
tlic

siihdiicd

Iinj)Ci'ial

troops

themselves

])luii(lere(l

on

tlieir

own

received from AbiTl Hassan some negociation tlie Prince j)n)mised to withdraw on payment of one million two hnndred thousand sterling in addition to the usual tribute; the Hindoo
necouiit.

Letters were

now

offering

snbmission,

and

after

Ministers were

to

be

dismissed

and the

districts

which had

been taken from Ahmednagar ])rovince wci'c to be restored.

No

sooner were these conditions accepted than the

of Golconda rose against the

whilst
killed

coming from the

Hindoo Durbar to

Ministers, attacked
their

Mahomedans them
houses,

own
the

and

them, sending their heads to the
occurrences

Imperial camp.

soon as news of these
sent a letter

reached

As Emperor he
l)ut

openly approving of what had been done,

privately he censured both the Prince and the General

Khan

Jehan, not only for sparing the Sultan, but also for not having

taken prompter steps to quell the

riot.

But
all

as already related,

Aurungzebe required for the present
for the siege of
resj)ite,

his

available forces

Bijapur.

Accordingly Golconda had a brief

and the Prince and Khan Jehan, with the main body

of the

army were
was
left

recalled,

and only a small force of obserto

vation

with

orders

watch
to

events

from a
as

safe

distance.

Saadat

Khan

Avas sent

Hyderabad
Abu'l

Vakeel or

Ambassador, with
with negociations
the

instructions

to

keep

Hassan quiet
Saadat
until

regarding

the

indemnity and tribute, until
he

Emperor should be at liberty to come in person. Khan did his work Avell, and kept on procrastinating
received information that Bijapur had fallen and the

Emperor
Abu'l

had arrived Hassan
still

at

Gulburga on

his

march
send

to

Hyderabad.

now became thoroughly alarmed, and although he
was unable
the
jew^els

said that he

to

the

requisite cash, he

offered to send

of

his

family,

and

did, in fact,

send to Saadat

Khan

a

large

number
be

of trays of jewels, on

the understanding that

they

should

sealed

up and subsehis

quently valued,

Aurungzebe, however, continued

march,

THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.^A.
and
in

D.

1G8().

303

a

few

clays

had

arrived
all

not

far
of

Abu'l

Hassan
that

now gave up
they

hopes
to

from Hyderabad. escape by mere
l)ut

payment, and sent to Saadat Khan

return the jewels,

had already been sent to the Emperor. The Sultan then despatched a humble letter to Aurungzebe,
told

was

but received
is

in

reply

a

stern

letter,

of

which the following

the purport:*

"The
little

evil

deeds of this wicked

man
of

pass beyond the bounds
of

of Avriting, but by mentioning

one

out

a hundred, and a

out of

much some

conception
of

them may be formed.
in the

First,

placing the reins
vile tyrannical

authority

and Government

hands of
Seyds,

infidels;

oppressing and afflicting the
;

Shaikhs,

and other holy men

openly giving himself
in

up

to excessive

debauchery and depravity; indulging
night;

drunk-

making no distinction between infidelity and Islam, tyranny and justice, depravity and devotion waging obstinate war in defence of infidels want of obedience to the Divine commands and prohibitions, especially to that command which forbids assistance to an enemy's country, the disregarding of which had cost a censure upon the Holy Book in the sight both of God and man. Letters full of friendly advice and warning upon these points had been repeatedly Avritten and had been sent by the hands of discreet men. No attention had been paid to them; moreover, it had lately become kuoAvn that a lakh of pagodas had been sent to the wicked Sambha. That in this insolence
enness and wickedness day and
;

and intoxication and
to the
in this

worthlessness,

no regard had been paid

infamy of
Abu'l

his deeds,

and no hope shown of deliverance
this
letter,

world or the next."

When

Hassan received
sudden
flight

he prepared for
city to

the worst.

In his

from the
a great

Golconda,
of weak-

the Sultan seems to have

displayed

amount

ness and pusillanimity which
* Khafi

stands out in strong contrast to

Khan— Elliot

and Dowson. Vol. YII.

804

UISTOltY OF THE DECCAN.
final
(li'tVncc.
left
It
is,

Ills

however, with the
tliat

{il)rii])t

manner

in

which he
with
wall,
it

his
toi'

(•a])ital

f'nnlt

can

be found,

but not

tlic

fact,

lly(ku'aba(l
is

city,

although surrounded by a

on the river front,

iui

utterly indefensible })lace,

whereas
it

took the Imperial

Army more

than eight months before
treachery.

could gain (Jolconda, and then only by was a heroic one, and was well worthy
that

The defence

of the brave struggles

we have

already

narrated

as

having taken place at Ahto yield

mednagar, Dowlatabad, and liijapur before they had
to

the

Mogul arms.
regards

We
this

shall

be

excused
siege,

for

going more
not only
is

into detail as
it

memorable
the
last full

for

the record of the end
are fortunate
* in

of

Deccanee kingdom, but
and who does ample
friend

we

having a

account written by Khafi

Khan,
justice

who was
to

present

throughout
hero,

the

principal

whose
is

he

afterwards

became.

AVe have the more excuse for these
episode

details,

because

in the ordinary histories the

dismissed with a few

words
or
of

only.

When

Abu'l Hassan saw that there was no hope of mercy

consideration

from

Aurungzebe,
large
to

he
of

set

his

shoulder

manfully to the

wheel.

A

l)ody

horse,

numbering
was duly was
the

about 15,000 Avas stationed

the

rear of the

Mogul army,

and help was called for from
sent.

Sambhajee,
are

which

This force gave great assistance in cutting off supplies,
convoys,
&c.

harassing

We

not

told

what

strength of the garrison, but

we

are told that the Sultan had

ample stores of provisions, and ammunition, and a very powerful battery of artillery.
Avitli

The men seem

to have

been imbued
as

a spirit of patriotism

and hatred of the Moguls, but
all

regards the principal
exceptions,
that the

officers,

the Sultan was, with two notable
his

deserted

by almost
near,

nobility,

Avho, seeing

end was

went over

to

the Emperor's camp.

Ibrahim, the former Commander-in-Chief, had been given high
* Elliot

and Dowson, Vol. VII.

THE FALL OF GOLCONBA.—A.

D. 1686.

305

rank in the Imperial army and was now one of tlic foremost amongst the besiegers. These two exceptions were AbdurRazzak Lari and AbdnUah Khan Pani. The former performed miracles of heroism, and as the sequel will show, ranks most deservedly amongst the bravest and most faithful of Indian The latter unfortunately was a traitor at heart, and soldiers.

would have been better for Ibrahim, he had openly gone
it

his

master the Sultan
to

if,

like

over

the

besieging army.

The

siege

commenced on
this

the

2it/i Bnhi-id-awal,

(September

1687) and from

date for

more than

eight

months not a

day passed without a hot encounter.

Before long the Sultan's

troops outside the fort, swelled by Sambhajee's reinforcements,

amounted
though

to

between
strong

forty

and
to

fifty

thousand
the

horse,

and
son,

not

enough

engage
relief.

Imperial

army,

afforded the garrison considerable

The Emperor's

Prince Shah Alum, was nominally in command of the army, but he soon incurred his father's displeasure from the favour

with which he regarded the Sultan's overtures for peace.

The

same thing had already occurred at Bijapur, and the Prince's policy as heir-apparent seems to have been to gain over these Deccan Sultans, and to make peace or war dependent upon Aurungzebe, however, was not the man his own approval. to be tlnvarted by his own son, and as soon as he became aware of his intentions, he had him arrested and sent away in confinement. Day by day and week by Aveek the trenches
Almost daily the garrison made sallies, some of which were successful, but the defenders were never able to break the line, and the toils gradually closed in on
were pushed forward.
the fortress.
is

fire on both sides that the smoke removed the distinction between day and night. Large mounds were erected so as to command the interior of the fort, and one is still pointed out as that on which

So hot was the

said to have

_

Aurungzebe's tent was pitched.
trenches were carried

In about a month's time the

up

to the

edge of the moat, and attempts
20

nor,

HIS TOBY OF THE DECCAN.
to
till
it

were then made
witli
eaitli.

uj)

hy throwing
hags

in cotton

hags

tilled

Fifty

tlioiisand

were ordered

to

he sent

from the cotton-pfoducing tracts of Berar, and the Ein])eror himself sewed the seams of the first l)ag tlirown in. At last matters were hrought so far that an escalade coidd 1)0 This had hecome necessary, for not only was attempted.
there great scarcity in the Imperial camp, hut ])estilence had
also

broken out.

Accordingly,

after

three

months a surprise
were
fixed
Jiut

was attem])ted

one

dark
in

night.

Ladders
the

and a
at this

few men succeeded

gaining

ramparts.

moment

the garrison

was alarmed hy the harking of a dog,

and the defenders succeeded in throwing down the ladders and in beating off the storming party. The dog which had
thus given the fort another respite Avas given a golden collar

and a plated chain, and was kept tied near the Sultan himself. Heavy rain now came on, in the midst of which another sally

was made, which caused the Imperialists heavy loss, both in killed and prisoners. The latter were treated with generosity and kindness. One of them, an officer of distinction, Sarbhara Khan, was taken by the Sultan over his granaries and
magazines, and then sent back to the
for peace.

Emperor with overtures

The Sultan

offered

to

present a crore of rupees

(one million sterling) and a further crore for every time that

Aurungzebe had besieged
present of
inflexible.

the

fort;

he also
;

offered

a free

600,000 maunds of
In
spite
:

grain

but Aurungzebe was

of

reduced, he

replied

the straits to which his army was "If Ahu-1 Hassan does not repudiate

my

authority, he nmst come to me with clasped hands or he must be hrought hound before me. I will then reflect what consideration I can show to him." By the month of Shaban three mines were ready to be exploded, hut Abdur Razzak by countermining, succeeded in withdrawing the powder and match from one, and in drowning the other two with water. Only one mine was partially exploded, and the result was

THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.—A.
more damage
garrison tjion
to

I).

1686.

307

the
a

besiegers
sortie,

than

to

the

l)esiegcd.

Tlic

made

and

succeeded,

after desperate

fighting, in gaining

which were only recovered Another assault delivered under the eyes of the Emperor himself, was also repulsed, and again
the
trenches,
after

much

shiughter.

the garrison occupied

the
of

trenches,

spiked a

number

of the

moat the logs of wood, and had been used to fill it Aurungzebe up, using them to repair the breaches in the walls. now almost despaired of success, and, force failing, tried what
guns,

and pulled out
of

the

many thousands

the

bags

which

he could do by bribery.

Abdur Razzak
far
as to

refused

all

overtures,

although he was offered a high post and a munsah of 6,000
horse.
letter to

He

even went so

exhibit

the
it

Emperor's
pieces in
fight

the

men

in

his

bastion,

and

tore

to

their presence, sending back as a message that he
to the death.

would

Abdullah Khan, however,
to

was of a different
After
a siege

nature, and
of eight
to be

yielded

the

Emperor's

offers.

months and ten days, he one night caused a wicket The opened and admitted Prince Muhammad Azam.

gates were then thrown open, the
of
victory

army

entered, and the shout

was
a

raised.

"

Abdur
other,

Razzak

heard
with
a

this,

and
in

springing on

horse

without any saddle,
in the

sword

and accompanied by ten or twelve followers, rushed to the open gate through which Although his followers the Imperial forces were pouring in.
one hand and a shield

were dispersed, he alone,
a sea or an

like

a

drop of water falling into
in the rays of the sun,

atom of dust struggling threw himself upon the advancing
inconceivable fury
fight to the

force,

and fought with

and desperation,

shouting that he

would

death for Abu'l Hassan.

Every step he advanced,
him, and he received so

thousands of swords were

aimed

at

many wounds from swords and spears, that he was covered
with wounds from the crown
feet.

of his head to the nails of his
his

He

received

twelve

wounds upon

face alone, and

;108

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
huiip;

the skin of his i'orclicad

down over

liis

eyes and nose.

liis body One eye was severely wounded and seemed as nuniei'ous as tlie stars, liis horse also was covered witli wounds and reeled under his weijj^ht, so he gave the reins to the beast, and by great exertiojis kept his scat.

the cuts uj)on

The horse
citadel,
liel})

carried

him
of

to a

f>arden,

called Na(|uina, near the
tree,

to the foot

an

old

cocoa-mit
off.

where by the

of the tree he

threw
})arty

himself
of

On

the
to

morning of
Husaini Beg
signs,

the

second

day

a

men belonging
his

passed,

and recognizing him by
compassion

horse

and other

they took

upon

him,
his

and carried him u})on a
of this, they

bedstead to a house.

When

own men heard

came and dressed his wounds." In the meantime Abul Hassan had met
kingly
liim

his

fate

in

a

manner.
all

When
was
over,
to

the

noise
first

and the groans convinced

that

he
ask

went
pardon

into

his

harem

to

comfort his women,
leave.

their

and
hall,

to take their

He

then

Avent

into

the

reception

and placing

himself upon the throne {miis/iud) he waited for his unbidden
guests.

As the day broke and
it

the time

food, he ordered

to

be served to

came for taking him where he was. At
of

his
last

Ruhu-llah Khan,

the

Commander

the

Emperor's forces,

was announced and entered with

his suite.

The Sultan greeted

them

all

with courtesy, conversed with them at his ease, and

never for a
his horse,

moment

forgot

his

dignity.

He

then called for

and wearing on

his

neck a splendid row of pearls,

he went with his captor to the Imperial camp.
taken to Prince
pearls.

He was

first

the

Muhammad Azam, to whom he presented the The Prince accepted them, and placing his hand upon Sultan's back, endeavoured to console him. The Prince
whom
he introduced
after a

then took the Sultan to the Emperor, to

him.

Aurungzebe received him courteously, and

few

days sent him to be confined in the fort of Dowlatabad, where

he was kept as a state prisoner until the time of

his death,

THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.-^A.

D.

168().

309

some years later. A suitable allowance was given to him, and he was allowed the society of his wives. This was the end of the last of the Deccan Sultans, and
whatever

may

have been the faults of Abu-1 Hassan's
in a

life,

it

must be acknowledged that he met his misfortunes
worthy of a
It

manner

king.
to

now general Abdur

only remains

narrate

the

fortunes

of his brave

Razzak.

We

cannot better do than quote from

Khati Khan, the generous enemy who has already paid tribute " Al)dur Razzak, senseless, but with a spark to his prowess of life remaining, was carried to the house of Ruhu-llah Khan.
:

As soon
cried out
it

as
'
:

the

eyes
is
!

of

Saf-Shikan
!

Khan

fell

This

that vile Lari
'

Cut

off his head,

upon him, he and hang
cut
off

over

the

gate

Ruhu-llah

replied

that

to

the

head of a dying man without orders, when there was no hope A little bird of his surviving was far from being humane.

made the matter known to Aurungzebe, who had heard of Abdur Razzak's daring and courage and loyalty, and he
graciously

ordered

that

two
be

surgeons,
sent
to

one

a European, the

other

a

Hindoo,

should
to

attend

the

man, who were

make

daily reports of his condition.

Emperor
like

also sent for

Ruhu-llah

Khan and

told

wounded The him that if

Abu-1 Hassan had possessed only one more servant devoted

Abdur Razzak,
nearly

it

to

subdue the

fortress.

would have taken much longer time The surgeons reported that they had
wounds,
besides the

counted

seventy

many wounds

upon wounds which could not be counted. Although one eye was not injured it was probable that he would lose the sight They were directed carefully to attend to his cure. of both. the end of sixteen days, the doctors reported that he had At opened one eye and spoken a few faltering words, expressing Aurungzebe sent a message to him fora hope of recovery. giving him his offences, and desiring him to send his eldest son, Abdu-1 Kadir, with his othei* sons, that they might

310

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
suitable

i-cceivc

muusabs and
that

lioiioiirs.

When

tliis

gracious
gas|)(;d

message reached
out a few words
that there

devoted
reverence

and peerless hero, he

of

and

gratitude,
If,

but
it

he

said

was

little

hope of recovery.

however,

])leased

the Almighty

to spare

not likely that

him and give him a second life, it was he would be tit for service but should he be
;

ever capable of
the salt
(^ould

service,

he

felt

that

no one who had eaten
thriven

of

Abu-1
the

Hassan,
service
of

and
seen

had

on

his bounty,

enter

King
to

Aurungzebe.
he

On

hearing

these words a

cloud

was

pass over the face of his
is

Majesty, but he kindly said:

"When

quite well let

me

know."
Eventually

Abdur Razzak
to

recovered,

and again refused to

come
the

to the

Emperor's presence, asking to be allowed to make
Mecca.

pilgrimage

Aurungzebe

now became

angry,

and orders
to

Avere sent to

arrest

him but Firoz Jung managed
in

convey him away
After

to his

concealment.

a

own house, and there kept him year Abdur Razzak thought better

of

the Emperor's offer,
fallen master,

he

could no longer do any good to his

and so he entered the Imperial service with a

mansuh of 4,000 and 3,000 horse. The plunder taken at Golconda amounted to eight lakhs and fifty-one thousand huns (golden coins or pagodas) and two
(U'ores

and

fifty-three

thousand
inlaid

rupees,

altogether six crores
{circa,

eighty lakhs
sterling),

and ten thousand rupees
jewels,
articles

seven millions

besides

and vessels of gold
to 1,15,16,00,000,

and

silver; the

copper coin
arrived

{clams)

amounted
close

ecpial to about 2^ nnllions sterling.

We

have
of

now
the

at

the

of

the
thirty

Mahomedan
years
this

kingdoms

Deccan.

For the
in

next

portion of India

remained a province of Delhi.
absorbing
the
to a

The Great

Delhi Emperor had succeeded
States,

Mahomedan

Avhich

had

certain extent kept the Mahrattas in
left

check,

and

he

was now

face to face with the despised

THE FALL OF GOLCONDA.—A.
infidels,
l^iit

D. 1686.

311

in

spite

of

all

its

magnificence

and

aj)[)arent

power, Imperialism was rotten to the core.
tinued
to reign for

Auriingzebe contiie

about fifteen years, but (hiring
all

wliole

of that time, in spite of

attempts, he was unable to exter-

minate the
tined te be

Mahrattas.

Their

power
belongs

continued

to

increase,

and was a rock upon which the flood of Imperialism was desbroken.

But
another

this

to

another period of

Deccan
after

history,

and

at present there only

remains to

tell

how
and

thirty

years

Mahomedan kingdom

arose

took the place of that of Golconda.

PART
AN EMPIRE

TIL
IN RUINS.

CHAPTER XXV.
THE KING-MAKERS.
In
this

section

the

scene

lies

principally

in

Delhi

and the

North of India, but
a

as the events led to the establishment of

Deccan and the persons are intimately connected with Deccan affairs it has been deemed advisable to relate the incidents at some length, especially as the period
in the

new Kingdom

referred to

is

very summarily treated in the usual histories.
of

After the
his

to

Aurungzebe was free to turn Mr. Stanley Lane Pool seems attention to the Mahrattas. think that the conquest of the Deccan kingdoms was
fall

Golconda,

chiefly intended as
this nation of

the

first

step

towards the
since

destruction of

robbers

and freebooters,

with their

fall

them to the was placed in charge of and the Emperor marched westHyderabad and Golconda, wards in order to finally crush that 'hell-dog' Sambajee. At were everywhere successful. The first the Emperor's arms
the
large
subsidies

paid

by

Mahrattas would

cease.

Accordingly

a

governor

whole of the

territories

belonging

to

Bijapur and Golconda

were taken possession of by his generals down as far south So great was the respect shown to the Emperor's as Tanjore.

AsAF

Jaii (from an old picture),

THE KING-MAKERS.
authority that
of his slippers
it

315

was the custom of
on
a

liis

generals to send one

placed

splendid

howdah, carried by an
at the capital

elephant in gorgeous
cavalry and infantry.
of a native Prince he
side his capital

trappings

and conducted by a force of
slipjjcr arrived

Wlien the

was expected
it,

and conduct

meet the slipper outfollowed by his nobles and
to

troops with their ensigns
Palace.

lowered,

There the slipper

Durbar hall in the was placed upon the throne and
to the
it

the Prince himself had to pay

obeisance.

This having been

done, the general in charge was presented with costly presents,
the tribute
slipper

money was

sent

to

him

in

sealed bags, and the

similar

marched on in state to the next kingdom, where a On the occasion of a pageant was gone through.
circa

ceremonial procession of this kind soon after the accession of
a

new king (Runga-Kistna-Naicker,

1698) * the slipper,

accompanied by

twelve thousand cavalry,

from

thirty to forty

thousand infantry, and two

Nawabs, arrived outside Trichinthat the Imperial

opoly and a message was despatched by means of peons with
silver sticks

and

silver breast-plates,

mandate
It is the

had come. '"As
sirdars about

the

king
this

was young he enquired of the
meant.

him what
i.e.,

They
is

replied

'
:

Padslialis firman,

a slipper placed in a

howdah attended
sent to the rulers
it;
it

with various banners and troops,
of kingdoms,

which
that

and these kings go forth to meet
it

treat

it

with respect; take
capital; give

with
to

those
these,

accompany

to their

presents

and paying to them tribute
is

money, send them away.
the mandate
tiie
is

As

this

the established rule, and
Ave

now

sent to

this

capital

also treat

it

in

same respectful maimer.' On hearing this the young king became angry, but dissembling his intentions gave presents to
the ])eons and sent

out

his

own ambassadors, who were
his

in-

structed to plead

sickness

on

behalf,

but to contrive so
This the emis-

that the embassy was brought into the town.
'''

Taylor's Maimscripti^, Vol.

II.

p.

205.

31t>

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
ai)j)car to

sai'ics

have done

with
tlie

success,

and by
tJie

first

tixiiig

one place and then another as

spot where

king wouhl
gate.
'Is

meet them, induced the Nawabs to come inside the fort There being still no king the Nawabs said with anger:
your king not come?
the others said
'
:

have

you such obstinate

])ride?'
is

But
not
of the

able to enter a palankeen,
palace.'

Our king from the effect of sickness come with us to the gates They accordingly came with the mandate
Sri-Runga-Kistnappa-Muthu-Virapa-Naicker's
still

to

the

gates

of

palace.

As the king
plied

did not appear, they
that a

came

still

closer to the

palace entry; when, thinking

by

waiting
it

there,
in

want of respect was imthey took the mandate from the
and,

howdah, placed
carried
it

a

palankeen,
of

not

without anger,

into

the

hall

the

throne.

Meanwhile the king
his friends

had invested himself with
on his throne,
wdien
the

all

the paraphernalia of his dignity,

and in the midst of a great number of
Padshah's
in

was seated

Nawabs, and principal
had brought

men, having taken the Farmana
it

their hands,

into the hall of the

throne.

Seeing that the king did not

pay the smallest token of respect either to the Farmmia or
themselves,

they were

excessively angry,

and pushing aside
hall of audience,

such persons as stood in their way in the
they

came near and
king.
floor.
it

hands of the
place

on the

offered to give the Farmana into the The king, being very angry, bid them But paying no attention to his command
to give

and not putting the slipper down, they again offered
it

into his hands.
:

Thereupon the king
'

called for people M^ith

wdiips

and

adding.

Will

the

Padshah's
further

people

put

the

Farmana down
came The

or not? let us

see,'

summoned

people

with rattan canes.
terribly afraid

As the king was calling aloud, they beand put the Farmana down on the floor.
placed

king,

seeing

this,

one

of
:

his
'

feet

within
it

the
that

slipper

and addressing the
lost

people

said

How

comes

your Padshah has

even

common

sense?

When

sending

THE KING-MAKERS.
foot

317

furniture
lie

for

siicli

kind

of

persons

as

ourselves,

why

does

not send two slippers instead of one?

Therefore do
!

While you speedily go back, and bring here another slipper he thus spoke they answered with all the vivacity of anger. On Avhich the king became excessively incensed and had them all
'

beaten and

driven

away.
all

In

consequence,
troops

on

going outside

the fort they assembled

their
this

and began to make

war.

The king on hearing

intelligence, sent outside the

fort five
fell

thousand cavalry and a great force of infantry which
a

upon the Padshah's troops and cut them up piecemeal.
successful
stand,

As they could not make

they ran away,

and reported these occurrences to the Padshah.
on the matter, considered that
send such
a
if

He, thinking
now,
the

he were for the future to

message,

the

disgrace

done

to
:

it

!)y

daring of one, Avould be imitated by others

he was therefore

induced

by

this

high

bearing

of

Raja-Runga-Kistna-Muttucease
the

Virapa-Naicker,

thenceforwards to

sending of the

Farmana to the different The foregoing account
is

rulers of countries."
is

nothing in
confirms

an}^ of
it.

the
is

Mahomedan
probably

from a Hindoo source, and there histories which in any
exaggerated,
especially
as

w^ay

It

regards the numbers of the
to flight.
It

Mahomedan army who
that

w^ere put

shows,

however,

previous

to

the incident,

which occurred before the end of the seventeenth century, the
force, since the Trichinopoly Sirdars

custom of sending the slipper had been for some years were acquainted with
;

in
it,

and that the Emperor's over-rule was recognized for as the first impulse of the Sirdars was to show respect to the slipper,
it

is

clear that for

some time previously the Emperor's
recognized
the
as

rule

extended and
In
the

was
of

far

south as Trichinopoly.
of

account

transactions

the

latter

years

of

Aurungzebe's reign, translated by Scott from the narrative of
a Bondela officer,

we

are

told

that

in

1698

Ziilficcar

Khan,

the

Emperor's great general, of

whom we

shall

hear more

318

mSTORY OP THE
coss

DECCAN.
(.Jin<^cc

later on, inarched sixty
ol:

from

into the territories

Trichinopoly and Tanjore and collected considerable contri-

butions from the Zemindars.

The

slipper
it

subsequent to
years later,

this

expedition

and

embassy was j)robably was only five or six

when Aurunf^zebe's whole

attention

was taken

ii])

with the Mahrattas, that so flagrant an insult could have been

committed.

Without therefore relying on the exact accuracy
here
given,
it

of the incident as
fall

proves

that

soon after the

of

Golconda the Emperor's armies over-ran the whole of
State

the territories of that

and of Bijapur and exercised a

amount of control over the hitherto independent Pandia kingdom of Trichinopoly. But we must now return to the affairs of the Deccan The Emperor with the main body of his army proper. marched from Hyderabad through Gulburga to J^ijapur. A number of the Deccanee nobles and generals came in and submitted and were rewarded with munsabs and military Amongst others was Sheikh Nizam Hyderabadee, charges. who was honoured with the title of Khan Humman and despatched on an expedition against Sumbajee, that "vile dog" who for so long had defied tlie great Emperor with impunity. Sumbajee had at this period almost entirely withdrawn himHis armies were despatched in various self from the field. directions on marauding expeditions, and he himself remained shut up in the fort of Sungumeshwar, where he imagined amongst his native hills. Khan Humman, himself safe however, was able to take him by surprise, and making a rapid march from Kolapur arrived at the gates of the fort and succeeded in entering before they could be closed. Sumbajee himself was intoxicated, and though most of his followers succeeded in making their escape, twenty-four of his him with bravery. They were, principal chiefs defended however, all taken prisoners and Sumbajee together with his prime minister Kuloosha were brought before the Emperor.
certain
;

THE KING-MAKERS.
It is said tliat

319

Auruiigzebc
restore
this

iiitciided

to

spare

liim, in

so as to
his poslife
if

induce
session,

liiiii

to

the

forts
in

wliicli

were
the
his
his

still

and with

object

view offered him his
"Tell

he would

become
"that

a
if

Mussulman.
he
will

Emperor,"
daughter
reply
I

said
will
in-

Sumbajee,

give

me

become
vective

a

Mahoinedan," and concluded

by an

Exasperated by this insult the on the pro])lict.* Emperor ordered him to be executed, which was done in a most barbarous manner. A red liot iron was drawn across his eyes, his tongue was cut out, his skin flayed from his (August 1689.) The news of body, and his head cut off.
this

barbarous

murder of the son
the

of the great Sivajee only

Mahratta nation still more against war was therefore carried on on both the Moguls, and the sides Avith even more bitterness than before. Aurungzebe's Prime Minister at this time Avas Assud Khan, and his son Yeatikad Khan was despatched with a large force He was fortunate enough to obtain to invade the Concan.
served to
exasperate
possession
Sivajee,

of

Yessoo Bhai, Sumbajee's widow,

and her son

who had been
Rajah

declared as his father's successor, with
as

his uncle

Ram

regent.

These two prisoners were
age,

taken to the Emperor's camp, where they were kindly received,

and the boy, being only
Aurungzebe's daughter.
of by the
this

six

years of

was adopted by

He

seems to have been taken notice

Emperor, who

called

him Sahoo or Shao, and by

name he was always afterwards known. Yeatikad Khan was highly honoured for this capture, and the title of Zulficcar Khan was bestowed upon him, under which name he
henceforward played a conspicuous part.
fort of

Rajah Ram, with a large force, then set off for the strong Gingee, which is situated in the present district of South Arcot, about 50 miles inland from Pondicherry. The remains of the fort show that it must at one time have been
*

Grant Duff, Vol.

I.

p.

306.

320

HIS TOBY OF THE DECCAN.
strcii{i;tli.

of coiisidcfnhk'

It

is

l)iiilt

on
in

n

siiiiill

cii-ciilai'

I'angc

of rocky hills

which
of

arc
this

isoliiicd

the

plain.

A

wall conbuilt at

nects the whole

range,

and strong
or
valley.

forts are

the

mouth

of

each

entrance

The ground thus
and
is

enclosed

contains
grain

several

s(|uare

miles,

ca})al)le

of
also

growing

required

for

the

garrison.

There

are

large reservoirs

which are fed not only by springs but by
hill

water-courses from the

sides, so

that the place Avas capa-

ble of maintaining a lengthened siege without any relief
outside.

from
in

This fort formed

the

stronghold

of

the jMahrattas

in the south of India,

and the outpost of their possessions
of
this

Tanjore.

The

siege

im})ortant
until

place lasted for very

nearly ten years

from
the

1689

1698,

but there seems to

be no doubt that operations were purposely delayed owning to
intrigues

amongst

generals.

The Bondela

officer,

from

Avhose journal Scott

has

compiled his history of

this portion

of Aurungzebe's reign, says that the total ruin of the Mahratta

power might have
the

been

effected

with ease

many

years
as-

before but
sisted

Amras
to

delayed
draAV

on purpose,
the

and secretly

each

other

out

war

to

a never-ending

length for their

own
to

advantage,
finally

also dreading that

when

the

Emperor should have
carry
his

reduced the

Deccan, he would

arms

Candahar
to

and

]3alkh,

which expeditions
did

were

disagreeable

the

nobility,

who

not

wish

to

During the greater part of the siege of Gingee, Zulficcar Khan was in chief command, though for a portion of the time he was superseded by Prince Kaum Buksh, Aurungzebe's favourite son. Soon after the Prince's arrival rumours began to circulate that the Emperor Avas ill and was not likely to recover. In the event of the throne becoming vacant it was
encounter the hardships of the north.*
necessary for the success of any aspirant that he should be at head(piarters in order to assert his claim.
* It
is

Accordingly the Prince began
which

alleged

that

docuinents
to

exist

show that Aurungzebe's
in Central Asia.

secret intention

was ultimately

found a great Empire

THE KING-MAKERS.
to

321

make

secret overtures to the Mahrattas

and on

this

coming

to tlic cars of Zulficcar

Khan
tent.

lie

promptly had the Prince arrested
an opportunity pass

and contined
of showing
to

in his

own

This was an act of masterfulness that

Kaum Buksh never forgave,

and he never

let

the dislike he felt for the general, a dislike

which seems

have been cordially and implacably returned.

Nevertheless the

siege of Gingee

had

to

l)e

raised, for the imperial
it

army was
to

so

reduced by sickness and want of provisions that
into quarters.

had

withdraw
to

Zulficcar

Khan and

the Prince were

summoned

the Emperor's camp, and although Aurungzebe openly accepted

and blamed the general, as a matter of fact he kept the Prince for some time in honourable confinement and employed his lieutenant on active service. Zulficcar
his son's explanation

Khan
meant

w^as

a

brave

and ambitous general.

When

he really
it

fighting he invariably beat the Mahrattas, but

is

said

that he secretly intended to

establish himself in the Carnatic

with the object, when the opportunity came, of making himself

independent.

If this

is

true,

it

was unfortunate for him

that he relinquished the

idea,

for

death Zulficcar

Khan enjoyed

for a few years the

though after Aurungzebe's power and

the wealth of a king-maker at Delhi, his career ended at last

with murder and spoliation, whereas another, following out his
original ambition, actually achieved

independence and became
rules in the Deccan.

the founder of a royal line that

still

The date

of

this

incident

was

1696,

and from

this

time

Aurungzebe seems

to

have adopted a fresh policy

in his

cam-

A new force was despatched paign against the Mahrattas. into the Carnatic to besiege Gingee, and the Deccan army
was divided
w^as

into

two

portions.

The
to

one,

a

flying

colmnn,

sent

under Zulficcar
sat

Khan
found,

beat

up the IMahrattas
the
hill

wherever they could be
the

whilst
to

with the main body
forts

Emperor himself
in the

down

besiege
a

one

after the other.

Chin Koolich Khan,
Deccan, was

name

destined to be-

come famous

left as

Governor of Eijapur.
21

322

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
])nrsii;iiicc

Ill

of this

])laii

tlie

Emperor

siirccssivoly besieged
Sino-nrli,
in
tlie

and caj)tured Sattara,
Rajp;iirli,

J-'aualla,

Vislialgiirli,

Piii-iiiida,

Pooiia,

and Waikankara;
face.

wliilst

open

iicld

Zulticcnr

Klian constantly defeated the iMaliratta armies wlien

he conhl meet them face to
vellous

Hut

in

s])ite

of this marninety,

perserverance

of

an

old

man bordering on

Aurungzebe was never able to make any lasting impression on the "monntain rats." Young Sahoo was still kept in the Emperor's camp. Rajah Ram, his imcle, who at first acted as Regent, was dead, and the real leader of the Mahratta
nation was Tara Bhai,
Siiinbajee's

Sahoo.

Tara Bhai was a
in

widow and ste])motlier to second Queen Chand, and deserves
of

a lasting place

the

ranks

noble

queens and heroines.

She became the

life

and soul of the Mahrattas, and sent out
avoid
all

army
open
cut

after
field,

army

M-ith instructions to

conflict in

the

but to harass the imperial armies in the rear, to
supplies,

off

their

and

to

carry

raids

far

beyond the

confines of the Deccan.

Aurungzebe' spersistency and doggedbreak

up the Mahratta confederacy had the very opposite effect to what he intended, and it is said that the Mahrattas themselves offered up prayers for the
ness in his attempts
to

preservation of the Emperor's longation of his policy.

life

and therefore for the proin

So successful Avere the ]\Iahrattas
occasions
the huge imperial

their raids that on several

camp
in

was reduced almost to starvation, and was so hemmed
all

on

no one dared to leave its limits. The Deccan was reduced to the state of a desert. All the Emperor's supplies and money had to l)e drawn from the north. His governors at Hyderabad and Rija})ur could only Avith difficulty make small collections, and even there they had to dissides tliat
itself

pute Avith the Mahratta tax collectors,
cJiouth, or

who

boldly levied their

one quarter of the revenue, throughout the im])erial

provinces.

Emperor.

But nothing could l)end the Avill of the stern old Hunger and reverses did not subdue it, and though

THE KTNG-MAKFBF!.
Oil at least

323

two occasions
he
still

his

camp was

well

iiigli

carried

away

by
to

floods,

jiiirsned

his life of sclf-ahiieo-atioii, resolved

to conqiiev or to die.

ZiilHccai-

Khan was

again despatched

carry on the siege of Gingee, and received a hint that it would be well for liiin to show more energy. This time he was not trammelled by the presence of a royal Prince, and
at last yielded to

Gingee
of the

his

arms (1698), and, the strength
Carnatic
to

Mahrattas

in

the
to

South
return

being

broken, the

general was

left free

the

principal seat of the

Here the same system of operations was carried on. Aurungzebe laid sieere to one fort after another, and Zulficcar Khan hurried from province to province in pnrsnit of the elusive Mahrattas. In one campaign alone he is said to have marched 2,000 coss, or about 4,000 miles, a distance Avhich is surely somewhat exaggerated. It is scarcely Avithin the province of this work to follow in detail all Anrungzebe's movements. It is true that the scene of them lay in the Deccan, bnt they have been so exhaustin the

war

Deccan.

Grant Duff that it would be useless same ground. Each year was a repetition of the previous one. Nothing decisive was ever gained by the Emperor. The forts he took one year were frequently retaken in the following one, when he had moved on to begin again the same wearisome story. During the whole of this
ively
to

discussed

by

go over the

time the Mahrattas gradually increased in strength and daring.

Their bands harried the country from Mysore up to Guzerat,

and a strong central system of Government was organized
Poona.
the head
I'ifty

at

years before, Aurungzebe had found Sivajee at
a comparatively

of

small

body of robbers.

When

he died Sivajee's grandson

ruled

over a well organized Govspirit of plunder.

ernment and a nation imbued with the

The time had

at last

come
fifty.

for the great

Emperor

to leave

this life of unrest

and struggles.

Nearly ninety years of age,

he had ruled for almost

All those Avho had crossed his

324

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
wlicther father, brotlicrs, sons
l)y
oi-

])ntli,

ncplicws,

had conic

to

a violent end, in battle, or else the dagger or the poison bowl.
his life he

\hv,

more
last

secret

means of
far

For the

twenty years of

had lived

in

a
his

camp and endured hardships
luxurious
followers.

greater

than

some

of

Right

or

Avrong he had unswervingly carried

out

the line of ])olicy
as

he

had
sons

laid

down

for himself,

and now,

he

felt his

end ap-

proaching, he saw his plans thwarted, his enemies flourishing, his
at

discord with

one another,

Empire crumbling aAvay as it 1706 he marched into Alimednagar, the capital of the old Nizam Shalii kings, and on the day he marched in, he himself Remembering exclaimed that his last campaign was finished. his OAvn fight for the throne, he sent his three sons away to their different governments, separated as far as possible from
of

and the whole fabric of were to pieces. Towards the end

The eldest, subsequently known as Rahadiir Shah, was in Cabul; Azim Shah was sent to Malwa, and Kaum Euksh, his youngest and favourite, to Bijapur. To the eldest son the Emperor seems to have sent no message, and to have made no sign, and he probably thought that he was too far removed to have a chance of succeeding. But shortly l)efore he died he wrote a letter to Azim Shah and another to Kaum Buksh, iDoth of which are so pathetic that they must
one another. be given in ewte?iso*

To Shah Azim Shah.

"Health

to thee!

My

heart

is

near thee! Old age has arrived

weakness subdues me, and strength has forsaken all my members. I I came a stranger into this world, and a stranger I depart.

know nothing
The
*

of myself, wdiat I am, and for Avliat I
in

am

destined.

instant

which passed
to

power has

left

only sorrow behind
and Dowson). These any of the histories. one in his monograph.

Eradat Khan, translated by
are

Scott (also Elliot

letters

not

my knowledge
gives

reproduced
extract
fi'oni

in

Mr. Stanley Lime Poole
Jiiravf/zih.

an

THE KING-MAKERS.
it.

325

I liuvc

not been the guardian and protector of the empire.
1

My

vahiahlc time has been passed vainly.

had a patron

in

my own dwelling (conscience) but his glorious light was by my dimmed sight. Life is not lasting; there is no
of departed breath, and
all

unseen
vestige

hopes from futurity are

lost.

The

fever has left me,

but

nothing

remains of

me

but skin and

bone.
is
still

My

son

near;

Kaum Buksh, though gone thou my son art yet nearer.
(l^ahadur

towards Bijapur,

The worthy
distant
is

of

esteem Shah k\\\m
Hindoostan.
like

Shah)

is

far

and

my

grandson (Azim Ushan) by the orders of

God

arrived near

The camp
full

followers,

helpless

and alarmed, are
Separated

myself

of affliction, restless as quicksilvei-.
if

from
I

their lord, they knoAv not

they have a master or not.

brought nothing into

this world,
I

of

man

carry nothing out.
I

and except the infirmities have a dread for my salvation
punished.

and with what torments
a strong
reliance

Though I have on the mercies and bounties of God, yet
fear
will

may be

regarding

my
my

actions

not quit

me; but Avhen

I I

am
will

gone, reflection will not remain.

Come

then what

may

have

launched

vessel

to

the

waves.

Though Providence
Give

protect the camp,
of
to

yet

regarding

appearances, the endeavours

my my

sons are indispensably incumbent.

my

last

prayers

grandson

(Bedar Bukht son
but
of

cannot see but the desire affects me.
daughter)
hearts.

of Azim Shah) whom I The Begum (his favourite

appears

afflicted

The

foolish thoughts

God is the only judge of women produce nothing but
!

disappointment.

Farewell

!

farewell

farewell

"
!

To the Prince

Kaum

Buksh.
in the height of

"My
my
took

Son, nearest to

my

heart.

Though
I

power, and by God's permission,
with you
the
greatest
pains,
Avitli

gave you advice and
as
it

yet,

was not the
insignifiance,

divine will,

you did not attend
stranger,

the ears of compliance.

Now

I

depart a

and lament

my own

326

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
docs
it

vvliiit

protit

nic?

I

carry

willi

iiic

tlic
!

tViiits
1

of

my

sins

and

imperfections.
I

Surprising

Providence
leader
of

came

here alone, has deserted

and alone

depart.

The

the

cai'avan

me.
me.

days
the

has

left

The fever which troubled me for twelve Wherever 1 look I see nothing but
fears

Divinity.
!

My
I

for

the

camp and

followers
is

are

great, but alas

know not
feet
is

myself.
lost

My

back

bent with

weakness and

my

have

the

power of motion.

The
it,

breath which rose
1

gone, and

left

not even hope behind

have committed numerous crimes and know not with what
I

punishment

may

be

seized.

Though
is

the

Protector
also

of

mankind
taken

will

guard the camp yet care and

incumbent
alive

on

the faithful,

my
the

sons.

When
the

I

was

no care was

and

now

consequence
is

guardianship of a people

trust

may be guessed. The by God committed to
that none of the
fall

my

sons.

Azim Shah

is

near.

Be cautious
will

faithful are slain
1 resign

or their

miseries

upon
I

my

head.

you, your mother

and

son to God, as

myself

am

going.

The agonies
is
still

of

death
was,
is

come upon me
and
in
his

fast.

Bahadur
Nissa (his
of time

Shah

where he

son

has

arrived near
al

Hindustan.

Bedar Bukht
full

Guzerat.

Hyut

daughter the Begum), who
till

has

beheld no

afflictions

Regard the Begum as without concern. Odeypooree*, your mother, was a partner in my illness and wishes to accompany me in death; but every
now,
is

of

sorrows.

thing has

its

appointed time.
courtiers,
is

The domestics and
not be
ill

however
to

deceitful, yet

treated.

It

necessary

gain

must your views by
than your
are as before.

gentleness
skirt.
*
It

and

art.

Extend your feet no
of

lower

The complaints
is

the
is

unpaid

troops

questioned whether this
sent
to

not a mistake for Jodhporee, as a

princess of Jodhpore Avas

Odeypore claims
Emperors.

to

The house of have never contributed a Princess to the Mahomedan
Aurungzebe's zenana.

THE KING-MAKERS.
Dai'a Shakoli,
tli()ug"li

327

of

iinicli
iiis

judginciit and
})eo])le,
I

good understanding,
paid them
iU,

settled lai-gc pensions

on

hut

and

they were
or evil
I

ever

discontented
it

am

going.

Wliatever good
it

have done,

was for you.

Take

not amiss, nor

may

rememhcr what offences I have done to not be demanded of me hereafter.

yourself, that account

No

one has seen the
is

departure of his

own

soul

:

but

I see

that

mine

departing."

Reading between the
liuksh.

lines of these letters there

seems

little

doubt that Aurungzebe's sym|)atliies were in favour of

Kaum

Both

this

Prince
off

and
to

Azim Shah, though they had
their

purposely been

sent

respective

governments of
near as possible.

Bijapur and Malwa, were

cognizant

that their father's death
as

was imminent,

and

remained
supposed
sequel
care

therefore
to
l)e

Bahadur
plans

Shah
the

was

too

far
also

away
had

to

be

dangerous, but as the

showed,

he

laid his

with

greatest

and

caution.

Azim Shah's
between

general

was

the

redoubted

Zulficcar

Khjui,

whom

and Kaum Buksh there was an undying hatred dating l)ack from the incident which occurred at the siege of Gingee,
already alluded
to.

Eradat Khan, who had for a long time been

in

attendance

on the Emperor, gives a touching sketch of
with
his

his last interview

old

master,
the

which

must have
Eradat
at

taken

place

only

shortly

before
to

latter's

death.

Khan had been
Aurungabad,
and

appointed

an

important

command

" on the evening before

my

departure, the Emperor, opening

the window^ of his sleeping
said:

apartment, called

me

to

him and
or

'Absence now takes place
is

between us and our meeting
then

again

uncertain.

Eorgive

whatever

willingly

unwillingly I

may have done
three

against thee, and pronounce the

words,

/

forgive !
served

times
I

with
also

sincerity

of heart.

As

thou

hast

me

long,

forgive

thee

whatever
knot in

knowingly or otherwise,

thou

may est have done
sobs

against me.'

Upon hearing

these

words

my

became

like a

328

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
tliroat,

my
liis

so that

I

liad

not

power
pressed

to speak.

At

last

after
to

majesty

had
lie

re])eate(lly

me

I

made

sliift

pronounce
heavy
sol)s.

tlie

words,
slied

/

forgive!

three

times, interrupted by

many

tears,

repeated the words, and

after ])lessinp;

me, ordered

me

to retire."*

There

is

sometliing

very pathetic in the picture

of

this

okl

man
to

dying alone in

the midst of a large camp, haunted by the memories of past
crimes, and by the forms
of

those

nearest

him

in

blood

who had

crossed his

path

and had been done to death, and

with a vague dread of a retribution to come. "I have committed numerous crimes and know not with what punish-

may be seized." Such is his own confession, and the must have been rendered acute ])y the consciousness that liis "valuable time had been passed vainly." His long life had in fact been a failure, and the work which during the last twenty years of his life he had set himself to do with stubbornness of purpose and inflexibility of will, was not only undone but he was leaving his empire in a far worse position than it had been when he took it by force from his " Every plan that he formed came to little good; father's grasp.
ment
I

feeling

every enterprize failed,"

is

the verdict of the

Mahomedan historian
and judgment."
to the

who
But

praises

him
of

for his "devotion, austerity and justice; and

for his incomparable
in spite

courage,

long-suffering

the

admiration

which

is
it

due

many

great qualities in

Aurungzebe's character
pitted

seems

difficult if

not impossible to join with those
as a

who regard him

as a martyr,

man who "had

his

conscience against the world,
or as one w^ho "lived, and
if

and the world triumphed over

it,"

died in leading a forlorn hope, and

ever the cross of heroic

devotion to a lost cause belonged to mortal

The

real truth is that the
in

cause

man it was his."f he was devoted to was his
achieve
that

own advancement, and
* Scott's TraiiKlation.

order to

he did not

t Stanley Lane Poole, Aurangzib,

p.

205.

THE KING-MAKERS.
scruple to
for.

329

wade

tlirougli

blood
hiiii

towards the tlu-one

lie

longed

Fratricide

had for

no

terrors,

and the obligation

of

tilial

respect or paternal
a

love no weight.

To us he seems
a

more
on

like

narrow-minded bigot
reproached him for
this

with such
all

load of guilt
ISo

his conscience that

he mistrusted

mankind.

doubt

his conscience

the

crimes of his youth,

but can

it

be said that
he

deterred

him from the commisruin
of

sion of others in his old age?

The

relentlessness with which,

for

no reason,

brought

about

the

the

Deccan

and the barbarous manner in Mahratta Sumbajee, show that the old in him, and that what he had done in
kinss,

which he treated the

Adam

was still alive 1656 he would not

have hesitated been

to

do forty years later had the same obstacles

in his path.

Aurungzebe's death occurred on the 21st of February, 1707, and three days afterwards Azim Shah, who was then 54 years

Ahmednagar, took possession of the Imperial week later formally ascended the throne. The camp, and remains of the deceased Emperor were despatched to Aurungabad, where they were buried in a tomb Avhich he had prepared during his life-time. Azim Shah at once commenced a leisurely march for Agra, having been joined by several of the important chiefs, such as Chin Koolich Khan, with his father Feroze Jung, and Mahomed Ameen Khan, who for
of age, arrived at
a
this

purpose deserted the service of
felt

Kaum
to

Buksh.

This latter

Prince evidently
for the throne.

himself too
only

weak

make an attempt
of

He was

forty

years

age and could

bide his time.

Accordingly he retired to his seat of Govern-

ment
it

at Bijapur, and leaving his

two elder brothers

to tight

out, occupied himself Avith collecting an

army

in the

Deccan

with

which he

resolved

to

encounter

the

conqueror.

The

route chosen by
flies,

Azim Shah was, though
one,

shorter as the crow

and the consequence was that before he reached Agra a number of his men were lost
a very hilly and difficult

:«(»

HIS Ton V OF THE DECCAN.
disease and by want.
in

I)y

Hudar Huklit,
to

A/iiii

Shah's son,
to join

who
his

was
the

Guzcrat, was

ordered
Tliis

father's

army near Agra.
set
off

march in order order was at once
three
altliongli

ol)eyed and

I^rinee

with
larger

only

tbousand men,
at

withont

waiting to

raise

a

army,

the

time there

was a considei-ahle amount of money in tlie treasury. fact is that 13edar Bukht had been greatly attached
grandfather,

The
to his
liis

Aurungzebe,

and

had

therefore

excited

father's jealousy,

and he was afraid

anything like a considerable force,

that, if he met him with Azim Shah might snspect

him

of entertaining designs against the throne.
in
this

Eradat Khan,

who was
be very

Prince's

confidence,

tells

us

much

of the

strained relations betw-een father and son, and there seems to
little

doubt that the Prince did

really

harbour the

thought of supplanting his father.
In the meantime Bahadur Shah, although far off in Cabul,

and already an old
despatched to

man

of

64,

had not been
a

idle.

When
To

this distant

government, he had accepted what
without

was

really a

banishment

word

of

complaint.

his OAvn sons,

who were with him, and
all

to his friends

he said he said

that he

had given up
new^s

idea of ever succeeding to the throne.

When

of

Aurungzebe's sickness reached him,
father's

that in the event of his

death he Avould not dispute
w^ould retire into Persia and

the throne with

Azim Shah, but

claim

hospitality

from the Shah.
to

So

persistent

was he
l)y

in

these statements that not only were they believed

his

own

family

l)ut

they also served
w^as

dispel

all

suspicions at head-

looked upon accordingly as a negligea])le removed by age and by distance from any chance of rivalry. Bahadur Shah's Dewan or principal minister Avas one Monuaim Khan, who was thoroughly faithful and
quarters,

and he

quantity, too far

attached to his master.

This officer had for some time been

employed
household.

in

organizing and

reforming the Prince's army and
a

He had

therefore

claim to his confidence, and

THE KlNGMAKEliS.
accordingly he one
pLans.

331

dny
lie

(jucstioncd

him regarding
took
in

liis

future

Suhse([ucntly

related
his

what

place

to

Eradat

Khan, who has given us
"

statement

his

own words
sincerity,

When

I

perceived

that

my

attachment,

and

abilities

he was convinced that
servant,

had properly impressed I was a prudent,
being alone
with
I

Shah Alam's mind, and that
faithful,

and secret

him
your

one

day,

Conversing on the
of thus addressing
flying
to

affairs of the

Empire,
reported
so

took the

liberty

him:
Persia,

'It

is

that

Highness intends
that

with

much
rumour
I

confidence
sacred
their
lies
it

even
of
its

the

Princes

your

sons

assure

me by

oaths

truth.'

He

replied: 'In this
to

concealed a great design,

forward which
it

have spread
because

abroad and taken pains to
father, on a
in

make
of

believed.
disloyalty,

First,

my

mere suspicion
the

my

kept

me
now

nine

years
I

close confinement,

and

should

he

even

think

cherished

smallest

ambition, he would immediately strive to accomplish Secondly,

my
is

ruin.

my
all

brother

Mahomed Azim
against

Shah,

who

my my
liut

powerful enemy, and valiant even to the extreme of rashness,

would exert
father
is

his force

me.
lulled

Prom
into

this report

easy and

my

brother

self-security;

by the Almigldy God, ivlio gave me life the Koran by him) and on this holy book, I swear, though not one friend should join me, I will meet Azim Shah iu
(laying his
single

hand on

combat,

wherever your

he

may be

!

This

secret

which

I

have so long maintained, and even kept from
is

my own

children,

now

entrusted to

care.

Be cautious

that no instance

of your conduct

may

])etray it.'"*

The confidence thus shown was not misplaced.

Monuaim

Khan

at

once went to Lahore,
there

which formed the key of the

road to Delhi, and
rations,

(piickly

made
be

the necessary prepa-

so

that

everything
the

should
blow.

ready

when
of

the time

came
*

to

strike

decisive
the

Bodies

troops

were

Evadat Khan, Memoirs of

Mogul Empire.

Scott, Vol. II.

,y.i2

llJSTOJtY

OF THE DECCAN.
garrisons,
e^i

collected

and stationed

in

so

that

they

conkl be

picked np

completely e(|uii)ped

route.

A

regular stage of

connnunication was
side

opened

out

towards

the Deccan on one
tlie

and through the Khyher

pass to Cal)ul on

other, so

that any

news could
tells

l)e

transmitted with the utmost despatch.

Tavernicr

us that messages of importance were generally
instead

conveyed by foot-runners
runners were
"

of

by

horsemen, and that
a

able

to

beat

horsemen

over

k^ng distance.

The reason
i.

is," says

this entertaining traveller (Ball's edition,

vol.

291) "that at every two

leagues there are small huts,
for running, live and im-

where two or three men employed
mediately when the carrier of
these huts he throws
of
it

a

letter

has arrived at one of

to the others at the entrance, at

and one
is

them
is

takes

it

up and

once sets off to run.

It

con-

sidered unlucky to give a letter into the hand of a messenger
it is

therefore thrown at his feet
to

and he must

lift

it

up.

It

still

be

remarked

that

throughout

India,

the greater

part of the roads are like

avenues
at

of trees, and those which

have not trees planted, have
of

every 500 paces small pieces
of

stone
to

which the

inhabitants

the

nearest

villages

are

bound

whiten from time to time, so that the letter carriers

can distinguish the roads

on

dark

and

rainy

nights."

The

distance which the messengers would have to travel between Ahmednagar, where Aurungzebe died, and Cabul, could not have been less thau 2,000 miles, and the road by which troops could march from Cabul to Agra is not less than 1,200 miles, but yet so great was the despatch used by Bahadur
Shall that although

the

old

Emperor only died on
2^
a

the 28th

Zilkad,

in

little

more than
his

months from that time the

Prince had forestalled

brother;

had taken possession of
battle

Agra, and was able to deliver

decisive

on the 80th
off post

day after Aurungzebe's
received the news
of

decease.
father's

Immediately Bahadur Shah
death

his

he started

haste for Lahore, where he found a body of troops ready and

THE KING-MAKERS.
a strong force of artillery

333

prepared and

ke])t

in

readiness by

the

faithful

Monnaini
able to

Khan.
reach

Without

a

day's

delay

the

Prince hurried on, picking up fresh levies on his way, and in
this

manner was
dreaming

brother,

who had
of

leisurely

Agra marched
rival

several

days before his

up from the
to

Deccan
throne.

never

finding

a

dispute

liis

Eradat Khan, who was with
the person of his

Azim Shah's army,
Bukht,
of says that

attached to

son

Bedar

"such vanity
was cou'

took possession of the

mind

Azim Shah

that he

vinced his brother, though supported by the myriads of Toor

and Sullum, durst not meet him in the field. Hence those who brought intelligence of his approach he would alnise as
fools

and cowards, so that no one cared

to speak the truth.

Even his chief officers feared to disclose intelligence, so that he was ignorant of the successful progress of his rival." * From this dream of security, however, there was a rude awakening; for, when he arrived at Muttra, about 20 miles from Agra, he was met by a message from Bahadur Shah So magnanimous offering to divide the kingdom with him. was the elder brother that he even left to the younger the The offer was, hoAvever, haughtily choice of the division. refused, and on the following day (18 Rubbee ul AAval A. II. 1119=23rd May 1707) iho^ two armies met for the Prince Bedar Bukht commanded the decisive struggle. advance guard, Zulficcar Khan the left wing, and Azim Shah Bahadur Shah had with him the main body of the army.
a

considerable
to

army,
attack

and,
in

assisted

hy
loose,

his

four

sons,

ad-

vanced
order

the
to

a

compact
very

form.

Azim Shah's
he
foolishly

seems

have

been

and

left the main body of his army and advanced to the supwith port of his son Bedar Bukht, who was engaged Zulficcar Khan on the left wing was also the vanguard.

attacked,

and,

though

he

Avas

able

to

hold

jiis

own,

his

* Scott's Translation,

334.

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
was
wlio
pjrcatly
tied

foi'cc
allies,

weakened hy
the
fall

tlie

dcifcctioii

of

liis

"Rajjmot
jiiid

at

of

their

chiefs,

Ram

Siiio-h

Diilpiit
(lay

How, who were

killed

by the same
the

caiiiioii

hall.

The

was actually decided

hy

defeat

of

the vanguard of

Shahs army, and the main body does not seem to liave hcen ensafvcch Azini Shah and llcdar Bukht both fell tiuhtino; bravely, and when this occuri-ed the rest of the army took to
A/iin
flight.

Zulficcar

Khan, seeing that the day

Avas lost,

escaped
In
as-

to

Gwalioi- and took refuge Avith his father

Assud Khan.

this

manner, after a comparatively easy victory, Bahadui-

cended the throne.
Zulficcar

Khan's conduct
refrained
justify

in

the

])attle

is

open

to

some

doubt, and there were

certainly

having
result

wilfully

many who suspected him of from assisting Azim Shah. The
suspicions,

seems
created

to

these
justice

because

although

Monuaim Khan was with
was

made

Vizier, Zulficcar

Khan

Ameer- ul-Amra, with the post of chief paymaster and the govermnent of the Deccan. His father, Assud Khan, received the honorary post of Vakeel Muttaluk, which though of considerable dignity, carried with it no real power. "Shah Alam Bahadur Shah was generous and merciful, of
a great soul tempered with affability and discerning of merit.

He had
of his

seen

the

strict

exercise

of

power during the reigns
been used
to

grandfather

and
fifty

father
years.

and

authority

himself for the last

Time received
merits,
so

a

new
the

lustre

from
equal,

his
if

accession, and

all

ranks of people obtained favours,
their

not

superior,

to

that
of

public

forgot
Avliich

the

excellences

and
in

great
the
Avas

(pialities

Aurungzelie,

became

absorbed

bounties
a

of

his successor."

(Eradat Khan).

His court

veiy

splendid one and his

throne was surrounded by seventeen princes of the blood, for

he permitted even the sons of those princes who had fallen
in battle against

him to appear The only danger remaining

fully
to

Jirmed in his presence.

the

Emperor

Avas

in

the

THE KING-MAKEBS.
Deccaii.

335

There,

lv;imii

Hiiksli

lind

the

l\liiitl);i

lend

in

liis

name,
lie

in

Bijapur and
all

llydci'al)ad

coins lind

Ix'cn

struck,

and
a

liad

assnmcd

tlic

signs

of royalty.

This Prince was
a

man
is

of

considerable

intelligence

hut

of

very

violent

and

hasty temper.
said

Although the favourite son of Anrungzebe, it hy Eradat Khan that he seldom remained for more
lie

than a month in his father's society without getting into some

was rash and impulsive, very overbearing in manner, and at the same time possessed of an Aurungzebe probably with a view of inordinate self-conceit. liel})ing him, had attached some of the most ])owerful of the One of the principal of these was nobles to his service. Ghazee-ud-Din Feroze Jung, a Turanian Mogul whose poAver and influence in the Deccan was very great. As already mentioned, the son of this nobleman was Chin Koolich Khan,
trouble or disgrace,
the future founder
sistance

of

a

new

dynasty.

Forgetful

of the as-

which these
him,

tAvo

powerful
not

chieftains

could have rento

dered to
conciliate,

Kaum

Buksli

only

made no attempts

but estranged and disgusted them by his arbitrary

who had for some from the Deccan entirely, and having accepted a small Government in Guzerat relinquished Koolich Khan for good all prominent share in pul)lic affairs. kept aloof together with his remained in the Deccan 1)ut retainers from all connection with the headstrong young
and domineering conduct.
blind,

Feroze Jung,

time been

withdrew

Prince

who was

evidently exam])le

bent

u})on

destruction.

This

was

consummating his own followed by several other
left

noblemen, until

at last the

Prince was

unsupported except

by

his

own

personal retainers.

Kaum Buksh made Hyderabad
at the defection

his headcjuarters,

and nothing daunted
all

of his

followers refused

overtures

of

the

Emperor and declared

that he Avould fight out the
bitter end.

struggle for the throne until the

In

the

meantime Bahadur

Shah,

after

having

made

the

336

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
nofTssnry for the scttlciuciit of his
iiiiiuensc;

nrrnii<i;(MHCiits

new

Ein])ire^

collected

iui

army,
It
is

^vifh

whicli
that

ho started to suluhic

his rebellious
a

hi-othcr.

said

the expedition contained

huiuhed thousand

inoi'e

men

than (hd any army of AiirungJJefore entering

zebe's,

but this seems to

be scarcely bkely.

the Deccan witJi this strong force Baha(hir Shah

made another
a

and
to

Last
in

attempt

at conciliation,

and wrote

to

Kaum Buksh

letter

which he said:
]iut

"Our
give

ever honoured father resigned

you Bijapur;
a

we

you
than

in

addition,

Hyderal)a{l.
kings,

Tliese

two extensive countries, long famous for great
revenue

producing
leave
shall

more

half

of

Hindustan,
reluctance,
children.

we

to

you,

without
dearer

interference

or

esteem
then
of

you

than

our

own
of

and Think
of
If

not

contention

nor

consent to

shed

the

blood

the faithful

nor disturb the
ear
of

repose

our Government.
this

you give
to

the

acceptance

to

advice,
if

we

will

further confer upon you the Nizamat of Deccan

agreeable

you;
will

and after
i-eturn to

visiting

the

sacred

tonil)

of

our father
but

we

Hindustan." *

Kaum

Euksli paid no attenall

tion to

this overture, whicli

was made with

sincerity,

continued to

make

his preparations,

lint as the

Emperor drew
to increase.

nearer the defections

of

his

noblemen continued

Many were gained over by messages from the A^izier IMonuaim Khan promising them pardon and reward; and others, seeing
the

hopelessness

of

the

cause,

left

him

to

return

to their

homes.

Hyderabad,

When Bahadur Shah had arrived within 25 miles Kaum Buksh's army consisted of only 10,000
army

of
of

the worst Deccan horse and a small force of artillery.
this insignificant

With

the infatuated Prince even yet expected

to gain a

walls

victory, and giving up the protection of the city marched forth to meet the Imperial army. Bahadur
to to

* The word Hindustan is always understood Ganges valley, and is not used as we use it

refer

to

the upper

apply to the whole

Peninsula.

THE KING-MAKERS.
Shall,
still

337

willing to spare

liis

hrotlicr,

forl)a(lc

liis

troops to
for fear,

attack,

but

the

Prince,

mistaking
Ziilticcar

this

forbearance
his old

himself led the

charge.
to

Khan,
with
a

enemy, then
if

obtained

permission

advance

small force, and
as the

possible to capture the

Prince alive.

As soon

Prince's

followers saw that an attack
all

was

really intended they tied in

directions, leaving their leader almost alone.
this,

" Notwithstand-

ing liow

he continued

as

long as he had strength to use his
elephant,
till

and

arrows
his seat

from

his

at

length he sank

down on

through

loss of

blood from several wounds.

He was

then

taken

prisoner

to the Prince Jelian Shah,

by Daoud Khan, and carried who with his brothers (sons of the
this extraordi-

Emperor) had stood
nary skirmish."*
lie

at

some distance during
to

was carried
with

the Im])erial tents and
it

there treated by his brother
all

every kindness, but

was

of no avail and he died the

same evening from the

effects

of his wounds.

Kaum Buksh
The Deccan,
of
to

in the violence of his

ambition

threw away the chance of an empire even greater than that
of his brother.
"united

under one Prince, who
family,

was

also

a

member
allied

the the

Imperial

and

acknowIjefore

ledged by and

Emperor

himself,

would

long have developed into a strong and homogeneous kingdom

extending from sea

to

sea,

and from the Vindhyas to Cape

Comorin.

subduing

the

Such a kingdom was the only possible means of Mahrattas, and by it the disjointed Hindoo
probable that the course of history would have
if,

kingdoms of the south would have been concjuered without
difficulty.
It is

been far different

when some
interest

forty years later the English
in

began
South

to take

an
they

active

the

political

affairs of

India,

had

come

into

contact

with

a strongly

established

Mahomeden

king of the Deccan.

Bahadur Shah resolved to return at once to his capital, and was perhaps deterred from remaining any longer in the Deccan
*

Eradat Khan, Scott's Translation.
22

338

HISTORY OP THE DECCAN.
of
liis

by the ineinory

t'atlior's

fate,

wlio,

thinking- after the

ea])tnrc of Suinl)ajec that only two or three matters remained
to

he settled, stopped on anil then

j^ot

entangled
tlie

in

so

many
Before

operations that he was never able to leave
leaving, however,

eoiintry.

the Em])eror

took one important step with
'J^his

the o])jeet of conciliating the Mahi'attas,

was the
step

release

of Sahoo, Sumbajee's

son

who had

for the last twenty years

been following the Emperor's camp.*
in conse(|nence of the

This

was taken
as l)efore

advice of Zulflccar Khan,

who

stated had

been

appointed Viceroy of the Deccan.

SaJioo's

mother, brother,
of his

and family were, however, kept
This being
done,
the

as hostages

good conduct.

Emperor

leaving

Sahoo

to establish himself,

the present

we

Avill

leave

marched l)ack to Agra, where for him in order to follow the affairs
his uncle

of the Deccan.

During Sahoo's long confinement,
afterwards his
father's second wife

Rajah

Ram and
of her

Tara Bhai had conducted

the Mahi-atta affairs. Tara Bhai governed in the
son,
in

name

who, how'Cver, was an
This

idiot,

and the
not

real

power remained

her hands.

power she did

feel disposed to at

once relinquish, and, pretending that Sahoo was nothing but

an impostor, called upon her ministers to help her in opposing

him and
been

swear fidelity to her son. Daoud Khan, who had by Zulficcar Khan as Deputy Governor of the Deccan, had been instructed to give Sahoo every assistance in his power. Accordingly the latter was soon able to raise an army of 15,000 well equipped men, with which he marched
to
left

from the Godavery tow^ards Poona. Here he found the people by no means unauimous in their support of Tara Bhai, and many came forward and recognized him as the legitimate
not quite certain whether this step had not ah-eady heen npon or even taken by Azini Shah before he marched to encounter Bahadur at Agra. Looking at the dates, however. I am inclined
* It
is

resolved

to think the text

is

correct.

THE KING-MAKEBS.
descendant of the great Sivajee.

339

Having
l)c

()l)tained

possession

of Sntara, Salioo caused himself to
throne.

formally seated on the
to

Tara

J3hai

and

Sahoo both sent representatives
uj)

the Imperial Court, asking for the Emperor's countenance and

support.

Sahoo was hacked

by Zulticcar Kkan, but Tara

Bhai, on the other hand, found an advocate in
the Vizier, and the result was that

Monuaim Khan, though letters were made
for her son Sivajee, they
until

out in the

hitter's

name

as

regent
in

were not delivered but kept
between the two
rivals

abeyance

the

dispute

should be fought out.
belongs
has
to

The
the
treated,

result of this struggle

more

to the history of

Mahrattas,
it

and

as

this

been

already

exhaustively

is

not our
it

intention

go over the same ground
at Satara whilst

here.

SutRce
rival

to say that
at

Sahoo remained
Kolapur.
of the

the

court was held

The former received

the moral and active support

the

Deccan,

and

the

latter

was

followed

Mahomedan governor of by many of the

principal Mahratta chiefs. The practical result of this rivalry was the growth of the Brahmin influence in Poena, which
finally resulted in the representatives of royalty

being reduced

to

the

position

of

puppets,
all

whilst

the

arrogating to

themselves

the

actual

Brahmin Peishwas, power and influence,
its

ruled the Mahratta people and directed the course of

armies.

Before passing on to the
take a glance at the state
of

next
of

period

it

will

be as well to

the

Deccan
of

after twenty years

warfare.

The whole
Bijapur,

extent

country

lying
to

between

been reduced to the condition of a desert, not only by the ravages of contending armies but also by the progress of the vast imperial camp, nund)ering over a million of soldiers and
have
followers,
as
it

Hyderabad,

and Ahmednagar seems

which

like a

swarm

of

locusts
to
place.

ate

moved

slowly from

place

up the country The Mahomedan
and zemindars

governors found the greatest difficulty in collecting the revenue,

and were

compelled

to

treat

the

jaghirdars

340

M rs T<

)

i:

Y

F THE DECCA N.
tliev
in
tlieir

witli tlie

utmost severity, and

turn exacted from

the cultivator whatever they could.

\ illages

were depopulated
the

and

tields

left

uncultivated,
to

mid

whenever
tlici-c

Mahomedan
in
if

army had
track
a
satistied

I'cmoved
maraudin<»;

some
of
of

distance

apj)eare(l

its

l)ody

Mahratta
rlionth,

horse,

which

not

hy

the

blackmail
left.

harried

what
state
to

little

the

Mahomedans had
only
these
Jiis

A more
his

(le|)loral)le

of

things
not

cannot he imagined.

Aiirungzehe was couipelled
su|)plies

draw
hy

treasure hut even

from the north, and
phuulered
the

caravans

were

constantly

heing

Mahratta cavalry.
the able Minister

jMore than hfty years before,

Mir Jumla,
persuade the

who
it

forsook
is

tlie

Golconda king for Shah
to

Jehan's service, had,
latter

said,

endeavoured

Emperor

to leave the north of India
Avas the
a
site

and

fix

his capital

in the

Deccan which

could be found, and Avhere

where gold and diamonds more s])lendid kingdom could
It

be maintained than
that

in

the
to

north.

Avas

on

this

occasion
as a

Mir Jumla gave
of

the

Emperor
diamonds

the

Kohinoor
the

specimen
produced.

the

Avonderful

which

country
in

Had Mir Jumla been
IStli

able to visit the

Deccan

the beginning of the
at the

century he

would have marvelled
all

change that had taken place.
harmless
wlio
])easants

On

sides

were

villages

ruined, fields neglected, and

irrigation Avorks destroyed.

The

people from

had

turned
to

into

organized
their

gangs
losses

of

robbers,

endeavoured
of
of

recover

own
the
of

hy other European
as

despoiling others.
travellers

Tavernier,
the

Thevenot,
century

and
speak

17th

Hyderal)ad as the emporium

Indian trade, and of Bijapur
cities

one of the richest and

most populous
of,
all

in

the Avorld.

At

the time Ave are Avriting
safe,

trade had ceased, for no
Avith

caravan Avas

and a merchant travelling
have

goods or
l)eing

money

Avould

not

gone

tAventy

miles

Avithout

rohbed and probably nuu'dered.

Bahadur Shah's reign

Avas only a short one,

for he died in

THE KING-MAKERS.
1711
of
liis

Ul
xVt
liis

while on an expedition
tleath
tliere
liis

aji'Jiinst

the Sikhs.
iiini

tlie

time

four

sons
the
at
in

were with
fratrieidal

in

eamp, and
the

again

oceurred

stnigj^le

for

throne

which had taken place The actnal scene was

the close of the two former reigns.
the
Piinjaid),
l)iit

as

the results
it

materially affected the Deccan,

we

pro])Ose to descrilie

with
over

some detail, by the usual

especially as

the

circumstances are

passed

histories with a few words, although they afford

a graphic sketch of

how

the [jassion

for empire destroyed

all

natural ties and feelings in the

members

of the royal family,

and of how the empire was tottering on the verge of ruin by

up into contending parties and factions. Bahadur Shah died near Lahore in his seventieth year. His four sons were Jehander Shah the (18th Eel). 1711.)
being
split

eldest,

Jehan Shah, Raffiu-sh-Shah

and

Azimu-sh-Shah.

All

four resolved to try for the throne, and the youngest, Azimush-Shah, had apparently the best chance of succeeding.
of the Princes

had

his

own camp and
his

following, l)ut

Each Azimu-

sh-Shah was in possession of

father's

camp and
to

treasure,

and had therefore the proverbial
his

nine

])()ints

of the law in

favour.

He

at

once

caused

himself

be proclaimed,
to

upon which the other three brothers combined and agreed
sink their

own

rivalry

in

order

to

crush

the

jjretensions of

the youngest.

The young Prince conuuenced badly by
Zulticcar

offend-

ing
for

the
so

powerful
long
the

Khan.
to

This
a

general,

who had
in the

been

accustomed
and
of

prominent place

affairs of

Empire,

who

with
sent

some
a

justice regarded
to

himself as a

maker

Em])erors,

message

AzimuansAver

sh-Shah asking
to this overture

how

he could be of service him.
in

The
a

was couched
in

so

su])ercilious

tone that

Zulficcar

Khan withdrew
Khan
thus

disgust

and eml)raced the cause

of the eldest brother Jehander Shah. *
*

Eradat

relates

the

incident

which

is

of

interest,

as

throwing some light upon the rules

of oriental etiquette, any breach of

342

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
Instead of
at

once

attacking

his

])rotliers,

Aziniu-sli-Shali

made another mistake in entrenching liimsclf in his canij). lie may perhaps liave thought tliat if lie waited his time,
and kept hold of the treasure, his Ijrothers would gradually be deserted by their followers, so that they would eventually The reverse, however, actually happened. have to submit.
Zulficcar

Khan threw
of Lahore,

himself

into

the

cause
all

of

the

three

Princes, and with his usual energy

drew
walls

the artillery

from
et

the

city

beneath
of

the

of

which they were
f audace
warfare, was

encamped.
tonjours
illustrated

The
on

truth

the
as

proverb,

I'audace,

V audace,
this

especially

regards

oriental

occasion.

Azimu-sh-Shah's hesitancy was
his brothers

attributed to fear,

and instead of

being deserted

by

their followers, fresh levies

were

attracted,

and many even
at

deserted from

Azimu-sh-Shah,

who unwisely

such a time

showed no himself up
slip.

disposition to spend any of his treasure.
in

By

shutting

entrenchments Azimu-sh-Shah gave Zulficcar Khan
this veteran soldier

an opportunity which

was not likely to let numbers prevented him from meeting Azimu-sh-Shah in the field he was much stronger in artillery, and accordingly commenced an active cannonade from which

Though

his inferior

the Prince's
which
desired
is

army,

shut
cause

up

in

the

entrenchments,

suffered

calculated to
to send

bitter

offence:

"The Ameer-ul-Amra now
sent

me

my

grandson to
slight,
'

Azimu-sh-Shah
I

could serve

him on the present

occasion.
as if

with a reply, laconic and

to ask him how he him but he returned from a nobleman of high rank to

the conmiander of a hundred.

As the Imperial servants can know no
it,

place of support but this court, and most have already repaired to

the

Ameer-ul-Amra may
tears,

also

pay

his

duty,

with

assurance

of

a gracious

reception in the Presence.'

and said
the

to

me with some emotion
!

Prince and his advisers
Alas
!

errors

of

a

Ameer-ul-Amra read this, he shed You see the manners of the Whatever is the will of God must taken place. favourite, unacquainted with government often
the
: '

When

endanger the very existence of his master. When fortune frowns on any one, he is sure to do that which he should not.' After saying this
be
left

and went

to Prince

Moiz-ud-Din (Jehander Shah),"

THE KING-MAKERS.
severely.

343

After allowing himself to ho
whieli

tircul

at

for live days,
still

a

proceeding

served
issued

to

dispirit

his

army
the

more,

the

misguided

Prince

forth

to

attack

combined

Princes.

At the first meeting with Jehan Shah his followers Azimu-sh-Shah and his son Mahomed Kurreem were tied. left almost alone, and the Prince, disdaining to fly, was shot His son as he was fighting from the hack of his elephant.* managed to mount a horse and escape, hut he was captured There a few days afterwards and cruelly put do death.
remained therefore the three Princes, Jehander, Jehan, and According to their compact the treasure was Raffiu-sh-Shah.
to he divided

equally

hetween them;
the
treasure,

and Jehan Shah, who
at

appears to have
placed
a

heen a loyal and generous prince,
over

once

guard

prevented
the

his

followers

from

pillaging

the camp,

and

sent

whole of the ready
to support as

cash to Zulficcar

Khan
a

for division.

This was what this wily

old intriguer wanted.

He had determined

Jehander
heing the

Shah,

who was

foolish

and dissipated man,

one over

whom
knew

he was likely to exercise the greatest influence.

With

this ohject in

view he delayed a division of the treasure,
the

since he

that

troops

of

Jclirm
th

and Raffiu-sh-Shah
turn,
fair

were clamouring for pay and were
trouhle.

?fore likely to create
i
i

He

played
the

with
other,

each Prince

visiting first

one

and

then

promising

^iih

words,

hut

always putting off a settlement.
his friends to seize the traitor

Jehan Sl.ah
to

Avas advised

hy

at his next visit

and put him

to

death,

hut

this

he
with

refused

do,

and when he
for
is

came

contented

himself

reproaching
thy

him
family

his

duplicity,

adding:

"Even now,

perhaps,

dreading that I

may put
* This
battle,
it

thee to death, which, however politic, I scorn to do
is

Eradat Khan's
probably true.

story, and,

as ho

was an eyewitness of the

is

Khafi
iind

Azinm-sh-Shah 'disappeared',

Khan, on the other hand, says that was supposed either to have been

drowned or

assassinated.

311

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
Kisc,
tliat

hy fraud.

tlieu,

uiul

^o

in

\)vt\cQ

to

tliiiic

own house."
witli a sj)ccd

AVc arc told and

"

tlic

Ainccr-ul-Auira

(le])artc(l

j)i'('('ij)itati()n

which declared

his o-uiH."

This nia<;iianiinity
oj)cnly
j)ut

aside

was however tlirown away, and Zulfiecar Klian disguise aud anuounccd his iutention all
Shall.

of

ruining
(juiet.

Jehan

RatHu-sh-IShah in the meanthiie j'cniained

He
He

had

ou

former
counted
to

occasions
hiui

greatly
to

befriended

Zulticcar

Khan, and thought
therefore
elder brothers

h

);iiid

hiiu

by

ties

of gratitude.
his

on

his

su|)})ort,

and leaving

two

settle

their

own

quarrel,

reserved himself

to fight the conqueror. to

Jehan Shah, seeing that nothing was
resolved
to

be gained

by

delay,

attack

Zulfiecar

Khan,
fire

but the night before he

could

carry

out his intention a

his camp Avhich destroyed the whole of his Some fresh supplies were obtained, but they were utterly insufficient, and many of his followers began to Jehan now determined to stake all on a sudden desert. attack. He made a furious onslaught on Jehander's camp,

broke out

in

ammunition.

and nearly surprised
however, was ready

his brother in his tent. Zulfiecar

Khan,
Jehan

with
his

his

whole force draAvn up.
fled,

Shah was surrounded,
by a musket
l)all.

followers

and he

w^as struck

His son, Perkhandcr Akhtcr, Avho fought
covered with wounds.
off his forces,

by

his

side,

descended from the elephant and defended his
fell

father with his sw^ord, until he also

During

this skirmish Raffiu-sh-Shah

had drawni

and remained
advanced
with

a

passive

spectator.

When
engaging
Avould
w^ait

it

Avas

over

he

the

intention
Zulfiecar

of

Jehander

Shah,
to his

firmly believing that
side.

Khan
to

come over

He
when

was, how^ever,
if

advised
a

until the following

day,

he

attempted
This

surprise

there
in

chance of success.

he

did,

and early
camp.

was a better the morning
to the

an attack was made on
treachery
or
rashness

Jehander's
of

But owing
force
a

the

attacking

premature

cannon shot gave the alarm,

and they found a strong force

THE KING-MAKERS.
(liawii

345

up and coimiiaiKlcd by their siij)})Osc(l ally Zulfircar Khan. 'V\\v unhappy prince thus disappointed and hctrayed As usual lie resolved to sell his life as dearly as possible. was forsaken by
he "drew
the
his soldiers,

but descending from his elephant

sabre

of

glory

from

the scabbard of

honour

and fought singly on foot against thousands of assailants." He, too, soon fell covered with wounds, and Jehander Shah left Avithout a rival, was proclaimed Em})eror and sounded
the

march

of victory.
fi-atricidal

Dreadful as were these
to

(piarrels

it

is

impossible

deny to the
to

sons

and

grandsons of Aurungzebe the one

virtue of

courage.

The
and

word
they

"fear"
were

seems

to have

been

unknown

them,

always

ready to expose
Avith the

their persons without scruple.

They fought
ambitious,

courage

of despair, and though they were void of the ordinary natural
feelings of family
affection,

they were undoubtedly brave.
virtue.

and revengeful, This was apparently their one
false,

Zulficcar

Khan had been

the

moving

spirit

in

this intrigue,
it.

Jehander and he was the principal person to Shah was a man of weak mind and of low and dissipated tastes. He cared nothing for the duties of government,
profit

by

and

left

the
his

whole
short

power
of
at

in

the

hands

of

his

minister.

During
all

reign

nine

public
a

opinion

defiance.
as

months the Emperor set He went about publicly
his

with

common
with
her
to

courtesan

companion,
in

and
palace,

not

content

holding
the

drunken
bazaar

orgies

the

he

went

Avith

and

frequented
his

the

lowest

houses.

On

one

occasion

he

went with

mistress

and a

herl)-woman named Zohera

to the

house of a

common

prostitute

where they remained drinking until late in the night. "After rewarding the Avoman with a large sum and the grant of a village, they returned in a drunken plight to the palace, and
" linked to a thousand crimes,"

3iG

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
three
foil

all

asleep on the road.

On

their ai-rival Lall Kooi*
l)nt

(the mistress)

was taken ont by her women,
in

the

remained
shared
in

sleeping-

the
of
it
till

chariot,
his

and the

di-iver,

Emperor who had
of the

the

jollity

royal master,
stables.

withont examining

the conveyance,
])alace

drove

to the

The

officei's
liis

after

waiting

near

morning for

arrival,

on

finding that the mistress had

entered her apartments withont

the

Emperor were aharmed
examine
the
in

for his safety, and sent to her to

enqnire
diately

concerning his situation.
coach,

})rince fast

asleep

She desired them to immewhere they found the wretched the arms of Zohera, at a distance of
palace.

nearly two miles

from the
wives

After this he

still

more

exposed his vices to the public;
streets,

often he passed through the

seizing the

and daughters of the lower tradesto the

men.
the

Once a
fountain

Aveek, according

vulgar superstition, he
a
single cloth in
saint) in

bathed with Lall
of

Koor concealed only by
the

Lamp

of

Delhi

(a

celebrated

hopes that this
another occasion

ceremony would promote pregnancy."
the
living

*

On

same woman Zohera met Chin
in

Kulicli
in the

Khan who was
streets.

Delhi

in

strict

retirement,

Finding that the Khan's palankeen did not get ont

of the

way soon enough, Zohera's attendants began to insult called out to him from the top of her elephant, "Are you the son of a blind man?" This wanton
him, and she herself
insult led to an

affray

in

which Zohera got roughly treated

by the Khan's followers. Zohera complained to her mistress and she in turn to the Emperor, who ordered Zulficcar Khan
to punish the

do,

nobleman. This however he did not dare to and Chin Kulich Khan, disgusted at the profligacy of the
himself in

Court, kept

even

stricter
off.

retirement awaiting the
Zulficcar

opportunity which
this

was not far
])ut

Khan was
and

at

time not only Minister
his

also

Viceroy of the Deccan
his near

and made use of
* Er.adat

position

to enrich himself

Khan, Memoirs of the Mogul Empire^

Scott's Translation.

THE KING-MAKERS.
relatives.

347

On
"

all

sides

there
to

was
ruin

nothing

hnt injustice and

oppression.

He

studied
to

the most ancient families,
to

inventing

pretences

put

them

death,

that

he

might

plunder their possessions.
pected to
])e

Unliappy

was

the

person he sus-

rich,

as wealth

and vexatious accusations always
took enormous emoluments and
disposed
of

accom])anie(l each other.

He

revenues for himself,
with
a

while

he

hand

so

sparing

that
titles,

even

his

money to others own creatures felt

severe poverty with
to any.

empty

for he never ViWoweA ja^hirs

The minds
friends
his

of high and low, rich and poor, near or
Avere

distant,

or strangers

turned

against

him,

and
in

wished

destruction.

Hindoos and Mussulmans agreed
fall

praying to Heaven for the

of his power, night

and day.

Often does the midnight sigh of the widow ruin the riches
a

hundred years."

*

In the meantime in the Deccan everything was playing into
the hands of the Mahrattas.

Having nothing
extended
their

to fear

from a

debauched Emperor
side.

they

conquest on every

Where
their

they could
black-mail
of

not

actually
cpiarter

annex territory they
of

levied

one

the

revenue, and

weak to oppose their exactions, were content to purchase immunity hy allowing them to colthe
deputies, too
lect their c/ioufh.

Mahomedan

The

actual administration

of the

Mahratta

ually

Empire was conducted by the Peishwa at Poona, and gradthe Rajah at Sattara became a mere puppet in his hands. The great feature of the IMahratta armies was their
cavalry, for

which they were
Aurungzebe.
of
his
life

in

a

considerable

measure
the

in-

debted

to

This

Prince

had

during

last

twenty years

devoted

much

attention

to the im-

])rovement of the breed of horses in the Deccan.
a vast

He

imported

number

of

Arab

sires

from the north and distributed

them amongst the villages. When he died, and the Imperial army left the Deccan, these horses fell into the hands of the
* Ibid.

348

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
slow to use
tlieiii

Mulirattas, wlio were not
])Oscs

for

iiiilittij-y

pnr-

until

the

Deeeanee

mare

or

stallion

heeanie

famous

tliroutiliout

India.*
in

Whilst everything at Delhi was
rapidly ])reparing an

confusion, an avenger was

army

in

the distant })rovin('e of Tiengal.

Azinni-sh-Shah, the

first

of the four sons of the late
at

who

fell

in

the

struggle

Lahore,
of

had

left

a

son

Emperor named
His
of the

Ferokshere
principal

who

was

Governor
tA\()

Eastejii

Bengal.

supporters

were

hi'othei-s,

descendants
its

well-kno^vn Seyds of Barha, a race celebrated for

bravery.

These two men, Seyd A])dullah and Hussein
distinguished

Ali,

had already

themselves in the engagement between Aziui Shah and JBahadur Shah after the death of Aurungzebe. On this occasion they had fought on Azim Shah's side, and when Bahadur Shah proved victorious they withdrew to Bengal. Here they attached themselves to the service of the young
prince Ferokshere, and
received,

the

one the Government of

Allahabad, and the

other

that

of

Beliar.

When

Ferokshere

march on Delhi he was at once joined by Seyd Hussein Ali v^ath a large foi'ce from Behar. It w^as hoped at Delhi that the other brother at Allahabad would remain loyal, and flattering letters full of promises were sent
his

commenced

to him, but in vain.

Seyd A])dullah, disgusted

at the profligacy

*

There can be no doubt that the Deccan

plains, with their vast stretches

of waste kind, are eminently suited for horse-breeding purpose.

Of

late

years considerable attention has been bestowed on the I'evival of horse-

breeding
colts

in the Nizam's Dominions, and annually fVoin 1.200 to 1,500 young by thoroughbred Arabs out of country mai'es are brought to the great horse fair at Mallagaom in the Biedor district. In course of time the new Deccanee breed bids fair to rival if not surpass the historical Deccan

cavalry of the last century.
the

It is only, just in reference to this, to

mention

name

of Mr. Ali Abdoolla, the well-known sportsman,

who

for about ten

years has been at the head of the Hyderabad Government Stud.

The

headquarters and principal breeding farm are at Singareddy, about 30 miles

from Hyderabad.

THE KTNG-MAKERR.
of the Court for
tlie
;ni(l

34P

the

(l('s|)()tisin

of

Ziilticc.-ii'

Klinii,

only waited
fort

Prince's approach

to

hand
his

over
force.

to

him the

and

to join

him

witli tlie

whole of

This accession

I'aised

the
foot,

immher

of

bY'roksher(!'s

army

to a])ont

70,000 horse and

and wilhoul

waiting-

foi-

fnrthei' additions he

commenced

the

east of
to

march from Allahabad on Delhi. Thirty miles to the Agra the Prince met the force which had been sent
This

oppose him.

was commanded
consisted

l)y

Aiz-ud-Din, a son

of the

Emperor, and
fine

only

f>f

six

thousand veteran
rablile

troops, a

park

of

ai-tillery,

and

a

large

of Jats
thongli

and

Rajputs.

A

slight

skirmish
result

folloAved,

wliich

unattended by any important

was

sufficient
tlie

to terrify

the Imperial general, who, taking with liim
fled

lieir-apparent,

to

Agi'a.

Of the
te

army

lie

left

behind

a

large

num-

ber Avent

over

Ferokshere

and

the

remainder dispersed.

encamped upon the field of battle, and instead of marching upon Agra in pursuit, awaited there the The Emperor finding that return of the Imperial army. Ferokshere did not advance, and attributing Ids delay to fear, left Delhi, and inarched to Agra. Here he was joined by the rest of his army which now numbered "seventy thousand horse, and foot without number." The two armies were separated by the river .lumna, and for the space of a week their time was occupied in marcJiing and countermarching on either bank, endeavouring to gain a ford. This the two Seyds first succeeded in doing, and although the Emperor with an advance guaixl came up to them before the Avhole army had succeeded in crossing, he did not venture to attack them. Next day a general engagement took place, and
Ferokshere remained
the following
eyew^itness,
is

the description

by Eradat Khan who
the
I

Avas an
side.

and

who was engaged on

Emperor's

"After a cannonade of some time
enemy's
line

saw two bodies from the
of

charge ours, one with a red and the other with

a green standard.

The former was the corps

Rajah Jud-

350

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

hoolla

Ram
tliat

aiul

the hitter
riglit

of

Scyd Hussein Ali

Kliaii.
I

Ob-

serving
it

onr

flank

was nineh exposed,
troops
to

remarked

to Zulficcar

Khan, who immediately ordered Abdul
the
mistress's

Summad
quarter.

Khan
The

to

move with
body
line

that

first

of the troops charged,

and the second pushing
it

tlirough the

of

our

artillery,

which was deserted as

appi'oached, attacked the centre in which was Jehander Shah.

Our

troops

fell

back upon the camp and great confusion took
practically

place."
peror.

This charge

decided the fate of the

EmThey
jewel

Although Seyd Hussein Ali had fallen wounded, the Imperial troops never attempted to
to

desperately
rally.

did not even wait
scattered
office,

be attacked,

but broke their line and
the

in

every direction,

leaving

women,

the

and the treasury

to shift for themselves. Zulficcar

Khan

with a few veterajis
of the

still

held
the

out,

hoping that the presence
case

Emperor might have

effect of rallying the troops.

This probably would

have been

the

even

at

this late

hour, for the enemy, finding that Seyd Hussein Ali had been
carried off wounded, had halted in hesitation.

A

bold charge

might then have saved the day, but Jehander Shah was not

made

of the

same

stuff

as

the

rest

of
to

his

family, and
his

had

not the courage to

risk

his
fast

person

save

throne.

He
to

had already mounted a
Delhi.
Zulficcar

elephant and was on his

way

Khan

that further resistance

held out till dark, and then, seeing was hopeless, followed his master and

reached Delhi shortly after him.

The Governor
Zulficcar
tection.

at

Delhi
to

was Assud-ud-Dowlah, father of
the

Khan, and

him

Emperor appealed
vices,

for pro-

Jehander Shah's personal

however,

had long

since forfeited the loyalty

and affection which were his due.
and
his

His army was defeated and scattered,
therefore no longer in
at

nobles were

fear

of

his

power.

Assud-ud-Dowlah
to

once placed him in confinement, and, anxious only to save
if

himself and,

possible,

his

son,

sent

word

Eerokshere

THE KING-MAKERS.
that ho lield the

361

ex-Emperor

at his disposal.
i)e

In the

meantime
and

Ferokshere had caused himself to

pid)liely pioehiimed,

was joined by many of
rival.

tiie

chief

generals

of

his defeated

Amongst
already

these

was

Chin

Kulich
for

Khan, who,
resentment

as

we

have

seen,

had
and
a

just

cause
there

against

Jehander

Shah;
into
aloof.

who,
private

can

be
with

no
the

doubt,

had
to

entered

arrangement

Seyds

welcomed by I'erokshere, and was rewarded with a mmisab of 7,000 horse and the appointment of Subadar of the Deccan with the title of Asaf Jah, Nizam-ul-Mulk, by which name he will be designated
hold

He

was

in future.

Naturally

the

principal

rewards

fell

to the share

of the

due.

to whom was entirely The elder brother Seyd Abdullah was appointed Vizier,

two Seyds,
title

Ferokshere's victory

with the

of Kutb-ul-Mulk,

the younger,

Hussein

Ali,

and a mimsah of 7,000, whilst was created Ameer-ul-Amra, with

a similar munsah.

Ferokshere received the message of Assud-ud-Dowlah with
an appearance of satisfaction,
telling

and returned a gracious reply,

him

that his services
office

mation

in his

of

Vizier

would be rewarded by a confirand Governor of Delhi, and

ordering him

to

keep

Jehander

Shah

in

close

confinement.

This message raised the spirits of Assud-ud-Dowlah and of his
son Zulficcar Khan, and
instead of attempting to seek safety
in

by

flight

they remained

Delhi, kept everything quiet, and

awaited the arrival of Ferrokshere.

new Emperor had arrived within a few marches of Delhi he sent word to Assud-ud-Dowlah to join him in This order his camp, and bring with him Zulficcar Khan.
the

When

was The

at

once obeyed with a feeling of mingled hope and fear.

ceived,

who was advanced in years, was graciously reand presented with jewels and robes, and the Emperor then told him to return home and leave behind him his son
father,

Zulficcar

Khan,

as

the

Emperor wished

to

transact

some

ar)2

NISTOJiY OF THE DEC CAN.
witli
liiiii.

l)iisiness
liis

'I^lic

fatlier,

says
a

Kliafi

Kliaii,

saw
a

tliat

son was doomed, and
lie

with
tent.

swclliii_i>;

lieart

and tcarfid

eyes

repaired

to

his

Ki'achit

Khan

•»;ivcs

more

detailed account of the

tragedy that foHowed.

Zulficear Klian

was

first

of

all

kept waiting in one of the a])artments of the

Imperial tent.

A

dinner

was

then
for

l)rout>;ht

to

him, but

it

being against the

court eticpiette

a

sid)ject to eat in the

was asked to adjourn to a s(piare of screens. Arrived here the door was at once shut upon him, and after he had been kept for some time in suspense, Abdullah Khan, the superintendent of the liouschohl, of wliom we shall Jiear more hereafter under the name of Mir Junda, came to him
Emperor's
tent, he

with a question he was desired to answer.
explain

He was
{)ut

asked to

why

at the siege

of

Gingee he had
confinement.
of

the Emperor's

uncle

Kaum

Buksh
prince

into

The
to

reply
his

was: "I
sovei'eign

confined the

by

order

Aurungzebe,

and mine.

Had

he

commanded

me

impi'ison

my own
then asked

father, I should have at once complied."

He was
in

why

in the battle

between Azim Shah and Bahadar Shah he and
sought
safety
flight.

had deserted the former
reply was
:

The
but

"

While Azim Shah was
dead
I

alive I kept the field,

when he
without a

^vas

dared not oppose a prince of the blood
dignity
at

rival

of etpial

the

head of our army."
the circumstances of

The next

(piestion
to
?

was:

"What
Khan

were

your conduct

the

martyred prince,
then
attached

His

Majesty's father,

Azimu-sh-Shah
but in
cause
this did

"

Zulficear

replied:

"He

behaved

inat-

tentively to me,

and

I

myself to his brother;

no more than other nobles, who each embraced the
prince
greatest

of

the

he

loved

best,

and

from

whom
the

he
last

received

the

favours."

Then
in

followed

question, which,

however,

was

unanswerable,

"Why

was

his

majesty's

brother

inhumanly murdered
general

cold blood,

many
to

days after the
live?"

battle,

The

fallen

when other princes were allowed now saw that no submission

or

THE KING-MAKERS.
entreaty would

353

spare
kill

his

life,

and so
Lachin
in

lie

angrily

exclaimed,

"If
vain

I

am
an

to die,

nie

instantly,

nor

vex
Heg,

me
a
to

longer with

interrogation."

Thereupon
notoriety
in

person

who

earned

unenviable

reference

executions,

and other followers
body.

i-ushed

and strangled
outside
of

Zulficcar

Khan
ropes,

with a bowstring, afterwards plunging their daggers into his

The body was drawn
to lie as

the

camp with
gi-eatness.

and allowed
estates,

an
his

example
father,

fallen

His
his

and

those

of

w^ere

confiscated,

but

father

was

allowed

to

go

into

retirement,

where

soon

afterwards he died, not w^ithout suspicion of poison.

At the same time an order was sent to despatch the Emperor Jehander Shah, and as Ferokshere made
round the
elephant,

exhis

triumphal entry into Delhi, the head of his uncle w^as carried
city on a spear w'hilst the body w^as placed on an from which also was hung the corpse of Zulticcar Khan, head downwards. Some days were then occupied with other executions, and for some time there w\as in Delhi a

reign of terror.
in

Lachin Beg, wdio was a prominent performer
received
the
says
:

these

murders,

nickname

of

Pasuia

KasJi

(thong-puller).
to this

Khafi

Khan
the
a of

"As men
of
it

Avere

subjected

punishment of
of

bow^-string

without ascertainment
seized the hearts of

or proof of offence, such
the

terror

Bahadur Shah that when anyone left his home to attend uj)()n the Emperor, he took farew^ell of his sons and family Hakim Salim had been one of the personal attendant upon Azimu-sh-Shah, and Mir it was said that the Prince was killed at his suggestion.
nobles
the

reign

Aurungzebe

and

.

.

.

Jumla
his

invited

the

Hakim
but

to

his

house,

and

treated

him

sumptuously
door
great

at night,

before morning

men were

sent to

and they strangled him.''
of

This

Mir Jumla was a
and
agent

favourite
to

the

new^

Emperor,
Emperor's
Seyds,
to

Ferokshere,
confidential

he
in

appears

have

been
to

the

contradistinction

the

two

whom

the

affairs

354

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
tlic

of

State were

entrusted.
led
to

As

iiiip:lit

l)c

expected, before
friction,

long

tliis

dual

poAver

consideiable

and the

constant endeavour of

the
tiie

Seyds

was

to
car.

remove
Kulicli

j\lir

Jumla
or

from
rather

lii*^

post

near

Emperor's

Khan,

Asaf

J ah,
all

Nizam-ul-Mulk,
his

characterized

actions,

bloodshed and intrigue,
quarters, did
his

best

the caution which from this scene of and, nuiking Aurungabad his headto bring the Deccan into order and

with

withdrew

repose.

The Emperor Ferokshere was a man of low mind and manners, but was at the same time extravagant in his profusion and display, and so succeeded in gaining a certain popularity

amongst the vulgar.
their

He was imbued

with

a

strong

jealousy of the two Seyds,

which however he dared not openly power and of the obligations he was their assistance in raising him to the throne. secretly fostered by Mir Jumla, who, having quickly squandered the accumulated wealth of Zulticcar Khan, was meditating the downfall of the Seyds. Seyd Abdullah, to whom were entrusted the duties of Vizier, was much addicted to the pleasures of the zenana, and left most of his business to his dewan, named Ruttun Chund, who took advantage of the trust confided in him to levy exactions from all who were brought into contact with him. The more active and talented of the two brothers was Seyd Hussein Ali, who was Amir-ul-Amra, or Commander-in-Chief. AVith the object of separating Hussein Ali from his brother, Mir Jumla persuaded the Emperor to despatch him against Ajeet Singh, Rajah of Marwar, who had been in a state of rebellion since the

show because of under to them for This jealousy was

death of Aurungzebe.

Ajeet Singh submitted

very

quickly,

and, agreeing to give a daughter to the

Emperor
Avas

in marriage,
to,

received

more

lenient

terms

than

he

entitled

for

Hussein Ali was anxious to return to Delhi, where the

hostility

between

his brother

the

Vizier

and Mir Jumla had broken

THE KING-MAKERS.
into

355

The cause of this rupture was the monopoly of the patronage and power in the; liands of tlie Vizier and liis brother. Mir Junda, in order to share in the per([uisites
open flame.
attached to the patronage, insisted that
all

orders and petitions

should receive his counter-signature as confidential minister of
the

Emperor.
the

As

Vizier

Seyd Abdullah claimed
Ruttun Chund,
palace
the
favourite.

to be the

official

representative, and

his deputy,

openly
latter,

defied

pretensions

of the

The

however, had the ear of

Emperor,

and

it

had been

re-

solved to effect the Vizier's arrest

when suddenly

his brother

appeared on the scene.

It

is

said that the

Emperor's mother,
late

who had guaranteed
w^as resolved

the

arrangement between the Emperor

and the two Seyds, when the revolt against the
being

Emperor
that

upon, betrayed to them the conspiracy that was

hatched

and

caused
if

Hussein
he

Ali

to

]je

warned

he should return quickly
of his brother.
spirators,

wished

to save the influence

This unexpected return disconcerted the conIt

and a fresh combination was brought about.
to

was
the

proposed

elevate
to

Hussein

Ali

to the

Viceroyalty

of

Deccan and

remove Asaf Jah
remained
at

to

jNIalwa.

Hussein Ali did
his influence at

not object to this as

long as he was allowed to govern by a
Delhi,

deputy whilst he
the head of the
intrigues.
to avoid,

where

army was

sufficient to

counteract Mir Jumla's

This, however,

was exactly what the Emperor wished
to an

and matters w^ere nearly coming
interfered.
to

outbreak when

the Emperor's mother

She
to

visited the

two Seyds
presence,

and

persuaded

them

agreeing, as a guarantee of

come good

the

Emperor's

faith, that

during the audience

their troops should garrison the palace.

Accordingly the two

brothers went, and having

made

a nominal submission a com-

promise was effected, under which Mir Jumla was sent to the
governorship of Behar and Hussein Ali agreed to go to his post
in the Deccan.

Such, hoAvever, was the power of the haughty
the Emperor's presence he openly

soldier that before leaving

356

nrSTOUY OF
tlial
if

TJFE DECCAN.
recalled,

said

Mir

.1

inula

were
his

or

if

aiiytliii)p;

sliould

be atleiiipted

against

brother
to

Seyd

Ahdidhih, he would
ot"

within twenty (h)vs

retui'ii

Delhi at the head

his

army.

These matters ha\
siderable ])om}).*

inp;

Ix'en satisfactorily arranged, the

Emperor

celebrated his marriage with Ajeet Singh's daughter with con-

Mir Jumla
favour
still

actually

went
at

to ISehar,

but the intrigues in his
a

continued

Delhi,

and

message was sent by

the Emperor to Daoud Khan, the former Deputy of Zulficcar Khan in the Deccan, to oppose Hussein Ali on his march. Daoud Khan was a brave man and from his long connection

with

this part of the

country had considerable influence

Avith

the Mahrattas,

He

therefore accepted the dangerous mission,
Scindia,
It
is

and calling
to

in

Neemajee

meet the new Viceroy.
yet

marched from Aurungabad worthy of remark that during
his removal.

this struggle

Asaf Jah had quietly acce})ted
come,

His

time had not

and without
to

attem])ting
left

to

oppose

Hussein

Ali,

he withdrew

Moradabad and
with
killed

his succes-

sor to fight out his

quarrel

Daoud Khan.
during

The

latter

was
his

easily beaten,

and
once

being

the engagement,

followers

at

dispersed.
at

Daoud
tail

Khan's

body was

dragged round 13urhanpore
of a rebel.

the

of an elephant, and a

despatch was sent to the Emperor apprising him of the death

Ferokshere
l)een unjustly

is

said to have

remarked that Daoud
to his

Khan had
replied

killed,

Avhereupon the Vizier boldly

that
Ali,

had
Plis

the

same

fate

happened
possibly

brother

Hussein

Majesty

would

have been of a

different opinion.

*At this time the Emperor had just recovered from a severe ilhiess which he had been treated by an English physician, Mr. Hamilton.
the grateful

during;'

When

Emperor

w^ished to

reward Mr. Hamilton, the

latter refused to

accept any fees, and the only recompense he asked for was a charter for the

East India

Company

allowing them free trade at Calcutta.
office Avere remitted.

This Avas at

once granted, and the fees of

THE KING-MAKERS.
For some
niontlis there existed
ii

357

state of

armed

neutrality

between the Emperor and his two Junda was no longer at lieadcpiarters
in

powerful
to take

nobles.

Mir

any active part

intrigues,

and the two Seyds

were on their guard against
at his state of

any overt

act.

Eut the Emperor chafed daily

dependence and resolved as soon as he could two men who overshadowed his throne. It

to
is

remove the
said

(Khati

Khan) that the Emperor's own mother, who, as already stated had been a ])arty to the agreement between the Seyds and
her son,
before

he

struck

a

blow for the throne, and
son's their

avIio

had stood security for

her

good

faith,

kept them in-

formed of any

plots

against

well-being.

This

may be

true but the real reason of the

Emperor's

state of feebleness

lay in the disorganization of the Emj)ire.
to

He
that

had no friends
every

whom

he could turn for help.
to

It

was evident that a great
and
one was
Jiimself.

Empire was crumbling
scrambling to secure
falling

pieces,

something for
of

The

skies

were

and there was a chance of catching
unrest
to be

larks.

An example
in

of the general feeling

and of the weakness of the
which occurred
reign.

Government

is

found
third

in certain riots

Ahmedabad
the riots in

in

the

year

of

Ferokshere's

The

origin of the riots

was the same

as that

which brought about
the last eighteen
this

Bombay and
instance, on

elsewhere
([uestion.

during
It
is

months, namely, the cow
is

remarkable that

the

tirst

record
since

of

the
the

Hindoos having taken

up arms
of

in

this

matter

commencement
the

of

the
riots

Mahomedan
rioters
to

rule.

The

striking
lies

difference
in

between the
in

1713 and those of 1893 were
treated.

manner

which the
India, but
is

Religious disturbances are always likely
creeds
in

occur between

rival

a

country like
are

the case or difficulty
test

Avith

Avhich

they

sup})ressed

the

of

the

strength
a

or

weakness of the

Government.
of

The

riot originated in

Hindoo on the night
a

the ffo/i feast

attempting to burn the Ilo/i on

vacant piece of ground in

358

nrs'rony of the deccan.
of
liis

front

house

coiiiiiioii

to

liiniself

aiul

a

Malioincdan
tlic

]iei<^lil)our.

The
the

iicif»;hl)()ur

])revcnte(l

liiiii,

and

Hindoo
that he

a])i)calcd to

had

a right to

do

Mahomcdan Governor, wlio decided as he liked in liis own house, and
Next day
of
that
tiie

accord-

ingly the Ilo/i was burnt.

neighbour brought a
it

cow

to

the

same piece

ground and slaughtered

there,

putting forward as an excuse
as he liked

he also liad a right to do

on his own ground.
the

The Hindoos

at

once rose
to

en

masse

and attacked

j\Iahoniedans,

who had

take

refuge in their houses.

Flushed with their success the Hindoos
a

seized the son of a cow-butcher,

lad of 14 or 15,

dragged

the boy
all

off,

and slaughtered him.
of

This act of revenge drcAv

from their quarters, and to their assistance Afghans in the Governor's employ, who were always ready for a tight. The IMahomedans commenced to fire the Hindoos' (quarters, but met with a check at the house of a rich Hindoo jeweller, which they found barricaded and defended by a number of match-lock men. A regular pitched battle ensued, and numbers were killed on both sides. For three or four days all business and work Avas suspended, and the citizens were occupied in fighting with each other. At last both parties appealed to Delhi, and petitions were But similar riots were going on at sent to the Emperor. Matters gradDelhi, and nothing seems to have been done. ually settled down in Ahmedabad, but no steps appear to
the ]\Ialiomedans
a

came

number

have been taken
time
to

to

punish the

rioters.

Another example of the brutality and lawlessness of the
is

be found in the treatment of the Sikhs in the same
This strange sect had always been an object of

year (1714).

peculiar abhorrence to the

Mahomedans.
in

they frequently
fortification at

retaliated

kind.

Goaded by persecution They erected a strong

Gurdaspur in the Panjab, about ten or twelve days journey from Delhi, and an expedition was sent to reduce it. The Sikhs, a strong and warlike race, as we have

THE KING-MAKERS.
since discovered, fought with
tlic

359

utmost bravery.

On

sevcriil

occasions they ahnost succeeded in overpowering the Imperial
forces,

but

at

last

tlicy

had
defeat,

to

yield
after

to

superior

numbers

and suffered a crushing
selves
to

which they shut themno advantage
supplies were

up

in

the fort.

A
it

long siege followed, in which, owing
of

the

determined bravery
coidd

the

defenders,
their

could be gained, and
cut off that they

was only when
be

reduced
have

to

sue for terms.
lives

The
the

only condition they asked
spared.

for
to

was that their

should be
for

This

would seem

been promised,

Mahomedan
says: "Diler length he

historian

(Kliati

Khan) who

relates the incident

Jung
the
eight

at first

refused to grant quarter,

but at

advised

them
years

to

beg pardon of their crimes and
Their chief
his

offences from of seven

Emperor.
old,

Guru with
received

his son

or

diwan,

and three or four
the
prea

thousand persons,
destined

became
for

prisoners
their

and

recompense
is

deeds."

There
in

followed
for

massacre which
or four thousand
extensive
dish.

pro])ably

unsurpassed

history
to say:

the

brutality of its details.

Khati

Khan goes on
to as

"Three
been a

of

them were put
tilled

the
if

sword, and the
it

pLain

was

with

blood

had

Their

heads

were stuffed with hay and stuck upon
Averc

spears.

Those who escaped the sword

sent in collars

and chains to the Emperor." Two thousand stuffed heads and one thousand prisoners were sent to Delhi, and among

Guru and his son. They were all paraded before who ordered them to be killed in batches of several hundreds each day, reserving the Guru and his son for the last. When all had been slain the Guru was made to cut off his own son's head, and was then himself slaughtered
them
the

the Emperor,

as a tinale.

In

the Deccan.
Ali,

meantime matters were becoming very critical in After the defeat of Daoud Khan by Seyd Hussein Emperor secretly instigated the Mahrattas to oppose the
the

lii-O

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
A'icoroy in
tlie

liis

]io])C

of

('nisliii)<>-

liis

power

tliroii<y]i

tiicm.

One
or

Kluiiule

Row
the

had cstahlislicd u
to

cliniii

of posts along the

t'oninicrcial
rol)l)C(l

road from Snrat
all

]3urlianj)ur

and hlack-niailcd
Ali against
at

caravans

that

passed.

Trade was almost

])aralyse(l,

and two expeditions sent by Hussein were surprised and defeated.
to

this freebooter

Rajah Sahoo
throughout

Sattara, secretly encouraged by the

Emperor, was
of
c/ionf/i

also putting

forward

pretensions
possessions a
in

the

levy

the

Mogul
to

the

Deccan.

be coming to
without

crisis.

At Delhi affairs seemed Mir Jumla suddenly returned to
apparently
received

Court

leave,

and though
in

with
to

disfavour,

he

remained

Delhi

and

was supposed

be

intriguing against the Seyds.
in the

Seyd Abdullah kept his brother Deccan fully informed of how things were going on, and urged him to come in person and by his ])resence ])ut
Plussein

matters right.
l)e

Ali

saw that there was no time
an
unsettled

to

lost,

and

fearing
to

to

leave

country

])ehind

him

determined

A

treaty

come to terms with the Mahrattas. was accordingly drawn up Ijetween him and Rajah
his

Sahoo, in which the claim of the latter to chouth was recognized.

The Rajah on

side

made himself
districts

responsible for

the peace and security
this species of

of

the

over which he levied
as
it

blackmail.
Police,

He became,
in

were, the head

of the

Deccan

and
of

case of robbery was

bound

to

make good
vassal

the

value

the

property stolen.

He

actually

styled himself not the independent rival,
of

but the servant and

the

Delhi

Emperor.

The annual

amount

of the

chouth thus levied from the Provinces of Aurangabad, Berar,
Bieder, Bijapur, Hyderabad,
less

and Kandesh, was valued
equal
in those

at

no

than IS crores of rupees,

days to nearly

£

20,000,000. *
to

In order to aid in the collection of the revenue

and
*

keep the peace, the Mahratta Rajah engaged to keep up a
15,000

force of

men,

to

be

placed

at
I.

the

disposal of the

Grand

Duff, History of the Mahrattas, Vol.

p. 383.

THE KING- MAKERS.
Mogul Governors.
iating in
to
tlie

361

No douht
settle

a

treaty of
it

tliis

kind was

hiniiil-

highest degree, but

left

Seyd Hussein Ali free

go to Delhi and

matters for himself, and the Seyd's

personal interests were to

him

a matter of gi-eatcr importance
it

than those of the Em])irc. with free hands, hut
the shape of his
it

Besides, not only did

leave

him

also

gave him two important

allies in

recent

enemy,

Khunde Row, and

Ballajee

Wishwanath, who joined him

Avith

a considerable force.

As

might be expected, the Emperor Ferokshere refused

to ratify

a treaty which so completely thwarted his intentions, but this

was a matter

of small imj)ortance to the

himself strong enough to o])cnly set the

Seyd who now felt Emperor at detiance.
to
his will

Accordingly (1718) he
resolved
if

commenced
not
a
])en(l

his

march, towards Delhi,
to

he

could

the

Emperor

depose him and

put

more
by

pliant

instrument in his place.

In Delhi everything was ripe for a revolution.

Ferokshere

had disgusted every one
his

his

vacillation, his tyranny,

and

unworthy

birth,

The last was a Kashmiri of low named Mahomed Murad, who had been rapidly profavourites.

moted to the highest rank. Several amongst others Nizam-ul-Mulk were
other appointments.

of the old nobility, and recalled

from

their posts,

and though received with apparent favour were not granted

The Emperor openly spoke
the

of removing

Seyd Abdullah from

post

of

Vizier

and of appointing

Mahomed Murad
place.

—Avho

was now
old

called Itakad

Khan

in his

Accordingly the

nobility

formed a secret combi-

nation,
start,

and rather than submit
to

to the authority of a Ioav up-

agreed

support the two Seyds.
All's

march from the Deccan he became alarmed, and a peace was made between him and Seyd Abdullah. The Emperor visited the latter in his house and protested with oaths that he would do him no
Ferokshere heard of Hussein

When

harm.

It

was, however, felt on both sides that this reconciliaone,

tion Avas a hoUoAV

and Abdullah's private

letters to his

362

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
urged him to hasten
in

brothci

his

march

as

imicli

as

|)()ssihlc'.

Early

171 i)

(end

of

Rabi-ul-Awal A.H.
if

1181)

Hussein
his

Ali arrived near Delhi, and, as

in deliance,

caused

drums

to be beaten within carsliot of the
at this

Emperor's palace.

Ferokshere

crisis showed his usual hesitation. At one time he would be transported with rage and vow to be revenged on the two brothers, while at another he would pretend that he

was anxious for a
him.

reconciliation.

Tlie

few friends who remained
to desert

by him saw that the end was coming, and began

One of the last to do so was the Rajput prince Jey Singh. He left when the Emperor granted tlie demand of Seyd Abbrother
of
state

dullah that he and his

should

be placed in supreme
in the

power over
palace

all

affairs

and that various posts
should
Singh's

and

in

the

Government
after

be

filled

by
the

their

adherents.

Two

days

Jey

departure

two

brothers entered the citadel, the Emperor's guards w^ere removed

and their own men w^ere placed

in charge,
left

"Of

all

the great

men
the
of

near
gates

the
of

Emperor, none were
the
fortress

near him,

or near
registrar

except

Imtiyaz
or

Khan,
his

the

Privy

Council,

whose
Khan,
called

absence

presence

made

no

difference,

Zafar

who
'the

for
in

complaisance
soup', and

and time serving was

pea

every
(Khafi
their

some
the

helpless

attendants

and eunuchs."

Khan).

At

first

audience of the
passed,

two Seyds with

royal master

only a few words

but at a second on the following
his intrigues

day the brothers openly upbraided him for

and

treachery and denounced the ingratitude with which they had

been treated in return for placing him on the throne.
Whilst
this

discussion

was going on

in the palace the city

was

For the first time the Mahomedan Empire was in the hands of infidels, for a large force of Mahrattas was used to garrison it. This unusual sight seems to have excited the rage of some Mahomedan horsemen, fifteen or twenty of whom attacked a band of Mahrattas and
in a state of excitement.

capital of the

THE KING-MAKERS.
put
tliein

363

to flight.

A
to

panic
leave
in

followed
the
city,

in wliicli

most of the

Mahrattas atteiiiptcd

but the people rose
fifteen

and a massacre ensued
rattas, including Santa,

which some
chief

hundred Mahkilled.

a

of

note,

were

When
dec-

this riot

was
by
the

at its height the

drums were beaten and a
had
abdicated
of

laration

was made that Ferokshere
Rafi-ud-Darajat,

succeeded

grandson

and was Bahadur Shah.
for
still

This diverted the attention of the rioters,
to

who now attempted
though
popular
he

enter

palace

and

rescue
the

the

Emperor,

Eerokshere had
with the masses.
garrison

disgusted

nobility

was

Here, however, they were met by the Seyds'
Inside the

and repulsed.
Ferokshere

palace everythiug
in

was

in

confusion.

had taken refuge
the

his zenana,

but

he was soon dragged out from amongst the shrieking women,
taken to a small chamber in
blinded.

top

of

the fort, and there
left

" In this corner

of

sorrow and grief they
(18 February 1719)

him

with nothing but a ewer, a vessel for the necessities of nature,

and a

glass to drink out of." *

*Khafi Khan.

P5

O CO H

fin

00

o

P
m H

O

CHAPTER XXVI.
THE END OF THE KING-MAKERS AND THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.

The new Emperor
twenty years.
that there

Darajat

was a young man of

less

than

He was

placed with

such haste on the throne

was not even time to change his clothes, all that could be done being to throw round his neck a string of pearls. He appears to have been weak both in body and
mind, and was a mere puppet
Avho not only garrisoned
in

the

hands of the Seyds,
every post

the

fort

and palace with their own
in

soldiers but placed their friends

and dependants
of

of importance.

With

the

object

getting rid of Nizam-ul-

Mulk he was sent to Malwa, and again he went without a murmur. There followed him, however, a number of men
who, discontented with
to

their

treatment

by the Seyds, looked

Nizam-ul-Mulk
of

as

their

patron.

These

men
to

he

attached

to his service

by payment and by kindness, and they formed
a
force

the nucleus

which

was

destined

win him a

kingdom.

meantime in Delhi the Seyds did exactly as they They scrambled for the royal treasures, and the elder brother took a number of Ferokshere's ladies and transferred them to his own zenana. It is said that the two brothers (juarrelled over the division of the plunder, and that for some
In the
liked.

time

jealousy
hitherto

and hatred took the place of the union that
existed

had

between

them.

As

for

the

unhappy

366

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
lie

Pcrokslicrc,

lingered for two niontlis in his niiscrahle prison.

The

o})eriition

performed on
gradually

his eyes

had not been thoroughly
use,

done, and he

recovered

their

so

that he

was
then

able to attempt an escape by letting himself out of a window.

He

was,

however,

discovered

and
let

dragged

back.

He

attempted to bribe his jailor to
failing

him
was

escape, and on this

he broke into a passion and abused the two Seyds for
ingratitude

their

towards him.
that

This

re])orted

and the

order

went forth

Ferokshcre

was

to

be

killed.

The
the

executioners entered his cell with the bow-string.

"When

thong was thrown upon

his neck,

he seized

it

with both hands,

and struggled violently with hands and
tioners beat his hands with sticks

feet,

but the execu-

and made him leave go his
that

hold.

There

is

a

common

report

daggers

and knives

but from Avliat the author weapon was used." (Khali Khan). The unfortunate Emperor Avas then 38 years of age, and from the time of his victory over Jehander Shah he had reigned six years, nine months, and twenty-four days. His tragic end was due in a great measure to his own fault and to the manner in which he worked against the Seyds whilst openly acknowledging them as

were used

in that desperate struggle,

has heard no such

his chief

ministers.

He
was
his

had forfeited
still

the

confidence

of

all

by the people with body Avas carried to the tomb of Humayun, it was followed by a crowd of men and women, "chiefly the vagabonds and mendicants of the city, Avho had partaken of his bounty. They cried and groaned, tore their clothes, threw dust upon their heads, and scattered their abuse. The baksJiis of Hussein Ali and Seyd Abdullah were ordered to attend the funeral, and they did so with several of the principal men of the city. Stones were cast at them. No one Avould take the bread or the copper coins which Avere offered in charity. On the third day some vagabonds and beggars met, cooked food, and
the nobles,
affection,

but

he

regarded

and

when

distri])uted

it

among

the

poor

and

remained assembled

all

THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.
night." {I6id.)

367

In the meantime the
tlie

new Emperor was dying
six

of consumption, and by

time

he had reigned
in

months,

he begged that he miglit be allowed to die
Daula.
died.

peace and that

the throne might be bestowed upon his elder brother Raffiu-ud-

This

was done, and

three

days

afterwards

Darajat

The new pup})et Emperor was, like the last, weak in body and in intellect. He received the title of Shah Jelian
the Second, but l)eyond the

Khutba read

in his

Government.
to

He

the fact that coins were struck and name, he had nothing to do with the was surrounded by creatures of the elder
to

Seyd and was not even allowed
go
to

leave

the palace in order

mosque or hunting, or

to speak to a courtier, except

in the presence of

one of the Seyds.

His very clothes and
after
a
at
child.

food were chosen for him, and a guardian was appointed wdio
looked
after

him

as

a

nurse

does

In

the
of

meantime

a

revolution

had

broken
in

out

Agra.

One

Aurungzebe's grandsons named Nekn Siyar, the son of Ma-

homed Akbar, had been
of the
soldiers

confined

of

the

garrison proclaimed

the same time garrisoned the fort.
against

and him some Emperor and at Seyd Hussein Ali marched
the
fort,

the
siege

rebels

with

a

considerable

army,
Siyar

and

after

a

short

the

fort

capitulated.

Neku

was

taken

prisoner and sent back to confinement, and the vast treasures which for three or four hundred years had been accumulated at Agra fell into the hands of Hussein Ali. The jewels of

Nur Jehan and Mumtaz Mahal
two and three
four months
settlement
crores.

alone were valued at between
the yonnger Seyd
until

kept for himself.
he

Most of this plunder The elder got nothing
twenty-one
lakhs the ]3rotliers

after

about
This

received

of

rupees.

between

was brought about by the

intervention of

the minds of both.

Ruttun Chimd, but the ill-feeling rankled in But before this reconciliation could take
after a short

place the

reign

of

three

young Emperor Shah Jelian 11. died months and some days (Sept.

1719).

The

;lfi8

fflSTOh'Y

OF

TILE DECCAN.

cause of his death was dysentery
nne\})et'ted death of their

and mental disorder.
to do.

This

puppet completely disconcerted the
It

plans of the Seyds.

They did not know what
of the
royal

was
a

necessary to place a scion

house on the throne,
be
of

but

it

was

also

necessary

that

he

should

such

character that he would not interfere with their plans. At last
they selected Prince

Mahomed Roshan Akhtar
living
in

a

youth eighteen
Fathpur, with

years of age, great-grandson of Aurungzebe and son of Jehan

Shah,
his

who had been
a

retirement

at

mother,

woman

of

much

intelligence

and

tact.

The

death of the

late

not announced until

Emperor was kept a secret for a week and the new one had been proclaimed, on
(end
of
Sept.

Zilkada A.

II.

1131

171D)

under the

title

of

Mahomed Shah Badshah.
The new Emperor was
was fortunate
his in

a

man
able

of

some

character, and he
in the person of

having an
lady

counsellor

mother.

This

would
allowed

do
his

nothing

to

excite

the

jealousy of the two Seyds,

and, acting under her advice, the

young Emperor
to

at

first

two powerful ministers
as before,

do

as they liked.

The Emperor's person,
of

was

surrounded by creatures of the two ministers, and there gradually
arose a general feeling
at

discontent throughout the country

their

absolute

power.

This

discontent

was increased by
his

the behaviour of Ruttun Chund,

who, acting in the name of
one

the

elder

Seyd,

disgusted
to
this

every
there

by

rapacity

and

injustice.

Added

no longer existed the same

bond
began

of union between
to gather

the

two brothers,
to

and their enemies

courage and

watch for an opportunity of

causing their downfall.
the one personage

who held was Nizam-ul-Mulk, who in

Throughout all this Aveb of intrigue aloof and won the respect of all his Government at Malwa was quietly strengthening his position by gathering round him a body of adherents devoted to his person, who, when the time
should come, woidd be ready
to fight for

him

to the death.

THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.
Seyd Hussein Ali was
popularity of his
to an issue.

369

not
rival,

slow

to

perceive

the

increasing

great

and

resolved

to bring matters

Accordingly he formulated against him a number

and called upon him for an explanation. This Nizam-ul-Mulk furnished, and in so satisfactory a manner that Hussein Ali had no other recourse than to boldly throw
of

charges,

off

the

nuisk.

He

informed

him

that

as

he

wanted

the

province of
the

Malwa

for himself, in order the better to regulate

affairs of the Deccan, Nizam-ul-Mulk might select any one of the governments of Agra, Allahabad, ^lultan, or Burhanpur.

This

demand brought matters
his

to a crisis.

and

mother

secretly looked to the

from the Seyds, and letters there was no time to be lost, and that what he had to do he must do quickly. Accordingly Nizam-ul-Mulk resolved to openly break with the Seyds, and leaving Ujain, he first
of all

The young Emperor Nizam as their liberator from Delhi warned him that

made
after

three marches as

if

towards Agra, and then turned

sharply round and

Town

marched southwards towards the Deccan. town rapidly submitted, and at Burhanpur he
Hussein
All's

captured the family of
frained from molesting,

brother.
spirit

These he

re-

and in a true
the
all
all

of chivalry de-

spatched them unharmed with

a strong escort to the capital.
revolt
in

When
at

the Seyds heard of
to

of

Nizam-ul-Mulk they

once determined

do

their

power

to crush

him.

Orders w^ere despatched to
forts to oppose

the Governors of districts and

him

in

every way,

and Hussein Ali began

to

collect a large force in order to

march against him

in person.

meantime Alam Ali Khan endeavoured to surprise Nizam-ul-^Iidk between two forces. Whilst he marched on ]3urhanpur from Aurungabad with a strong force, a large army, principally composed of Mahrattas, advanced against it from the West. This army was commanded by Dilawar Ali Khan, a general of some repute. The Nizam, however, was
In
the

not the

man

to allow himself to

be caught in a trap

like this.

24

370

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
first

marched against Dilawar Ali Khan and defeated him Avith considerable slanghtcr. The i>cnei'ai and some five tiionsand men, chiefly liajpoots, wcic left on the field, and the con(|neror then turned hack to meet Alam Ali Khan,
of
all

He

detaching a small force to gnard J^nrhan})nr.
his o])ponent the
this

Refore engaging

Nizam
Avith
the;

sent

him
of

a conciliatorv message, bnt

was rejected
miles to the

scorn and a general engagement ensned.

This Avas fonght on
five

hanks
of

the

Pnrnah
Khali

al)ont

twentyde(1st

west

Hiirhaii|)ui'.

scribes the battle:

"On

the

6th

Siiarwal,

Khan thus 1132 A. H.

Angust 1720 A. D.) the battle was fonght. Alam Ali Khan received a severe wonnd. bnt for all that he kept the field.

The elephant

wliich

carried

him,

nnable

to

bear any longer
tail.

the arrows and swords-cut that he received, turned
Ali Khan, drip])ing with
face toAvards the
his elephant

Alam

blood from

his Avounds,

turned his

army

of

Nizani-ul-]\fulk,
his

and cried out that
not.

had turned
exhausted,
face

back but he had
such
body,
of
oi'

All his

arroAvs Avere

but
his

the
his

enemy's arroAvs as
liou-da,

had struck
pulled out

his

or

he quickly
Avounds in
life

and returned.
lie

He

received

so

many

succession that

sank under them and sacrificed his

for

his uncles (the Seyds).

He

Avas only tAventy-two years of age,

but he Avas

distinguished

by

all

the

determination

and the

bravery of the Earha Seyds."

(Elliot

and DaAvson, Vol. VII.)

The leader being killed, his army scattered, and the Avhole of the camp fell into the hands of the Nizam, avIio Avas at once
joined by several
other
chiefs

of

influence.

It

is

Avortliy of

remark hoAv important a part
these engagements.

])oavs

and arroAvs play
in use

in all

There Avere muskets

and

artillery,

but the boAv seems to have been the favourite Aveapon of the
leaders.

The

ncAvs

of

this

catastrophe
lost,

Avarned
it

the

Seyds that no
resolved

further time

must be

and

Avas

accordingly

that Seyd Abdullah

should return to Delhi

and keep things

THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.
quiet
tlicrc,

371

wliilst

Hussein

Ali,

acconipanicd by

tlic

Empci-or,

should march at once aganist Nizani-ul-Mulk.

Tliis

was done

and Ilusscin Ali
been separated

set off

with
ikit

an

army

of about 50,000

men

and the imperial camp,

scarcely

had the two brothers
broke out.
This

by a few

days
I)ecn

march when the conspiracy
liatching

which had for some time

conspiracy had received the sanction of the Emperor's mothei-,

although the Emperor himself was
the Queen-mother only three
plot,

left in

ignorance.
to

Besides
in the

men appear
It

have been

]\Iahomed

Aniin

Khan,

Saadat Khan,

and an

artillery

officer

named Haidar Khan.
assassin.

was the
6tli

last

who was
in the

selected

as the actual

"On
royal

the

Zilhijja,

second
Tora,

year of the reign,
thirty-five koss

the

army was encamped
his tent,

at

from Fattipur. accompanied the Emperor to

Mahomed Amin Khan,
made
a

having

show

of being

unwell, and retired to the tent of Haidar Kuli Khan.
the

When

Emperor entered his private apartment, Hussein Ali also retired. As he reached the gate of the royal inclosure, Mir Haidar Khan, who had a speaking acquaintance with him, approached. Washing his hands of life he placed a written
statement
in

the

hands of Hussein

Ali

and complained of
AYliile

Mahomed Amin
into
his
side.

as his victim read it."

{Ibid.)

he was
it

thus engaged Haidar

Khan drew

his

dagger and plunged

Ameer-ul-Amra struck the assassin- a same time crying out, "Put the Emperor to death " The shock of his motion overset the palankeen, and he fell dead to the ground. A hundred swords were drawn in an instant, and the daring assassin was cut in pieces, but a baud of Moguls who had been placed ready by Mahomed Amin Khan, now approaching, dispersed
violent

The

blow with

his foot, at the
!

the attendants, and cutting off the head of the
carried
it

to the this

Emperor.
the

(Scott's Translation).

Ameer-ul-Amra As soon as
in the

the

news of

tragedy spread there
deceased's

was an uproar
Izzat

camp.

One

of

nephews,

Khan, rushed

372

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
ill

sword

liaiid

to the

Emperor's
in

tent,

resolved to jivciige Lis

uncle, but Avas cut

down

the

attempt.

The Emperor was

quickly mounted on an elephant and brought out by Mahomed Amin, and an attax^k was made on Hussein Ali's camp. Those of his dependants who resisted were cut to })ieces, and the rest escaped, leaving the encampment to be tirst plundered and then set on fire. Such was the end of the great Seyd, the maker of four Emperors and for about eight years the His career and his fate were not disvirtual ruler of India.
similar to
related,

those

of

Zulficcar

Khan,

whose

story

has been

and the history of both,

like that of others

who have

attempted the same role in other countries, shows the inevitable fate of overweening ambition.

The news
with

of the

assassination

of

Seyd Hussein Ali spread
India,

marvellous

rapidity

throughout

and

there

was
less

generally a feeling of
first

relief.

Nizam-ul-Mulk was one of the

to tender his services to the to
seize

Emperor, but none the
secure.

he was not slow
position in the

the

opportunity to
it

strengthen his
in

Deccan and

to render

Seyd Abdullah
His
first

Delhi received the news with

consternation and grief, and at
death.
act

once prepared to revenge his brother's

was

to place

another Prince

on the throne

in opposition to

the Emperor, but this was a
to accept.

post of danger that none cared

The two sons

of Jehander
Siyar,

Shah

flatly

refused to

accept the throne,
for
a

Neku
the

who had
and

already once tasted
of
royalty,
also

few

weeks

sweets
it

dangers
after

declined the honour,

and

was only

much

persuasion
at length

that Sultan Ibrahim, youngest son of RafRu-sh-Shah,

The singular device was be proclaimed. making him Emperor for a temporary purpose («/7]^«7=by Avay of loan). The next step was to gather together an army, and in this the Seyd showed unusual energy. He opened his treasure-house and distributed more than a crore of rupees amongst various noblemen and chiefs.
allowed himself to
resorted to of

THE BIRTH OF
Horsemen were
man, and
money.
lavisli

A
the

NEW
rate

KINGDOM.
of
eiglity

.373

enlisted

at

rupees

each

promises wei-e made of promotion and prize-

In this
as

maimer
to

a considerable force
ex})ected
it

was rapidly

col-

lected, but

was

be

consisted for the most

Many of Hussein All's old soldiers, part of raw recruits. who at first had taken service undei* the Emperor, deserted when they heard that the brother of their old master had
taken
the
field.

These and a body of the
be
placed

brave

Seyds of
13ut

Barlia formed
little

the

backbone of Seyd Abdullah's army.
on the
rest.

reliance could

In spite of the
Avere rid-

large

sums spent

in recruiting,

most of the horses
were

den bare-backed, and the foot-soldiers
fresh force of

badly equipped.

About 70 miles from Delhi Seyd Abdullah was joined by a Barha Seyds, who brought with them ten or twelve thousand horses. By degrees the army swelled to the number of from 90,000 to 100,000 horsemen. In the meantime the Emperor had advanced to meet his rebellious Vizier, with an army far inferior to his in numbers, but well equipped and disciplined. The two armies met near Husainpur, and on the 17tli Muharram they Avere ])oth draAvn up in battle order. Before commencing the fight the Emperor ordered the head of Ruttun Chund, the Hindoo DcAvan of the Seyds,
to

be struck

off

and

throAvn

at

the

feet

of

his

elephant.

This
Avas

man

Avas execrated

regarded as one
the

of

by everybody, and this act therefore good omen. The royal army seems
in
artillery,

to

have l)een
Avas

stronger

and

a

furious can-

nonade
miracles

opened Avhich caused some of Seyd Abdullah's
heels.

recruits to take to their

The

I^arha Seyds performed

of

gallantry,

and
tide

frequently

charged

the
it

Imperial

batteries Avith such impetuosity that at one time
if

seemed

as

they Avould turn the

of

battle

in

their

favour.

But

they Avere numerically too Aveak, and Avere at

last l)eaten l)ack,

and

in their

turn
still

lost

their

guns.

Night

fell

and the Im-

perial

army

continued the cannonade, causing nundiers to

374

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

run away.
lioi'senien

On
only

tlie

following
or

morning
eighteen

out

of

tlic;

100, 000
in

seventeen

thousand remained

Seyd Abdullah's camp. When daylight l)roke, the Emperor, who had remained on his elephant for the greater part of the
night,

ordered
with

a

general

advance.

fought
charges.
at

great

gallantry

and
began

The made
to

JJarha
several
at

Seyds

still

desperate

Seyd Abdullah placed himself
royal

their head,

and

one time the
length

forces

waver.

But a fresh
prisoner,

])ody of troops

was brought up, the Seyds were surrounded,
beaten.

and
the

at

Seyd
taken,

Abdullah was
places.

taken

having been

Avounded in several
also

A

few others of

Seyds

were

but

the

greater

number

fell

under the swords of the
clan

Imperialists,

and the power of

this

who had
in

was for ever broken. The inifortunate young Ibrahim, for a few days been on the throne, was found hiding the jungle, but as he had had ])ut little choice in what he
Seyd Abdullah himcarried
it

had done, he received the royal pardon.
self

was

kept

in

confinement,

and
Delhi.

was

with

the

army, which

now marched upon
their

Before

could arrive

there the Seyd's relatives and family

made

their escape, taking

with them as

On

the

much of 22nd Muharram

property

as they could collect. in state,

the

Emperor entered Delhi
to

and there followed a distribution of rewards

those

who

had supported him.
of

Letters

were also despatched to Nizamto

ul-Mulk asking him to come
Minister.

Delhi and take up the duties

This was

a

post

which the Nizam was by no
at

means anxious
rivals

to occupy.

His experience of the intrigues

the Imperial Court had disgusted

him with
he

the life; his great
to

were

now removed;
it

and

had resolved
and
so,

make

himself independent in the Deccan.

For the time, however,
after regulating

he deemed

advisable

to

consent,

his affairs in the Deccan, he

marched

leisurely towards Delhi,

where he arrived

in the

middle of 1721.

Nizam-ul-Mulk was

now

the most prominent personage in

the Empire.

He

enjoyed

THE BIBTH OF A
a

NEW KINGDOM.
but
at

375

reputation

for

great

shrewdness and caution,

tlie

same

time for boldness in seizing
of
this

and

utilizing his opportunities.

A man
up the

stamp was
sooner had
of
his

not

likely

to
in

be long without
Delhi

enemies, and no
duties

he

arrived

and taken
organized

post
side

than
he

intrigues

were

against him.

On

every

found
only

himself opposed and

thwarted, and there were not wanting unworthy favourites to

warn

the

Emperor
in

that

he
of

was
those

substituting

another

king-maker

the

place

who had been removed.
to

Nizam-ul-^lulk was too

wise

and shrewd

throw away the

for the

won in the Deccan shadow which depended on the tickle favour of a royal master, and accordingly he made up his mind to leave
substance of power which he had already
at the earliest opportunity,

and never
of
for

to return in the capacity

of

a

subject.

On

the

pretence

wishing
a

to

recruit

his

health by hunting

he

left

Delhi
an

few days, and then,
of

taking the

opportunity

of

uprising

the

Mahrattas in

Malva, advanced to

Ahmedabad.

Here he was met by news

both from Delhi and Hyderabad.
that his son Ghazi-ud-Din,

From

the capital he heard

whom he had left as his Deputy, had been removed by the intrigues of his enemies, that the faction of his opponents was in power, and that the city was
in a state of wholesale corruption.

From

the Deccan on the
the

other

hand
he

he

learnt
at

that

^lubariz

Khan,

lieutenant

whom
out

he had

left

Hyderabad, had revolted and had given
a])pointed

that

had

been

Subadar
the

of

the

Deccan.

This decided him.

He

resolved to

renounce for ever Delhi
rest of his life to

ambition and
independence.

intrigue

and

to

devote

He

therefore turned his back

and marched rapidly
he
sent
several

towards

conciliatory
of

remindino;
disregarded,

him
he

former
to in

marched
Kerar

upon Hindustan Arrived there messages to Mubariz Khan, obligations but findino* them meet him. The two armies
Anrungabad.
;

met near

Shakar

Berar,

and

though

^lubariz

376

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
fought
very

Kliiiii

bnivcly

lie

was

totally

defeated, himself

and
to

his

two sons being
which
this

killed.

The Nizam then advanced
time
the

Hyderabad,

from
time

this

he

made

his

headof

([uai'ters,

From

(1723)

independence

the

Hyderabad State may be dated, and the Em])eror was obliged to recognize the accomplished fact. He did this with as good a grace as possible, and sent to his powerful vassal a present of elephants and jewels, with the title of ^Isaf Jah and
directions " to settle the country, repress the turbulent, punish

the

rebels,

and cherish

the

people."
his

This

the

Nizam

did,

and Khati Khan thus concludes
period
:

interesting history of this

" In a short time the

country was brought under the

control of

the

Mussulman
of

authorities


of

it

was scoured from

the

abominations

infidelity

and

tyranny.

Under former
Mahrattas

Subadars, the roads had

been

infested with the ruffianism of

highway

robbers

and

the

rapacity

the

and

rebellious zemindars, so that traffic and travelling were stopped,

but now the highways were

safe
all

and secure.
sorts

The Mahrattas

had exacted the
jaghirdars,
of

choiith

with

of

tyranny from the

it ten per cent under the name means odious kumaish-dars were removed and changed every week and month; orders ])eyond

and

in

addition to

surdeshmukh.

By

this

all

endurance of the

ryots

were issued,
the
collectors

and annoyances and
of

insults

were

heaped upon

the

jaghirdars.

Nizam-ul-mulk so arranged that instead of the

cJtouth of the

Suba of Hyderabad a sum of money should be paid from his treasury, and that the surdeshmukh which was levied from the
ryots at the rate of ten per

cent
of

should

be abandoned.

He

thus got rid of the
of the chouth

presence
officials

the kumaish-dars (collectors)

and the

of the surdeshmukh and rahdari
latter

passport system), from

which

impost great

annoyance

had
ent.

fallen

upon

travellers

and traders."
to

From

this

time forward the Nizam was practically independ-

He had

brought with him

the

Deccan a band of

THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.
devoted adherents, and upon
land.
tlieni

377

he bestowed large
l)ut

gifts of

Some

of these

were Mahomedans,

some

also

were

Hindoos.

The former were

utilized for military service,

and

in i-cturn for their

valuable jaghirs they were bound to furnish

large bodies of soldiers

foot,

horse, and artillery.

did the
loyal

Nizam depend upon
that

the noblemen for support
his

So greatly and

newly acquired kingdom was reserved for his own into thirds. One third privy purse, and was termed the ^arf-i-Khas; one third was allotted for the expenses of the Government, and was called
service

he

divided

roughly

the Beicans territory, and the remaining third was distriluited
as jaghirs or feudal estates.

Of
still

these the military

fiefs

were

the most important, and are

known

as the

Vagah

estates.

So extensive were the powers granted
fiefs

to the holders of these

that they

formed

a

kind of imperium in imperio and in their
sovereign rights.

They had the power of life and death, and were excluded from all State taxation. This division of power and wealth was probably necessary in order to safeguard the new ruler of the country from

own

jaghirs possessed

rivalry

and

rebellion,

but

it

contained

in

it

the

seeds of

future difficulties

and complication.
in

The Hindoo noblemen
work.
This

were

chiefly

employed

administrative

was a

wise measure, for a large ])roportion of the population of the

country say 90 out of 100,

consisted then as

it

does

now

of

Hindoos.

In this policy Asaf

Jah showed great sagacity and

knowledge of Deccan

traditions.

From

the

time of the

first

Gulburga Sultan, AUah-ud-Din, it had been the custom for the Mahomedan princes to employ Hindoos to manage the This work they had done with land revenue and finance. eminent success until the twenty years campaign of AurungThe first zebe revolutionized the condition of the Deccan.

Nizam had

a

new element

to deal with,

that of the ^lahrattas,
in

and he therefore showed great wisdom

reverting

to the

old policy of entrusting Hindoos with the task of dealing with

;}78

HISTORY OF THE BECCAN.
Hindoo
rivals in

their

the matter of land revenue and tinance,
his

and of relying upon
military contingent.

jMahoniedan
the old

followers to furnish his

But

Deccan nohility disappeared
term we refer more espe-

or

fell

into obscurity.

TTjidei-

flii.s

cially to

the

Mahomedan

families of the Deccan.

The Hindoo

Rajas and landholders remained.
to the

They gave

their allegiance

new master, and were contirmed
But
the

in their old })rivileges

and possessions.

Deccannee or Mahomedan nobles

were

more or less pledged to former Viceroys, and followed with them their changes of fortune, their estates being bestowed upon the adherents of the new regime. Thus the proiegiis of the first Nizam gladly accepted the title of Asaf Jaliis or
all

followers of Asaf Jah, and to the present day this designation
is

highly ])rized as a proof of honourable descent.

Asaf Jah, by prudence, caution,
ness, thus succeeded

self-restraint
to

and by bold-

in

raising

himself

a

position of the

highest importance in Tndia.

One

of his great rivals was killed,
in

and the other was kept
died,

in

confinement
death,

which he shortly
Khafi
!

some say
forbid

of

a
his

natural
(the

but

Khan
should

says

"

God

that

Emperor's)

counsel

have

been given for poison, but
Indian history
adventurers,
Avho
is

God

only knows
part
a

for

the

most

record

of daring-

gain

power and sometimes the throne by
utilize
it

a series of crimes

and

for
lives

purposes

of

extortion,

tyranny, and oppression.
of the

In

the

of Zulficcar

Khan and

and

of

two Seyds we have a striking example of such careers Asaf Jah presents a the inevita])le catastrophe.
to

remarka])le contrast
is

the

general
or

rule.

His

rise to poAver

stained by no crime,

domestic

public,

and

his story is

simply that of a
opportunity, and
loyally.

man who bided his time, who seized his who was loyal to those who treated him

The time has now come to close the first portion of this history. The days of the Empire were fast drawing to a close.

THE BIRTH OF A NEW KINGDOM.
Buyoiid the Kliyhcr Pass
Persian conqueror, and in
that was to

379

shadow of the Maliarashtra a nation had been formed
began to
l(3om

the

make

a

l)i(l

for the Empire.

It

(Hd so and failed,

and

in

the meanwhile in the

West and
gradually

the East and Northat

East the small clouds of British power,
bigger than a
a

the time scarcely
in size, until

man's

hand,

increased

few years
death

later the English

were called
decay
of
If

in lirst as the aids

and then as the arbiters of the Mahomedan Emperors.
the
of

Aurungzebe the
at the

commenced and

death

With Mogul Empire Mahomed Shah the Empire
of

the

had practically ceased by

to exist.

Asaf Jah had had successors

Avorthy of him, the Delhi

Emperors would have been followed
Deccan.

as glorious a dynasty in the

GENEALOGY OF ASAF
1.

JAU, TIIK FIKST NIZAM.

Mohomod

bin Al)i Bukr,

2.
d.

A 1)00 Moliomed Mukkee,
Aboolkasim Makee. Abdul Rehnian Makee.
Abdulla Baari.

4.
5, G. 7. 8.

Mohomcd Kasim Khushkce.
Nasruddin Basri.

Kasim Ali Roomi.
Moliomed Saeed Kushkee,
Abdulla
Soofi.

9.

10. 11. 12.

Abdul Razzak Bagdadi.
Abdulla Bagdadi.

13. 14.
15. 16.

Mohomed Baha ooddiu Bagdadi. Shiekh Mohomed Bagdadi.
Shiekhulsheyookh Shahab ooddiu Sohurverdi. Abi Mohomed Hafiz. Zeuooddin Qutbul-aktak. Shiekh Ala ooddiu. Shiekh Tajooddin. Shiekh Fateh oollah. Shiekh Najib oollah.
Fatehulshiekhussani.

17. 18.

19.

20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.
30. 31.

Shiekh Javid Ulmolukub Sirmusp.
Fatehoolla Shiekhussaui.

Shiekh Javid Shah Sani.

Huzrut Mohomed Durvesh.
Shiekh Mohomed Moomin. Mohomed Alumulshiekhul Saddikiul
Alvi.

Khawaja Azizau Aluna. Khawaja Mir Ismail. Mir Abid Khan Ulmokhatib Ba Kooleej Khan Kamruddin Khan.
Feroze Jung.

"Walid-i-

32. 33.

Chin Koolich Khan Asaf Jah

1st

Nizam.

Kindly furnished by the private Secretary to H.H. the Nizam.

^A

JnWiciiis'U:'

APPENDIX.
Owing
I

to the

kind permission of the Government of
as

Bombay
of
I

have been permitted to reproduce the description of Bijapur
city

and the plans of the
the

they

appear

in

Vol.

XXIII

Bombay

Gazetteer.

The

description

of

Hyderabad

propose to reserve for the second portion of this history which
will consist

for

the

greater

part

of

the

history of
in

modern
the
first

Hyderabad under

the

present

dynasty

founded

quarter of the last century.

BLja'pur,' during

the

sixteenth

and the

greatei' part of

the seventeenth centuries (1490-1686) the capital of the Adil

Shah dynasty and the mistress of the Deccan, is in north latitude 16" 50' and east longitude 75« 48', about 1950^ feet above the sea, on the north slope of the ridge which forms the water-shed of the Kistna and Bhima rivers. It is a station on the Hudgi-Gadag or East Deccan railway sixty
miles

south
or

of

Sholapur.

Its

surroundings
sides

have
long

nothing
distances

striking
stretch

picturesque.
treeless
soil,

On
downs,

all

for

waving

the

uplands
the

covered

with a

shallow stony

bare except

during

south-west rains

(June-October), and separated by dips or hollows of comparatively

rich

soil.

To

the

north
after

the
ridge,

country

is

peculiarly

desolate, nothing but ridge

scarcely a village as
is

far as the eye can see.
1
'•^

To

the

very walls the country
S.

the

Contril)ut<>(l

by Mr. H. F. Silcock, C.
parts
of
at

The

levels taken in different

Mehel, 1940 at the Boli Gumbaz, 1960
at the niamlatdar's office in the Tdgah. Mr. E. K. Reinold, 0. E.

the the

city

are

plinth of the

Macca Gate, and

1932 feet at the Asar Two Sisters, 1972 over 2000 feet near the

384.

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
that
is

same, exce])t
rolling plain

outside

of

the

city

the

monotony of the

relieved by

tombs and other buildings,
of
J5ij;ipur
is

From
miles

the north the
distant,

first

glimpse

about

fifteen
rises

where the

dome

of

the
as

Boli

Gumbaz
is

above
the

the intervening uplands, and,

the

city

neared,
the

fills

eye

from every

point,

looming

large

against

south(^rn

At five miles the whole city breaks suddenly into view, and far on every side the country is covered with buildings of varied shapes and in different stages of decay. The numbers of tombs, mosques, palaces and towers which lie
horizon.
scattered in every direction, give the scene a strangely impressive

grandeur.

To

the

right,

the
a

white

domes
lie

of

Pir

Amin's

tomb gleam
walls

in the

sunlight,

brilliant

contrast to the dark

gray ruins in the foreground.

In front

the city's massive
a stately building
left,
its

and bastions,

with

here

and there

towering over the

fortifications, while,

on the

the colossal

proportions of the Boli or Gol
Still

Gumbaz dwarf
conspicuous
Close

surroundings.
is

further to the

left,

the plain, the old battlefield,
is

dotted

with tombs,
gray
the land

among which
of

the

massive dark
the
city

mausoleum
is

Ain-ul-Mulk.

round

surprisingly barren.
all

The ground

in front is bare

and is broken into large irregular from which the city was hewn. On the west miles of ruins of the old town of Shahapur (1510-1636) prevent cultivation. Close to the walls on the south are traces of tillage, but none of it shows from a distance. The only object is the great city stretching far and near in a waste whose desolate glimpses of noble buildings, some fairly preserved others in ruins, make the more striking.
of trees
vegetation,

and

hollows, the quarries

South of Bijapur
side of the ridge

the

country changes.

On

the southern

which overlooks the

city there is consider-

able cultivation.

The same
fairly
is

treeless

ridges

remain,
and,

but beas of old

tween the ridges are
miles of the walls,

rich

hollows,
of

within eight

the

valley

the

Don now

APPENDIX.
the

385

granary

of

Bijapiir.

Tlie

slope

of

a

barren

ridge,

surrounded on

tliree

sides

by

a

treeless cropless plain,

seems

a strange site for a

capital.

The

desert

to the north

where

no invading army could
13ut the

find

food or fodder was no doubt a

valuable defence to Bijapur on the side most open to attack.
crest of

the

ridge

to

the

south,
first

commanding

the

approaches on both sides, seems at
fortress.
to

a

better site for a

The reason

for the choice of the present site seems
crest

have been that the

of

the

ridge

is

waterless while
is

within the walls of Bijapur the supply of water

abundant.

The under rock teems with splendid springs of which, to judge by the remains of wells and gardens, full advantage was taken. Later on the local supply was increased by artificial means, and the Torvi conduit and the Begam Lake made the city almost independent of its local resources, Bijapur within the walls covers about 1600 acres or two and a half square miles. The suburbs even now spread over a large area, and in the city's prime stretched for miles. The walls, which are still in fair order, are about six and a quarter miles round and form an irregular ellipse of which the major axis from the Macca Gate in the west to the
iVllapur Gate in the east
is

about two and three-quarters and
in the north to the

the

minor

axis
in

from the Bahmani Gate
the

Fateh
miles.

Gate

south

is

about

one

and

three-quarters

The
fifty

city

walls

are

surrounded by
are

a deep

moat

forty to

feet

broad.

They

massive
are

and strong,

and,

not

counting ten at the

gates,

strengthened

with ninety-six

bastions of various designs and

different degrees of strength.
thirty
to fifty
feet,

In height the walls vary from

and have
they

an

average thickness
exceed.
in

of

twenty feet

which

in

places
is

greatly

The general plan
different
sections,

of construction

much

the
^

same

the

though the design and

The Torvi water works are

de8cril)ecl at

page 403.

386

HTSTOnY OF THE DECCAN.
vaiv.'

finish

Tlicy
to

seem

to

consist

of

two

massive

stone

walls twenty

thirty

feet

high

and

twenty

to thirty feet

apart, with the space

between

filled

with earth, well rammed,

and covered with a masonry platform. This platform which runs all round the walls, was protected on the inside by a battlemented curtain wall about ten feet high running from
bastion to bastion and loopholed
for both artillery

and small

arms.

On

this platform there

was ample room for the move-

ments of the garrison, who, from their superior station, could The construction of with ease command the ground outside.
the walls was undertaken
1

by Ali Adil Shah

I.

(1557-1580),

(Little's Dotachmeut, 310, 811) describes tlie -walls in May 1792 thick stone building about twenty feet high with a ditch and rampart. Capacious towers of large hewn stone were at every hundred yards much neglected and many fallen in the ditch. The curtain was of great height jterhaps forty feet from the berme of the ditch entirely built of huge stones strongly cemented and The frequently ornamented with scul{)tured representations of lions and tigers. towers were very numerous and of vast size built of the same materials and some with top ornaments like a cornice and otherwise in the same style with the curtain. Captain Sydenham (Asiatic Kesearches, XIII, 435) describes the walls in 1811 as a rampart flanked by 109 towers of different dimensions, a ditch and covert way surrounding it, and a citadel in the interior. These works were very strong and were still in fair repair, their outer and inner faces being of hewn stone laid in mortar. The parapets which were nine feet high and three feet thick were composed The towers were in general semicircular with a entirely of stone and mortar. The curtains, which appeared to rise from the radius of about thirty-six feet. bottom of the ditch, varied from thirty to forty feet in height, and were about twenty-four feet thick. The ditch was in many places filled and was so covered with vegetation that not a trace of it apjieared. In other parts it seemed to have been formed through rock, forty to fifty feet broad and about eighteen feet deep. faced counterscarp showed in many places and the remains of a line front pointed out the of masonry running parallel about seventy yards in boundary of the covert way. In 1792 Major Moor found tliis covert way almost perfect. He says it was one hundred and fifty and in places two hundred yards broad. (Little's Detachment, 311). At ])rescnt hardly a sign of the covert way remains. The Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone (Colebrooke's Life, II. 70) describes the walls in 1819: The ditch and the rampart enclose a circle of six miles circumference. The rampart is of earth supported by strong walls and large stones. It is twenty-four feet thick at top, and has Indian battlements in tolerable order and large towers at moderate distances. mounted a very lofty tower separate from the wall. From this height we saw the plan of the town, now scattered with ruins and in some places full of trees. The most conspicuous object next to the great dome is the citadel. On the whole I find Bijapur much above my expectations and far beyond anything I have ever seen in the Deccan. There is something solemn in this scene and one thinks with a melancholy interest on its former possessors. The jn-oofs of their power remain while their weaknesses and crimes are forgotten and our admiration of their grandeur is heightened by our compassion for their fall.

Major Moor

as,

A

A

We

APPENDIX.
Oil

387

his return from the decisive victory of Tjilikoti (1565) in which the po^¥er of the great Hindoo kingdom of Vijayanagar (1335-1587) perished. They are said to have been completed
in

two years and a

half,

though as necessity arose strong

bastions were added

at

intervals
in

down
It
is

to

the

overthrow of
reported that

the Adil Shah dynasty
the nobles of the realm

1686.

locally

were each entrusted with a bastion
this

and curtain wall; and that
the design

explains
different

the great variety in
sections

and

detail

of

the

which adds

much

to the

handsomeness and impressiveness of the whole.

On
its

each of the leading bastions a stone tablet commemorating
building

was

let

into

the

wall.

Some

of

these

tablets

remain, but

many have

fallen out

and been carried away.
Firangi bastions on opposite
south,
greatly

Of
sides

the ninety-six bastions, three, the Sherzi bastion on the

west and the Landa Kasab and
of

the

Fateh

Gate

on

the

exceed

the

others in size and strength.

The Sherzi Buruj
two heraldic
which leads
high,
to the

or

Lion Tower takes

its

name from
is

lions carved in stone to the right of the entrance

tower platform.^
great

but

is

of

diameter
circular

The bastion and is very
platforms
for

not very

strong.

In

the centre are two

raised

cannon, on
the great

one of which
Plain

lies,

supported
almost

on

beams

of wood,

bronze gun of Bijapur the jNIalik-i-Maidan or Monarch of the
till

recently

the

largest

piece

of

ordnance in

existence,

and a splendid specimen of the founder's skill. The bastion is furnished with bombproof powder-chambers and watertanks, and apparently it was never exposed to fire as the masonry
is

which was well for the garrison,

Dread of the Malik-i-Maidan prevented attacks, as from its unwieldy size and peculiar construction the gun could not have done much harm, and, as the bastion was so low, it might have been comparatively easily scaled. The inscription tablet states that this tower
untouched.
1

Bird in Journal Bomiiay Branch Royal Asiatic Hociety,

I,

854.

388

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.
built about a.d.

1658 by Nawab Muiizli Shaliiii in the reign It was therefore almost (1656-1672). of Ali Adil Shah The inscription runs: the last addition to the defences.
was
11.

"During the reign of the victorious king Ali Adil Sha'h, who, through the favour of God gained a glorious victory, this bastion was in five months made Ann as a rock by the successful efforts of Munzli Sha'h. An angel in delight gave the date of the building saying. The Sherzi bastion is without
an
c'ciual."

The numerical value of the angel's words is 1069 that is Near the Fateh Gate on the south, and about A.D. 1658. 530 yards west-southwest of it, a bastion towers above its neighbours. This is locally known as the Landa Kasab. On
it is

the largest

gun
is

in Bijapur,

visited part of the city, its

though as it is in a seldom existence has been overlooked and
considered the largest.

the Malik-i-Maidnn
bastion

generally

The

was

built

about a.d.

1609

by Hazrat Shah in the
second inscription tablet
till

reign of Ibrahim II. (1580-1626).

A
of

seems to show that
tablet,
let

it

was
in

not
wall

finished

1662,

as

this

into

the the

inside

the
year.

bastion,

records the

completion

of

walls

that

The

Landa Kasab
and

seems to have been the most formidable armament of all the bastions on the south
to the large iron

in construction

side, as, in addition

two other pieces of artillery were mounted on it, one of which, something like a modern Against this bastion Aurangzeb in mortar, still lies on it. 1686 seems to have directed the whole fire of his artillery, and pitted it with shot-marks.' Little damage was done to the

gun referred

to,

tower

itself,

but a breach was made in the curtain-wall close

by, and, as the garrison could be relieved

from that

side only,
fire,

the steps leading to the top of the bastion were open to the

and the place was no doubt untenable. Both guns seem to have been more than once struck, and the larger one lies dismounted,
probably from a shot which struck
1

it

near the muzzle.

Outside the walls, near the Landa Kasab bastion, is the tomb of Eklas the dome of which was destroyed by shots during Aurangzcb's siege. The whole tomb bears marks of heavy fire! From the direction of the shotmarks it seems that it was seized as an advanced post by Aurangzeb's army,

Khau

and recovered by the defenders.

APPENDIX.

389

The FiRANGi BuRUJ or Portuguese Tower, about 1000 yards
east of the Fateh Gate,
is

the

most complete of
is

all

the bastions,

and from
It
is

its

peculiar

construction
tower,
in

extremely interesting.

a hollow semicircular

the middle of a strong

battlemented curtain-wall, along every few yards of which are
small
raised

platforms

for

cannon.

The tower

rises

about

thirty feet above the general platform of the walls,

and about

half-way

up

a

passage-way
access

or
to

corridor

round

the

interior,

which

was built running was gained by steep

stone stairs at each end of the tower. On this masonry platforms for small cannon were constructed, while at each end are small ammunition chambers. The
flights of

corridor

hollowness of this
defence.
It is

tower takes
the

greatly

from

its

value

as a

it was by a Portuguese general who took service with Ali Adil Sh.ih I. (1557-1580) in 1576. As far as inscriptions show his name was Yoghris Khan, and, on the tablet in the tower,

called

Portuguese Tower because

built

he

is

called

the

Slave

of

Ali

Adil

Shah.

Nothing

else is

The name Yoghris was probably taken To judge from the works entrusted to him he must have stood high in the king's favour. Their inscriptions seem to show that the Fateh Gate was one of the bastions of the Macca Gate, and one or two other parts of the walls were built by him or under his supervision. The north face of the Avails has several fine bastions. But the Sherzi, Landa Kasab, and Firangi are the best worth
of this

known

man.

on entering the

Bijapur service.

seeing, as each

is

remarkable

to

Sherzi bastion for

its

arma-

ment, the Landa Kasab for
Firangi for
its

its

historical importance,

and the
still

construction and architecture.
city,
i

Five large gates led into the

Four of these are

^ Xear the Boli Guinbaz was a sixth g-ate called Padshfipur. It was undefended and appears to have been used for much the same ])urpo8e as the postern Several small postern gates in different parts g-ate near the Maoca Gateway. of the city opened into tiio moat. The Padshapur Gate was built up for many years and has only lately been opened.

390

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
use; the
offices.

ill

fifth

has

been closed and turned
were,
the

into Govern-

ment
the

These gates
to

Macca

in

the west, the

Shahiipur leading to the

Shahapur suburb
the

in the north-west,
in

Bahmani leading
to

Bahmani kingdom
suburb
the
to

the north,

the Allapur close to the Allapur

in the east,

and the
a

Mangoli

the

south.

Close

Macca

Gate

small

postern gate led west into the Zohrapur suburb. The Macca Gate has been closed for more than a century, but communication with that quarter of
the
city

was kept through the
entrance was

Postern Gate.

In

later

years

another western

made close to the Sherzi Tower, the wall being knocked down and a bridge thrown across the moat. This gate, which is
known
as the

entrance to

Futka or Broken Gate, Another gate the city.

is

now

the chief western

to

correspond

with the

Futka Gate was opened close to the Allapur Gate in the east, and a broad road has been lately made to join the two and open this part of the city which ruins and brushwood made
wholly
inaccessible.

The ancient
two massive

gateways

are

models
with

of

building, and are immensely strong.
is

The general plan
circular

in all

much

the

same;

towers

the

doorway between, and above the door a platform guarded by
a battlemented wall.

In front of these towers a broad clear
lofty
fortified

space

is

surrounded by

walls joined with the
also

towers and loopholed for musketry.

These walls

end

in

small castellated towers with another gateway between, facing
parallel to the city-walls, so that in addition to the fire

the gateway
walls.

the

approach was swept by the

fire

from from the

The gates themselves, some of which remain, are of wooden beams about six inches square fastened together thick
with iron clamps, strengthened with massive bars, and bristling with twelve-inch iron
the days
of
spikes.

With

the

siege

appliances of

the

Bijapur monarchy,

gateways such as these
to

were impregnable, and no attempt seems
to force them.

have been made
city
till

Aurangzeb did not enter the

it

sur-

APPENDIX.
rendered, and

391

made no attempt

to

gain

tlie

gateways.
is

The

name Fateh

or Victory, by which the Mangoli (^ate

known,

preserves the conquest of I3ij;ipur by the Emperor Aurangzeb. Through this gateway he entered tlie captured city in state and to mark the circumstance ordered tlie name of the gate to be clianged from Mangoli to Fateh or Victory. A handsome gun, cast-iron inlaid with brass in a scroll pattern, which is said to have been dropped by the Emperor's troops while filing through this gateway, has been lately raised and placed on the platform of the Two Sisters. The Macca Gateway, which is now closed and used as the offices of the mamlatdar and subordinate judge, is by far the strongest and most complex of the gates. Its appearance is so changed by the

houses built inside of
master.

it

that

the

general
like

plan

is

difficult to

Outside

it

is

somewhat

the

others,

the walls

ending in two round towers with a doorway between.
the construction
is

Inside

])eculiar.

The gateway looks
platforms
for

like a large

bastion furnished with

several

the working of

heavy guns and with covered ways loopholed for musketry.

On
the

the city side too

it

was strongly
this

fortified, for,

though the

guns coukl not be trained on
front

side,

a passage ran along

loopholed for

musketry

the interior of the fortification.
of a strong
fort

than

a

and communicating with The whole plan is more that gateway, and great pains seem to
it

have been taken to make

impregnable not only to enemies

without but to treachery within.

One

of the guns, which lay

dismounted on the southern tower, has been raised on a masonry platform. It is interesting for its inlaid muzzle and from having apparently burst at the breech and been repaired

by welding round
fine trees

it

a

massive

coil

of iron.

Two

or three

on the gun platforms add

to the picturescjueness of

this part of the fortification

which

is

well worth a

visit.

The

gate

is

said to have been closed and' garrisoned by order of the
1

Peshwa's government about

762

to protect the city

from robbers.

392

HISTORY OF THE DEC CAN.
direction
it

From whatever
air of striking

is

approached, Bijapiir has an

grandeur.

Its

perfect walls and bastions and

the glimpses of noble buildings pleasantly shaded combine to
give the impression that the
city
is

peopled and prosperous.
inside
is

When
prise.

the gate

is

passed the

waste

a

sudden surthe

From
Long

the

west

the

approach
houses,

through
with

modern

village of Torvi is

some preparation
of
fallen

for

the ruin within the

walls.

lines

here and there a
the old town of

palace wall or a

mosque mark the

site

of

Shahapur. Nearer the city on the south, is the beautiful tomb and mosque of Ibrahim II. (1580-1626) and in front above the almost unharmed walls Khawas Khan's tomb now known as the Two Sisters and the Seven- Storey ed Palace rise in the middle distance, and further on is a glim])se of the dome
of the

Jama Mosque and
(1626-1656).

of

the

Eoli

Gumbaz
of

of

Sultan
of

Mahmud

The

greater

part

the

people

modern Bijapur
ments of the
peopled
of

are settled close to the western gate,

and though

their lowly huts are a
past,

the

marked contrast to the stately monuair of life and cheerfulness is a
the

not unpleasing relief

among
is

waste

of ruins.

When

the

western
inside

quarter

passed

the ruin

the

shady
relieve

more and more tombs and other ancient buildings Towards the the monotony and mask the desolation.
become
gardens

and loneliness painful, though

round

centre of the city a road well

lined

with trees leads to the
palaces and other public

Citatel or Ark-killah with the royal

buildings.
art.

On
Sat

all

sides are splendid specimens of the builder's

The
the

Miizli,

Anand
the

Mehel,

within

citadel,

and
the

Malika

and Gagan Mehel Jahan mosque, the
of

Asar

Mehel,
II.

and

unfinished
without,

Shah

immediately
for

tomb form a
in
itself

Ali

Adil
rarely

group
a

equalled

picturesqueness,
Citadel

each

gem

of art.

Beyond
towards

the
the

north
gates,

towards
is

the

Bahmani
waste,

or

east

Allapur

a

dreary

with almost

APPENDIX.
nothing save fallen
palaces

393

and

roofless dwellings

overgrown

with custard-apples and other wild shrubs, while an occasional unharmed tomb or mosque makes the surrounding desolation the more complete. Even these ruins have glimpses of the Bijapur of the author of Tfira. Amidst the ruins are enclosures that were once gardens in which broken fountains and dry water-courses suggest visions of elegance and comfort, and where low brushwood and tangled grass have choked fragrant flowers and rich fruit trees. Here and there a jasmin, run Mournful wild, trails over ruined walls and once trim terraces.
as
is

the desolation the

picturesque

beauty of the buildings,
Striking

the flne old trees and the mixing of hoary ruins and perfect

buildings form an everchanging and impressive scene.
as they
are,

the

imagination

is

perhaps

less

stirred

by the

grandeur of the public buildings than by the countless other

and minarets, all carved from rich brown basalt, garlanded by creepers and broken and wrenched by piped and banian roots, furnish fresh interest
ruins.

Palaces, arches, tombs,

even after days spent in the ruins.
Bijapur must have been a noble
if its

In the height of prosperity
Still it

city.

may be

questioned

buildings were so effective

in their

prime as they now

are deserted

and

in ruins.

is

The Ark-killah^ or one of the most

Citadel, nearly in the centre of the city,

interesting
It

parts

of

Bijapur,

a perfect

treasury of artistic

buildings.

Shiih (1489-1510) as the site for his fort, but

was chosen by Yusuf Adil was so changed
to leave little of the old
citadel
is

and improved by
a
little

his

successors

as

village of Bichkanhali.^
less

The present

nearly circular,

than a mile round measuring by the counterscarp
Its

of the ditch.

defences are a strong curtain, with, on the
bastions
of

south and

east,

several

of

considerable
It
is

strength, a

I The Ark of Ark-killiili the Sanskrit ark the sun.

h
Lit.

doubtful
111.

orig-in.

probably taken from
villafjo

-

Captain

Sykes

(Bom.

Trans.

HI)

says

this

was called

Kcjganhalli.

394

HISTORY OF THE DECCAN.

faussebraye or rampart

mound and
is

ditch, the

whole well built
esjjecially

where a second wet ditch was cut at the foot of the rampart, which on these sides was very low, apparently to give the royal palaces whose fronts all look unbroken view over the city and an in that direction
north-w'est,

and massive.^ the north and

The faussebraye

very

wide,

on

country round.

The

citadel

w^ns

begun by Yusuf Adil Shah

shortly after his revolt in

1489.

A mud
the

fort then stood

on

the site.-

The mud
in

wall was taken

down and
stones
this

a strong stone

wall

built

1493,^

many
temples
in
till

of

being apparently
contains

taken

from

Hindoo
that

as

wall

much
was Shah I.

carving like

found

temple

stones.

The

citadel

not completely fortified

the reign of Ibrahim Adil

(1534-1557).

A

stone tablet in one of the bastions near the

gateway marks
the
original design

its

completion
of
to

in

a.d.

1546
to

(x\.h.

953) under

superintendence

Khan
have

A'zam Ekhtiar Khan.
been
to

The

seems

build a double wall

round the

fort with

two moats, and
This
design

have the space between
never to

the walls a garden.
carried out.

seems

have been

was

built,

On the south and south-west the double wall and the space between turned into a garden with
this

ponds and fountains, but

inner wall passed only a short
wall

way

west.

On

the east

only one

was

built,

though
the

its

base was guarded by a
bastion.

curtain-wall running
side

from bastion
of

to

On

the

north

the

main

Avail

citadel

was very low, apparently not to block the vieAv, but on this Though the side the double moat sufficed for protection. formidable bastions walls are strong and massive, and several were built at prominent points, it seems unlikely that such a
fort could

have ever

stood

for any

time against an enemy

1 Little's Dotacliment, 320. In 1819 the citadel which had a double rampart and a moat enclosinnj numerous and magniticent palaces was in a state of ruin and decay. The courts were overgrown with trees and choked with weeds and Colehrooke's Elphinstone, II. 71. everything- looked dismal and forlorn.

2

Briggs' Ferishta,

II.

462.

3

Briggs' Ferishta, III. 14.

APPENDIX.

395

armed with artillery who had forced the city fortifications. The site is unfavourable. It is almost the lowest part of the city and is commanded by the rising ground on the northwest, on which
is

built

the

cavalier

called
if

the Upri Buruj.

No

doubt

the

deep

moat,

even

not
the

swarming

with

crocodiles as

Tavernier

reports/

made

place ditticult of

approach.

Still this

was but
of

a slight obstacle, to a well-armed

enemy

in possession

the

north-western
fire

height,

as all the

palaces would be open to his

and the place be untenable. was never used
It

This unprotected state of the public buildings tends to show
that in later years the Ark-killah
as a citadel,

but simply
resolved on

as

a

royal

residence.

may have been owing
Shah
I.

to its defenceless position that

Ali Adil
city

(1557-1580)

fortifying

the

whole

instead of trusting to

the central castle.

south-east

At present the main entrance to the citadel is on the by two traversed gateways of considerable strength.
Apparently the gateways were added

Originally- five well fortified gates are mentioned but of three of
these no trace remains.
after the fortifications

were complete.

The

original or south-

east gate lay

between the two

lofty circular bastions in

which

the fort-walls ended, and

the entrance seems to have led through

an old Hindoo temple
the

much

of

which was
built

left

standing and
the

column

used

in

making the gateway
were
to

and
the

guardof

house
1