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AnyCasting

TM

Advanced Casting Simulation Software

Any Service & Software will be


Casting to Customers

Software Introduction
(Sand Casting)

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

AnyCasting

TM

Total Analysis of All Casting System


3-D Mold Filling Porosity, shrinkage/Solidification, Mold

Die

Sprue

Chill Vent

Pins

Pins

Slide Core

Cavity

Line Channels
Core

Runner

Drag

Cavity

Shot Sleeve

Main Window of AnyCasting System (HPDC)

Main Window of AnyCasting System (SAND)

3-D Thermal Stress / Micro Structure / Mechanical Properties

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Assembly Control of CAD Data


Import & Assemble of 3D CAD/CAM Data
UG, CATIA, I-DEAS, Pro/E, etc. CAD Operations (Merge/Boolean/etc.)
Classify Parts : Product, Runner, Gates, Channels, O/F & A/V

AnyCasting
CATIA

UniGraphics
Import

PRO Engineering

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Solidworks

User can use only STL format

System Configuration
Software Structure
AnyCasting Standard
AnyPRE
AnySOLVER
AnyPOST
AnyMESH
AnyDBASE
BatchRunner

AnyCasting Performance

HPDC/Thixo Module
LPDC Module
Permanent Mold (Tilt) Module
Sand Module
- Cast Iron
- Cast Steel
Large Ingot Module
Investment Module

AnyCasting Extensible Module

anyTX
Advanced Material Properties
Cast Iron Module
Eject Pin Module

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

SW Configuration
AnyCasting Work Flow
Input Data & Solving & Observation

Input Data

Solving

- Modeling File (STL)

- Using Multi Core Process

- Meshing
- Set Casting Condition

- Dramatic Decreased
Solving Time

Observation
Fluid
- Entrapped Air / Gas
- Oxide
- Temperature
- Velocity
- Leakage

Solidification
- Final Solidification Area
- Micro / Macro Shrinkage

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

SW Configuration
AnyCasting Work Flow
Input Data & Solving & Observation

Input Data

- Modeling File (STL)

- Meshing
- Set Casting Condition

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Meshing
Set TEMP.
Set HTC
Set Pouring Temp.
Set Shot Condition
Set Channel
Set Cycle Condition

SW Configuration
AnyCasting Work Flow
Input Data & Solving & Observation

Solving

- Using Multi Core Process

- Dramatic Decreased
Solving Time

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

SW Configuration
AnyCasting Work Flow
Input Data & Solving & Observation

Observation
Fluid
- Entrapped Air / Gas
- Oxide
- Temperature
- Velocity
- Leakage

Filling Sequence
Melt Velocity

Temp.
Distribution

Core Gas

Solidification
- Final Solidification Area
- Micro / Macro Shrinkage

Cast Iron Module


- Tensile Strength

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Development Roadmap

2001

2008

V1.0

V5.0

V3.0

- Anycasting Release

Real Shape
Large Ingot
Centrifugal Casting
Chinese Version

Predicting Oxide
Shot Sleeve Setting
Vacuum Setting
Melt Supply Setting
Thermal Stress Analysis

V4.0

2005

2010

V6.1

- Multi Process
- Cast Iron
- Predicting Eject-Pin Stability

Real Flow
Filter
Auto Report
Calculating Properties
Multi Language
Predicting Core Gas

V2.0

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

2014

2012

Enhanced Particle Tracing


Enhanced Channel HTC
Exothermic Sleeve
CPU Core Setting

Auto Mesh
Enhanced Centrifugal Casting
Quantitative Analysis
Result Combination
Predicting Gas Defect

V6.0

2013
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Exact View by Dynamic Arbitrary Section


Observe Inside of All Entity Parts
X, Y, Z 3 Direction Dynamic Moving Section View
Detail Observation of STL Geometry & Calculation Result

AnyPRE Process

AnyPOST Process

Rotating
(Free Section)

AnyPOST Process

Moving

Dynamic Arbitrary Section Function be Provided Continent Observation to User


User can Check Inside of All Entity Parts Easily Where is Thin or Thick Area

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Graphic Speed Acceleration


Fast Graphics & User Interface
Fully 3D (Open GL 3D), Fast Algorithm: Surface Compiling Method
Set All Conditions by Graphics User Interface

Dynamic Section Viewing

Set Material
by Mouse
Clicking

Number of Mesh : 31 Mill.


Automatic Gate Detecting, Set Gate Condition

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Fast Meshing Algorithm


Meshing Speed : 5 sec per 20 Mill. Mesh
Surface Vector Tracking Method
Intersected Polygons Normal Vector Analysis

STL Geometry

Meshed State

Analysis of Geometry & Mesh


by 3-D Graphics in Pre-Processor

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Auto Meshing
3-clicks is enough for mesh generation!
Find the best meshing condition automatically
Check thin sectioned area automatically
AnyCasting S/W has Uniform / Variable / Auto Mesh System

Generation of 21 Mil. Mesh : 3.5 sec

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Check important sectioned area by using Cross Section

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Parallel process
Up to 2-times Analysis Speed Improvement
Test PC Performance
- Intel i7-4770 3.4GHz / RAM 16GB
Analysis Type
- Filling & Solidification

(1 CPU)

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

(8 CPU)

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Advanced Material Database


User can Make Specific Material Database
Just Input Chemical Composition of Material
Material Database be calculated in a few second and apply to anyPRE

Input Chemical Composition

Calculate Thermal Properties

Input Calculated Thermal Properties

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Trace of Curved Boundary of Mold Interface


Trace Mold Interface by Sub-divided Mesh (Scheme of Cut-Cell Method)
Trace Curved Boundary of Mold Interface
Make Sub-divided Mesh (Meshing Condition Control)
Trace Interface Surface in Boundary Cell using Sub-divided Mesh

Boundary Cell for


Trace Interface Surface
Fluid Cell for
Pressure Interpolation

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Plexiglass-water Model Experiments


Filling Accuracy Comparison with Plexiglass-water Model :
Gravity Casting

General FDM Solver

Hybrid Scheme

Experiment

(Real Flow)

(movie file)

(movie file)

Fluid Fills Runner Partially (Experiment & Real Flow)


Filling Flow goes Faster along the bottom of Runner (same)

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Filling Accuracy at Wall of Sand Mold - 1


Filling Accuracy in the Casting of Cat Iron Product
Ductile Cast Iron / Sand Casting

Gate 4, Filling Flow is Main Stream,


It Fills near Gate 4 Fast,
Move Forward during Filling Process

G2

G4

G1

G2

G3

G4

Filter

Core

Gate 4, Filling Flow is Weak,


It doesnt Contribute to
Initial & Whole Filling Process.

G3

Runner

Runner

General FDM
Solver

G1

Hybrid Method

Cavity

Riser

(Real Flow)

Core

Bracket, Weight : 42 Kg
FCD 600, Green Sand / Shell Core

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Filling Accuracy at Wall of Sand Mold - 2


Temperature Distribution during & after Filling
Ductile Cast Iron / Sand Casting

General FDM
Solver

Hybrid Scheme
(Real Flow)
50% Filled
Temp. Distribution

Changes :
Metal Structure,
Sol/ Shrinkage,
Miss-Run,
Sand Drops,
Crack Area, etc.

Gate 4, Filling Flow is Weak,


Gate 4, Temp. is Lower,
Lowest Temp. shows at
Center Area.

Gate 4, Filling Flow is Strong,


Gate 4, Temp. is Higher,
Lowest Temp. shows at
Right Area.

100% Filled
Temp. Distribution

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Tracing of Retained Melts - 1


RMM (Retained Melt Modulus) or RMS (Retained Melt Surface)
Tracing of Retained Melts, and Calculate Modulus or Surface Area mainly for Macro Shrinkages

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Tracing of Retained Melts - 2


RMM or RMS
Calculate Volume/Surface and Modulus mainly for Macro Shrinkages

Tracing of Retained Melts


Volume and Surface
Coupling RMM or RMS with Probabilistic Model

RMM :
Retained Melt Modulus

M R.M .

VR.M .
S R.M .

Shrinkage Size change


Distribution of total Shrinking Volume

PM :
Probabilistic Model

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Theory & Dev. of Probabilistic Model


Shrinkage Probabilistic Model :
Predict Macro & Micro Shrinkage Size & Range
Shrinkage Probability (Psh)

Calculated Shrinkage
Intensity be Analyzed
by Probabilistic
Distribution

0
0

Cumulated Frequency ()

Shrinkage Probability :
'

'
(1 ) cos '

2
PSh
'

' 1 sin
'
2(1 )

for '
for '

Total Shrinkage Volume


by Alloys & Volume change
by Casting Conditions
Determine Size Range

Shrinkage Conservation :
1

P
0

Sh

d '

: Shrinkage Potential

(Ref. Sung-Bin KIM, etc., Korea Foundry


Societys Conference, 2001)

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Coupling RMM & G/ V with Probabilistic Model


Comparison of Coupled Analysis
RMM & G/V with Probabilistic Model
RMM (Retained Melt Modulus)

Coupled RMM + PM Analysis

Tracing of Isolated Retained Melts


Mostly Predict Macro Shrinkages,
Sometimes Micro Shrinkage, as well.

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

G/V Model, Niyama

Coupled G/V(Niyama) + PM Analysis

Micro Shrinkages were Calculated


by Insufficient Liquid Feeding into Dendrites,
It Shows Shrinkages of Various Size
at Broad Area of Casting.
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Feature of Sand Casting (Cast Iron / Cast Steel)

Contents
1.

Filter

2.

Mold Erosion / Sand Drop

3.

Core Gas

4.

Exothermic Sleeve

5.

Exothermic Powder

6.

Cast Iron

7.

Shrinkage (Critical Solid Fraction)

8.

Shrinkage Volume

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Accuracy Flow include Filter for Stable Filling


Exact Filter Analysis & Consider all Directions

4 Direction Flow
under installed
Filter Condition
Sprue
Filter
Runner

No Filter Case

Filter Case

Filter Case (Pressure)

keep
stable
pressure

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Filter Case (Velocity)

keep
stable
velocity

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Mold Erosion & Sand Drop Model


kind of Mold Material & Melt Temperature are very Important

Er K mat K env CV n f ( )
Er Erosion rate (mg / s )
K mat Material constant
K env Environmen tal constant
C Concentration of particles
f ( ) Function of impact angle
V Impact velocity

The Relationship between Erosion Rate and Impact Angle


2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

The Relationship between Erosion Rate and Velocity


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Sand Drop Test by using Cylinder Block


Compare Horizontal Design and Vertical Design

Horizontal
Casting Design

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Vertical
Casting Design

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Observe Melt Velocity During Filling for Judge Sand Drop


Melt Velocity Distribution between Water Jacket and Core : Cylinder Block

Horizontal
Runner
Design

The rapid velocity of melt can be a cause of sand drop defect

Vertical
Runner
Design

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Core Gas Model


Mathematical Formulation of Core Gas
-

Movement of Gas in Porous Core : Darcys Flow


Core Gas Pressure : Ideal Gas Raw
Mass Transport Equation
Solid Binder Decomposition Rate : Arrhenius Relationship by Pyrolysis Study
Movement of Gas in Melt : Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen (BBO) equation

Out Gas from Core (g)

Gas in Cavity (g/cm3)

Cold Box Sand Core

Core Print

Cast Iron

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Tracking Core Gas during Filling


kind of Mold Material & Melt Temperature are very Important

Horizontal
Runner
Design

Horizontal design has higher possibility of Core Gas defect than Vertical design

Vertical
Runner
Design

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Exothermic Sleeve Model


Exothermic Sleeve by Numerical Analysis
-

Insulating Sleeve : Sleeve for just adiabatic effect


Exothermic Sleeve : Automatically generate a heat when contact melt

Main Factors for Calculating Exothermic Sleeve


Sleeve Type
Burning Time
Ignition Temperature
Heat Rate

( cT )
VT kT b (t )
t

b : Heat Generation Rate [cal / s cm 3 ]


0 ( TIgnition )
b
f (t ) ( TIg int ion )

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Exothermic Sleeve Model


Simple Model Test : No Sleeve / Sleeve (Low & High Effect)
-

Insulating Sleeve : Sleeve for just adiabatic effect


Exothermic Sleeve : Automatically generate a heat when contact melt

No Sleeve

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Low Effect Sleeve

High Effect Sleeve

22mm

42mm

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Exothermic Powder Model


Exothermic Powder by Numerical Analysis
-

Raise the Feedability of Riser for reduce the shrinkage defect


Generally, be used Large Ingot & Huge Cast Steel Product

Spread
Exothermic Powder

Control
Solidification Direction

Main Factors for Calculating Exothermic Powder


Exothermal Area after Filling
Surface Heat Flux by Time
Surface Heat Temperature by Time

( cT )
VT kT s (t )
t
xs

s : Surface Heat Flux [cal / s cm 2 ]


xs : Surfacedistance [cm]

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Exothermic Powder Model


Exothermic Powder by Numerical Analysis
-

Raise the Feedability of Riser for reduce the shrinkage defect


Generally, be used Large Ingot & Huge Cast Steel Product

Use Only Exothermic Sleeve

Use Exothermic Sleeve & Powder

Shrinkage Defect
Shrinkage Defect

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Cast Iron Module


Predict Phase Distribution & Mechanical Properties
-

Consider Effect of Chemical Composition (Si, Mn etc..,)


Consider Fading Effect of Inoculation

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Cast Iron Module


Predict Phase Distribution & Mechanical Properties
-

Consider Effect of Chemical Composition (Si, Mn etc..,)


Consider Fading Effect of Inoculation

Gray Cast Iron : A48


Phase Distribution of Pearlite

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Gray Cast Iron : A48


Mechanical Property of TS

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Selection of CSF (Critical Solidification Fraction)


Selection of CSF at Mushy Zone for Output of Solidification Info.
CSF :
Critical Solidification Fraction
0.1~0.3
0.5
0.7

(Ref. D.M. Stefanescu, etc. 1985,


Y.X. Li, B.C. Liu, C.R. Loper Jr., 1990)

Output of Core Sol. Info. :


- Retained Melt Surface
- Retained Melt Volume
- Temperature Gradient
- Cooling Rate
- Solidification Time
- Local Solidification Time
- Interface Moving Velocity
etc.

Shrinkage Prediction Model


(Ref. D.M. Stefanescu, L. Dinescu, 1979)

Shrk Size, Position, etc. Change

(Ref. Dongmei Liu, Xinzhong Li, etc.)


2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Mismatch between Actual Shrinkage & Analysis


Mismatch between Actual Shrinkage and Simulation Prediction
Defect 2

No Shrinkage Defects
in Simulation
Shrinkages are
Too Close to
Core

Defect 1

Actual Shrinkages in Factory

No Shrinkages
in Actual Castings

Simulation Prediction ( RMM + PM )

Current Shrinkage Model and CSF in Simulation


1.
2.
3.

Material : GCD600 (KS Standards)


Shrinkage Model : RMM (Retained Melt Modulus)
Total Feeding Ratio =0.7(70%), CSF (Critical Solidification Fraction) =0.5(50%)
2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Comparison of Shrinkage Model & CSF - 1


Comparison of RMM & RMS with Variation of CSF
CSF=0.1

CSF=0.2

CSF=0.3

CSF=0.4

Retained Melt Modulus


Retained Melt Surface
2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Comparison of Shrinkage Model & CSF - 2


Comparison of RMM & RMS with Variation of CSF
CSF=0.5

CSF=0.7

CSF=0.9

Retained Melt Modulus


Retained Melt Surface
2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Comparison of Shrinkage Model & CSF - 3


Comparison of RMM & RMS (CSF=0.1, Feeding Ratio=0.9)
Actual Shrinkage
Pattern & Positions
A

Coupled
RMM + PM

Coupled
RMS + PM

Section Position for


Shrinkage Defects
Observation

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

41

Comparison of Shrinkage Model & CSF - 4


Comparison of RMM & RMS (CSF=0.1, Feeding Ratio=0.9)
Actual Shrinkage
Pattern & Positions
A

Coupled
RMM + PM

Coupled
RMS + PM

Section Position for


Shrinkage Defects
Observation

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

42

Shrinkage Volume Model


Basic Assumption
-

Shrinkage Rate of Liquid Pocket be proportional to its volume


Total Shrinkage Volume is Same as Total Liquid Pocket Volume

Basic Equation
-

Shrinkage Volume of Isolated Liquid Pocket

Vi shr

shr
n

Vi
V0 f s
Vn

V1

V2

V0 f s V0shr

V0 : Total Volume
Vi : Volume of i pocket
Vi shr : Shrinkage Volume of i pocket

: Volume Shrinkage ratio


f s : Solid fraction
2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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Shrinkage Volume Model


Consider History of Solidification & Liquid Pocket Size

Express an Absolute Unit (cc) for Shrinkage Volume

Cast Steel : CG 8M
Solidification Pattern

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

Shrinkage Volume

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AnyCasting Co., Ltd

Thank You !

AnyCasting Co., Ltd.


www.anycasting.com

Headquarter

Gimhae Plant

B-16F Woolim B/D, 583 Yangchun-ro,


Gangeso-gu, Seoul, Korea
TEL 82-2-3665-2493 FAX 82-2-3665-2497

123-18 Gasan-ro, Hallim-myun, Gimhae-si,


Gyeongnam, Korea
TEL 82-55-345-2016 FAX 82-55-345-2017

2001 ANYCASTING Co., Ltd., All Rights Reserved

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