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Original Title: HeaT Transfer Heat Exchangers

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solid material and adjacent cryogenic fluid

Classic heat transfer problem (Newtons law)

q(kW/m2) = h (Ts Tf)

Configurations of interest

q

T f = Tmean

m& f

Free convection (single phase, T f = T )

Internal two phase flow

Pool boiling (two phase)

correlations based on dimensionless numbers

Issue is relevant to the design of:

Heat exchangers

Cryogenic fluid storage

Superconducting magnets

Low temperature instrumentation

Ts

Liquid

Tf

Forced

Convection

Ts

Q

correlated in the form where the Nusselt number,

where, Nu D hD k

and D is the characteristic length

f

For laminar flow, NuD = constant ~ 4 (depending on b.c.)

For turbulent flow (ReD > 2000)

Nu D = f (Re D , Pr) = C Re Pr

n

D

& Tf

m,

and

Pr

f Cp

kf

(Prandtl number)

4

Nu D = 0.023 Re Pr

5

computed at Tf (the film temperature):

USPAS Short Course

Tf

Ts + T f

2

2

Improved correlation

specifically for helium

(+/- 8.3%)

Ts

Nu D = 0.0259 Re Pr

T

f

4

5

D

0.716

temperature dependent

properties

Note that one often does

not know Tf, so iteration

may be necessary.

Example

USPAS Short Course

in cryogenic systems

P1, T1

refrigerator/liquefier

(Tube in shell HX)

P2, T2

Ts

the tube:

m& C

& Tf

m,

dT f

dx

+ hP (T f TS ) = 0

hP

Ts T f = (Ts T f ) 0 exp

x

m& C

Ts - Tf

Increasing m

x

USPAS Short Course

Ts

He (Tf = 80 K)

& Tf

m,

He (Ti = 300 K)

LN2 (Ts = 77 K)

Ts is a constant @ 77 K (NBP of LN2)

Helium gas (Cp = 5.2 kJ/kg K; = 15 x 10-6 Pa s; = 0.3 kg/m3, k = 0.1

W/m K)

Allowed pressure drop, p = 10 kPa

Properties are average values

Helium mass flow rate = 1 g/s

between 300 K and 80 K

Total heat transfer:

Q = m& C p Tin Tout = 1 g/s x 5.2 J/g K x 220 K

= 1144 W

Log mean T:

T f (x = 0 ) T f (x = L )

(300-77) (80-77) K

Tlm =

=

T ( x = 0 )

ln f

ln [(300-77)/(80-77)]

(

)

=

T

x

L

f

= 51 K

UA = hDL = Q

Tlm

Assuming the flow is turbulent and fully developed, use the Dittus Boelter

correlation

hD

Nu D =

= 0.023 Re 0D.8 Pr 0.3

kf

and

k f 4 m&

h = 0.023

D D

0 .8

Pr

0 .3

4m&

Re D =

D

(15 x 10-6 Pa s)0.8 x D1.8

= 0.07/D(m)1.8

hDL

or L/D0.8 = 100 m0.2

L m&

p = f

2 D A flow

Re D =

4 x 0.001 kg/s

x 0.0062 m x 15 x 10-6 Pa s

m& 2 L

p 0.016

D5

Substitute:

Eq. 1: L = 100 D0.8

4m&

D

L

0.016 x

5

=

3

D

0.3 kg/m

L

-8

p= 5.33 x 10 5

D

(10-3

kg/s)2

p= 5.33 x 10-6/D4.2

with

~ 13,700

two unknowns

p = 10,000 Pa

USPAS Short Course

g

Q

or

Q

D

Compressible fluid effect: Heat transfer warms the fluid near the

heated surface, reducing density and generating convective flow.

Free convection heat transfer is correlated in terms of the

Rayleigh number,

Nu L = f (Gr , Pr ) ~ CRa Ln

where

gTL3

RaL Gr Pr =

Dth

the kinematic viscosity (/) and Dth is the thermal diffusivity (k/C).

L (or D) are the scale length of the problem (in the direction of g)

USPAS Short Course

number, Nu = 1

corresponding to pure

conduction heat transfer

For Ra < 109, the

boundary layer flow is

laminar (conv. fluids)

temperature helium

Nu L 0.59 RaL0.25

boundary layer is

turbulent

Nu L 0.1RaL0.33

Example

USPAS Short Course

10

Liquid

transfer curve

Surface condition

(roughness, insulators,

oxidation)

Orientation

Channels (circulation)

state (transient heating)

Heated

Surface

Q

USPAS Short Course

the same behavior, although the numerical

values of q and T are different.

Boston, MA 6/14 to 6/18/2010

11

static liquids below the peak heat flux (q* ~ 10 kW/m2 for helium)

Requirements for nucleate boiling

surface

th =

k f T

q

~ 1 to 10 m for helium

formation of vapor bubbles.

12

Pv

PL

Pv = PL +

2

r

whether the bubble grows of collapses

r < rc and the bubble will collapse

Clausius Clapeyron relation defines the slope of the vapor pressure line

in terms of fundamental properties

h fg

h fg p

s

dp

=

=

dT sat v T (vv vL ) RT 2

USPAS Short Course

and vv >> vL

13

ps and ps + 2/r

2 h fg T

rc =

e

ps

2RTs2

h fg ps T

RT 2

This corresponds to rc ~ 17 nm

Number of helium molecules in bubble ~ 10,000

Bubble has sufficient number of molecules to be treated as

a thermodynamic system

heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on a surface. This is

more efficient than homogeneous nucleation and occurs

for smaller T.

14

USPAS Short Course

15

and difficult to model

Engineering correlations are used for analysis

Kutateladse correlation

h

kl

1/ 2

qC pl l

4

= 3 .25 10

h fg v k l

1/ 2

0 .6

g l

l

g l

3/ 2

0 .125

(g )1 / 2

l

0 .7

9

q = 1.90 10 g l

l

0.3125

1.75

1.5

l C p

v h fg

1.5

kl

2.5

(Ts Tb )

1/ 2

where

g l

USPAS Short Course

q (W / cm 2 ) = 5.8T 2.5

Boston, MA 6/14 to 6/18/2010

16

Understanding the peak nucleate boiling heat flux is based on

empirical arguments due to instability in the vapor/liquid flow

vL

vv

vL

vv

vv

vL

vv

vL

c2 =

L v

2

2

(

)

v

v

L

( L + v ) ( L + v )2

USPAS Short Course

17

Zuber correlation:

( l v )g l

q Khfg v

+

v

v

l

q 0.16h fg v 2 [g ( l v )]

1

Limits:

Tc; q*

0; q* ~ v1/2 (decreases)

18

Film Boiling

by a layer of vapor

Film boiling heat transfer coefficient is generally much less that that

in nucleate boiling

Minimum film boiling heat flux, qmfb is related to the stability of the

less dense vapor film under the more dense liquid

liquid

vapor

~ 10 m

Q

Taylor Instability governs the collapse of the vapor layer

USPAS Short Course

19

Fluid state: saturated or pressurized (subcooled)

Heater geometry (flat plate, cylinder, etc.)

Breen-Westwater correlation

1/ 8

h fb

g ( l v )

v (Ts Tb )

3

kv v (l v )g '

1/ 4

1/ 2

= 0.37 + 0.28

2

gD ( l v )

Where,

[h

' =

g ( l v )

h fb = 0.37

1/ 8

k v ( l v )g '

v (Ts Tb )

3

v

1/ 4

fg

+ 0.34C pv (Ts Tb )

h fg

q (Ts T f )

20

qmfb

g ( l v )

= 0.16h fg v

2

(l + v )

Dimensionless ratio:

qmfb

q*

v

=

v

l

0.9

LHe @ 4.2 K

Film boiling

Q/S, W/cm2

Transition boiling

flux is less than the peak

heat flux

Recovery to nucleate

boiling state is associated

with Taylor Instability.

Nucleate boiling

0.3

qmfb

(Ts-Tb), K

~ 0.1 @ 2.2 K

~ 1 @ Tc = 5.2 K

~ 0.09 for LN2 @ 80 K where q* ~ 200 kW/m2

Boston, MA 6/14 to 6/18/2010

21

22

23

24

25

various factors

Ts

Orientation w/r/t gravity

Flow regime

Quality ()

Void fraction ()

Q

m&

,T

QT = Q fc + Qb

where: Qfc is convective and

gravity enhanced boiling.

m&

Qb is

Ts

Q

contribution may dominate

USPAS Short Course

26

,T

,T

Q

Consider the case where gravitational effects are negligible

m&

Ts

Nu 2

Nu L

= f ( tt )

where tt = 1 x

x

and Nu L = 0.023 Re

0.8

L

0.4

L

Pr

0.9

L

v

Re L =

0.1

v

L

0.5

m& (1 x )

L A flow

Nu 2

Nu L

A tt m

1 for tt large

USPAS Short Course

27

this problem and pool boiling

is that the fluid is confined

within channel

At low mass flow rate and

self driven flows (natural

circulation) the heat

transfer is governed by

buoyancy effects

Process is correlated against

classical boiling heat

transfer models

In the limit of large D the

correlation is similar to pool

boiling heat transfer

(vertical surface)

USPAS Short Course

m&

,T

D

Ts

Q

28

Empirical observations

q* ~ w for small w

q* ~ z-1/2 for w/z < 0.1

q* ~ constant for w/z

>> 1

w h fg v

q =

z 2

*

and

g c ln[1 + c ( 1)]

1

c ( 1)

1

c = mv m&

&

l

v

Critical quality

29

Superconductors (LTS in LHe @ 4.2 K)

Used in large magnets where flux jumping and other small disturbances

are possible and must be arrested

General idea: in steady state ensure that cooling rate exceeds heat

generation rate (Q > G)

Achieved by manufacturing conductor with large copper (or aluminum)

fraction and cooling surface

Lower overall current density

G/S

I2R/S

Potentially high AC loss (eddy currents)

Current

Sharing

Composite Conductor

Copper/Aluminum stabilizer

Insulating spacer (G-10)

NbTi/Nb3Sn

Fully

normal

Tc (K)

T (K)

Icu

Isc

V=IcuRcu

30

Case 1: Unconditional stability, recovery to fully superconducting state

occurs uniformly over length of normal zone

Case 2: Cold End recovery (Equal area criterion): Excess cooling capacity

(area A) > Excess heat generation (area B)

Q/S

or

G/S

Tb (K)

Tcs (K)

Tc (K)

transfer curve for bath cooling

normalized per surface area

G/S is the two part heat generation

Curve for a composite superconductor

Tcs is the temperature at which Top = Tc

Tx (K)

31

boundary layer thermal diffusion. Why is this important in cryogenics?

(Dth (copper) ~ 10-4 m2/s @ 300 K; ~ 1 m2/s @ 4 K)

Normal liquid helium has a low thermal conductivity and large heat

capacity

Df=

q

T(x)

th

th =

kf

(D t )

~ 1.5 t1/2 [m] for copper @ 4.2 K

hL

<< 1 ~ 10L [m]

k

superconducting magnets, with associated transient thermal processes

Important parameters to determine

E = q t* (critical energy)

32

Time evolution of the temperature difference following a step heat input:

Steady state is reached after ~ 0.1 s

33

Hypothesis: The critical energy is determined by the amount of

energy that must be applied to vaporize a layer of liquid adjacent

to the heated surface.

Energy required

E = l h fg th

th =

(D t )

f

kl

q = l h fg

*

2

l Ct

*

q*

LHe

th

34

than the surrounding fluid due to two contributions:

Fluid layer diffusion: transient conduction in the fluid layer will result in a

finite temperature difference

Kapitza conductance: At low temperatures, there can be a significant

temperature difference, Tk, due to thermal impedance mismatch (more on

this subject later). This process is dominant at very low temperatures, but

is small above ~ 4 K, so is normally only important for helium systems.

2 T f

x 2

k

1 T f

=

; Df =

D f t

C p

Boundary conditions:

Tf (infinity, t) = 0; isothermal bath

q = -kf dTf/dt)x=0 ; heat flux condition

Solid is isothermal (Bi = hL/k << 1)

differential equation with two

spatial and one time boundary

condition.

35

12

x2

x

q Df t

xerfc

exp

2

T f =

1

2

2(D t )

kf

f

4D f t

12

2q t

T f ( x = 0 ) =

C p k f

Tf

C p k f

h=

=

2

T f

0.1

t

12

Note: this value of h >> hnb (nucleate boiling HT coefficient)

36

generally suitable for cryogenic fluids

Free convection

Forced convection

Nucleate boiling

Peak heat flux

Film boiling

and onset of film boiling

37

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