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Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics


prepared by Nick Fang

Lecture 1: Mathematical Basis of Optical Fields and Eikonal Equations
A. Introduction
B. Summary of Maxwell’s Equations
o Light in a medium: need for Substitutive relationship
C. Maxwell’s Equations in Cartesian Coordinates
o Propagation of source-free EM wave in homogeneous medium
o Field associated with a line current source
D. Geometrical light rays
E. Path of Light in an Inhomogeneous Medium
F. Fermat’s Principle of least time

A. Introduction:
While Maxwell’s equations can solve light propagation in a rigorous way(say using your
COMSOL or FDTD/FEM software), the exact solutions can be found in fairly limited cases,
and most practical examples require intuitive approximations (so we can take back-of
envelope estimation!).
Distance of event


(Scalar) Fourier Optics

Vector Field, Polarization


min feature size

Figure 1. Different domains and approaches of EM waves
For example, radios and mobile phones make use of same Maxwell Equations to
transfer information as carried by light waves, but our perception is quite different. Why?
We tend to think of light as bundles of rays in our daily life. This is because we observe
the processes (emission, reflection, scattering) at a distance (> 10cms with bare eyes) that
are much longer than the wavelength of light (10-7m or 400-700nm), and our receivers

Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics,

prepared by Nick Fang

(retina and CCD pixels) are also considerably large. In the other end, the wavelength of
radio-frequency waves (10cm at 3GHz) is comparable or sometimes larger than the size
and spacing between transmitting/receiving devices (say, the antennas in your cell
Based on the specific method of approximation, optics has been broadly divided into
two categories, namely:
Geometrical Optics (ray optics) treated in the first half of the class;
emphasis on finding the light path; it is especially useful for:

Designing optical instruments;
or tracing the path of propagation in inhomogeneous media.


Wave Optics (physical optics).

Emphasis on analyzing interference and diffraction
Gives more accurate determination of light distributions

B. Summary of Maxwell Equations, Differential Forms:

Physical Quantity
Electric Field
Magnetic Field
Electric flux density
Magnetic flux density
Volume Charge Density
Current density
Permittivity of Free Space
Permeability of Free Space



Units (in real space)
8.85x10-12 Farads/m
4x10-7 Henry/m

1. In real space, time-dependent fields:
(Faraday’s Law:)


(Ampere’s Law:)


(Gauss’ Law, electric field)
(Gauss’ Law, magnetic field)
Note: J, q are sources of EM radiation and E, D, H, B are induced fields.


From time domain to frequency domain: Continuous wave laser light field understudy are often mono-chromatic. From real space to wave-vector space: Similarly. prepared by Nick Fang 2. 3.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. we can replace all time derivatives by in frequency domain: (Faraday’s Law:) (B7) (Ampere’s Law:) (B8) The forms of the two Gauss’ Law remain unaltered. Advantage: ⃗⃗ (⃗ ( ) ) ∫ ) ( ( ) ∫ ⃗[⃗ ) ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ∫ ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ⃗⃗ ( )] ) ) ( ⃗ ⃗) (B9) ( ⃗ ⃗) (B10) ( ⃗ ⃗) .g. These problems are mapped in the Maxwell equations by expanding complex time signals to a series of time harmonic components (often referred to as “single” wavelength light): ⃗( ) ∫ ⃗( ) ( ) e. we can simplify the problems by expanding complex spatially varying signals to a series of spatial harmonic components: ⃗ (⃗ e.g. (B5) Advantage: ⃗ (⃗ ) ∫ ⃗⃗ (⃗ ) ( ) ⃗ (⃗ ∫ [ )] ( ) (B6) So.

magnetic field) (B14) These set of equations are particularly helpful when thinking about propagation and focusing of white light or signal of broad frequencies. . (⃗ ⃗ ) (B15) ∫ ( By replacing by ⃗ and ) by we arrive at: (Faraday’s Law:) (B16) (Ampere’s Law:) (B17) (Gauss’ Law. electric field) (B18) (Gauss’ Law. the problem understudy can be written with a joint transformation of space and time (say.g. electric field) (B13) (Gauss’ Law. B field is orthogonal to E and k (often considered as direction of propagation). 4.g. magnetic field) (B19) Note: As you can see in this example.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. So. while D is orthogonal to H and k when there is no source. Complete transform: frequency and wavevector space representation Finally. we can replace all space derivatives by prepared by Nick Fang ⃗ in wave-vector domain: (Faraday’s Law:) (B11) (Ampere’s Law:) (B12) (Gauss’ Law. a holographic grating under the illumination of a HeNe Laser): ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ) ⃗ (⃗ ) e. while the spatial variation is significant (e. gratings and nanoparticles).

independent of neighbors) and linear relationship: ⃗⃗ ( ) ( ) ⃗( ) (B20) ⃗⃗ ( ) ( ) ⃗⃗⃗ ( ) (B21) The so called (electric) permittivity ( ) and (magnetic) permeability ( )are unitless parameters that depend on the frequency of the input field. Therefore it is more typical to consider the E. B fields as output. Cumulating contributions from the reacting field in the neighborhood and could experience delay to transfer energy from one form to the other. Some generic form of such equations could be written as: ( ) (B20) ( ) (B21) Note that such response could be both dependent on space and time. D. we may enjoy the following simplification of local (i. the response is not isotropic (D E. prepared by Nick Fang . In common optical materials. both ( ) and ( )become 3x3 dimension tensor.Observation: Light in a medium -Need for Substitutive relationships There are total of 12 unknowns (E. Most unfamiliar one is probably the curl of a vector . H field as input and D. C. and B H). In the case of anisotropic medium.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. we can include them together with Maxwell equations to obtain a complete solution of optical fields with proper boundary condition. Those properties will be revisited further in nonlinear optics. ie. They are generally not linear. H. B) but so far we only obtained 8 equations from the Maxwell equations (2 vector form x3 + 2 scalar forms) so more information needed to understand the complete wave behavior! Generally we may start to construct the response of a material by applying a excitation field E or H in vacuum. Now we have 6 more equations from material response. we need to practice on the vector operators accordingly. plasmonics and metamaterials. Maxwell’s Equations in Cartesian Coordinates: To solve Maxwell equations in Cartesian coordinates. In Cartesian coordinates it is often written as a matrix determinant: . and in addition.e.

. an expanded laser beam in +x direction.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.Example 1: Propagation of source-free EM wave in 1-D homogeneous medium (e.g. ) We can now further simplify from the above equations in Cartesian coordinates: ( ) (C10) ( ) (C11) ( ) (C12) . with 3 components in Cartesian coordinates: ( ) (C2) ( ) (C3) ( ) (C4) Likewise. .6a-f) of Maier’s textbook chapter 2. we may write the Faraday’s law in frequency domain. we arrive at the rest of Maxwell’s equations: ( ) (C5) ( ) (C6) ( ) (C7) together with (C8) And (C9) You may compare the above with equations (2. ̂ ⃗ ̂ prepared by Nick Fang ̂ | | (C1) In this fashion.

i. there is a linear relation between E and H component. Hz only) (C18) And (C19) Observations: . - Taking the derivative again on any of these equations.g. In the isotropic case. similar to ohm’s law. only components of E. H field that are orthogonal to propagation direction (+x) survived in the wave field.g.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.e. .Once again we see that wave propagation in such medium is purely transverse. they can be further divided into 2 independent sub-groups (two Polarizations!): (Ez. prepared by Nick Fang And ( ) (C13) ( ) (C14) ( ) (C15) From the above we found only 4 non-trivial equations.If we know the prescribed source (e. we obtain wave equation such as: ( ( ) ( ) (C20) ) (C21) since the speed of light c0 in vacuum satisfy ( Therefore the index of refraction is found as: ( ) - ) √ ( ) ( ) In the k-presentation. e. . . an oscillating current Jy or Jz at x=0 position) then we can plot the complete spatial distribution of optical field at arbitrary x location. Hy only) (C16) and (C17) Or (Ey.

In previous examples we studied the field associated with a flat interface in which the evanescent waves can be excited by a plane wave illuminating from the dense medium.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. prepared by Nick Fang We take the ratio of Ez/Hy (since they have the unit of voltage divided by current) )in the medium: to define wave impedance ( ( ) (C22) You may verify that in vacuum ( ) Z 0= =377    (C23)   In general however. But how is it related to imaging? How is the analysis from beams connected to imaging an object of arbitrary shapes? . material property. and it’s connection to Evanescent waves y ̂ ( ) ( ) x ∫ ( ) =∫ Figure 2: Measurement of 2D H Field at arbitrary plan y>0. excited by a line current source J= ̂ ( ) ( ) placed at the origin. - Example 2: Field associated with a line current source. wave impedance is a function of polarization. and longitudinal wavevector kx.

̂ ( ) ( ) Let’s begin by the Maxwell equations of k- domain and in vacuum: ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ (C24) ⃗ (C25) ⃗ ( ⃗) (C26) ⃗ ( ⃗) (C27) In order to find E(k.) as a function of source J(k. Now we apply conservation of charges ( )in k- domain: ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ )⃗ ( Or ⃗ Likewise. you will find H(k.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. prepared by Nick Fang ) In this analysis. we can apply ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ⃗) ( ⃗ ⃗) ⃗ (⃗ on (C24): ⃗ (⃗ ⃗ ) ⃗) ⃗ (C28) (C29) Therefore. if you started by ⃗ (C31) ( ) ) ⃗ (⃗ ) ̿ (C32) (C33) (C25). ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ⃗ ⃗) (C30) The right hand is a source term.)= ̂ . we take the example of a line of current sources ( ( in 2 dimension) and study the field excited by the line source in vacuum.) from J Or ⃗ ⃗ )⃗ ( ( ) ⃗ (C34) (C35) . while the left hand side is still complex as we have a term of ⃗ ⃗ projected to k direction.) together. Using equation (C26) we see that ⃗ ( ⃗ ⃗ ( ) so the term indicates a fluctuating ⃗) charge associated with the current source. when we assemble the terms of E(k.

But how does that translate into propagating and evanescent waves? Now let’s select one direction. and a function in the denominator. then the above forms describe 2 propagating waves: ( ( ) √ ) { ( √ ) ( √ )} . prepared by Nick Fang In Cartisian coordinates. ( roots: ( ) in the ) which contains 2 ) √ ( ( )( ) can be a complex number. Take Eq(C39) as an example. we now can split the integral into two parts: ( ( ) ) ( {∫ ) ( ( ∫ ) ) ( ) } (C40) For each of the term to be integrated we can now apply Cauchy’s integral theorem: ( ) ∫ ( ) ( ) ( ( ) { ) ( ) ( )} (C41) Case I: When . say y direction.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. and perform inverse Fourier transform of H field on this direction: ( ) ( ( ) ( ( )∫ ) ( (C38) ) ( )∫ ) ( (C39) ) Now we need to evaluate the integral that contains a fast oscillating field nominator. we allowed the wavevectors k=(kx. we arrive at: ( ( ) ( ) ) ( (C36) ) (C37) Until now. ky) to take arbitrary values and independent of each other.

we see A=i√ When =iand to keep the field from divergence at infinity we eliminate the exponentially growing term. At arbitrary distance y from the object we see their amplitudes are determined by - ( ) ( ) . prepared by Nick Fang Case II: . . so the above equation (C41) defines a field that is exponentially decaying away from the source: ( ) ( ) √ { ( | |√ )} (C42) Observations: Propagate to new y plane y x ( ( ) ) Figure 3: k- domain analysis of H field excited by the line current source J= ̂ - The field excited by the objects (such as a single fluorescent molecule that radiate at the origin x=y=0) can be now considered as a set of beams. kx is large. (C43) . the amplitude we can detect is then diminishing exponentially at distance comparable to √ . If the period of oscillation at the source is small.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. separated by their corresponding lateral wavevector kx.

D. the field is varying rapidly in z. for example).Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.e. ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ( ( (D1) ( )⃗ ( )⃗ ) ⃗) (D2) (D3) (D4) . isotropic medium but with spatially varying permittivity ( ). Propagation of Phase Front and High Frequency Limit. Unfortunately we see that a portion of information associated with is lost when we are far away from the object. as the evanescent waves √ travels along the interface (at x direction). then we can think of the radiation being modified by inclusion of a set of reflected and transmitted beams across the interface. typically in a dimension comparable or smaller than the corresponding wavelength. prepared by Nick Fang - Connection to Fresnel Equations: when the source is placed next to an interface. How can we obtain such picture from Maxwell’s equations? Now let’s go back to real space and time-frequency domain (in a source free. connection to Geometric Rays So far we have examined one aspect of nanophotonics. The reflection and transmission coefficients of each kx components are determined by the Fresnel equations. how to analyze the field near a source. to measure separation better than then we have to sit at a distance . ) Also. Intuitively we tend to the approach of Geometric optics such as ray tracing. not all dimensions are equally small(say. or based on the mismatch of impedance across the interface. In practice however. we may need to find methods to capture these evanescent waves sideways (such as creating curvatures). - Imaging an object involves collection of the set of reflected and/or transmitted beams at a distance from the object. but changes rather slowly in x. that is.y directions). In order to capture that portion of information we have to move the interface close enough to the object (i.

and a slowly varying envelope E0(r) as illustrated in the following diagram: Slowly varying envelope E0(r)  Figure 4: Example of decomposition of E field into the product of slowly varying envelope and a fast oscillating phase exp( ) Likewise. if the envelope of field varies slowly with wavelength (as we can see in systems with small loss: . ) in similar fashion: ⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ( ( ) And ⃗ ) ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) With this treatment. we can treat H(r. prepared by Nick Fang Now we decompose the field E(r. ) into two forms: a fast oscillating component exp(ik0). we can rearrange the Maxwell equations into: ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) ( )( ( ) ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D5) ( )⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( ) (D6) ( )⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D7) (D8) Furthermore.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.

Geometrical Relationship of E. then to the lowest order in 1/k0 we obtain: ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D9) ( )⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D10) ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D11) ( ) ⃗⃗⃗⃗ (D12) Equations (D11) and (D12) simply suggests that E0. E0 H0 2 1 3 Figure 5. and Also. H0 are orthogonal to the gradient of phasefront ( ). taking (D9) we obtain: ( ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) ( ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ) ( )⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ | ⃗⃗⃗⃗ | | | ( )⃗⃗⃗⃗ Thus for non-zero envelop field E0 we have | | ( ) (D13) . ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ( )( ( prepared by Nick Fang ) ). H.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.

| | ( ) prepared by Nick Fang ( ) (D14) In Cartesian Coordinates. now can we predict more accurately the ray path and image forming processes? .i - ) (D15) being the eikonal (derived from a Greek Observation (not proof): The above equation yields: | | . word. we can write (D14) as: ( ) ( ) ( ( ) This is the well-known Eikonal equation. and we heard of the explanation such as the refractive index increases with density (and hence decreases with temperature at a given altitude). Mirage Effects) Figure 6. E. Path of Light in an Inhomogeneous Medium - Example 1: 1D problems (Gradient index waveguides. or | | This is equivalent to the Fermat’s Principle on optical path length (OPL): ∫| | ∫ (D16) Such process requires the direction of the light path ⃗⃗⃗ follows exactly the gradient of phase contour (a vector).Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. With the picture in mind. The mirage effect The best known example of this kind is probably the Mirage effect in dessert or near a seashore. meaning image). We will use it to determine the path of light in a general inhomogeneous medium.

( ) (D17) Since there is the index in independent of z. some light rays follow a curved path instead of straight lines.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. we observed that the index of refraction in the sugar solution is approximately: . prepared by Nick Fang Starting from the Eikonal equation and we assume then we find: ( ) ( ) ( ) is only a function of x. we observed that due to the index variation produced by a concentration gradient of dissolved sugar. z) is determined by: √ (D23) ( ) Hence ∫ - √ ( ) (D24) Example: In a fish tank with sugar solution at the bottom. we can visualize that direction of rays follow the gradient of phase front: (D20) z-direction: x-direction: ( ) (D21) √ ( ) ( ) (D22) Therefore. we may assume the slope of phase change in z direction is linear: ( )= C(const) √ ( ) (D18) This allows us to find (D19) From Fermat’s principle. the light path (x. Based on mass diffusion equations.

n0 is the index of refraction of water (1. we may assume a quadratic index profile along the x direction.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. ray propagation in the gradient index waveguide follows a sinusoid pattern! The periodicity is determined by a constant √ . ( ) [ ( prepared by Nick Fang )]. (D25) Where. D is the diffusivity of sugar in aqueous solution(D~6x10-10 m2/s). is the index change in saturated sugar solution (~0. √ ( √ ( )) (D32) As you can see in this example. we can expand the exponential term in the denominator around x = 0: e  x2 2 Dt 1 x2 x4   2 Dt 4Dt 2 (D26) Without loss of generality. If we only consider rays very near the bottom of the tank. .34). and t is the time the solution is prepared (~3 days). such as found in gradient index optical fibers or rods: ( ) ∫ ( ) (D27) (D28) √ ( ) To find the integral explicitly we may take the following transformation of the variable x: √ (D29) Therefore. ∫ (D30) √ √ ( ) (D31) Or more commonly.14).

Index of refraction n(x) prepared by Nick Fang x dz dx z Figure 7. then | (D34) . the index of ( ) is only a refraction is varying in a centro-symmetric fashion.Case II: axisymmetric. we may assume the slope of phase change in  direction is linear too: ( ) (D36) √ ( ) (D37) Once again we can visualize that direction of rays follow the gradient of phase front ( ). The ray path in a gradient index slab Observation: the constant C is related to the original “launching” angle  of the optical ray.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. cylindrical gradient index materials In some cases such as the famous Maxwell Fisheye lens and Luneberg lens. To check that we start by: | If we assume C= ( ) √ ( (D33) ) . so (B36) and (B37) can be expressed as: ( ) (D38) (This is tricky!) ( ) √ ( ) (D39) . Thus we assume function of r in Equation (D14): ( ) ( ) ( ) (D35) A there is no dependence of  in the index.

ii ( ) ( ( ∫ (D42) ) ) √ ( (D43) ) . Note this lens is under hot debate recently whether it promises a “perfect” focus.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. p. the light path (r. ). ( where (r0. Where The explicit solution of (D43) is provided by Born and Wolf: {√ } {√ } (D44) Or.. Principles of Optics. 130. ) is determined by: (D40) √ ( ) ∫ (D41) ( ) √ Note: The general result of centro-symmetric gradient index lens is consistent with Literature (M. 157-158) Example: Maxwell’s fish-eye lens A hypothetical “fish-eye” lens is investigated mathematically by Maxwell as follows. Wolf. Born & E. prepared by Nick Fang Therefore. 7th ed. ) √( {√ ) (D45) } indicates a “launching” angle at the initial point .

An interesting result is. prepared by Nick Fang Observation: - To obtain the rays of such a lens of Equation(D45) into Cartesian coordinates. and the magnification is ). forming an inverted image . if we replace any value r by . Ray Schematics of Maxwell’s Fish Eye Lens with a radially varying index of refraction described by (D35). we use the transformation: .Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. then we only need to multiply the RHS by (-1). and focus to a point Q ( ). : ( ) ) √( ( ( √( √( ) ) ) (D46) ) ) √( ( √( ( ) ) ) ( ) . All rays (blue solid curves) from point P will follow circular path indicated by Eq(D47). a r=a Q  Figure 8. 0). all rays leaving a point P(r0. Therefore. Equation (D47) clearly indicates each ray forms a circle with radius - (D47) The RHS of Equation (D45) is only a function of r. . P (r0. This is achievable at the LHS side if we simply ask . 0) will refocus back to a point Q( with respect to P.

pp. (see: R. (Nasa. All parallel rays (red solid curves) coming from the left-hand side of the Luneberg lens will focus to a point on the edge of the sphere. the gradient index function can be written as: ( ) { √ (D48) Such lens was mathemateically conceived during the 2nd world war by R. Mathematical Theory of Optics (Brown Right: Ray Schematics of Luneberg Lens with a radially varying index of refraction. Left: Picture of an Optical Luneberg Lens (a glass ball 60 mm in diameter) used as spherical retro-reflector on Meteor-3M spacecraft. F. such device gained new interests in in phased array communications. in illumination systems. - prepared by Nick Fang Other popular examples: Luneberg Lens The Luneberg lens is inhomogeneous sphere that brings a collimated beam of light to a focal point at the rear surface of the sphere. Figure 9. Fermat’s Principle of least time At first glance. K. and later for optical communications as well as in acoustics. Luneberg. Rhode Island. Luneberg. Fermat’s principle is similar to the problem of classical mechanics: finding a possible trajectory of a moving body under a given potential field (We will introduce such Lagrangian or Hamiltonian approach in more detail in the coming lectures about gradient index optics). as well as concentrators in solar energy harvesting and in imaging objectives. . 1944). K. Recently.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. 189-213. Providence.) The applications of such Luneberg lensiii was quickly demonstrated in microwave frequencies. For a sphere of radius R with the origin at the center.

“Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens”. “Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction”. Leonhardt. 093040 (2009). and U. leaving only the paths defined by Fermat’s principle. In order to quantify the variation of light speed in different medium. New. we can define an “Optical Path Length”(OPL): ( ) ∫ ( ⃑) (F1) This is equivalent to finding the total time (T= OPL/c) required for signals to travel from P to P’.G.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics. ii See references as following: - U. would take the shortest path (in time). Using the index of refraction. Chapter 5: “High Frequency Fields” in “Electromagnetics: Theory. Endnotes and References For reference about the high frequency (also coined as Physical Optics) limit of Maxwell equations. 11. T. Leonhardt. New J. Phys. How is it consistent with wave picture? Modern theorists like Feynman take more rigorous approach to show that all other paths that do not require an extreme time ((shortest. we introduce of an index of refraction n: Where: c~3x108 m/s is speed of light in vacuum. longest or stationary) are cancelled out.K. light propagating between two given points P and P’. Plenum press. 033016 (2011). Sahebdivan. New J. 1997. and vice versa. Ong. Phys. . 13. you may read: i -Giorgio Franceschetti. Ma. J. and v is the speed of light in the medium. Tyc. prepared by Nick Fang The underlying argument is. S. Techniques. C. and Engineering Paradigms”. “Perfect imaging without negative refraction”. - Y. 13 023038 (2011). Phys. - Juan C González et al .

no gain"(Comment). Zernike. Colombini.” Appl.” J. Commun. “Index-profile computation for the generalized Luneburg lens. R. Anderson. 29. B. R.“General Solution of the Luneberg Lens Problem”. 2011)) References regarding Luneberg Lens: - S. Nature. Am. Colombini. “Perfect imaging without refraction?” New J. Youmans. B.Lecture Notes on Short Course on Nanophotonics.” Appl. Phys. Oania. “Shadow sputtered diffraction-limited waveguide Luneburg lenses. 18. Soc. Anderson. Phys. D. 33. 3589–3593 (1981).” Appl. Phys. J. “Guided-wave optical thin-film Luneburg lenses: fabrication technique and properties. 13 125006 (2011). K. - Xiang Zhang. doi: 10. 12. 1403–1405(1981). 71. Opt. . - S. 4067–4079 (1979).1723441 - F. August. Yao and D. iii prepared by Nick Fang - R J Blaikie. “Luneburg lens for optical waveguide use. 379–381 (1974). Appl. Opt. 20. P. - S. Yao. R. “Design of thin-film Luneburg lenses for maximum focal length control. Morgan. K. - E. - E. "No drain. 307–309 (1978). 1358 (1958). B. M.1063/1.” Opt. Opt. and C. Lett.