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# TUTORIAL CHAPTER I-2: ATOMIC STURCTURE AND BONDING

EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE 2.1
For sodium with Z = 11, write down its electron configuration.
The way to write the electron configuration:

Principal
quantum
number

Orbital
quantum
number

No. of electron in
the orbital

Therefore, by referring to Figure 2.11; the electron configuration for sodium (Na) will be:

## 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

EXAMPLE 2.2
Between Natrium and Chlorine, which one will become electropositive ion and which one
will become electronegative ion in a chemical reaction?
Given that the electronegativity value for Na = 0.9 and that of Cl = 3.0
Natrium is tend to give up its electron because of the lower electronegativity value
compared to chlorine. Chlorine will have more tendency of attracting electrons towards its
atom in a chemical reaction with Natrium.
So, Natrium will be electropositive ion and chlorine will be electronegative ion.
EXAMPLE 2.3
Make up the double bond between 2 oxygen atoms for O2. Atomic number for O is 8.

Steps to draw orbital model:
i.

Write down the electron configuration for the atom based on the atoms
atomic number,
(O, Z = 8) = 1s2 2s2 2p4

ii.

Draw the orbital model based on the orbital number for the atom,

O, n= 2

iii.

Figure out the number of valence electron/s to know how many electrons
will take part in the chemical reaction. O = 6

iv.

## Figure out the number of electron sharing needed 2 pairs of electron

sharing is needed to fill up the outermost orbit

v.

Check the electronegativity value to figure out whether it is a polar or nonpolar covalent bonding. For this case since both are the same elements, it is
a non-polar covalent bonding.

vi.

Draw the orbital model to show the sharing that takes place.

TRY IT YOURSELF!
1. Try to work out the ionic bonding process between magnesium (Z=12) and
oxygen (Z=8). The electronegativity value for Mg is 1.2 and that of O is 3.5.
See if you can explain it step by step using the orbital model
2. Can you figure out how water molecules bound to each other? Describe
their intermolecular bonding

TUTORIAL
1. Write the electron configuration of the following atoms and its ions by using the
spdf notation. Natrium (Z= 11), Magnesium (Z=12), Aluminium (Z=13), carbon
(Z=6), Nitrogen (Z=7), Oxygen (Z=8), Neon (Z=10), Chlorine (Z=17) and Argon
(Z=20). Are there any atoms that you cannot figure out its ions configuration?
Why and what are these elements called?

2. For those elements in Q1 that can become ions, determine its valence
electron. What is the importance of these valence electrons in chemical
reaction?
3. What is electronegativity? Why is it important in chemical reaction?
4. Based on its electronegativity value, will Magnesium be electropositive or
electronegative ions during a chemical reaction with Oxygen? Why? (Mg=1.2,
O=3.5)
5. What is the difference between ionic bonding and covalent bonding? Which
one would normally occurs between non-metal and non-metal elements? Can
you give an example to it?
6. What is the difference in the bonding between carbon atoms in CO2 and CH4 ?
7. Describe the bonding that occurs between H and Cl in Hydrochloric acid (HCl).
How does each HCl molecules bonded to each other?
8. Magnesium and oxygen combined with each other through the ionic bonding.
After ionization process takes place, which ion will become larger and which
ion will become smaller than its neutral state? Why?
9. Try to work out the ionic bonding process between magnesium (Z=12) and
chlorine (Z=17). The electronegativity value for Mg is 1.2 and that of Cl is 3.0.
See if you can explain it step by step using the orbital model
10. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are both ionic
compounds. The melting point of MgO is 2800 oC while that of NaCl is 800oC.
Can you figure out why the melting point of MgO is much higher than that of
NaCl? Hint: it has something to do with their valence electrons.
11. Now that we have gone through all three primary types of bonding, can you
explain why pure aluminium (Al) is ductile while aluminium oxide (Al 2O3) is
brittle in nature?
12. Can you figure out how water molecules bound to each other? This is what
makes water a very good solvent. Try to work out how your table salt (NaCl)
dissolves in water using all the bonding knowledge that you have learnt so far
13. Methane has a much lower boiling temperature than does water. Explain why
this is true in terms of the bonding between molecules in each of these two
substances
14. Both graphite and diamond are made of carbon atoms. Why do they have such
a huge different in their properties i.e. one is soft and flaky but the other one is
one of the hardest substance in the world?

## SOLUTION (TRY IT YOURSELF!)

Q1. Steps to draw orbital model:
Write down the electron configuration for the atom based on the atoms atomic
number,
(Mg, Z=12) = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
(O, Z = 8) = 1s2 2s2 2p4
Draw the orbital model based on the orbital number for the atom,
Mg, n= 3

O, n= 2

Figure out the number of valence electron/s to know how many electrons will take
part in the chemical reaction. Mg = 2 and O = 6
Check the electronegativity value to figure out which one is electropositive element
and vice versa Mg = 1.2 and O = 3.5
From the electronegativity value you are now clear which element will give up
electrons and vice versa
Mg is electropositive so it will give up electron and becomes cation.
O is electronegative so it will accept up electron and becomes anion.

Balance the reaction. In this case Mg needs to give up two electrons and O need
two electrons. So it will be a reaction between one magnesium atom and one
oxygen atom.

## Q2. Describe the intermolecules bonding of water.

Steps to draw orbital model:
After you have worked out the intramolecules bonding between H and O in water,
youll get a model that looks like this.

## Check the electronegativity value to figure out whether it is a polar or non-polar

covalent bonding. Electronegativity value for Hydrogen is 2.1 and that of oxygen is
3.5. Therefore the bonding is a polar covalent bonding meaning Oxygen because
of its greater tendency to attract electron will be slightly electronegative (-) and
hydrogen will be slightly electroposistive (+)
Now we now that bonding between water molecules will takes place when the - O
is attracted to + hydrogen from another water molecules and vice versa. This is

how all the water molecules are attracted to each other and the bonding is known
as hydrogen bonding.