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ver. 1

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Overview

Extrusion and Injection molding

Flow in screw

Flow in cavity or die

Injection molding

Clamp force

Cooling time

Ejection force

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Extrusion schematic

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Schematic

pellets

clamp

nozzle

hopper

barrel

throat

mold

cavity

screw

heaters

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

motor /

drive

Understood through simple fluid

analysis

Unroll barrel from screw

rectangular trough and lid

v=pDN

vx

q vz

w/cosq

w/cosq is like axial pitch

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Flow analysis

Barrel slides across channel at the helix

angle

vz = pumping

vx = stirring

v=pDN

vx

q vz

w/cosq

w/cosq is like axial pitch

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Flow rate

vz shows viscous traction work against

exit pressure

flow rate = f(exit pressure, vbarrel, m, d, w, l)

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Flow analysis

Simplify by using Newtonian fluid

Add solutions (superposition)

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Simple viscous flow between parallel

plates, end effects negligible

y

v v0

H

1

QD v A v0 wH

2

vo

y

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

10

t

y

hopper

2y

exit

p + dp

Assumptions

no slip at walls

dz

melt is incompressible

steady, laminar flow

end and side wall effects are negligible

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

11

t

y

hopper

2y

exit

p + dp

z

t

dz

Equilibrium

p p dp 2 y 2t dz 0

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

12

p p dp 2 y 2t dz 0

dp

t y

dz

Newtonian fluid

dv

m m

dy

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

13

Eliminating t

1 dp

dv

y dy

m dz

Integrating and noting

@ y = +/- H/2, v = 0

1 dp H

y

v

m dz 8

2

2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

14

H

Qp w

wH dp

v dy

12 m dz

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

15

vz H H dp

Q QD Q p w

12 m dz

2

3

f(screw speed)

f(pressure drop)

dp/dz set by

back pressure on reciprocating screw (injection

molding)

die resistance (extrusion)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

16

Nomenclature

dz = helical length = axial length/sinq

vz = helix velocity = vbarrel*cosq

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

17

Flow rate

flow

rate

2w

output pressure

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

18

Schematics

Extrusion

Injection molding

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

19

Same assumptions as above

t + dt

r

dr

dz

p + dp

p

t

Equilibrium

p [r dr r 2 ] dp 2p r dr t dt rt dz

2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

20

p [r dr 2 r 2 ] dp 2p r dr t dt rt dz

Neglecting HOT

2pr dr dp 2p t dr r dt dz

dp t dr r dt d tr

dz

r dr

r dr

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

21

dp p

d tr

C

dz

L

r dr

d tr Cr dr

d tr Cr dr

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

22

2

r

tr C

2

C

p

t r

r

2

2L

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

23

At center, t = 0

At edge of tube (R), t = max

t max

p R

2L

Newtonian fluid

du

t m

dr

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

24

du p r

dr

2 Lm

finally

p 2

2

u

r R

4 mL

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

25

p 2

2

u

r R

4mL

p R p

Q p 2pr u dr

8m

L

0

R

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

26

as above

wH p

Qp

12 m L

3

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

27

Extrusion

Pressure generated by screw rotation

flow rate through screw =

flow rate through die

Q(extruder) = Q(die)

pressure rise in screw = pressure drop in

die

dp(extruder) = p(die)

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

28

Extrude a polymer through a die with

dimensions diameter 5 mm, length 40

mm at rate 10 cm/s

Screw is fixed, barrel rotates

More data on next page

Calculate barrel RPM

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

29

polymer viscosity (m) = 103 N-s/m2

barrel diameter (D) = 28 mm

channel width (w) = 21 mm

channel height (H) = 4 mm

helix angle (q) = 15 degrees

length of screw (L) = 1.25 m

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

30

First, calculate flow rate

Q product v A 0.1

Qscrew

p 0.0052

4

1.96 106 m3 / s

v z H H 3 dp

w

12 m dz

2

p R 4 p

Qdie

8m L

dp p

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

31

Substituting, equating, solving

Q product Qdie

4

0.005

p

2 p

6

1.96 10

8 103 0.04

p 5.1 MPa

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

32

Substituting, equating using p, solving

Q product Qscrew

3

6

0

.

004

0

.

004

5

.

1

10

6

z

1.96 10 0.021

3

2

12

10

4

.

83

l

1.25

dz

4.83m

sinq sin15

solving

v z 49.5 mm / s

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

33

Solving for RPM

vbarrel

vz

49.5

51.2 mm / s

cosq cos15

60 vbarrel 60 51.2

N

35 RPM

p D

p 28

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

34

1. To make a shot: use screw (extruder)

equation for flow rate (Q) to produce a

shot volume (vol = Q*t).

back pressure gives dp term

time (t) bounded by cycle time (upper)

and degradation of material (lower)

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

35

2. To inject the plastic: use pressure flow

equations and injection pressure (p)

or injection time (t) and volume to be

filled (shot volume) to determine flow

rate (Q) and hence time (t) or injection

pressure (p) required to fill mold

injection time (t) will be limited by freezing

of plastic and degradation of material

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

36

Injection mold a polymer in a steel tool

Model the sprue, runner and part as a

cylinder of diameter 10 mm, length 150

mm

Determine the screw RPM to make a

shot in less than 3 seconds (screw

rotates)

Determine the injection pressure to

make the part in 2 seconds

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

37

polymer viscosity (m) = 103 N-s/m2

barrel diameter (D) = 28 mm

channel width (w) = 21 mm

channel height (H) = 4 mm

helix angle (q) = 15 degrees

length of screw (L) = 1.25 m

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

38

Back pressure = 15 MPa

Assume 3 seconds to make shot

Calculate Q

vol pr 2l p 5 150

Q

3,927 mm3 / s

time time

3

2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

39

Screw RPM calculation

Qscrew

v z H H 3 dp

w

12 m dz

2

l

dz

sinq

vz vscrew cosq

pDN

vscrew

D 28 2 4 20 mm

60

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

40

Substituting values, solving

N

p 20 60 cos 15 4

43

15 106

3,927 21

3

1,250

2

12

10

sin 15

N = 101 RPM

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

41

Injection pressure calculation

Part injection is pressure driven

vol p 5 150

Q

5,891mm3 / s

time

2

2

Qmold

pR 4 p

8m L

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

42

Substituting, equating, solving

p 5 p

4

5,891

8 10 150

3

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

43

t m k

log m

m k

n 1

log mo

n-1

log

power law index

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

44

in rectangular channel

NB: drag flow analysis is similar to the following

n1

2y n

v v0 1

H

H

2

n 1

n

2y

Q 2wv0 1 dy

H

0

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

45

in rectangular channel

2 n1

n

1

n

2n H

p

Q w

k L 2n 1 2

vave

1

n

n 1

n

Q

n H

p

wH k L 2n 1 2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

46

round channel

1

n1

n1

n p n

r n

n

u

1

R

n 1 2k L

R

1

n

n p

Q p

3n 1 2k L

vave

3n1

R n

1

n

n p

p R 2 3n 1 2k L

Q

n 1

R n

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

47

Example 3-1

Compare Newtonian and NonNewtonian, pressure driven fluid flow in

a rectangular channel

Given

H = 2 mm, w = 15 mm, L = 50 mm

Q = 60 cm3/s= 6 x 10-5 m3/s

m = 100 Pa-s @ d/dt = 3000/s (Newtonian

viscosity)

k = 12198, n = 0.4

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

48

Example 3-2

First, determine the Newtonian flow properties

vave

Q

6 10 5

m

2

wH 0.015 0.002

s

p

30 MPa

3

3

wH

0.015 0.002

5

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

49

Example 3-3

2

2

1 p H

y

v

m L 8

2

p H 2 30 106 0.002

m

3

8mL

8 100 0.05

s

2

vmax v y 0

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

50

Example 3-4

For non-Newtonian flow, determine the

p needed for Q = 6 x 10-5 m3/s and vave

= 2 m/s.

vave

1

n

n 1

n

1

0.4

0.41

0.002 0.4

Q

n H

p

wH k L 2n 1 2

m

p

2

s 12198 0.05

0.4

2 0.4 1

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

51

Example 3-5

solving

p 23.3 MPa

and

0.78

pNewtonian

30

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

52

Example 3-6

For non-Newtonian flow, determine Q

for p = 30 MPa.

30 10

12198 0.05

6

vave

1

0.4

0.4

0.002

2 0.4 1 2

0.41

0.4

m

3.77

s

3

m

Q vave w H 3.77 0.015 0.002 11.3 105

s

1.88

5

QNewtonian

6 10

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

53

Example 3-7

One can see the effect of shear-thinning

reduction in pressure needed to maintain a

flow

increase in flow with a constant pressure

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

54

Clamp force

Typically 50 tons/oz of injected material

Can be approximated by

injection pressure x projected area of part

at parting line

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

55

Cooling in a mold

Assume 1-D heat conduction

Assume mold conducts much better than

plastic (Biot > 1)

Center temperature important

T

T

2

t

x

2

T = temperature

t = time

= thermal diffusivity

=k/rc

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

56

Cooling in a mold

Fo

hx

Bi

k

x2

TE TW

TM TW

TE = ejection temp

TM = injection temp

TW = mold wall temp

2l = thickness of part

Fo

2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

57

Cooling in a mold

Solution

must be approximated or solved numerically

np 2

n

p

, Fo exp

Fo sin

p n ,odd n

2

2

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

58

Approximation for time taken (tc) for

center of flat sheet (thickness, 2l) to

reach ejection temperature (TE)

4 TM TW

tc 2 ln

p TE TW

p

4l

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

59

2l = plate thickness ~ 3 x 10-3 m

TW = mold wall temperature ~ 50oC

TM = melt temperature ~ 250oC

TE = ejection temperature ~ 100oC

Minimum cooling time for the center line to

reach TE

tc~ 15 sec.

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

60

Approximation for cylinder (radius = r), solved

similarly to the plate

Fo

t

r

TM TW

tc 2 ln 1.7

p

TE TW

1.7 r

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

61

Non-isothermal flow

Flow rate characteristic time constant:

t = 1/t ~ V/Lx

t = 1/t ~ /Lz2

Flow rate

V L2z V Lz Lz

~

Heat transferrate Lx

Lx

Small numbers give short shots

thick runners needed

ratio should be greater than one for filling

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

62

Non-isothermal flow

Z

3 mm

X

Y

10 cm

1 cm/s

Flow rate

0.01m / s 0.0015m 0.0015m

~

2.25

7 2

Heat transferrate

10 m / s

0.1m

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

63

Plastic must be cool enough to

withstand ejection force from ejection

pins without breaking

Plastic must be cool enough so that

upon further cooling will not warp

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

64

Ejection force

Ejection pins force the part out of the

mold after the part has cooled and

solidified enough.

The part will shrink onto any cores,

leading to an interference fit.

Model as a thin walled cylinder with

closed ends (plastic part) on a rigid core

(metal mold).

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

65

pd

t

1

2t

pd

a

2

4t

r 0 3

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

66

Biaxial strain

1 2

pd pd

1

E

E

2tE 4tE

p d d

1

E 2t 4t

1 T

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

67

Ejection force

E T

p

d d

2t 4t

Fejection

Fejection m p A

m E A T

d d

2t 4t

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

68

Nomenclature

A = area

d = core diameter

E = Youngs

modulus

p = pressure

t = part thickness

= thermal

expansion

coefficient

T = temperature

differential

= Poissons ratio

m = friction

coefficient

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

69

Summary

Extrusion and Injection molding

Flow in screw

Flow in cavity or die

Injection molding

Clamp force

Cooling time

Ejection force

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

70

Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

71

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