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Extrusion and Injection Molding Analysis

ver. 1

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Overview
Extrusion and Injection molding
Flow in screw
Flow in cavity or die

Injection molding
Clamp force
Cooling time
Ejection force

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Extrusion schematic

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Injection molding schematic

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Schematic
pellets
clamp

nozzle

hopper

barrel

throat

mold
cavity

screw

heaters

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Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

motor /
drive

Flow in screw Extrusion and Injection molding


Understood through simple fluid
analysis
Unroll barrel from screw
rectangular trough and lid
v=pDN
vx

q vz

w/cosq

w is like normal pitch


w/cosq is like axial pitch

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Flow analysis
Barrel slides across channel at the helix
angle
vz = pumping
vx = stirring
v=pDN
vx

q vz

w/cosq

w is like normal pitch


w/cosq is like axial pitch

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

Flow rate
vz shows viscous traction work against
exit pressure
flow rate = f(exit pressure, vbarrel, m, d, w, l)

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Flow analysis
Simplify by using Newtonian fluid

Separate into drag and pressure flows


Add solutions (superposition)

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Drag flow in rectangular channel (QD)


Simple viscous flow between parallel
plates, end effects negligible

y
v v0
H
1
QD v A v0 wH
2
vo
y

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Pressure flow in rectangular channel


t
y

hopper
2y

exit
p + dp

Assumptions

no slip at walls
dz
melt is incompressible
steady, laminar flow
end and side wall effects are negligible
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Pressure flow in rectangular channel


t
y

hopper
2y

exit
p + dp

z
t
dz

Equilibrium

p p dp 2 y 2t dz 0
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Pressure flow in rectangular channel

p p dp 2 y 2t dz 0
dp
t y
dz
Newtonian fluid

dv
m m
dy
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Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Pressure flow in rectangular channel


Eliminating t
1 dp
dv
y dy
m dz
Integrating and noting
@ y = +/- H/2, v = 0

1 dp H
y
v

m dz 8
2
2

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Total pressure flow (Qp)


H

Qp w

wH dp
v dy

12 m dz

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Total flow (Q)


vz H H dp
Q QD Q p w


12 m dz
2
3

f(screw speed)

f(pressure drop)

dp/dz set by
back pressure on reciprocating screw (injection
molding)
die resistance (extrusion)
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Nomenclature
dz = helical length = axial length/sinq
vz = helix velocity = vbarrel*cosq

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Flow rate

flow
rate

2w

output pressure

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Schematics
Extrusion

Injection molding

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Flow in round die or runner


Same assumptions as above

t + dt
r

dr

dz

p + dp

p
t

Equilibrium

p [r dr r 2 ] dp 2p r dr t dt rt dz
2

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Flow in round die or runner


p [r dr 2 r 2 ] dp 2p r dr t dt rt dz
Neglecting HOT

2pr dr dp 2p t dr r dt dz

dp t dr r dt d tr

dz
r dr
r dr
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Flow in round die or runner


dp p
d tr

C
dz
L
r dr

d tr Cr dr

d tr Cr dr
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Flow in round die or runner


2

r
tr C
2

C
p
t r
r
2
2L

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Flow in round die or runner


At center, t = 0
At edge of tube (R), t = max

t max

p R

2L

Newtonian fluid

du
t m
dr
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Flow in round die or runner


du p r

dr
2 Lm
finally

p 2
2

u
r R
4 mL
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Flow in round die or runner

p 2
2
u
r R
4mL

p R p
Q p 2pr u dr

8m
L
0
R

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Flow in rectangular die or runner


as above

wH p
Qp

12 m L
3

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Extrusion
Pressure generated by screw rotation
flow rate through screw =
flow rate through die
Q(extruder) = Q(die)
pressure rise in screw = pressure drop in
die
dp(extruder) = p(die)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


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Extrusion - Ex. 1-1


Extrude a polymer through a die with
dimensions diameter 5 mm, length 40
mm at rate 10 cm/s
Screw is fixed, barrel rotates
More data on next page
Calculate barrel RPM

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


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Extrusion - Ex. 1-2

polymer density (r = 980 kg/m3


polymer viscosity (m) = 103 N-s/m2
barrel diameter (D) = 28 mm
channel width (w) = 21 mm
channel height (H) = 4 mm
helix angle (q) = 15 degrees
length of screw (L) = 1.25 m
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Extrusion - Ex. 1-3


First, calculate flow rate
Q product v A 0.1

Qscrew

p 0.0052
4

1.96 106 m3 / s

v z H H 3 dp
w


12 m dz
2

p R 4 p
Qdie
8m L

dp p
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Extrusion - Ex. 1-4


Substituting, equating, solving

Q product Qdie
4

0.005
p

2 p
6

1.96 10
8 103 0.04

p 5.1 MPa
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Extrusion - Ex. 1-5


Substituting, equating using p, solving
Q product Qscrew
3
6

0
.
004
0
.
004
5
.
1

10
6
z
1.96 10 0.021

3
2
12

10
4
.
83

l
1.25
dz

4.83m
sinq sin15
solving
v z 49.5 mm / s
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Extrusion - Ex. 1-6


Solving for RPM
vbarrel

vz
49.5

51.2 mm / s
cosq cos15

60 vbarrel 60 51.2
N

35 RPM
p D
p 28

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Injection molding cycle


1. To make a shot: use screw (extruder)
equation for flow rate (Q) to produce a
shot volume (vol = Q*t).
back pressure gives dp term
time (t) bounded by cycle time (upper)
and degradation of material (lower)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems


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Injection molding cycle


2. To inject the plastic: use pressure flow
equations and injection pressure (p)
or injection time (t) and volume to be
filled (shot volume) to determine flow
rate (Q) and hence time (t) or injection
pressure (p) required to fill mold
injection time (t) will be limited by freezing
of plastic and degradation of material
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-1


Injection mold a polymer in a steel tool
Model the sprue, runner and part as a
cylinder of diameter 10 mm, length 150
mm
Determine the screw RPM to make a
shot in less than 3 seconds (screw
rotates)
Determine the injection pressure to
make the part in 2 seconds
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-2

polymer density (r = 980 kg/m3


polymer viscosity (m) = 103 N-s/m2
barrel diameter (D) = 28 mm
channel width (w) = 21 mm
channel height (H) = 4 mm
helix angle (q) = 15 degrees
length of screw (L) = 1.25 m
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems
Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-3

Screw RPM calculation


Back pressure = 15 MPa
Assume 3 seconds to make shot
Calculate Q
vol pr 2l p 5 150
Q

3,927 mm3 / s
time time
3
2

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-4


Screw RPM calculation

Qscrew

v z H H 3 dp
w


12 m dz
2

l
dz
sinq

vz vscrew cosq
pDN
vscrew
D 28 2 4 20 mm
60

D barrel diameter 2 channelheight


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Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-5


Substituting values, solving
N

p 20 60 cos 15 4
43
15 106
3,927 21

3
1,250
2
12

10

sin 15

N = 101 RPM

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-6


Injection pressure calculation
Part injection is pressure driven
vol p 5 150
Q

5,891mm3 / s
time
2
2

Qmold

pR 4 p

8m L
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Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

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Injection Molding - Ex. 2-7


Substituting, equating, solving

p 5 p
4

5,891

8 10 150
3

p 3.6 MPa 522 psi

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Power law viscosity

t m k

log m

m k

n 1

log mo
n-1

log

k, n are consistency and


power law index

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Non-Newtonian, pressure driven flow


in rectangular channel
NB: drag flow analysis is similar to the following
n1

2y n
v v0 1
H

H
2

n 1

n
2y

Q 2wv0 1 dy
H
0

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Non-Newtonian, pressure driven flow


in rectangular channel
2 n1
n

1
n

2n H
p
Q w


k L 2n 1 2
vave

1
n

n 1
n

Q
n H
p



wH k L 2n 1 2

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Non-Newtonian, pressure driven flow in


round channel
1
n1
n1
n p n
r n
n
u

1
R
n 1 2k L
R

1
n

n p
Q p

3n 1 2k L

vave

3n1
R n

1
n

n p

p R 2 3n 1 2k L
Q

n 1
R n

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Example 3-1
Compare Newtonian and NonNewtonian, pressure driven fluid flow in
a rectangular channel
Given
H = 2 mm, w = 15 mm, L = 50 mm
Q = 60 cm3/s= 6 x 10-5 m3/s
m = 100 Pa-s @ d/dt = 3000/s (Newtonian
viscosity)
k = 12198, n = 0.4

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Example 3-2
First, determine the Newtonian flow properties

vave

Q
6 10 5
m

2
wH 0.015 0.002
s

12mLQ 12 100 0.05 6 10


p

30 MPa
3
3
wH
0.015 0.002
5

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Example 3-3
2
2

1 p H
y
v


m L 8
2

p H 2 30 106 0.002
m

3
8mL
8 100 0.05
s
2

vmax v y 0

(max at y=0 because this gives the greatest value)

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Example 3-4
For non-Newtonian flow, determine the
p needed for Q = 6 x 10-5 m3/s and vave
= 2 m/s.
vave

1
n

n 1
n

1
0.4

0.41
0.002 0.4

Q
n H
p



wH k L 2n 1 2

m
p
2

s 12198 0.05

0.4

2 0.4 1

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Example 3-5
solving

p 23.3 MPa
and

pnon Newtonian 23.3

0.78
pNewtonian
30
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Example 3-6
For non-Newtonian flow, determine Q
for p = 30 MPa.
30 10


12198 0.05
6

vave

1
0.4

0.4
0.002

2 0.4 1 2

0.41
0.4

m
3.77
s

3
m
Q vave w H 3.77 0.015 0.002 11.3 105
s

Qnon Newtonian 11.3 10 5

1.88

5
QNewtonian
6 10
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Example 3-7
One can see the effect of shear-thinning
reduction in pressure needed to maintain a
flow
increase in flow with a constant pressure

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Clamp force
Typically 50 tons/oz of injected material
Can be approximated by
injection pressure x projected area of part
at parting line

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Cooling in a mold
Assume 1-D heat conduction
Assume mold conducts much better than
plastic (Biot > 1)
Center temperature important

T
T
2
t
x
2

T = temperature
t = time
= thermal diffusivity
=k/rc

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Cooling in a mold
Fo

hx
Bi
k

x2

TE TW

TM TW

TE = ejection temp
TM = injection temp
TW = mold wall temp
2l = thickness of part

Fo
2

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Cooling in a mold
Solution
must be approximated or solved numerically

np 2
n
p

, Fo exp
Fo sin

p n ,odd n
2
2

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Minimum cooling time - tc


Approximation for time taken (tc) for
center of flat sheet (thickness, 2l) to
reach ejection temperature (TE)
4 TM TW
tc 2 ln
p TE TW
p
4l

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Minimum cooling time - Ex. 4-1

= thermal diffusivity ~ 10-7 m2/s


2l = plate thickness ~ 3 x 10-3 m
TW = mold wall temperature ~ 50oC
TM = melt temperature ~ 250oC
TE = ejection temperature ~ 100oC
Minimum cooling time for the center line to
reach TE
tc~ 15 sec.

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60

Minimum cooling time - tc


Approximation for cylinder (radius = r), solved
similarly to the plate

Fo

t
r

TM TW
tc 2 ln 1.7
p
TE TW
1.7 r

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Non-isothermal flow
Flow rate characteristic time constant:
t = 1/t ~ V/Lx

Heat transfer rate characteristic time constant:


t = 1/t ~ /Lz2

Flow rate
V L2z V Lz Lz
~

Heat transferrate Lx
Lx
Small numbers give short shots
thick runners needed
ratio should be greater than one for filling

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Non-isothermal flow
Z

3 mm

X
Y

10 cm

1 cm/s

Flow rate
0.01m / s 0.0015m 0.0015m
~

2.25
7 2
Heat transferrate
10 m / s
0.1m

So, the mold should fill.

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Limits on ejection temperature


Plastic must be cool enough to
withstand ejection force from ejection
pins without breaking
Plastic must be cool enough so that
upon further cooling will not warp

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64

Ejection force
Ejection pins force the part out of the
mold after the part has cooled and
solidified enough.
The part will shrink onto any cores,
leading to an interference fit.
Model as a thin walled cylinder with
closed ends (plastic part) on a rigid core
(metal mold).
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Thin-walled cylinder with closed ends


pd
t
1
2t
pd
a
2
4t

r 0 3

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Biaxial strain
1 2

pd pd
1

E
E
2tE 4tE

p d d
1
E 2t 4t

1 T
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Ejection force
E T
p
d d

2t 4t

Fejection

Fejection m p A

m E A T
d d

2t 4t
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Nomenclature
A = area
d = core diameter
E = Youngs
modulus
p = pressure
t = part thickness

= thermal
expansion
coefficient
T = temperature
differential
= Poissons ratio
m = friction
coefficient

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69

Summary
Extrusion and Injection molding
Flow in screw
Flow in cavity or die

Injection molding
Clamp force
Cooling time
Ejection force

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