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11/14/2015

BridgeAbutments

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AbutmentDesignStandards

AbutmentDesignStandardsEurocodes

EN199111:ActionsonStructuresGeneralActions
EN199115:ActionsonStructuresThermalActions
EN199117:ActionsonStructuresAccidentalActions
EN19912:ActionsonStructuresTrafficLoadsonBridges
EN199211:DesignofConcreteStructuresGeneralRules
EN19922:DesignofConcreteStructuresBridges
EN19935:DesignofSteelStructuresPiling
EN19971:GeotechnicalDesignGeneralRules
EN19982:DesignofStructuresforEarthquakeResistanceBridges
EN19985:DesignofStructuresforEarthquakeResistanceGeotechnical
Aspects
EachdocumentisaccompaniedbyaNationalAnnex

BritishStandards

BS5400:Part2:SpecificationforLoads
BS5400:Part4:CodeofPracticefortheDesignofConcreteBridges
BS8002:CodeofPracticeforEarthRetainingStructures
BS8006:Strengthened/ReinforcedSoilsandOtherFills
BS8500:ConcreteComplementaryBritishStandardtoBSEN2061
BS8666:Specificationforscheduling,dimensioning,bendingandcuttingof
steelreinforcementforconcrete

DesignManualforRoadsandBridges

BD30:BackfilledRetainingWallsandBridgeAbutments
BD37:LoadsforHighwayBridges
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BridgeAbutments

BA41:TheDesignandAppearanceofBridges
BA42:TheDesignofIntegralBridges
BD42:DesignofEmbeddedRetainingWallsandBridgeAbutments
BD57andBA57:DesignforDurability
BD70:Strengthened/ReinforcedSoilsandOtherFillsforRetainingWallsand
BridgeAbutments

ChoiceofAbutment

Currentpracticeistomakedecksintegralwiththeabutments.Theobjectiveistoavoidtheuseof
jointsoverabutmentsandpiers.Expansionjointsarepronetoleakandallowtheingressofdeicing
saltsintothebridgedeckandsubstructure.Ingeneralallbridgesaremadecontinuousover
intermediatesupports,anddecksunder60metreslongwithskewsnotexceeding30aremade
integralwiththeirabutments.

Fullheightintegralabutments(DfTBA42/96callFrameAbutments)aregenerallyusedforthe
shorterspans(<about20m).

Integralabutmentswithpiledfoundations(DfTBA42/96callEmbeddedAbutments)usually
incorporatesteelHpilesinasinglerowtheHpilesareorientatedsothatbendingoccursabouttheir
weakeraxis.Theseabutmentsaresuitableforthelargerspandecks.

Integralabutmentswithspreadfootings(DfTBA42/96callBankPadAbutments)shouldonlybe
usedwheresettlementduetoconsolidationoffoundingstrataisminimal.

Wheredecksexceed60metreslongorhaveskewsexceeding30thenmovementjointsandbearings
usuallyneedtobeprovided.

GeometricConsiderations

OpenSideSpanwithBankSeats
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SolidSideSpanwithFullHeightAbutments
Usuallythenarrowbridgeischeaperintheopenabutmentformandthewidebridgeischeaperinthe
solidabutmentform.Theexacttransitionpointbetweenthetwotypesdependsverymuchonthe
geometryandthesiteoftheparticularbridge.Inmostcasestheopenabutmentsolutionhasabetter
appearanceandislessintrusiveonthegeneralflowofthegroundcontoursandforthesereasonsisto
bepreferred.Itisthecostofthewingwallswhenrelatedtothedeckcostswhichswingsthebalance
ofcostinfavourofthesolidabutmentsolutionforwiderbridges.Howeverthewiderbridgeswith
solidabutmentsproduceatunnellingeffectandcostshavetobeconsideredinconjunctionwiththe
properfunctioningofthestructurewherefasttrafficispassingbeneath.Solidabutmentsfornarrow
bridgesshouldonlybeadoptedwheretheopenabutmentsolutionisnotpossible.Inthecaseofwide
bridgestheopenabutmentsolutionistobepreferred,buttherearemanycaseswhereeconomymust
betheoverridingconsideration.

DesignConsiderations
Loadstransmittedbythebridgedeckontotheabutmentare:
i. Verticalloadsfromselfweightofdeck.
ii. Verticalloadsfromliveloadingconditions.
iii. Horizontalloadsfromtemperature,creepmovementsetcandwind.
iv. Horizontalloadsfrombrakingandskiddingeffectsofvehicles.
Theseloadsarecarriedbythebearingswhichareseatedontheabutmentbearingplatform.The
horizontalloadsmaybereducedbydependingonthecoefficientoffrictionofthebearingsatthe
movementjointinthestructure.
However,thefullbrakingeffectistobetaken,ineitherdirection,ontopoftheabutmentat
carriagewaylevel.
Inadditiontothestructureloads,horizontalpressuresexertedbythefillmaterialagainsttheabutment
wallsistobeconsidered.Alsoaverticalloadingfromtheweightofthefillactsonthefooting.
Vehicleloadsattherearoftheabutmentsareconsideredbyapplyingasurchargeloadontherearof
thewall.
Forcertainshortsinglespanstructuresitispossibletousethebridgedecktopropthetwoabutments
apart.Thisentailstheabutmentwallbeingdesignedasaproppedcantilever.

BridgeComponents|AbutmentDesignExample

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DavidChildsB.Sc,C.Eng,MICE
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