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A spreadhsheet for calculation of coefficient of permeability of soils

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Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

Relative Permeability

> 1 x 10-1

Very permeable

Tyoical Soils

Coarse gravel

Medium permeable

1 x 10 to 1 x 10

Low permeable

1 x 10-3 to 1 x 10-5

1 x 10 to 1 x 10

-1

-5

< 1 x 10-7

Impervious

-3

-7

Clay

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, USA.

HAZEN'S FORMULA (1911)

Widely used for saturaed sandy soils.

2

k = C(D10)

where,

D10 = particel size for which 10% of soil is finer (mm)

C = Hazen's empirical coefficeint, which takes a value between 0.4 and 10.0

(mostly 0.4 to 1.5), depending on literatures (Carrier 2003), with the

average value of 1.0

Because of the wide range of C values, this equation shall be used only as a rough estimate of k.

Input parametrs marked in purple:

D10 = 0.0300 mm

C = 1.0

k=

9.00E-04

cm/sec

Notes:

1. Generally limited to 0.1 mm < D 10 < 3 mm (Hazen 1892, 1911; Holz and Kovacs 1981; Coduto 1999)

2. The Hazen empirical coefficeint corresponds to a water temperature of 10C.

Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

Sandy Silt

0.0005 to 0.002

Silty Sand

0.002 to 0.005

Fine Sand

Fine to Medium Sand

Medium Sand

Medium to Coarse Sand

Coarse Sand and Gravel

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

3), with the

0.005 to 0.02

0.02 to 0.05

0.05 to 0.1

0.1 to 0.15

0.15 to 0.2

0.2 to 0.5

Relative Permeability

Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

> 1 x 10-1

Very permeable

Tyoical Soils

Coarse gravel

Medium permeable

1 x 10 to 1 x 10

-3

Low permeable

1 x 10 to 1 x 10

-5

1 x 10 to 1 x 10

-7

-1

-3

-5

< 1 x 10

Impervious

-7

Clay

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, USA.

CHAPUIS'S FORMULA (2004)

2

3

0.7825

k = 2.4622[(D10) (e /(1+e))]

where,

D10 = particel size for which 10% of soil is finer (mm)

e = void ratio of soil (volume of voids / volume of solid particles)

Ranges of void ratio, e (Braja, M. DAS: Principles of Foundation Engineering)

Soil Type

Poorly graded sand with loose density

Well-graded dense sand

Loose density sand w angular particles

Dense density sand w angular particles

Stiff clay

Soft clay

Loess

Soft organic clay

Glacial till

Input parametrs marked in purple:

D10 = 0.0100 mm

e = 0.45

k=

2.09E-04

cm/sec

e

0.8

0.45

0.65

0.4

0.6

0.9 - 1.4

0.9

2.5 - 3.2

0.3

Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

Sandy Silt

0.0005 to 0.002

Silty Sand

0.002 to 0.005

Fine Sand

Fine to Medium Sand

Medium Sand

Medium to Coarse San

Coarse Sand and Grave

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

0.005 to 0.02

0.02 to 0.05

0.05 to 0.1

0.1 to 0.15

0.15 to 0.2

0.2 to 0.5

Relative Permeability

Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

> 1 x 10-1

Tyoical Soils

Coefficeint of Permeability

k, (cm/sec)

Coarse gravel

Sandy Silt

0.0005 to 0.002

Medium permeable

1 x 10-1 to 1 x 10-3

Silty Sand

0.002 to 0.005

Low permeable

1 x 10-3 to 1 x 10-5

1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-7

Fine Sand

Clay

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, USA.

Medium Sand

Medium to Coarse Sand

Coarse Sand and Gravel

Very permeable

< 1 x 10-7

Impervious

0.005 to 0.02

0.02 to 0.05

0.05 to 0.1

0.1 to 0.15

0.15 to 0.2

0.2 to 0.5

2

3

k = (w/w)[1/(Ck-cSs )][e /(1+e)]

where,

w = unit weight of water (9.81 kN/m3)

w = viscosity of water (1.307 x 10-3 Nsec/m2 for T=10C ; 1.002 x 10-3 Nsec/m2 for T=20C)

Ck-c = Kozeny-Carman's empirical constant (4.8 0.3 for uniform spheres and usually 5.0 is used)

Ss = specific surface area per unti volume of particles (1/cm)

e = void ratio of soil (volume of voids / volume of solid particles)

Soil Type

Poorly graded sand with loose density

When w = 9.81 kN/m3, w = 1.002 x 10-3 Nsec/m3 and Ck-c = 5.0 are substituted, the equation becomes:

Loose density sand with angular particles

4

2

3

k = (1.96 x 10 )(1/Ss )[e /(1+e)]

Stiff clay

Estimation of Ss values is not straightforward. It is 6/D for uniform sphereswith D as the diameter of the spheres.

Soft clay

Carrier (2003) gave estimation of Ss for distributed soils from effective diameter, Deff

Loess

Soft organic clay

Ss = SF/Def

where,

and

and

Davg i = Dl,i0.5Ds,i0.5

SF = shape factor (spherical-6, rounded-6.1, worn-6.4, sharp-7.4 and angular 7.7 by Fair and Hatch (1933) or,

rounded-6.6, medium angularity-7.5 and angular-8.4 by London (1952))

Def = effective diameter of particles

fi = fraction (in percent) of particles between two sieve sizes with Dl,i as larger and Ds,i as smaller sieve sizes

Davg i = average particel size betweentwo sieve sizes

Now,

4

0.5

0.5

2

2

3

k = (1.96 x 10 )[100% / {(fi/(Dl,i Ds,i }] (1/SF )[e /(1+e)]

Although,

Dave,i = Dl,i0.5Ds,i0.5

Glacial till

(1/Di)ave = 1 / (Dl,i0.404Ds,i0.595)

each pair of sieve sizes.

4

0.404

Ds,i0.595}]2(1/SF2)[e3/(1+e)]

k = (1.96 x 10 )[100% / {(fi/(Dl,i

Notes:

Input parametrs marked in purple:

e = 0.50

k=

1.44E-05

HYDROMETER

(mm)

75

63

53

37.5

26.5

19

13.2

9.5

4.75

2

0.85

0.425

0.25

0.106

0.075

0.0467

0.0335

0.0214

0.0125

0.0089

0.0063

0.0031

0.0013

0.0002

Passing (%)

100

100

100

100

100

96.1

96.1

94.7

92.6

89.9

88.7

87.7

84.8

34.3

23.5

15.2

13.5

11.9

10.2

9.3

8.5

6.8

5.1

0

cm/sec

calculate Deff.

3. Formula does not explicitly account for anisotropy.

fi / (Dl,i0.404Ds,i0.595)

(%)

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.90

0.00

1.40

2.10

2.70

1.20

1.00

2.90

50.50

10.80

8.30

1.70

1.60

1.70

0.90

0.80

1.70

1.70

5.10

6.7473366

5.6738484

4.3068134

3.0460703

2.1719495

1.5288256

1.0850691

0.6289745

0.2841169

0.1203983

0.0564127

0.0310916

0.0150600

0.0086673

0.0056855

0.0038531

0.0025806

0.0015637

0.0010281

0.0007297

0.0004162

0.0001863

0.0000431

(fi / Davg i) =

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.80

0.00

1.29

3.34

9.50

9.97

17.73

93.27

3353.26

1246.06

1459.86

441.21

620.02

1087.18

875.39

1096.30

4084.65

9123.10

118419.77

141943.69

100

90

80

70

PERCENT FINER THAN

COARSE SIEVING

SF = 7.5

Soil Type = Sand, some silt, trace to some clay

fi

(Dl,i0.404Ds,i0.595)

Size

Cumulative

1. Formula is not appropriate for clayey soils, although it will work for non-p

2. Formula is not appropriate if the particle size distribution has long, flat ta

fine section. As a practical matter, D0 must be know or estimated in order

60

50

40

30

20

10

2

0

1000

100

10

0.1

GRAIN SIZE, m m

e

0.8

0.45

0.65

0.4

0.6

0.9 - 1.4

0.9

2.5 - 3.2

0.3

ze distribution has long, flat tail in the

be know or estimated in order to

GRAIN SIZE, m m

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

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