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# Proximate ray tracing and wave aberration coefficients*

George W. Hopkins
Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721
Algebraic ray-trace equations for axially symmetric optical systems are expanded in terms of system
parameters and paraxial variables. The transfer parameter used is optical path, and equations are given for
second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-order differences in optical path of a ray from the axial value. Selected
rays are traced to a tilted reference sphere in the exit pupil, optical path differences of given order are equated
to the wave aberration polynomial of corresponding order and with proper coordinates, and the resulting
linear equations are solved for wave aberration coefficients.

INTRODUCTION
We have published a set of proximate ray-trace equations which give the angular and transverse deviations
of a real ray from the corresponding Gaussian ideal. 1
These deviations were segregated by order and used to
determine transverse aberration coefficients.
An analogous set of equations is presented here, but
the angular variables used are direction cosines, and
optical path is used as the parameter for transfer operations. This offers a distinct advantage over previous methods based on similar principles. 1,2 Whereas
these provided transverse and angular errors for a ray,
this method also retains differences in optical path from
the axial optical path. These data can be used for calculating system wave aberration coefficients, including
piston error (the difference between optical path for a
chief ray and the axial value). In addition, direction
cosines can be preferred ideal coordinates. Coefficients based on such coordinates on pupil reference
spheres are the proper coefficients for merit functions
based on diffraction criteria, and satisfaction of the
ideal does not imply a violation of the sine condition, as
is the case with Gaussian optics. 3
The equations given here can be used for an ideal
mapping (i. e., a linear mapping represented by the
paraxial ray-trace equations with finite angles) in either
a cosine space, a tangent space, or a mixed space,
such as the mapping of a plane object to a plane image
via pupil reference spheres. This is accomplished with
a technique used by Cox. 2 If the ideal coordinate is a
direction cosine, the initial value is the ideal value and
there are no errors. If the ideal coordinate is a direction tangent, the initial value is the ideal value, but
"errors " to appropriate order must be introduced to
represent the direction cosine of that ray as a series
expansion in the tangent.

## The notation of the previous paper' is continued, the

concepts discussed there apply here, and the author's
dissertation4 contains an expanded discussion of all material; so, this article will be restricted to a presentation of the cosine proximate ray-trace equations and the
information needed to determine aberration coefficients
using them.

## TRANSFER TO A PLANE SURFACE

The notation follows the previous paper, 1 which the
reader should consult. Direction cosines are now used
for the angular variable:
Cx= CMl)

(~3)+

(~5)+

(7) + *

## c, = cM1 + 6c(3 ) + cC(5 ) + 6c(7 ) + . .

cZ = 1 + 6C () + 6c 4) + 6c (6) +6 o(8) +...

## The x- and y-direction cosines are, in fact, sines,

hence the odd-order expansion.
Rotational invariants are still employed, one being
d=c2x
2 = dc
d 2c) +
4c)
d.,,=c.+C+6dc4(O
c +

(o
6c) + tjd~
c) +***v
(8
6dcc
cc.

where
 d(2c) = (c(I))2 + (c (1))2
 6d(4)+= 2(C(1)6c(3)+ c(036c

cc

cc

## These values are needed to determine

 cz

c 5r:

~=1,

 6d 4) = - 6(d3c))2-

Od06d
32

## The author has stated that the equations of Cox give

differing results from the tangent proximate ray-trace
equations. 1 The author had extended Cox's equations to
seventh order for spherical surfaces and programmed
these equations. Although Cox's equations and the tangent proximate ray-trace equations are quite different,
the surface coordinates obtained from either set have
since proven identical. Previous discrepancies were
due to a subtle programming error. When used as discussed in the above paragraph, the tangent and cosine

## proximate ray-trace equations, as well as Cox's

pseudo-ray-trace equations for spherical surfaces,
give the same position coordinates.
942

- 4d2)dc

2-

FdC:)

W

(+

+2(c

) +. . .

## (xa, y0 , z0 ) and transfer

is to the point (xv, Yv, 0) an axial distance t from the ini-

from

 w() =t

## Copyright i) 1976 by the Optical Society of America

942

oz(2) -

dwi)=

 6Y (3)=

4]




- 6C(4)W(O) -

c7)w(0)+ 6C(5)6W(2)
yv7) =6y7)+

 ow

-C )w

*2y~l

ml=
~~
 6m3)=

c( )6w(6)

-4)

) _ 5C(2)6w(6)

The equations for the x and y components of the surface normal, n, and n , and some needed rotational invariants are

CM )6w6)

## 2(a *6Y( 3 ) + 2b*y(l)d 2S))

3
 5m(5 ) = - 2[a*Sy(5) + 2b*(6y( )d2) + y

6z

## CALCULATION OF THE SURFACE NORMAL

0
8
- 6c( )W( ) _ 6C(6)6w(2)
2
4

--)

(d (2) 4

6C(2)6w(2)

## (5)= 6y(5) + 6C(5)W( ) + 6C(3)6W(2)+ C()OW )

0
- bc(6)W( ) -_ c64)5w(2) _ 6C2)5w 4
6) = -z6)

6C (3)'64)+

(4d (4))2]

4
- 6c( )6W(
 5w( 8 ) = Sz~8 )- CZ6)6w(2)-S

b*[2d s)Sd

2
+ 3c*(d 2)) ad 4) + d

(0)

o(2)

4) =-z(4)

= a *6d(8) +

 Sz(8)

w)w

)(

y (Sw+
=-S



)6ds4))

## The x equations are completely symmetric to the y

equations, so the practice of omitting them will be continued.

+ 3c*ysl)(d (2)) ]

 6m(7)

## 2[a *6ys 7 ) + 2b*(6y5)d(2) + 6y 3)Sd 4

+ Y1S)6d 6s))+ 3C*(y(3)(d (2))2

## These equations represent transfer from a vertex

plane (xe, y,,, 0) to a general aspheric of rotational symmetry with final points (x., Ys, Zs)-

##  d (2) =(m1))2 + (m (1))

 od (4) =2(m(1)6m(3) + M(1);M(3))
 6d m6)=(6Mx3))2+(6M (3))2

 w() = o

+
,
(1))2
dX(2) =(Xs
 Ys

(1))2





## w (2) =oz (2)





3
y~s3) = 5yV ) + c( 1)"w

 Sd

s4)





mm

+2y

l ) 5y0S3))

X )+
2(xl')xs

')

M (1)

nl=

##  6z( 2) =a*d.. ),

4) + b*(d(2a))

 6d()- 6m

3
+ )6vdn(4)+
- (m(

dd
d(2
+32]

2)
6W(2
o(4)
6W
z~-S~~w
w 4 -6Z Sz(4) _ 6C(2)
4

3
+6C(3)6W(2)+C(1)6W(4)
y5)=6y(5)
(5 = y
~~w
Y~
S
Sc Y~
y~S)

L7

,m(3)5d(2+

(2)=

n) =M(7X))2
O (7
38~'
x
n -m4"Snl
6 [4

+"l6M (52
(48()
6M(3
(6y))+
n3
~+ Wx
mm,

X
+(nm'm)2

5
2
2
 Sd 6) = (6x3)) + (5yS3)) + 2(x(')6xs ) + y(l)6y(5))



6z)6=a*6d (6)+
6

c4*(d (2))3

2b*d 2S)6ds+

 ed




Y ) -Y

+

3)

## ) + c0 6w02) + 6c( 6w(4)

1

5
5
1
m
n~)c3
mtd+
cn2)+C2)6n3
c sn2eld

m
my3)(c(
, e)b(

1)t

6d(4)=2(,n3)6~n(3)+nce1)6n(3)+)lox)+x)C

c(1)6W( )
c+ nelnCl
+2
d2)=cyl,(ln5)

)6x 7) + Ysl)5ys )

xs3)Sx(5) + 5y(3)y(5))
6XS
S

REFRACTION EQUATIONS
The refraction equations are substantially simpler than those for the tangent proximate ray trace.

They are

 SC(3)'

Sc(3)[1/g]+

##  Sc(5)1 = 6C 5)[]+

+6n(3)(j-2)

+ (4At

943

2
5n(3)[(,u-l)/ji]+nyl)(1/2gu )[(,u-1) d2)+d ( - 1)d(2)+(-2,u+2)d(2)]

s5)[
[(-l)d

l+J(1)(l)

## [(U-1)SdC'+ (4) -l)6d+'

+ (-A2,

+ 2)Sden]

2
2
3
2c)+ (A - l)d2) + (- 2u+ 2)d (2)]+n1)(1 -4) [(_' -1) (d2)) + (A3-1) (d2))

(-

## 4L2+ 4)(d2)) (d(2))+(_- 4L2+ 4) (d2)) (d 2n)]

George W. Hopkins

943

##  6C(7)' = 6c 7)[ ] +6n77)["

(2

1]]+l)

+ 6n(3)(.1) [(,i

-1)6dYc+
A)6d
I+

+ (- 2,u + 2)d

]+n Y1)()

2,i 3

- 2) (dC~d)

+ (-

+ 4gl2

+ 6ng3)(3)

3)

+ 4u'? -

+ (12.

(4))+

) + (- 4

[(

n]+6n
(-k)

(,u 346d~))
-1) (2d+g6d

-23) (d4)d ) 2

)2 +(-d+2

(dn) +(l2

- 4

-12) d

cn-l)dsc+ (j
2

(4.

-44) (2d

2
+ 4) (d '6dcn + d6n )6d4)
+ (- 41)
d'6d
(?)6dnn)]
+4) (d

## + 4)dd ] + 1 )(1 6 6) [(P,115-1) (d)

- l2)d

-_ 1)6d(6n)+(- 2i +2)6d(6)]

## + (P. 3 -1) (d n)2 + (4. 2 -+4) (dg')3 + (-2 143 +

5 + 4P

(d (d

(- 22c + 2)6d n

+ dn)~6d

) (d( )3 (

,l
2

(-

(p' [3-1)

[(Pll-1) (dC))

+ (-4pA+
2
4)dccd
(-)I

) [(A - 1)6d(6)+

+ (-

2j,1

+ (P.

-2) d

1) (dc)

+d

(4.
3

4, 2 + 6) (d4c) d4c

+ 46) (d n)dd)
4d62 d(2

2 +-12) d

4d

d-2)
d](2)

## The reference sphere is assumed to be centered on a

point (xo, y0 , zo), where x0 and yo are assumed to be unaberrated, i. e. , the reference sphere is centered on
the ideal object or image point. The sag zo depends on
the form of the surface:





62)

-(2)

 d(2)

(y~'6)
+3

= (xol'))2

xo2)
X0 = =X"'2 ,
zo =

Yo =(4YO
)

,) 6

(8

Zo + 6z4 + 6z(

 6d(4S) =
 zo

+ o

## Transfer is from the associated vertex plane (xVe,y, 0)

to a point (x 8, y, z.); a *, b*, c*, and d* refer to the
object or image surface; and t, the axial distance from
object or image to the reference sphere vertex, has the
same sign as the radius of the reference sphere by normal conventions:
0

 w () =,
 Ys

=Yv

-(x

6c?)6xw3)
+ Ys)6Y3))
3)+y(1)6y(3)

26d so4)

)P'2d-'(1-)]

 6iW(4)

6W (2)





Ys X(1)X

sY
soS Yo
(2)dso)=sl~oy
(1)
(1)




=6z(4)

6c
t(2)

Wp(2))2(

4) =z b*(d (2))2

3
(,6d
6S)==(x3))2
+ (y3))2
( l
O6X ')+(6y
)++ 2(xy(1)6xy5)

5) =X 16xs+Yo

s)6Ys5 ))
(Ss)
)

(5)

I

6)=16
[6



6W (6) =

 6y(7)=


(6)

(4)

6 ,

+ (6z.a

a+ p(2)

(2)2+1]

6) -z-

## c(4c) W(2)-6c(2) w(4)

y(7) +

3
6c (c3
)6w(
)6w(44 )+ c(1)6w(6)

6Z (6) = C* (d (2))3

##  6dd8) = 2(x(1 )6x 7) +Ys1 )6ys 7 ) + (3)ax(5) + 6ys3)Y(5))



Fd(8)_=X(1)6X(7) + Y1)6Y(7)

 6p



(Zs8)
= 2

## )= 6d (a) - 26d o8)

[P

+ [[

944

6z( 2

()
2

2P( )P(

)]

)+1+(

(_

6Z

M (6z

(.)2+2P(2)6P(4)(-

)) )+p(2(

3z+(2)

26z(2) z(4)

(6z

))

## (p2))2 3ZO )+ 6(6z(2))2\1

George W. Hopkins

944

F[3(P(2))
2 6P(4)(I'\ + (p(2))3(

6z(8)

 6w(8)

6C(65 6w(2)

6C(4)6W(4)

56z2o)] +(p(2))4(0
6
6c(2)6w( ) .

## CALCULATING THE INITIAL DIRECTION COSINES

The radius of the entrace pupil reference sphere can
change as the field point is changed. The curvature k
of the reference sphere is used for convenience with
k = k ++6k2+6k(4)+6k(6)+...
Retaining the quantities of the previous section,

## This completes the set of equations needed to trace a

proximate ray to eighth order. If wave aberration coefficients are to be calculated, the ray path differences
at each transfer operation should be multiplied by the
index of the space to give optical path differences.
These can be summed or stored as rays are traced to
the exit pupil reference sphere.

## [i] k0 0)= 1i/i,

 6k(2)=_6z'2)/t2_(1/2)d


+2



RAY TABLE

(2)/t3

3(do(2))2
+8__

2
(2)
2 (2)do
^,4)
+ 36zo
0)
+X6(5Z12))
k()=- 6z(
3

6k

6) =

-- (6z 2

5t2

+ 83(d (20)N2 [-

## One possible ray set from which aberrations through

eighth order can be determined is given in Table I.
The optical path and transverse errors which should be
stored as each ray is traced are given in Table IIL

2tt

(2))

15U o

## Assuming errors might be introduced on the entrance

pupil reference sphere, the initial direction cosines
are



6c()

 6C

## WAVE ABERRATION COEFFICIENTS

k()
ye) - (1l))

cyl)(

 6cy

The notation for an error consists of a letter, a number, and a letter. The first letter indicates either optical path difference (W) or transverse error at the
surface of interest (X or Y), the number indicates the
order of the error, and the final letter indicates the
particular ray from Table I.

= (yol) -YS

= (y(l) - y(l))

6y(

- -k

The coordinates used are normalized pupil coordinates, p, and py, and normalized image height H, taken
to lie in the meridional or y-z plane. We also use p2
=px+p y. With a slight modification of the notation introduced by Hopkins, 5 the wave aberration polynomial

3 5 0

k(

6y(3)6k(2)- 6y(5)k(0

5k6)- 6y3)6k

## (7)= (y (l) -y (l))

5

-y(

is

y 7

2 2
2
4
2
W=(Wo2op2+ WiiiHpy+ W2ooH )+(Wo 4 op + W131Hp py+ W 2 20 H p

+(Wo

60

6
p + W1 51 Hp py+ W 240 H
4

+ W2
+ W4 22 H p~
3

+ W 3 3 H p p5y

60 0

W440H p + W

## W 333 H py+ W 420 H p

W3 H p3 py

H py+ T

W 24 H p p+

4
3
W ,3 11H py+ W 4 00 H )

+ W 22 2 H p+

6
8
6
H ) + (W 080 p + WV71 Hp py+ T 260 H p + T 262 H p py2
4 4 2H

2
p p y+ W 444 H py+ WT53 1 H p p

W533H py

TVs 5 H p py
6

W 620 H p

+ T

622

H py

7
+ W800 H 8 )
+ W711 H p

The second-, fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-order coefficients have been set off by parentheses for easy identification.
The solutions for these coefficients in terms of optical path errors at the exit pupil reference sphere are

##  W311 = f2(W4L-W4M)-2(W4H-W41),

 W 060= W6A,
 W600 = W6G+OPD6,

 A=W6Q-W

06 0 -W6G,

##  W200 = W2G + OPD2,

 B=2(W6P -

8W 0 6 0 -



Wll = 2 (W2H

W6G),

 W 24 0 =2(A-B),

-W21),

W 420=A - W240



945

-W4G,

## J. Opt. Soc. Am., Vol. 66, No. 9, September 1976

- w

240

W4 2

- W6G],
George W. Hopkins

945

## TABLE I. Rays used in determining aberration coefficients.

H is normalized image height; p,, and p, are normalized pupil
coordinates.

##  W 442 = 5A-4B-4C,

Ray

P0

 A=W8H-W8I-f1(W8N-W80),

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

0
1/v2

0
0

1/v2

0
1/v

I/v2

Ar

0
P

Py
1



-1
5

i/V

1/v11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

l/v'-

2(A-B),

 W 3 5 3 =A-

-1/v
1/f2
0
0
1
-1
, 3/2
-

1
0
0
0
00
0
0

W 533 =

W53 3

##  A=12(W8H- W81) -

W353- W533

 B=(W8J-W8K)/f3-

9 W35 3 - w4 3 3

 C=(W8L-W8M)/,--

W3
5 3-12 W533

##  D=(W8B-W8C)/T1-2W35 3 -4W

- / v21/vs

5 33

 E=4(A-B)
*

1/vr1//

1 V-

 F=2(A-C),

 G=8D-A,



H=45(G-E),

 I= 2(G-F),

 W24 =
3 2(A - B)

 W 17 =4(H-I)

 W4 22 =A - W24 2

 W3 51= H- YW 17 1

##  W711 =A - W171 - W351 - W531-

 B= (W6L-W6M)/-2 -W
 C = (W6B - W6C)/V-

## The quantities OPD2, OPD4, OPD6, and OPD8 in the

expressions for piston error are the optical path differences to second, fourth, sixth, and eighth order obtained by tracing ray G, the chief ray, from the exit
pupil to the image. The negative of each optical path
value should be used if the sign convention of Hopkins 5
is retained.

333

W 333 ,

 W 1 ,=-2A+
4B+ C,
4
5
 W

3 31 =5A-4B-4C,



W 08 0 = W8A ,



W800 =

## TRANSVERSE ABERRATION COEFFICIENTS

W8 G + OPD8,

A transverse aberration polynomial in rectangular coordinates was chosen for its symmetry with the corresponding transverse pupil aberration polynomial. The
transverse image errors are

##  A=W8Q- W080 -W8G

 B= 2W8P -8W0a0o-

2W8G ,

##  C=2W8F-2Wo80 - 8W8G ,

 W260 =-2A+ 4B+ -C ,



W 440= 5A

- 4B - 4C

## TABLE II. Ray errors required for calculating aberration

coefficients are marked with an x.

##  W 62 0 =-2A+ 8B+ 4C ,

 A=z(W8H+ W81)

- W 4 4 0 - W620-

##  B= 2[2-(W8N+ W80)

-

Ray:

- W080- W260

W8G

-W080

W8G]

W26 0 - W 4 4 0 - W620 -

 W 4 4 4 =2(A-B) ,

-(440 + W444) -'

946

x
x
xx
xx

X1
X3

X5

620 - W8G]

X7

 W262 =

IV2
W4
W6
W8

26 0

AB

2 W26 0

~WG

2A+ 4B+ 8 C

## J. Opt. Soc. Am., Vol. 66, No. 9, September 1976

CDE

FGH

IJK

LMN

OPQ

x
xxx

xx
xx
xx
xxx

x
x
x
xxx

xx
xxx
xxx

x
xxx
xxx

Error

xix

x
xx

Y1

Y3

xx

Y5
Y7

x
xx

xx
xxx

x
x

xxx

xxx
x

xx
xxx

George W. Hopkins

xx
xxx

946

E, =

(Glp, + G2H)
2

2
2
(PAp ,y + P2Hp

+ P 3 Hpy +
3

2
P 4 H2py + P 5 H p,

2
6H p

T7H p

T8 H p

4
) + (Slp py + S 2 Hp

2 2
2
+ S 3 Hp py + S 4 H p py

6
6
5
4
4
p2 + S 10 H p' + S 1 HI py + S 12 H ) + (Tlp py + T 2 Hp + T 3 Hp p2 + T 4 H p ty
4
2
py + T9H3p2 p + TJ- 3 p + T,,H 4 p p + T12 H p + T 13 p 2 + T 1 4

+ S5 H P Py + S 6 H p3 + S 7 H p + S 8 H p2 + Sgf

T 5H

+ P6 H

7
6
T1 ,H p + T 16 H p2 + T1 7 H p2 + T1 8 H p6 + T 19 H p, + T 20 H )
5

5 2

and
E.=

## (Glp.) + (PIp2 p"

4
3
2
2 2
2
2
+ P3 Hpp, + P5H px) + (Sjp4p. + S3Hp P.P' + S 5H p p. + S6 H p"p2 + S9H ppy + S 11H p

) + (TIp6 pP

6
5
4 2
3
3 2
2 2
2 4p
4
+ T3Hp pxpy + T5H p X+ T6H p pxpy + T 9 HIp pp + T OH p pY + T 13H1p pX + T 14H4pxpy + T 1 7H PXPY + T1 gI px)

## Note that two coefficients are used for third-order

coma. This is needed because the identity, P 3 = 2P2breaks down if the coefficients are calculated from
transverse errors on a defocused image surface. One
desirable feature of the proximate-ray-tracing coefficients is their sensitivity to defocus, a factor not accounted for in theories which use formulas for coefficients.
The solutions for these coefficients in terms of transverse errors on the image surface (not necessarily
plane) are



S1 = A -S4,

 T, = Y7A,
 T20 = Y7G
 A= Y7Q - T20 ,
[71 B = 2(Y7P- T20)
 C= F2Y7F -8 T 20 ,


=-2A+-B+8C,

 G1 = Y1A ,

 T 7 =5A-4B-4C



 P1 =Y3A

 P6 = Y3G

##  B=(Y7L+Y7M)-lT 2 -2T

 P 2 = Y3Q - P6 ,

 Ps=X3Q-P1

 D=5A-4B-4C

 E=-2A+B+4C,

 S 1 =Y5A

 S1 2 =Y5G

##  A= Y5Q- S12



 B= 2(Y5P- S1 2 )

 T 1 6=E- T 17

 S2 = 2(A-B.)

 H= G -T17 I

 S 7 =A - S 2 ,

 T8 =I-H,

##  B= (Y5L+ Y5M)-2S 2 -S 7 -2S 1 2



J=D-

 S 3 =2(AA-B),



Tl,=2(J-H)

 Sg=X5N-X50-S 3

 Tg=J- T1 o

 S 8 =A-S 3 -S g9

##  A=X7Q- T1,

 A=X5Q-S 1 ,



=
B=

S,
 B= I'X5P-4S
1



C=2(X7F-T 1 ) ,

 S, = 2(A-B.),

8C,
 T 5 =-2A+4B+



 B= pL



##  A =2(Y5H- Y5I)-S 1 -s

T 1 5 =-2A+83B+4C,

-T

-2T

20,

T15s-

T20,

T 17 = 2(F-G)

+T 7 + T15 + T20),

T8,

2X7P-8T 1 ,

 T 13 =5A-4B-4C,

SI, =A -S 5 ,

 S 6 =

947

 S 4 =2(A-B)

-SY5M)ocA.64S6

-s 6 -S

11

1
-o29S5e-t2bS6er

## J. Opt. Soc. Am., Vol. 66, No. 9, September 1976

T l g =-2A+8B+4 C

##  A=(Y7H- Y71)- T1 - T5s- T13 - T1 9

 B = (Y7L - Y7M)/

- 8T 1 - I T 5 - 2T13 - T 19
George W. Hopkins

947

11 t
T 13 "1
-4T ,TrD
19

##  D=- 2A+fB+C

C,
 E=5A-4B-4C ,
 T 1 8 =-2A+83B+4C,
 F= (X7N+X70) - 2(T1 + T5 + T 13 + T1 9),
 G=2/2(X7D+X7E)-4T 1 -2T

-T 1 3 - 2 T19

 T 14 =2(F- G) ,
 T 6 =F-T1 4 ,
 T 4 =D-T 6,
 H= E - T 14 ,
 I= (Y7N- Y70)/--

T 1 - T 4 - T 5 -- T6

T 13-T3-T
- 2
14 -T18-T19,
T9

 T, 2 =2(H-I)
 =H- T12
The transverse pupil aberration polynomial to fifth
order is
6 y= (G1 H + 22py) + (P 1H 3 + P2H 2p
+

P3 H 22p + p4 Hp2

3

## + S4 H p + S 5H py2+ S6 H 3p2 + S 7H 2 p3 + S-H 2 p 2py

+ S9 H

p py + S 1 0 Hp pY2 + S1 1 Hp

6. = (Gp.) + (P 2 H 2p.

+ P4 Hp.py +

+ S

p py),

: 6 p 2 px)

12

First, proximate rays were traced and ray coordinates and optical path differences were observed to
converge to real ray values. Comparison was made
with Cox's pseudo-ray-trace equations2 (as extended
to seventh order for spherical surfaces) and with the
tangent proximate ray-trace equations (PROXI being instructed to "find" coordinates on a plane). Identical
surface-by-surface ray coordinates were obtained in
these two separate cases.
Next, the coefficients were checked for proper scaling as field and aperture specifications were changed.
This scaling was verified. An interesting test resulted
from an error by the author. A camera lens with a
100 km object distance and a 17 mm pupil radius was
being evaluated, and 17 km was accidentally entered as
the pupil radius. All real rays except the chief ray
missed the first optical surface; however, the coefficients, most of which were of the magnitude of intergalactic distances, computed and scaled down properly,
although with a slight loss of numerical accuracy!
Finally, proximate rays which were not included in
the ray set of Table I were traced, and the optical path
differences and transverse errors associated with these
rays were compared to values obtained from the aberration polynomials. Excellent agreement was obtained.

+ S 7H2pXp2 + S8 H PPX

+ ( 2 H Px + S4 H 3
+ S1 oHp pxpy +

## face-by-surface ray trace. This computer program,

entitled PROXI, was used on a number of systems to verify the accuracy of the proximate ray-trace equations
and the coefficient solutions.

p px).

## No solutions are explicitly given for these coefficients.

Because of symmetry between the pupil and image coordinates, all that is necessary is to use transverse
ray errors at the pupil and substitute pupil coefficients
with given field and pupil dependence into the corresponding solutions for image aberration coefficients.

## TEST OF THE COSINE PROXIMATE RAY-TRACE

EQUATIONS
The equations presented here were programmed along
with a real ray trace. The program includes a routine
which reduces transverse ray errors at any surface by
introducing appropriate errors at the entrance pupil
reference sphere. The routine uses a simple iterative
method to reduce third-, then fifth-, and then seventhorder errors. The new proximate ray is used as a
first approximation to the real ray, often allowing a
real ray to pass which would have missed a surface if
aimed at the ideal entrance pupil coordinate. This procedure allows the pupil coordinates in an aberration
polynomial to represent coordinates on any pupil plane
or reference sphere.

SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS
The remarks made in Ref. 1 apply here, but the
method for obtaining surface contributions for wave
aberration coefficients will differ from the transverse
case.
The wave aberration induced on refraction is obtained from three operations. The first operation is
transfer from an object-space reference sphere to a
surface. Optical path differences are stored. The
proximate ray is then refracted. The final operation is
transfer to an image-space reference sphere. The resulting optical path differences are added to the objectspace values (with proper regard for sign conventions)
to give the wave aberration contribution.
The wave aberration induced on transfer can be obtained from optical path differences upon transfer between reference spheres. This is in contrast to present
theories which associate aberration contributions with
surfaces only.
Intrinsic and induced aberrations can be separated by
setting lower-order ray "errors" to zero to obtain intrinsic values.

## and transverse image aberration coefficients to seventh

order, fifth-order transverse pupil aberrations, certain real ray aberrations, and it allows an optional sur-

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## any of these operations, as the optical path differences

associated with a particular ray are simply additive.
George W. Hopkins

948

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

## *The material in this paper is extracted from a doctoral dis-

I particularly appreciate the assistance of my dissertation director, Professor R. V. Shack, who suggested
the problem of determining higher-order wave aberration coefficients, suggested using a direction cosine
space, and sustained my enthusiasm throughout this
task. I would also like to thank 0. N. Stavroudis,
R. R. Shannon, R. A. Buchroeder, M. H. Kreitzer,
and W. C. Sweatt for encouragement, suggestions, and
stimulating discussions; and J. M. Rowe for preparing
the manuscript. This work was supported in part by
the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Organization,
Los Angeles, Calif. The State of Arizona provided computer funds.

## sertation submitted to The Committee on Optical Sciences,

The University of Arizona.
1G. W. Hopkins, "Proximate ray tracing and optical aberration
coefficients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 405-410 (1976).
2
A. Cox, A System of Optical Design (Focal, London, 1964),
pp. 175-181.
3
H. H. Hopkins, The development of image evaluation
methods," Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Image Assessment and Specification 64,
2-18 (1974).
4
G. W. Hopkins, 'Xbberrational Analysis of Optical Systems:
A Proximate Ray Trace Approach," Dissertation (The University of Arizona) (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, 1976).
5
H. H. Hopkins, The Wave Theory of Aberrations (Clarendon,
Oxford, 1950), p. 49.

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