Jadavpur University

College :- Bengal Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences Name :-Kuntal Mitra

Roll No :- 11 Class :- 4th Yr 7th sem

Subject :-Dravyaguna Vijnan (Paper-3) Topic :-BHARNGI(Clerodendrum serratum)

Course :-B.Pharm (Ayu) Introduction:-

On review of literature it is observed that Bhrangi is one of the most common herbs in the Ayurvedic formulation (classical) used in the treatment of respiratory disorders. However , the identity of the drug is still controversial. Though Brihat Trayi texts & Nighantu writers have described one variety of Bhrangi we come across 2 types in Vaidyaka Sabda Sindu. They are Svetapuspa & nilaqpuspa. May be this description is the source of controversy. The former is C.indicum while the later variety is C.serratum.moon. Respectively. Sometimes c. infortunatum is also used as Bhrangi by others. The Sanskrit work bharangi literally means that which is glorious. Another name of the same plant, bhrguja, implies a relation of the plant with the great sage Bhrgu. It has various synonyms describing its peculiarities like kharasaka ± with rough leaves, padma ± flowers look like that of lotus, vatari ± an enemy of vata dosa, kasaghni ± which alleviates cough etc. Susruta and Bhavamisra have also described the medicinal properties of the plant particularly for respiratory complaints viz. asthma. Susruta has mentioned it as a panacea for epilepsy and also as stanyasodhaka ± lactodepurant Vagbhata has cited its usefulness in cough due to kapha and vata. Caraka has categorized it as purisa sangrahaniya ± gives form to faeces. Botanical name:- Clerodendrum serratum(Linn.) Moon Natural order:- Verbenaceae

Classical names:- Angaravalli, Bhrangi, Bhargavi, Bhargi, Bramhani, Padma, Bhrigubhava, Bramhanayashtika, Kharashaka, Phaniji, Hanjika

Vernacular Names:(Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India; Part-1; vol. 3; GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF ISM & H ; page no- 25-26)

Sansk. : Angaravalli, Brahmanayastika Assam. : -Beng. : Bamun Hatee, Baman hatee, Bhuijam Eng. : -Guj. : Bharangee Hindi. : Bharangee Kan. : Gantubarangee Kash. : -Mal. : Cheruteku Mar. : Bharangee, Bharang Ori. : Chinds Punj. : Bhadangee Tam. : Cheruteku Tel. : Ganttubrarangee Urdu. : Bharangi, Baharangi

Classical Categorization: Caraka :- Purisasangrahaniya  Susruta :- Pippalyadi  Vagbhata :- Pippalyadi

Botanical description:-

(Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda; Vol-1; Central Council for research in Ayurveda & Siddha, Dept. of ISM & H of health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2005; Page no-73-78) a) Macroscopic: Mature root hard, woody, cylindrical, up to 5 cm thick, external surface light brown having elongated lenticels; bark, thin and easily separated from a broad wood which shows marked medullary rays and concentric growth rings in a transversely cut surface; fracture, short; taste, acrid. b) Microscopic: Mature root shows stratified cork composed of 14-20 layers of thin-walled, tangentially y elongated cells; each stratification consists of 3-5 layers of cells; secondary cortex wide, outer 2 or 3 layers radially arranged and tangentially elongated, inner cells polyhedral or circular to ellipsoidal with intercellular spaces; a few cells modified into stone cells with greatly thickened wall having concentric striations and radiating canals with narrow lumen; some cells contain acicular crystals of calcium oxalate and a few contain brown coloring matter; secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and parenchyma mostly collapsed in outer region, forming ceratenchyma; some phloem parenchymatous cells modified into stone cells similar to those in secondary cortex but somewhat smaller and with greater thickening' of walls; secondary xylem diffused porous consisting of vessels, tracheids, fibers and xylem parenchyma traversed by xylem rays; macerated preparation show wider vessels cylindrical, drum-shaped, some being elongated at one end having bordered pits, rarely reticulate or pitted, while narrower ones elongated with spiral to reticulate thicken- tracheids

long, cylindrical with tapering ends and bordered pits; xylem fibers moderately thick-walled with mostly tapering, pointed ends and oblique bordered pits; xylem parenchyma square to rectangular with simple pits on their walls; medullary rays 1-4 cells wide and 2-50 cells high, 2 or 3 cell wide rays more common, having simple pits on their walls; acicular crystals and abundant simple and compound starch grains measuring up to 20 in dia. present in a number of cells throughout the region. Powder - Light-brown; shows vessels reticulate, spiral and with bordered pits, starch grains simple and compound, round to oval, measuring up to 20 in dia. and acicular crystals; stone cells as describes under microscopy present. Flowering & Fruiting time:- May-August; Summers to rainy season

Variety:(³Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnan´; by Dr. J.L.N.Sastry; Vol. 2, Publisher: Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, Page no. 422-425) C. indicum is considered as Bhrangi by P.V.Sharmaji while other scholars have identified Bharangi as C. serratum Spreng. The former variety is known as Bhandira according to others.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH ²
(Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India; Part-1; vol. 3; GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF ISM & H ; page no- 25-26)

Foreign matter Not more than 2 %, Total ash Not more than 11 %, Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 %, Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 %, Water-soluble extractive Not less than 12 %, T.L.C. ± T.L.C. of the alcoholic extract on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic

acid: Water (4:1:5) shows in visible light two spots at Rf. 0.62 and 0.74 (both dirty yellow). Under UV light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.62 (yellowish green), 0.68 (blue) and 0.74 (yellowish green). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.62 and 0.74 (both grey).

Chemical Constituents:-

Roots contain Serratagenic acid, Queretaroic acid, some Phytosterols, Saponins, Two iridiod glycosides, Ferulic acid, Arabinose, Scutellarein, Baicalein are some important chemical constituents reported. (Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda; Vol-1; Central Council for research in Ayurveda & Siddha, Dept. of ISM & H of health & Family Walefare, Govt. of India, 2005; Page no-73-78) As mentioned earlier the genus Clerodendrum is reported in various indigenous systems of medicine throughout the world for the treatment of various diseases. Efforts have been made by various researchers to isolate and identify biologically active principle and other major chemical constituents from various species of the genus. Research reports on the genus denote that the major class of chemical constituents present in the Clerodendrum genus are steroids such as -sitosterol, sitosterol octacosanol, clerosterol, bungein A, acteoside, betulinic acid, clerosterol 3-O- -Dglucopyranoside, colebrin A-E, campesterol, 4 methylsterol, cholesta-5-22-25-trien-3- -ol, 24- -cholesta-5-22-25- trine, cholestanol, 24-methyl-22-dihydrocholestanol, 24- 22-25-bis dehydrocholesterol, 24- -methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol, 24- -methyl-22 dehydrocholesterol, 24-ethyl- 22-dehydrocholesterol, 24-ethylcholesterol, 22-dehydroclerosterol, 24-methyllathosterol, 24- -ethyl-25 dehydrolathosterol, (24S)-ethylcholesta-5-22-25-triene-3 -ol have been isolated from various Clerodendron species such as C. inerme, C. phlomidis, C. infortunatum, C. paniculatum, C. cyrtophyllum, C. fragrans, C. splendens, C. campbellii and C. splendens (Bolger et al. 1970; Abdul-Alim 1971;
Joshi et al. 1979; Sinha et al. 1980; Singh and Singhi 1981; Sinha et al. 1982; Hsu et al. 1983; Singh and Prakash 1983; Singh and Singhi 1983; Pinto and Nes 1985; Rempler

and Hunkler 1986; Akihisa et al. 1989; Att Ur-Rehman et al. 1997; Goswami et al. 1996; Yang et al. 2000; Kanchanapoom et al. 2001; Yang et al. 2002; Gao et al. 2003a, 2003b; Pandey et al. 2003; Kanchanapoom et al. 2005; Lee et al. 2006). Another

class of constituents are terpenes which include: monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, iridoids and sesquiterpenes. Terpenes such as amyrin, -amyrin, caryoptin, 3-epicaryoptin, 16-hydroxy epicaryoptin, clerodendrin A, B and C, clerodin, clerodermic acid, cleroinermin, friedelin, gramisterol, iridoids (inerminoside A, B, C and D, melittaside, monomelittoside, sammangaoside, ugandoside, 8-O-acetylmioporoside), obtusifoliol, oleanolic acid, royleanone, dehydroroyleanone, sesquiterpene (sammangaoside A, B) clerodendrin A, uncinatone, Mi saponins-A, friedelanone, lupeol, betulinic acid, royleanone and dehydroroyleanone, and betulin have till now been isolated from various Clerodendron species such as C. inerme, C. phlomidis, C. paniculatum, C. colebrookianum, C. wildii, C. uncinatum, C. mandarinorum, C. thomsonae, C. fragrans, C. ugandense, C. chinense (Joshi et al. 1979; Sharma and Singh 1979; Singh et al.
1981; Sinha et al. 1981; Seth et al. 1982; Singh and Prakash 1983; Achari et al. 1990; Raha et al. 1991; Achari et al. 1992; Rao et al. 1993; Calis et al. 1994; El-Shamy et al. 1996; Kawai et al. 1998; Hazekamp 2001; Kanchanapoom et al. 2001; Yang et al. 2002; Kumari et al. 2003; Chae et al. 2004; Dorsaz et al. 2004; Nishida et al. 2004; Min et al. 2005). Flavonoids are another class of compounds which are mainly present

in Clerodendron speices and they are also responsible for few biological activities. The major flavonoids present are cynaroside, 5-hydroxy-4¶-7dimethoxy methyl flavone, kaempferol, salvigenin, 4-methyl scutellarein, 5,7,4 O-trihydroxyflavone, apigenin, luteolin, acacetin- 7-O-glucuronide, hispidulin, 2¶-4-4¶trihydroxy-6¶methyl chalcone, 7-hydroxy flavone, luteolin, naringin-4¶-O- -glucopyranoside, pectolinarigenin, cirsimaritin, cirsimaritin4¶- glucoside, quercetin-3-methyl ether which were isolated from C. inerme, C. phlomidis, C. petasites, C. trichotomum, C. mandarinorum, and C. infortunatum (Vendatham et al. 1977; Seth et al. 1982; Raha et al. 1989; Achari et al.
1990; Raha et al. 1991; Roy and Pandey 1994, 1995; Roy et al. 1995 ; El-Shamy et al. 1996; Anam 1997, 1999). There are also other chemical constituents present

which include volatile constituents such as 5-O-ethylcleroindicin D, linalool, benzyl acetate and benzyl benzoate, which have been isolated from C. canescens, C. cyrtophyllum, C. inerme and C. philippinum (Yang et al. 2002; Nyegue et al. 2004; Wong and Tan 2005). Other chemical constituent includes cyanogenic glycosides such as lucumin and prunasin which were isolated from C. grayi (Miller et al. 2006). Phenolic compounds like -benzyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol-D-glucoside, neolignan, darendoside-B, phenyl propanoids like (isovarbascoside, verbascoside, leucosceptoside), vanillic acid, anisic acid, para-hydroxy benzoic acid, gallic acid have been reported in C.

inerme, C. bungei and C. dauricum (Liu and Fu 1980; Gabriele and Rimpler 1981; Zhou et al. 1982; Gabriele et al. 1983; Sakurai and Kato 1983; Calis et al. 1994); Dmannitol from C. serratum (Garg and Verma 2006). Carbohydrates like glucose, fructose, sucrose are been reported in C. mandarinorum and C. inerme. Other constituents such as ribosome-inactivating protein, salidroside, jinoside-D, acetoside have been isolated from C. inerme (Olivieri et al. 1996), while trichotomoside, cytotoxic pheophorbides and cleromyrin-I have been isolated from C. trichotomum, C. calamitosum and C. cyrtophyllum
(Bashwira et al. 1989; Cheng et al. 2001; Chae et al. 2006).

PROPERTIES AND ACTION -

Rasa

Dhn Tikta

Mpn Bpn Katu,Tikata Katu,Tikta, Kasaya Usna

Rjn Katu,Tikta

San Katu,Tikta, Tuvara Usna

Guna

Ruksha

Usna

Virya

Usna

Usna

Usna

Usna

Vipaka

Rogaharatva:-

Svasa, gulma, yaksha, pinasa(Dhn) ; sotha, kasa, svasa, pinasa, jvara(Mpn) ; Gulma, sotha, kasa, svasa, pinasa, jvara(Bpn) ; Svasa, kasa, sopha, vrana, krimi, daha, jvara(Rjn) ; Gulma, rakta roga, sotha, kasa, svasa, pinasa, jvara, vata jvara, hikka, ksaya(San) ; Jvara, daha, hikka(Nir). Karma:-

Ruchya, pachana (Mpn); Ruchya, pachana, dipana (Bpn); Rucya, pachani, dipani (San) Dosakarma:Kapha-vata hara(Dhn) ; Kapha-vata hara(Mpn) ; Kapha-vata hara(Bpn) ; Kaphaghna, marutaghna(San) ; Doshatraya hara(Nir). Dhatukarma:Rakta dosha hara (Dhn); Rakta kapha hara (Bpn); Rakta hara (San)

Therapeutic Uses:(³Dravyaguna Vijnan´- Dr. Gyanendra Pandey; Vol-1; Chowkhamba Krisnadas Academy, Varanasi; Edition-Third, 2005; Page no-355-360) 

The root has a bitter, pungent & bitter taste; it is dry, heating .It is stomachic, anthelmintic & antiasthamatic drug; & useful in asthma, bronchitis, cough, hiccough, fever, consumption, epilepsy, ozoena, tumours, diseases of blood, burning sensation, consumption, glandular affections, wounds & tuberculosis. It allays vata & kapha, body humors. The roots increase appetite; lessen expectoration; & useful in inflammation, bronchitis, asthma & fevers. The leaves, boiled in oil & butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalagia & opthalmia. The seeds are bruised & boiled in butter milk & used as aperients & in treatment of dropsy. 

  



The roots are used in catarrhal & febrile affections. It is very effective in asthmatic & lungs affections & malarial fevers; & also in edema. It is given frequently in asthma, cough, bronchitis, dyspnoea & catarrhal affections of lungs; used in respiratory diseases, rheumatism & dyspepsia. The decoction of roots is useful in lungs affections. The leaves are considered useful among the snake bite remedies & the roots are for scorpion-sting. It is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, febrifuge, tonic &refrigerant. Antihistaminic principle isolated from the drug is active substance & constituents; as the drug contains saponin & D-mannitol & found to cause the development of anti-histaminic & antialergic substances in lungs tissues; & it is effective against bronchial asthma & allied disorders. It is useful in diseases of blood & oedema, also in abdominal disorders as well as in glandular affections & ulcers. The leaves are externally applied over wounds & glandular affections. Roots are prescribed for use as a paste over glandular disease. The juice of roots mixed with ginger juice is orally used in cough, bronchitis & coryza. The decoction of roots is given in respiratory & other diseases where the drug is recommended, it is also administered interlay in other forms & in combination with other drugs. 

 

  

Processing

of buttermilk is done with bhrangi, asphota, yavani, amalaki & guduchi (A jar is pasted inside with the root of bhrangi & butter milk is kept therein for a certain period & thereafter used in food & drinks) that alleviates haemorrhoids.(Ss.Ci.6.13) 

Paste of bharangi & Sunthi or maricha & yavaksara should take with
decoction of devadaru, citraka, asphota & murva. It alleviates hiccough & dyspnoea.(Cs.Ci.17.110) 

One suffering from hiccough & asthama should take bhrangi mixed
with Sunthi with hot water or Sunthi with sugar, bhrangi & sauvarcca.(Vm.12.9) 

Ghee should

be cooked with paste of bhrangi in four times curd & double quantity of brihati decoction. It is an excellent remedy for vatika cough.(BS.kasa17) 

Bhrangi root is collected in Pusya & pouded with Tusodaka. This is
given orally to treat inguinal hernia(V.S.) Application of Bhrangi with kanjika in Gandamala. (³Illustrated Dravyaguna Vijnan´; by Dr. J.L.N.Sastry; Vol. 2, Publisher: - Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, Page no. 422-425)

Method of Preparation & mode of administration
(³Herbal Cure: Asthma and Cough´ by Vaidya Dash Bhagwan) The powder made from the bharangi leaves is applied externally in the treatment of ulcers & wounds. Internally, it is used in the form of paste, juice, powder, decoction & linctus. Paste:The leaf, root or stem-bark is collected, cleaned & then made into a paste by adding a little water. This is applied externally over wounds & taken internally for bronchitis & asthma. The paste is also applied over tubercular glands.

Juice:The juice is usually collected from fresh green leaves. The leaves should be soaked in water for some time & made into a paste by adding a little more water. The juice can also be used externally for bronchitis, asthma, consumption, tuberculosis & epilepsy. Powder:The root & stem-bark are generally used in the form of powder. The root & stem-bark are dried thoroughly & ground into powder with the help of a grinder. This powder is extensively used in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma & fever. Decoction:The decoction is prepared out of the root or stem-bark which is ground to a course powder. One teaspoonful of this powder is boiled in two cups of water & reduced to one fourth the quantity. The decoction is then strained & the grounds thrown away. This decoction is a potent expectorant & antispasmodic. Linctus:An equal quantity of sugar & double the quantity of water are added to the powder of the root & stem-bark & boiled over a mild fire till it becomes syrup. To this, 5% of each cloves, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon, long pepper, ginger & black pepper is added. This linctus is generally used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis & chronic asthma with bronchitis & emphysema.

Dose:(³Herbal Cure: Asthma and Cough´ by Vaidya Dash Bhagwan)

y y y y y

Paste Juice Powder

:- 1 teaspoonful three times a day with honey :- 2 teaspoonful thrice a day with honey, sugar or jaggery :- 1 teaspoon thrice a day with honey

Decoction :- 1 Ounce (6 teaspoonfuls) twice a day on empty stomach with honey, sugar or jaggery Linctus :- 2 teaspoonful twice a day with honey

Formulation (YOGA):- 

          

Bhrargiguda[(Asthma)- The materia medica of the Hindus by Udoy Chand Dutt] Bhrangiyadi kvatha[Visamjvara(malaria), Jirnajvara(Chronic fever)www.ayurvedaconsultants.com] Kanakasava[Tamaka swasa roga(Bronchial asthma)- www.ayushveda.com] Sringyadi churna[(Cough, asthma, sinusitis, tastelessness, hiccup)- www.ayurdrugs.com] Yogaraj guggulu[(Reduces vata in the joints, nerves & muscles)www.ayurvedicherbsdirect.com] Bharangisura Bhargimoola pralepa Bhragi sharkara Bhagi shatpalaka ghrita Bhargyadi leha Pipalyadi Kvatha[(Manda-jvara)-³Enccyclopedia of Indian Medicine:Diseases & their causes´ by Saligrama Krishna Ramachandra Rao, S. R. Sudarshan] Katphaladi Kvatha[(Sita-jvara, vata-jvara, asthma, drowsiness, excessive perspiration)-³Diagnosis & treatment of diseases in Ayurveda,Part 1, by Vaidya Bhagwan Dash, Lalitesh Kashyap]

Substituents & Adulterants:(Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda; Vol-1; Central Council for research in Ayurveda & Siddha, Dept. of ISM & H of health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2005; Page no-73-78) Clerodendrum serratum & C. indicum (L.) Kuntze (Syn. C. siphonanthus C.B.Cl) both are used as Bhrangi. C. indicum is known in Bengal as Bamunhati & in telagu it is known as Bharangi. The bark of Gardenia turgid Roxb. Is reported to be sold as Bharangi bark. Picrasma quassioides Ben. Is used as Bharangi in Bengal. Bharangi root is sometimes substituted by Ringani root (Solanum surattense Burn.f.)

Parts Used:Root, Leaf

Research:- 

Uncinatone

& pectolinerigenin (isolated from C. indicum) inhibited feeding of adult rice weevil, Sitophililus oryzae(J. Agric. Food. Chem. 1989,37,234) 

Antihistaminic activity :
The alcoholic extract & the saponin isolated from the root bark of C. serratum caused release of histamine from the lung tissue of rats. The antihistaminic activity of the extract is reported.(gupta & Gupta, 1967,1967b; Gupta, 1968) 

Anti-cholinesterase activity :
On i.p. administration of 0.3mg/kg of saponin in rabit, the average pseudoxholinesterase activity of 45.25 2.5 unit was found to decrease to about 50% & the effect was similar to that observed after 0.4 mg/kg of physostogmine. The anti-cholinesterase activity of the saponin was also confirmed by acetylcholine resoponses in gunea pig tracheal chain preparation, isolated rat ileum & frog rectus muscles.(Modh & Gupta, 1969). 

Comparative

antibacterial activities of Clerodendrum serratum and Premna herbacea:

Clerodendrum serratum and Premna herbacea are two sources of the plant- drug Sirutekku used in Siddha medicine. When the ethanol extracts of roots of these two plants were tested on two gram-positive and six gramnegative bacterial strains, the former exhibited highly significant activity against Streptococcus pyogenes-A and Proteus mirabilis, while the latter showed mild inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results support our claim that C. serratum can be equated to Sirutekku. ( Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences ISSN 0250-474X, N Narayanan,
P Thirugnanasambantham, S Viswanathan, S Rajarajan, E Sukumar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Madras Medical College, Chennai, India) 

Antioxidant Effects of Roots of Clerodendrum serratum Linn. :
Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. In the present study we examined the antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum (CSR) at

various concentrations in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and the Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The results of the present study revealed that the plant extract has significant antioxidant activity and are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.
Keywords:

Antioxidant effect; Clerodendrum serratum Linn; DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2picryl-hydrazil); Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power. (JOURNAL: Pharmacognosy Research; Volume :1; Issue :5 September 2009 - October 2009; Page No: 294-298; Authors: Bhujbal S.S.[1]*, Kewatkar S.M.K.[1], More L.S., and Patil M.J.[2] ) 

In

vitro clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon (barangi): a rare and threatened medicinal plant :

An in vitro process for rapid clonal propagation of Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon, a rare and threatened medicinal shrub, has been developed. Nodal stem segments having axillary bud, taken from field-grown plant, showed bud-break within 15 days of culture on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Physiol Plant 15:473±497, 1962) medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l each of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid along with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate (AdS). Regenerated shoots could be further multiplied on the same agarified morphogenetic medium in presence of 0.5 mg/l 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride with increased concentration of AdS, i.e., 30 mg/l. A group of five shoots used as inoculum produced on an average 4.98 new shoots per original shoot after 4 weeks of subculture. Shoots excised from cultures of proliferating shoots were rooted in half-strength MS medium having 1 mg/l indole-3-propionic acid. In vitro rooted shoots²plantlets²grew luxuriantly under field conditions and came to flowering after 10 months of transplantation. The genetic fidelity of in vitro-raised field-grown plants and their mother plant was ascertained by

random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The protocol developed holds good for in vitro cloning of C. serratum. Keywords 2-Chloroethyltrimethyl Nodal stem segment ammonium chloride - Cloning - Genetic fidelity -

(Journal: Acta Physiologiae Plantarum; Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg: ISSN: 0137-5881 (Print) 1861-1664 (Online): Issue:Volume 31, Number 2 / March, 2009; Category:Original Paper; DOI: 10.1007/s11738008-0245-4; Pages:379-383; Subject Collection: Biomedical and Life Sciences; SpringerLink Date: Friday, November 21, 2008; Author: M. Sharma,
S. K. Rai, D. K. Purshottam, M. Jain, D. Chakrabarty, A. Awasthi, K. N. Nair and Ashok Kumar Sharma). 

Evaluation
serratum L. :

of

hepatoprotective

activity

of

Clerodendrum

The ethanol extract of C. serratum roots and ursolic acid isolated from it were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male Wistar strain rats. The parameters studied were estimation of liver function serum markers such as serum total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities. The ursolic acid showed more significant hepatoprotective activity than crude extract. The histological profile of the liver tissue of the root extract and ursolic acid treated animal showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration as similar to the controls. The results when compared with the standard drug silymarin, revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of the constituent ursolic acid is significant as similar to the standard drug. (JOURNAL: Indian journal of experimental biology ; ISSN 0019-5189 ; CODEN IJEBA6 ; Authors: VIDYA S. M. ; KRISHNA V. ; MANJUNATHA B. K. ;
MANKANI K. L. ; AHMED Manzoor ; JAGADEESH SINGH S. D. ;) 

Hypoglycemic

and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous fresh leaves extract of Clerodendrum capitatum in Wistar rats:

Diabetes mellitus, the most common endocrine disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is treated in the African traditional phytotherapies with the cold water decoction of Clerodendrum capitatum (CC). In the current study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaves aqueous extract of CC were studied in four groups of six adult Wistar rats per group and weighting 120 í 150 g, by administering graded oral doses (100, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day) of the extract for 14 days. On the 15th day, the fasted rats were anesthetized under inhaled halothane and blood samples obtained through cardiac puncture. Phytochemical analysis of CC extract was conducted using standard procedures while the preliminary acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of Up and Down Procedure at a limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Results of the study showed CC to cause significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) dose dependent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects but had no effect on the pattern of weight gain in the treated rats. Although no lethal effect was recorded with CC oral administration for up to 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route, but there was an associated transient somatomotor and behavioral toxicities. Phytochemical results revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, glycosides and reducing sugars in the extract. Thus, the folkloric use of Clerodendrum capitatum in the treatment of suspected type 2 diabetics has a positive correlation with scientific data generated in this study. Keywords: Clerodendrum capitatum; Aqueous fresh leaf extract; Hypoglycemia; Hypolipidemia; Phytochemical analysis; Acute Oral Toxicity; Rats (Journal: Journal of Ethnopharmacology; Volume 116, Issue: 1, 28 February 2008, Pages 7-10; Authors: A.A. Adeneye, T.I. Adeleke and A.K. Adeneye) 

Vasorelaxant
Leaves:

Effect

of

Clerodendrum

Serratum

(Spreng.)

The leaves of Clerodendrum serratum (Spreng) locally known as ³Timba tasek´ (verbenaceae), is traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases including cardiovascular disorders. We examined the effect of this plant on Noradrenaline (NA)-induced contraction of isolated rat aortic ring preparation either contractility or relaxation In vitro. On the other hand, C. serratum (Spreng.) is traditionally consumed as a water decoction. In the contrary of that, different solvents were used by increasing polarity in maceration process (40C0). The dried powdered of C. serratum (spreng) Leaves were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water respectively. The effect of the extracts on the log dose response curve was examined in the absence (PEG-400 negative control) and presence of the increasing different concentrations of extracts. The results showed that the methanol extract (0.5mg/ml) was found to be the most potent in inhibiting NA-induced contraction and significantly shifted the log dose response curve to the right with depressed maximum. The verapamil was used as positive control (Gilani al. et. 2005). Methanol extract was further fractionated by increasing polarity from n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and water respectively. The effects of the fractions on the Noradrenaline-induced contraction of isolated aortic ring preparation were examined again. The results showed that the water fracion (0.5mg/ml) was found to be the most most active fraction in vasodilating the NAinduced contraction which shifted the log dose response curve of aorta to the right with depressed maximum responses (P<0.01). phytochemical screening of the water active fraction indicated the presence of flavoniods. In conclusion, this study shows that C. serratum possesses cardiovascular effect as alleged by its traditional use. (22nd MSPP SCIENTIFIC MEETING 2008; Poster 41; Authors: AJ Mahamed, N
Ismail, MZ Asmawi)

Acknowledgement: 

I convey my regards to Dr. Deboyoti Das for giving me such a good topic for project.  My special thanks to Dr. Swernendu Mitra for giving me good suggestions about making a good project.  I want to thank Mr. Partha Pratim Nandy, my elder brother for helping me.  Last but not least I like to thank my Family for their tremendous support.

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