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COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING PART 11

FIBER OPTICS

6. The speed of light in a transparent material:

Multiple Choice: Encircle the letter that corresponds to your


answer.
1. A transparent material along which we can transmit light is
called:
a.
b.
c.
d.

a fiber optic
a flashlight
an optic fiber
a xenon bulb

7. A ray of light in a transparent material of refractive index 1.5


is approaching a material with a refractive index of 1.48. At
the boundary, the critical angle is:

2. A simple fiber optic system would consist of:


a.
b.
c.
d.

a light source, an optic fiber and a photo-electric cell


a laser, an optic fiber and an LED
a copper coaxial cable, a laser and a photo-electric cell
an LED, a cathode ray tube and a light source

3. Optic fiber is normally made from:


a.
b.
c.
d.

4. It is not true that:

1870
300
50,000
60

90
9.4
75.2
80.6

8. If a ray of light approaches a material with a greater


refractive index:

9. If a light ray crosses the boundary between two materials


with different refractive indices:
distance

5. The number of fibers in a typical endoscope is about:


a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.
d.

a. The angle of incidence will be greater than the angle of


refraction
b. TIR will always occur
c. The speed of the light will increase immediately as it
crosses the boundary
d. The angle of refraction will be greater than the angle of
incidence

coherent glass and xenon


copper
water
silica glass or plastic

a. endoscopes use coherent bundles of fibers


b. silica glass is used because of its clarity
c. photocell converts light into electric current
d. plastic fiber is normally used for long
communications

a. is always the same regardless of the material chosen


b. is never greater than the speed of light in free space
c. increases if the light enters a material with a higher
refractive index
d. is slowed down by a factor of a million within the first 60
meters

a. no refraction would take place if the angle of incidence


was 0
b. refraction will always occur
c. the speed of the light will not change if the incident ray is
traveling along the normal
d. the speed of light never changes

10. The common windows used in fiber optic communications


are centered on wavelengths of:

d. 0.9
16. As the meridional ray is propagated along the optic fiber it:

a.
b.
c.
d.

300 nm, 1550 nm and 850 nm


850 nm, 1500 nm and 1300 nm
1350 nm, 1500 nm and 850 nm
800 nm, 1300 nm and 1550 nm

11. A wavelength of 660 nm is often used for visible light


transmission. The frequency of this light in free space would
be:
a.
b.
c.
d.

660 x 10 Hz
14
4.5 x 10 Hz
8
300 x 10 Hz
12
45 x 10 Hz

12. In free space, light travels at approximately:


a.
b.
c.
d.

-1

180,000 ms
-1
3 x 109 ms
-1
300 ms
0.3 meters per nanosecond

13. The window with the longest wavelength operates at a


wavelength of approximately:
a.
b.
c.
d.

850 nm
1550 m
1350 nm
1.55 m

14. The 850 nm window remains popular because it:


a. uses visible light and this allows plastic fibers to be used
b. the fiber is less expensive to install and has lower losses
than any other windows
c. the system is less expensive and easier to install
d. allows higher data transmission rates
15. No material could have a refractive index of:
a. 1.5
b. 1.3
c. 1.1

a.
b.
c.
d.

travels in a sort of spiral shape


stays in the center of the fiber
passes repeatedly through the center of the core
is reflected off the the inside surface of the primary
buffer. This is called TIR

17. If the refractive index of the core of an optic fiber was 1.47
and that of the cladding was 1.44, the cone of acceptance
would have an angle of approximately:
a.
b.
c.
d.

17.19
72.82
78.4
34.36

18. An active fiber detector:


a.
b.
c.
d.

is used to prevent accidental exposure to invisible light


is a communication system used during installation
detects movement of fiber in security systems
can be used to weigh objects

19. If light leaves a material of refractive index 1.45 and crosses


an abrupt into a material of refractive index 1.0, the Fresnel
loss would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.

0.346 dB
0.149 dB
1.613 dB
3 dB

20. Absorption loss is caused by:


a. insufficient stirring of the ingredients during manufacture
b. changes in the density of the fiber due to uneven rates of
cooling
c. microscopic cracks in the cladding which allow leakage
of the vacuum in the core
d. impurities in the fiber

21. Rayleigh scatter is most severe:


a.
b.
c.
d.

in light with a short wavelength


in blue light on the Earth and black light on the moon
in low frequency light
at sunset

26. If the wavelength of the transmitted light were to be


decreased, the number of modes would:
a.
b.
c.
d.

increase
decrease
remain the same
halve in a graded index fiber

22. Bending losses:


27. The refractive index of a GI fiber
a.
b.
c.
d.

always result in breakage of the fiber


can be caused by microbends and macrobends
are used to detect the length of fiber on a drum
are caused by the difference in the operating
temperature of the core compared with the cladding on
active fibers

23. Dispersion:
a. causes the core to spread out and get wider as the pulse
is transmitted along the fiber
b. results in the wavelength of the light increasing along the
fiber
c. is the lengthening of light pulses as they travel down the
fiber
d. cannot occur with a laser light source
24. An SI MM fiber has a core of 62.5 m diameter and a
numerical aperture of 0.2424. The number of modes that
would occur using a light of wavelength of 865 nm would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.

1
378
1513.78
1513

25. Intramodal dispersion:


a.
b.
c.
d.

only occurs in multimode fiber


is also called chromatic dispersion
does not occur in multimode fiber
could not occur in an all plastic fiber

a.
b.
c.
d.

is at its highest value at the center of the core


is usually higher in the cladding than in the core
increases as we move away from the center of the core
has a value of 4 instead of the 2 common in step index
fibers

28. A cable containing both optic fiber and copper conductors is


called:
a.
b.
c.
d.

an armored cable
a dehydrated cable
tight jacketed cable
a hybrid cable

29. LSOH means low smoke:


a.
b.
c.
d.

zero halogen
zero heat
optic fibers of hybrid design
or heat

30. Spiral galvanized wires are sometimes added to a cable to:


a.
b.
c.
d.

conduct electricity
allow the cable to stretch more to relieve stress
improve crush resistance
allow the fibers to be upgraded as necessary

31. Blown fiber allows:


a. easy removal of the fibers to clean the ducts
b. the diameter of the fiber to be increased by filling it with
compressed air
c. easy removal of any water in the fiber
d. easy replacement of any damaged fiber

32. Within buildings:


a.
b.
c.
d.

both tight buffered and loose jacketed cables are used


only loose jacketed cables are used
only armored cables can be used
only tight buffered cables are used

33. If light is launched from a fiber with a core diameter of 50 m


into a fiber of core 62.5 m diameter, the loss would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.

+1.9 dB
zero
1.9 dB
16.8 dB

34. Cleaving is the process of:


a. removing the cladding before connecting fibers together
b. cutting the end of the fiber in preparation for connecting
two fibers
c. cleaning the surface of optic fibers
d. inspecting fibers for flaws
35. A tang is most likely to give rise to:
a.
b.
c.
d.

increased values of NA
eccentricity
excessive amplification
gap loss

36. The core of a typical monomode fiber would have a diameter


of:
a.
b.
c.
d.

50 m
50 nm
8 m
1 mm

37. Stripping off the primary buffer can be achieved by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

chemical or mechanical means


cleaving the buffer off
isopropyl alcohol
brushing on index matching gel then wiping off with lint
free cloth

38. Too much overfeed whilst splicing will cause:


a. waisting
b. a bubble being formed due to air being trapped inside
the fiber
c. a bulge in the fiber
d. runback
39. The main fusing arc is likely to have a duration of:
a.
b.
c.
d.

15 s
62.5 ns
10-20 minutes
less than a second

40. PAS stands for:


a.
b.
c.
d.

position adjustment system


profile alignment standard
plane alignment system
profile alignment system

41. For viewing the splicing process, a CCD camera is


preferable to a microscope because:
a.
b.
c.
d.

higher magnification can be achieved


better resolution is possible
there is no risk of eye damage
a CCD camera can operate at very low light levels

42. A splice protector:


a.
b.
c.
d.

provides more flexibility at the mechanical joint


is not needed inside an enclosure
protects against unauthorized copying of data
provides mechanical protection to the fusion splice

43. The three basic designs used for mechanical splices are:
a.
b.
c.
d.

vee-groove, bent tube and precision hole


vee-groove, PAS and LID
fusion splice, mechanical splice and enclosures
UV curing epoxy, index matching gel and isopropyl
alcohol

44. A typical value for the insertion loss for a mechanical splice
is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

50 dB
0.2 dB
12 mm
3 dB

50. A PC finish:
a.
b.
c.
d.

reduces both the return loss and the insertion loss


makes physical contact but damages the end of the fiber
is the result of polishing on a hard surface
is the result of using an incorrect dolly

51. A full length Delrin sleeve:


45. Mechanical splices have the advantage that they:
a.
b.
c.
d.

are easily mistaken for splice protectors


have lower losses than fusion splices
are quick and easy to fit
are waterproof

a. converts the ferrule of an SMA 905 connector to be


compatible with the SMA 906
b. can be used instead of an adapter
c. is a popular choice of connector with cable television
companies
d. reduces the insertion loss of SMA 906 connectors

46. An elastomeric splice:


a. has losses which are about one thousandth of a fusion
splice
b. uses a flexible plastic to align the fibers
c. is based upon the bent tube principle
d. cannot be re-used
47. Some designs of mechanical splice can be easily mistaken
for:
a.
b.
c.
d.

an enclosure
a PAS splicer
a splice protector
an all plastic fiber

48. Two fibers can be joined by:


a.
b.
c.
d.

two adapters plugged into each end of a connector


a bare fiber connector
two connectors and one adapter
a single connector

49. A connector with a keyed ferrule and secured by a screw


thread is likely to be an:
a.
b.
c.
d.

SC
FCPC
STPC
SMA 906

52. During polishing of a silica fiber, final inspection reveals a


large scratch running right across the fiber. A likely cause of
this is:
a. contamination of the final lapping film with some coarse
grit from a previous stage of the polishing
b. using diamond lapping film instead of aluminum oxide
film
c. using the wrong dolly
d. water laying on the surface of the fiber. Simply wipe it
off with lint-free tissue
53. A 4 x 4 coupler would have a total of:
a.
b.
c.
d.

16 ports
4 ports
9 ports
8 ports

54. The main advantage of using a star coupler to connect a


large number of terminals is that:
a. more cable would be used and hence system reliability
would increase
b. the power loss is lower than would be the case if tee
couplers were to be used
c. higher levels of data errors could be tolerated
d. less cable is used

55. Coupling ratio is also known as:


a.
b.
c.
d.

directional loss
coupling loss
splitting ratio
directivity ratio

56. The output connection which carries the highest power level
is the:
a.
b.
c.
d.

tap port
power port
star
throughput port

57. The safest type of laser is referred to as:


a.
b.
c.
d.

infrared
class 1
pulsed
class 4

58. A typical value for the spectral width of a laser is:


a.
b.
c.
d.

1310 nm
3 nm
850 nm
30 nm

61. A typical value of tr for a laser would be:


a.
b.
c.
d.

3.5 ns
3 nm
90%
0.3 ns

62. For contract purposes, test equipment should:


a.
b.
c.
d.

have a valid certificate of calibration


be left switched on at all times
be powered by internal batteries
be manufactured by the same company as produced the
fiber

63. Light sources often include a tone output. This enables:


a.
b.
c.
d.

the length of the fiber to be calculated


our eyes to see the infrared light more easily
longer fibers to be tested
easy identification of the fiber being tested

64. For detailed examination of a very short length of optic fiber


cable, the OTDR should use the:
a.
b.
c.
d.

shortest possible wavelength


shortest possible pulsewidth
longest available pulsewidth
highest available power

59. An APD:
65. The averaging facility of an OTDR can be switched off:
a. can produce visible light as well as infrared light at 850
nm, 1300 nm and 1550 nm
b. has good electrical output in low light conditions
c. has a lower dynamic range than a PIN diode
d. is cheaper than a PIN diode
60. LEDs are not used as the light source for high speed
telecommunications because of their:
a.
b.
c.
d.

higher cost
poor reliability
inability to provide a visible light output
slow switching speed and higher spectral width

a.
b.
c.
d.

to provide a real time response


to remove noise and clean up the display of information
to allow the peak power to be used
if simultaneous measurements on more than one fiber
system are required

66. Reducing the length of a multimode fiber would:


a.
b.
c.
d.

decrease the transmitter rise time


decrease the system bandwidth
increase the bandwidth of the system
increase the system rise time

67. Changing the spectral width of the light source would affect
the:
a. fiber bandwidth in a singlemode system
b. system bandwidth of a multimode system but not a
singlemode one
c. aging losses
d. number of likely repairs
68. If the transmitter and the receiver rise times were 0.5 ns and
1.5 ns respectively, and the fiber rise time was 25 ps, the
system rise time would be approximately:
a.
b.
c.
d.

25.05 ns
1.42 ns
1.58 ns
5.19 ns

69. If the dispersion figure for a singlemode fiber is known to be


44 ps, the bandwidth of the fiber would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.

10 GHz
7.95 GHz
100 MHz
795 MHz

70. The following are the advantages of optical fiber system


except
a.
b.
c.
d.

greater capacity
crosstalk immunity
safer to handle
lower initial cost of installation

71. Plastic fibers have the following advantages over glass fiber
except
a.
b.
c.
d.

flexibility
ease of installation
ruggedness
low attenuation

72. This explains how a light may react when it meets the
interface of two transmission materials that have different
indices of refraction.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Huygen's Law
Nyquist's Theorem
Len's Law
Snell's Law

73. In optical fibers


a.
b.
c.
d.

the core and cladding have the same index of refraction


the core and cladding have the same area
the core surrounds the cladding
the cladding surround the core

74. A type of fiber whereby light rays take many paths between
the source and the receiver
a.
b.
c.
d.

monomode
multimode
single mode
step Index

75. A figure of merit used to measure the light gathering or light


collection ability of the optical fiber.
a.
b.
c.
d.

acceptance angle
numerical aperture
acceptance core
critical angle

76. The Basic Optical Fiber Communication System consist of


the following except
a.
b.
c.
d.

optical source
photodetector
transmission medium
48 volts power supply

77. Optical fibers can be made out of


a.
b.
c.
d.

glass
plastic
combination of glass and plastic
any of these

78. In ____________ , the core has index of refraction that


changes continuously from the center to the outside
a.
b.
c.
d.

step index fiber


graded index fiber
monomode
multimode

79. The following are causes of attenuation and loss of optical


power within the fiber except
a.
b.
c.
d.

microbending loss
connector loss
splicing loss
ohmic loss

80. For a signal to be propagated through the optical fiber, the


angle of incidence should be __________ the critical angle.
a.
b.
c.
d.

greater than
less than
equal to
none of these

82. Cleaving is the process of


a. removing the cladding before connecting fibers together
b. cutting the end of the fiber in preparation for connecting
two fibers
c. cleaning the surface of optic fibers
d. inspecting fibers for flaws
83. The following are light detectors
Communications System except
a.
b.
c.
d.

in

Optic

ILD
PIN diode
APD
NOTA

84. The following are the three distinct regions of an optical fiber
except
a.
b.
c.
d.

core
cladding
jacket
coating

85. Which of the following combinations is impossible for optical


fibers
a.
b.
c.
d.

plastic core and cladding


glass core and cladding
plastic core and glass cladding
glass core and plastic cladding

81. Scattering loss is caused by:


86. The scientist who coined the term fiber optics
a. insufficient stirring of the ingredients during manufacture
b. changes in the density of the fiber due to uneven rates of
cooling
c. microscopic cracks in the cladding which allow leakage
of the vacuum in the core
d. impurities in the fiber

Fiber

a.
b.
c.
d.

H.H. Hopkins
C.W. Hansel
N.S. Kapany
A.C. Van Heel

87. That dielectric material of an optical fiber surrounding the


core
a.
b.
c.
d.

cladding
armor
shield
cover

88. Approximately what is the frequency limit of the optical fiber?


a.
b.
c.
d.

20 GHz
1 MHz
100 MHz
40 MHz

89. A single fiber can handle as many voice channels as


a.
b.
c.
d.

a pair of copper conductors


a 1500 pair cable
a 500 pair cable
a 1000 pair cable

90. An incident ray can be defined as


a.
b.
c.
d.

a light ray reflected from a flat surface


a light ray directed toward a surface
a diffused light ray
a light ray that happens periodically

91. It is made from semiconductor material such as aluminumgallium-arsenide or gallium-arsenide-phosphide.

93. The loss in signal power as light travels down a fiber is


a.
b.
c.
d.

attenuation
scattering
propagation
absorption

94. An object farther from a converging lens than its focal point
always has an __________ image.
a.
b.
c.
d.

inverted
virtual
smaller size
the same in size

95. The refractive index number is


a. a number which compares the transparency of a
material with that of air
b. a number assigned by the manufacturer to the fiber in
question
c. a number which determines the core diameter
d. a term for describing core elasticity
96. The mechanical splice is best suited for
a.
b.
c.
d.

quicker installation under ideal conditions


minimum attenuation losses
field service conditions
situations in which cost of equipment is not a factor

97. The cladding which surrounds the core


a.
b.
c.
d.

APD
Injection laser diode
Light emitting diode
Positive-intrinsic-negative

92. An absorption loss caused by valence electrons in the silica


material from which fibers are manufactured.
a.
b.
c.
d.

ultraviolet absorption
ion resonance absorption
modal dispersion
infrared absorption

a.
b.
c.
d.

is used to reduce optical interference


is used to protect the fiber
acts to help guide the light in the core
ensures that the refractive index remains constant

98. The different angles of entry of light into an optical fiber


when the diameter of the core is many times the wavelength
of the light transmitted is known as __________.
a.
b.
c.
d.

refraction
emitter
mode
sensor

99. Proposed the use of a clad glass fiber as a dielectric


waveguide
a.
b.
c.
d.
100.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Kao and Keck


Karpon and Keck
Bockham and Kao
Karpon and Brockham
The wavelength of light has no role in
polarization
interference
diffraction
resolving power