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The word competency is derived from Latin words “competere”. Which means to be suitable. The competency concept was originally developed in psychology denoting individuals ability to respond to demand placed on them by their environment. Ulrich defined competency as knowledge, skill or ability of employees relevant for organizational performance. Competence management is becoming increasingly important in today’s dynamic context since it is becoming the only competitive advantages the organization actually has which cannot be complicated easily by the competitor. Competence management will have various aspects under it like competence profiling and finding what the company is good at, building that is building new competence to match the market demands, recruitment based on competences etc. Competency mapping is processes of identify key competencies for an organization and a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various process (evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. Competency mapping play a significant role in recruiting and retaining people as it gives a more accurate analysis of the job requirements, the candidates capability of the difference between the two, and the development and training needs to bridge the gaps. Competencies enable individuals to identify and articulate what they offer regardless of the job they happen to have at the time so that the organization can see value and utilize what capability is actually available. Competence management is becoming increasingly important in today’s dynamic context since it is becoming the only competitive advantages the organization actually has which cannot be duplicated easily by the competitor. Competence management will have various aspects under it like competence profiling what the company is good at.
When we talk of competency it is imperative to know the levels of competency such as: 1. tasks. 2. Foundational competence: An employee’s demonstrated understanding of Practical competency: An employee’s demonstrated ability to perform a set of
what and why he/she is doing. 3. Reflexive competence: An employee’s ability to integrate actions with the
understanding of the action so he/she learns from those actions and adapts to the changes as and when they are required. 4. Applied competence: An employee’s an employee’s demonstrated ability to
perform a set of tasks with understanding and reflexivity.
REASONS WHY COMPETENCY MAPPING IS USED: • Effectively match individual competencies to position, project team and job
requirements • Prioritize competencies by job, project, or position, and track individual’s
abilities to fulfill requirements • • • • • Integrate training and administration applications to focus training efforts Run gap and match analysis between individuals , jobs , teams and positions Increase skill set to meet your organization scope and growth Increase their ability to attract, develop, retain and utilize co-workers Lengthen the time that staff stay with a company by allowing staff member to
discover individual career paths within the company • Increase capacity by achieving a more holistic view of the accumulated
competence of the entire organization
Achieve access to appropriate competence at the right time and place Establish an overview of the accumulated resources of the organization and
the demand for the resources. • Find candidates with the right profile, from anywhere in the organization, to
fill an unexpected vacancy • • • Identify key positions for which you have no candidates Reconcile the aspiration of your key people with the opportunities available Check how closely your development activities are aligned with the needs of
your business • needs • • Make hiring #1 terms of focus, priorities, and action Align corporate objectives and strategies to each person in the company. Ensure you are building the appropriate talent pool to support your future
ELEMENTS OF COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT: Broadly the area of business and people competence management can be divided into three main subdivisions: • Resource and capacity tracking and planning: This is more on the operational front. Various projects required different skill sets depending on the criticality of the project, the client importance and so on. Competence management has to consider the project modalities and accordingly allocate the resource so that the overall optimization of the people competencies can take place.
The various elements that competence management has to look into these aspects are:
1. Defining the competencies requires for particular jobs:
Until now, the HR department used to define only the skills required for a Particular job. But as we now know, what we actually require goes beyond the just technical or soft skills requirements. We need a combination of Intelligence, education, Experience, Ethics, Interest. Hence a re-look is requires at the existing job profiles to take into consideration the other parameters like interests and ethics, which were so far ignored.
2. Rating the performance of individual employee skills:
A person might be comfortable with say java language but might not be excellent at it. So the level of skill competence needs to be measured and recorded. Prepare a skill profile containing the core skills for their job and add appropriate historical and specialty skills. This is followed by a self – assessment against a skills glossaries describing skills on a scale from 1(training or light experience) to 5 (industry expert; strategic skill leadership). Ability for the assigned manager, supervisor or coach to assess the person’s skills separately also needs to be done.
3. Manage skills inventories as well as management and technical competencies:
Once the above steps are complete the system should have some way of maintaining the database of this information. This will help in the having the required information at the fingertips of the HR department.
4. Candidate searches to find the right people for the right assignment:
A competence management system needs to be able map the right people to the right job. For this above steps prove very useful. We need to know what the job entails and what the capabilities of the people working for us are. The database enables us to match the profile perfectly.
5. Organizational and unit skills Gap Analysis to determine recruitment needs:
The organization may be working on a project for which it does not have the requisite skills within the company, so they may have to hire from outside or maybe even recruit. A competence management system should be able to understand this need and help plan how the interview should be carried out and what competencies in a desired candidate.
Interactive career Development and Training
This is looking the future, but at the individual level. Competence management also has to look into the aspiration of each individual and asses him/her to find out what competencies will he require to advance to the next set of hierarchies, what additional train would he requires, is he fit promotion etc. the elements of this division are:
1. Compare skills to other job titles to see what a person has to improve:
The database of job profile will help the individual to assess where he needs to improve; what competencies are required for the next level. This will also motivate him top learn newer skills by himself and nominate himself for additional training needs. The competence management system needs to be open enough to be able to allow the employees to understand what is expected of them for being promoted.
2. Development plan summaries showing all of the skills people need to work on:
This provides a measurable rationale for training budgets and a mean to identify people to attend course openings. Here we need to also provide individuals with the ability to view and enroll in training and development activities, etc. this will help individuals to be able to plan their work accordingly. The schedules for training dates and prerequisites need to be displayed so as to allow the individual to take cognizance of the same.
3. Predict Training Demand:
The above step will help the HR department to calculate the training staff required based on the summation of individuals plans, which have come in.
4. Identify individuals who are eligible to be considered for promotion:
A good competence management system has to be able to determine which competencies need to be promoted and who has them so that the overall competence level of the organization can grow. Also on the other hand, we also need to know potential replacements for an unexpected vacancy are so that planning can be done accordingly.
5. Succession planning:
The competencies required for the top management should be completed in the job profiling, but further who should be groomed; what competencies will be needed and hoe to develop the same would require a good system.
Strategic Competence Development:
This area is looking at the future, but at a more macro level. Competence management also has to look beyond today and at the changing face of tomorrow’s market to identify the skills required for tomorrow. It has a more strategic outlook and is looking at the strategic position of the organization in the future.
The elements of this division are: 1. Providing an overview of the total competence in the organization. 2. Integrating competence development with business strategies. 3. Identifying shortfalls and surpluses in competence in addition to revealing unexploited resources. 4. Assess trends and developments in competency levels overtime. 5. Giving support to strategic business and personnel planning. 6. Unleashing the company’s intellectual capital. 7. Helping the company to attract, develop and retain co-workers.
1.2 COMPANY PROFILE
Coromandel Engineering Company Ltd. belongs to the ‘Murugappa Group of Companies’. Presently they are engaged in two distinct activities namely: • Construction • Property Development Construction They are providers of integrated turn-key construction services and have executed or are executing projects across all states and union territories in India. The Co. provides integrated turn-key construction services in the industrial, commercial, infrastructure and residential sectors of the construction industry. Their integrated turn-key construction services include a range of
(i) Construction services such as construction design, engineering, procurement, construction and project management and (ii) Construction allied services such as mechanical and electrical (“M&E”), plumbing, fire-fighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, interior fit-out services and glazing solutions. They are a professionally managed company headed by civil engineers, and have constructed significant industrial structures for leading industrial houses and government organizations. Construction of power plants, pre-fabricated buildings, turbo generator foundations and other mass foundations has been a fulfilling experience.They specializes in construction of silos for cement plants and tall tapering structures for T.V.Towers using imported slip form equipment. As of March 31, 2008, the total value of their order book was Rs. 8250 Lacs. These projects include industrial structures, commercial building & educational institution. Our order book consists of (i) Unbilled portions of our ongoing projects and (ii) Projects for which we have received orders and are yet to commence construction. Property Development The Co. is also into the business of property development, with our significant operations in the State of Tamil nadu. Its business focuses on Real Estate Development of Residential and Commercial sector. They have an integrated in-house development team which covers all aspects of property development from project identification and inception through construction to completion and sale. They commenced the property development activity in the year 1987-88. Since then they have developed over 30 residential projects covering approximately 6.54 lacs square feet of saleable area. Its commercial projects are a mix of office space. They usually follow an “Undivided Land sale & Construction Contract” model for the properties they develop.
The income from proceeds of contract jobs and merchant sales for the nine months ended December 31, 2007 and for financial year ended March 31, 2007, were Rs. 4,438.15 lacs, Rs.4502.40 lacs, respectively. COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS The Co. believes that the following are their primary competitive strengths: • Experienced Management and Employees Headed by Civil Engineers, our management team has significant experience in the construction & property development sector. Their management and professional personnel have extensive experience in anticipating market trends, identifying new markets and potential sites for development. Their experience includes relationships with the suppliers from whom they source construction materials and the contractors they engage for construction services, allowing them to better manage the quality, schedule and cost of the materials and construction in their projects. They believe that this experience and expertise will enable them to replicate its business model in other geographic areas of India and for other types of projects. • Established Reputation for Quality Projects and Construction Since their incorporation in 1947, they have successfully completed several projects. They have never experienced any significant quality issues nor have they ever been cited for any material deficiencies in construction of their projects. They believe customers identify their projects with quality construction and, as a result, they enjoy customer confidence, enhancing their ability to sell our projects. • Their standardised and documented internal processes. Under the guidance of their Management, they have documented their internal processes and methodologies which ensure that each department and each employee of our Company are aware of their respective roles and obligations, and each activity
of construction and development is as per the standards of quality that they have set for themselves. This also ensures uniformity in all their processes. MANPOWER As of 31/03/2008, they have approximately 244 employees employed in their Company. They do not count any manpower employed by their sub-contractors as their employee. They expect that with the growth of their business, human resources and employee recruitment activities will increase. Break-up of the present manpower in the Company is as follows: Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Total 244 Name of the Department Number of Employees Technical Site Accounts & Admin 37 178 29
Recruitment Strategy Manpower Planning is done as part of Business Plan and reviewed quarterly. Depending upon the position/vacancies recruitment is done through campus interviews, employee referrals and periodic recruitment advertisements. The selection process consists of panel interview and merit rating as may be required. Training The Company provides an induction/onboard training programme to all its new recruits. Training for capability development includes: • Training to potential staff to shoulder higher responsibilities
• Competency mapping middle and senior level executives and adequate training to bridge the skill gap • Planning to create competitive edge The various training programmes held by the Company are as follows: Programme title Programme for Organisational Growth Strategies Senior Managerial Team Performance Excellence Graduate Engineer Trainees – Future Managers Management of Site Operations Project Heads, Engineers and Supervisors Role Effectiveness Administrative and Support staff Retention Strategy • Periodic review of compensation package to match the industry median. • Review of employee Performance, based on their achievement on the defined tasks, at the end of the year, rating is awarded based on the normalization process. • They offer family accommodations and suitable site allowances for staff posted at site away from their family. • Liberalized compensation package. • Welfare measures, including defined policy on medical reimbursement, medical insurance for self and family, personal accident cover. • All employees are covered by the group gratuity scheme with risk cover managed by Life Insurance Corporation of India. Competition The real estate development industry in India, while fragmented, is highly competitive. They expect to face competition from large domestic as well as international property development and construction companies as a consequence of, among other things, the relaxation of the FDI policy for the real estate sector, rising government expenditures on infrastructure and various other policy initiatives. Below are some of their competitors with context to the similarity in business:
Civil Construction: Ganesan Builders, Consolidated Construction Consortium Ltd., URC Construction P. Ltd., Arunachalam & Co., Subramanian & Co., etc. Property Development: Jain Housing & Constructions Ltd.,, Ceebros Ltd., Chaitanya, Akshaya Homes, True Valley Homes (I) Pvt. Ltd., Shrivari Constructions Ltd., Spring Field Shelters Pvt. Ltd., May Flower Enterprises Pvt. Ltd., Royal Shelters, etc.
HISTORY The Company was formed in the year 1947 in the name of “The Coromandel Engineering Company Limited“. The name of the Company was then changed to “The Coromandel Engineering CompanyPrivate Limited" on 14/04/1956. The Company was again converted into a public limited company and the name was changed to “The Coromandel Engineering Company Limited" on 05/11/1975 and subsequently to “Coromandel Engineering Company Limited” on 24/02/2006. They belong to the Murugappa Group of Companies and are into the business of Construction and Property development.The equity shares of their company listed on the Madras Stock Exchange In the year 1989 Polutech Ltd. was amalgamated with the Company. The share holders of Polutech Ltd. were issued the shares of our company in the ratio of 1:4. Further in the year 1992, Coromandel Prodorite Private Ltd. was
amalgamated with their Company. The share holders of Coromandel Prodorite Private Ltd. were issued the shares of our company in the ratio of 5:2. During the financial year 2006-2007, Coromandel Holdings and Minerals Limited (‘CHML’), their subsidiary Company was merged with our Company w.e.f. 01/04/2006 pursuant to order of Hon’ble High Court of Judicature at Madras dated 09/03/2007 Major events in the History of the Company Year Event 1947 Incorporation of the Company 1959 Built 14 storey, LIC Building on Anna Salai, Chennai which is one of the tallest buildings in South India 1975 Converted into public limited 1987-88 Ventured into the business of property development 1989 Amalgamation of Polutech Ltd. with CECL 1989 Issue of 3,85,295 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each for cash at par on Rights Year Event 1992 Amalgamation of Coromandel Prodorite Private Ltd. with CECL 2006 Coromandel Holdings and Minerals Limited (‘CHML’) was merged with their Company. MAIN OBJECTS OF THE COMPANY The main objects of the company are as follows: 1. To carry on the businesses of Builders and Engineers in all their branches. 2. To carry on business as Engineers, Civil, Structural, Mining, Sanitary, Mechanical, Waterworks, Electrical, Marine, Automobile, Salvage, AirConditioning, Refrigerating, Ventilating, and other classes of Engineers; Architects, Designers, Planners ; Builders and Contractors and as Consulting Engineers. 3. To carry on the business of iron founders, mechanical engineers and manufacturers of agricultural implements and other machinery ; toolmakers, brass-founders, metalworkers, boilermakers, millwrights, machinists, iron and steel converters, smiths,
wood-workers, builders, painters, metallurgists, electrical engineers, water supply engineers, gasengineers, farmers, printers, carriers, and merchants and to buy, sell, manufacture, repair, convert, alter, let on hire and deal in machinery, implements, rolling-stock and hardware of all kinds. 4. To undertake and execute constructional and engineering and allied contracts and works of all kinds. 5. To construct, execute, carry out, equip, improve, work, develop, administer, manage, and control public works and conveniences of all kinds, which expression, in this Memorandum, includes railways, tramways, docks, harbours, piers, wharves, canals, reservoirs, embankments, irrigations, reclamation, improvement, sewage, drainage, sanitary, water, gas, electric light and power supply works, telephonic and telegraphic works, hotels ware-houses, markets and public buildings, and all other works or conveniences of public utility
1.3 INDUSTRY PROFILE
Construction Industry Construction is one of the most vital parts of a country’s infrastructure and industrial development. It includes houses, offices, hospitals, schools, townships and other buildings; urban infrastructure, highways, roads, railways, ports, airports; power systems; irrigation and agriculture systems; telecommunications etc. Construction industry is one of the basic drivers of socio-economic development of country. This sector generates employment opportunities, and also helps other related industries grow with rapid pace. The employment in this sector not only attracts semi skilled and skilled people but also absorb unskilled workers from rural areas. Due to fiscal constraints, Government is increasing emphasis on participation of private sector in
this field and projects are being carried out in public-private partnership as well as BOT (Build – Operate – Transfer) mechanism. Also some projects undertaken by Government like NHDP (National Highway Development Programme) and PMGSY (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana) are providing necessary momentum to rapid growth of this industry. The construction sector accounts for upwards of 6 per cent of GDP (gross domestic product) in any advanced economy. It accounts for about 8 per cent of the UK's GDP, 16 per cent of Ireland's and 11 per cent of Dubai's. In India Construction sector contributes to 6 percent of GDP and this contribution is going up every year. Recently Government of India has taken an important decision liberalise norms of foreign direct investment in the construction sector. The Government has permitted 100 per cent foreign direct investment in the construction sector with the liberty to repatriate profits after a three-year period. The minimum project size for foreign investors has also been reduced from the present norms, based on feedback from prospective investors. These decisions open up immense possibilities, not just for the real estate and construction sectors, but also for the economy as a whole. The construction industry has been assisting in overall economic development, as its contribution to GDP has gone up from 5.7 per cent in FY00 to around 7.0 per cent during FY07. In fact, during FY03-FY07, the sector grew by 16.5 per cent per annum. Opportunities in real estate & construction industry • Real Estate and Construction is a US$1600 crores (2006) industry in India. • Over 200 lacs new housing units required in 5 years. • There has been a rapid growth in the industry for past few years. High demand growth has led to prices doubling over 3 years in many cities. • Real Estate share in total FDI has been increased from 10% in 2004-05 to over 25% in 2006-07 (estimated at over US$500 crores). • 100% FDI is allowed in real estate development subject to minimum scale norms of either: - 25 acres in case of serviced plots or integrated townships; or. - 50,000 sq. mtrs. of built-up area for construction development projects.
• Active participation of institutional finance in Real Estate Coromandel Engineering Company Limited - Real Estate venture funds permitted: Prominent Indian corporates like Tata, ICICI Bank, SBI and HDFC have promoted real estate venture funds - Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) expected to be set up shortly - Several Private Equity firms have specific funds for Real Estate investments. Real Estate fast displacing IT/ITeS as the top private equity investment sector in India Growth potential in real estate & construction industry • Several factors are expected to contribute to the rapid growth in Real Estate. - Large demand-supply gap in affordable housing, with demand being fuelled by tax incentives and a growing middle class with higher savings. - Increasing demand for commercial and office space especially from the rapidly growing Retail, IT/ ITeS and Hospitality sectors. - The recently announced JNNURM expected to provide further impetus. • Investment opportunities exist in almost every segment of the business. - Housing: About 200 lacs new units expected to be built in five years. - Office space for IT/ITeS: Five-fold increase in office space requirement over the next 3 years. - Commercial space for organised retailing: 2000 lacs sq. ft. by 2010. - Hotels & Hospitality: Over 40,000 new rooms in the next 5 years. • Investment opportunity of over US$7500 crores in the next five years. • Major foreign institutional investors including Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, AIG, Blackstone and Calpers have invested/are investing in Indian real estate.
Indian Construction Industry
SOME OF THE PRESTIGIOUS COMMERCIAL PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY COROMANDEL ENGINEERING ARE 1. Pylon , Vijayawada Thermal Power Station A 450 MT Steel crown girder supported on 4 RCC Pylons of 5 M X 5 M at a height of 70 Mtrs. The boiler is hung from the crown girder. Each of the Pylon has foundation using well sinking method upto a depth of 28 Mtrs below ground level in hard and soft soil rock. The Pylon was constructed using Slip Form Technique and all four Pylon were slipped simultaneously. At one stroke the 450 MT fabricated steel was lifted to the height of 70 Mtrs without crane and using hydraulic jacks and prestressed wires.
2. Forebay and Circulatory Pump House System, Tuticorin Thermal Power Station
On the seashore, doing excavation upto (-) 9 M from the ground level and making 144 nos. rock anchors of 100 MT each to support the base slab at (-) 9 Mtrs by drilling holes upto (-) 31 Mtrs using Well Point Water System for De-watering to construct Forebay & Pump House to bring in raw water from sea to pump house. 3. RCC TV Tower, Shimoga Erection of 150 Mtr high tower with 106 Mtrs RCC tapered structure built using Slip Form Technique 44 Mtrs above RCC – Galvanised structural steel tower. 4. Blending Silo, India Cements Ltd., Tirunelveli Two large pre-stressed RCC silos of 28 Mtr. Dia and 32 Mtrs height and 22 Mtrs dia with a height of 90Mtrs. using Slip Form Method.
5. Coal Storage Building, India Cements Ltd., Tirunelveli 88 Mtrs. Dia steel cover without any intermediate support. 6. Ford India Building, Chennai First PEMBS (Pre -Engineered Metal Building System) building in India using butler system. Spread across 10,000 Sq.Mtr.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objectives of study are as follows: •
To study the knowledge, skill, talent, attitude of the employee. To study the feasibility to implement the competency mapping.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Hence, the present study is framed to check the feasibility to implement the competency mapping. It also emphasizes on identifying the significant measures to increase the potential employee.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Scope to the company
This is the exclusive study to check the feasibility to implement the competency mapping in COROMANDEL ENGINEERING.
The need for the project is:
• • •
To create awareness of the competency mapping to the employees. To improve the competency of the companies. To find and retain the potential employees.
Scope to researcher:
The researcher acquires more information about the competency mapping which can be used as core in every department of the company.
1.6 Limitation of study
The following are the various limitation of the study
Since the study is conducted in a particular company, the results of this study
cannot be generalized to other companies seniors or industries. • Some employees are not interested in disclosing their true skills/qualifications,
so there is a chance of getting some false information’s. • The study totally depends upon the information provided by the respondents,
subjective bias is not eliminated. • Due to lack in time, sample size is very small and in depth analysis is not done.
2.1 Literature review
Introduction to Competency mapping Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise. Every well managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placements and training needs identification.
Competency –explanations and definitions Competency is the vital behavioral skills, knowledge and personal attributes that are translations of organizational capabilities and are deemed essential for success. They distinguish exemplary performers from adequate performers. In that regard, competencies offer a highly descriptive means of discussing job performance. They go beyond traditional job descriptions because they focus on how employees perform their jobs, not simply on what they do. While job descriptions detail specific tasks, competencies encompass the tangible and intangible abilities employees possess. For instance, a necessary competency for a marketing professional might be the ability to perform detailed market analysis while another competency might be leadership qualities, as evidenced through the ability to build consensus.
Components of Competency There are four major components of competency:
1. Skill: capabilities acquired through practice. It can be a financial skill such as budgeting, or a verbal skill such as making a presentation. 2. Knowledge: understanding acquired through learning. This refers to a body of information relevant to job performance. It is what people have to know to be able to perform a job, such as knowledge of policies and procedures for a recruitment process. 3. Personal attributes: inherent characteristics which are brought to the job, representing the essential foundation upon which knowledge and skill can be developed. 4. Behavior: The observable demonstration of some competency, skill, knowledge and personal attributes. It is an essentially definitive expression of a competency in that it is a set of action that, presumably, can be observed, taught, learned, and measured.
UNIDO (2002) - A Competency is a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job. Albanese (1989) - Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to effective managerial performance.
Dubois (1993), - A leading expert in the applied competency field, defines competence as "the employee's capacity to meet (or exceed) a job's requirements by producing the job outputs at an expected level of quality within the constraints of the organization's internal and external environments
The Concept of Competency: The Work of David McClelland.
The movement was originally propelled by dissatisfaction among researchers about the value of personality traits tests in predicting job performance. For instance, Ghiselli (1966) and Mischel (1968) found that testable personality traits have little correlations with job performance, and consequently research on these variables was of questionable value. Simultaneously, an increasing number of studies were published which showed that traditional academic aptitude and knowledge content test, as well as school grades and credentials did not predict job performance; and were often biased against women and persons from lower socioeconomic strata. These findings led McClelland (1973) to conduct research in order to identify “competency” variables which did predict job performance and which were not biased by sex or socioeconomic factors. The most important of these principles were: Use of criterion sample: compare people who are clearly successful in jobs with less successful persons to identify those characteristics with success Identification of operant thoughts (knowledge) and behaviors causally related to these successful outcomes. That is, competency measures should involve openended situations in which individual has to generate behavior.
Competencies: Position a new product Introduction so that it is Clearly differentiated in The market
Competency: uses an understanding of market pricing dynamics to develop pricing models
Knowledge: Understand market pricing dynamics
Skill: Set up new Product Introduction Project
Competency: Meets all commitments In a timely manner
Personal Motives: Achievement – wants to do an excellent job
Competency causal flow model:
Personal Attributes/Motives Knowledge Skills
The steps involved in competency mapping Professor M. Dileep kumar , symbiosis , pune.
1) Conduct a job analysis by asking incumbents to complete a position information questionnaire (PIQ). This can be provided for incumbents to complete, or you can conduct one-on-one interviews using the PIQ as a guide. The primary goal is to gather from incumbents what they feel are the key behaviors necessary to perform their respective jobs. 2) Using the results of the job analysis, you are ready to develop a competency based job description. A sample of a competency based job description generated from the PIQ may be analyzed. This can be developed after carefully analyzing the input from the represented group of incumbents and converting it to standard competencies. 3) With a competency based job description, you are on your way to begin mapping the competencies throughout your human resources processes. The competencies of the respective job description become your factors for assessment on the performance evaluation. Using competencies will help guide you to perform more objective evaluations based on displayed or not displayed behaviors. 4) Taking the competency mapping one step further, you can use the results of your evaluation to identify in what competencies individuals need additional development or training. This will help you focus your training needs on the goals of the position and company and help your employees develop toward the ultimate success of the organization
Competency Mapping at Zensar & L&T Infotech
Zensar has a behavioral competency model which is based on various job roles in the organization. The following is the process of implementation of competency mapping. Having defined the various job roles, a focused study was initiated where job role holders were interviewed on the critical incident method and the data of successcritical factors collated. The job roles and deliverables were finalized on the basis of the competencies derived from the data. This data was further analyzed, and on the basis of this competencies that had an impact on the job roles and deliverables were finalized. After identifying the competencies, a job analysis exercise was carried out where the importance level of every competency was ascertained before freezing the competency model. L&T Infotech a PCMM Level 5 company has a successful competency based HR system. Recruitment, training, job rotation, succession planning and promotions all are defined by competency mapping. Nearly all our HR interventions are linked to competency. Competencies are enhanced through training and job rotation. He adds that all people who have gone through job rotation undergo a transformation and get a broader perspective of the company. For instance a person lacking in negotiation skills might be put in the sales or purchase department for a year to hone his skills in the area
3.1 Research methodology
The methodology of the study explains the systematic way of finding answers to the pre determined objectives. Moreover this provides the clear path to accompl8ish and ach8ieve the desired results. The following are the stages through research have to pass for collecting analyzing and interpreting the various information. Research design In this study the researcher has adopted a descriptive research method. Descriptive researches are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. Research tool Two questionnaire are used as a research tool for this study.the questionnaire are chosen as it provides a more comprehensive view than any other research tool. The results are analyzed using SPSS. A standardized model is prepared based on the opinions of the executives and this standardized model is compared with the opinions of employees to determine the gap. Design of questionnaire Two questionnaire were designed One - To study the feasibility to implement the competency mapping Two – To study the knowledge, skill, talent, attitude of the employee Questionnaire was framed in such a way to gather information, which favors the objective. The question included where of rating questions
Questionnaire has four sections in it Question related to personal details of the employee.
Questions related to knowledge about their job. Question related to job competencies. Question related to behavior competencies. Sample design It is a definite method for obtaining a sample from a given population. It is a technique the researcher usually adopts in selecting items for the sample. Sampling technique The researcher has adopted a Lottery method to solicit the opinions from the respondents. Here the respondents are given equal chance of getting selected. It is a probability sampling method. Sample size As there is time constraint, the number of samples chosen is 50 employees.
Statistical tool Correlations The joint variation of two or more variables for determining the amount of correlation between two or more variables. One way ANOVA ANOVA split in consisting the variance for analytical purpose. If we take one factor and investigate the difference amongst its various categories having numerous possible values.
This analysis helps us to show the frequency of distribution of various items and the valid percentage of distribution.
Chi-Square Test Chi-square = (O-E)/ (E2) Where O and E denote the observed and expected frequencies, respectively. Inspection of this definition shows that Chi Square is a descriptive measure of the magnitude of the discrepancies between the observed and expected frequencies. The larger these discrepancies the larger Chi Square will tend to be. If no discrepancies exist and observation and expected frequencies are the same Chi Square will be Zero. In this study, Chi-Square analysis was used to test the relationship between demographic factors and variation in recruiting the staff for different departments. Percentage Analysis: This is the earliest and best method to analyze the given data. The percentage wise distribution of the data gives an idea of which factor is more or which is less. Percentage analysis = (No. of Respondents/ Sample size) *50 In this study, percentage analysis was used for many questions in the questionnaire to analyze the effectiveness of competency mapping in Coromandel Company.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table 4.1 Age of the respondent
age Frequency Valid 22-30 30-40 40-50 Total 26 22 2 50 Percent 52.0 44.0 4.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • Majority of the respondent fall between the age group 22-40.
Table 4.2 Work experience
work experience Frequency Valid 1-2yrs 2-3yrs >3yrs Total 14 10 26 50 Percent 28.0 20.0 52.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • 52% of respondents are with more than 3yrs experience. 48% are with less than 3yrs of experience.
Table 4.3 Designation of respondent
designation Frequency Valid Finance HR Marketing Total 14 29 7 50 Percent 28.0 58.0 14.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 58% are from HR department 28% are from Finance department 14% are from marketing department
Table 4.4 Employee’s knowledge will be enhanced
Employees knowledge will be enhanced Frequency Valid SA A N Total 18 23 9 50 Percent 36.0 46.0 18.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • 82% of respondents agree to it that if competency mapping is implemented their knowledge will be enhanced. 18% of respondents neither agree nor disagree that if competency mapping is implemented their knowledge will be enhanced.
Table 4.5 Employee’s skills will be sharpened
Employees skills will be sharpened Frequency Valid SA A N Total 17 24 9 50 Percent 34.0 48.0 18.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • 82% agree that if competency mapping is implemented their skills will be sharpened. 18% neither agree nor disagree that if competency mapping is implemented their skills will be sharpened.
Table 4.6 Competitive advantage with in the team of the employees
Competitive advantage with in the team of the employees Frequency Valid SA A N D SD Total 10 13 18 8 1 50 Percent 20.0 26.0 36.0 16.0 2.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 46% of respondents agree that if competency mapping is implemented the Competitive advantage with in the team of the employees will increase 36% of respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 18% of the respondents completely disagree with the statement.
Table 4.7 It helps in meeting target of the employees
It helps in meeting target of the employees Frequency Valid SA A N D SD Total 7 28 11 3 1 50 Percent 14.0 56.0 22.0 6.0 2.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 70% of the respondents agree to that if competency mapping is implemented it will help them meeting the targets. 22% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 08% of the respondents completely disagree with the statement.
Table 4.8 It can increase employee’s amount of initiative and self reliance towards work
It can increase employees amount of initiative and self reliance towards work Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 15 18 9 8 50 Percent 30.0 36.0 18.0 16.0 100.0
Inference: The that • 66% agree of respondents to it that if competency mapping is implemented it will increase their amount of initiative and self reliance towards work. • • 18% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 16% of the respondents do not agree to the statement. the above percentage makes it clear
When a project comes to me am completely aware of my role Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 4 35 10 1 50 Percent 8.0 70.0 20.0 2.0 100.0
Table 4.9 When a project comes to me am completely aware of my role
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 78% of the respondents agree to it that when a project comes to them they are completely aware of their role. 20% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 02% of the respondents do not agree to the statement.
Table 4.10 According to my role my competencies are clear to me
According to my role my competencies are clear to me Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 7 28 10 5 50 Percent 14.0 56.0 20.0 10.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 70% of the respondents agree to it that according to their role their competencies are clear to them. 20% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 10% of the respondents do not agree to the statement.
Table 4.11 My job makes best use of my abilities
My job makes best use of my abilities Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 6 24 16 4 50 Percent 12.0 48.0 32.0 8.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 60% of the respondents agree that their job makes best use of their abilities. 32% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 08% of the respondents do not agree with the statement.
Table 4.12 I am completely aware of my role in organization
I am completely aware of my role in organization Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 9 28 8 5 50 Percent 18.0 56.0 16.0 10.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 74% of the respondents agree to the statement that they are completely aware of their role in the organization. 16% of the respondent neither agree nor disagree to the statement. 10% of the respondents do not agree to the statement.
Table 4.13 I am able to apply the concepts learned by me
I am able to apply the concepts learned by me Frequency Valid SA A N D Total 6 33 8 3 50 Percent 12.0 66.0 16.0 6.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 78% of respondents agree to the statement that they are able to apply the concepts learned by them. 16% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree with the statement. 06% of the respondents do not agree with the statement.
Table 4.14 Individual work rather than team work matters me allot
Individual work rather than team work matters me allot Frequency Valid SA A N D SD Total 11 21 8 7 3 50 Percent 22.0 42.0 16.0 14.0 6.0 100.0
Inference: The above percentage analysis makes it clear that • • • 64% of respondents agree to the statement that Individual work rather than team work matters them allot 16% of the respondents neither agree nor disagree with the statement. 20% of the respondents do not agree with the statement.
4.15 Association between – initiative by organization towards personal development and Policies & practices match each other H0: H1: There is no association between personal development and Policies & practices There is association between personal development and Policies & practices
Table 4.15 In past 6 months some one has talked to you about your personal development and Policies and practices match each other
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square 17.350a df 9 sided) .044
INFERENCE: The Chi-square analysis shows a low significance value (typically below 0.05) indicates that the Null Hypothesis is rejected which means there is association between personal development and Policies & practices.
4.16 Association between awareness of organization goal and awareness of role to be performed in project H0: H1: There is no association between awareness of organization goal and awareness of role to be performed in project There is association between awareness of organization goal and awareness of role to be performed in project
Am completely aware of my organization goal and When a project comes to me am completely aware of my role
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square 18.624a df 6 sided) .005
INFERENCE: The Chi-square analysis shows a low significance value (typically below 0.05) indicates that the Null Hypothesis is rejected which means there is association between awareness of organization goal and awareness of role to be performed in project.
4.17 Association between competency mapping helps molding personality of the employees and initiative by organization towards personal development
There is no association between competency mapping helps molding personality of the employees and initiative by organization towards personal development
There is association between competency mapping helps molding personality of the employees and initiative by organization towards personal development
4.17 It helps in molding personality of the employees and In past 6 months some one has talked to you about your personal development
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Value Pearson Chi-Square 21.532a df 12 sided) .043
INFERENCE: The Chi-square analysis shows a low significance value (typically below 0.05) indicates that the Null Hypothesis is rejected which means there is association between molding personality of the employees and personal development .
4.18. Relationship between the awareness about the project and tenure in the organization H0: There is no significant relationship between the awareness about the project and tenure in the organization H1: There is significant relationship between the awareness about the project and tenure in the organization 4.18 The awareness about the project and tenure in the organization Criteria Tenure in the organization and awareness about the project F 2.810 Sig. .050
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant relationship between the awareness about the project and tenure in the organization
4.19. Relationship between the age of the employees and change in their performance H0: There is no significant relationship between the age of the employees and change in their performance. H1: There is significant relationship between the age of the employees and change in their performance. 4.19 The age of the employees and change in their performance Criteria Change in employees performance F
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant relationship between the age of the employees and change in their performance.
4.20. Relationship between the gender of the respondent and the opinion that appraisal should be based on tem work H0: There is no significant relationship between the gender of the respondent and the opinion that appraisal should be based on tem work. H1: There is significant relationship between the gender of the respondent and the opinion that appraisal should be based on tem work. 4.20 The gender of the respondent and the opinion that appraisal should be based on tem work Criteria Appraisal should be based on team work F
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant relationship between the gender of the respondent and the opinion that appraisal should be based on tem work.
CORRELATION 4.21. Relationship between the designation of the respondents and completely aware of the organizational role. Correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient), indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables.
Completely Designation aware of the of the organization respondents al role Designation of the respondents Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Completely aware of Pearson the organizational role Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 100.000 .269* .039 100 100.000 1.000 .269* .039 100 1.000
INFERENCE: Correlation exists, as the significance level is 0.039, but the strength of the association between the variables is weak (0.269). Therefore there is a weak association between the designation of the respondents and completely aware of the organizational role.
4.22. Relationship between the training programs are conducted regularly and the employees’ skill will be sharpened Correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient), indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables.
Training programs are conducted regularly Training programs are conducted regularly Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Employees skills will Pearson be sharpened Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N INFERENCE: 100.000 .898* .019 100 1.000
Employees skills will be sharpened .898* .019 100 1.000
Correlation exists, as the significance level is 0.019, but the strength of the association between the variables is weak (0.898). Therefore there is a strong association between the training programs are conducted regularly and the employees’ skill will be sharpened.
INDEPENDENT T - TEST
4.23 H0: There is no significant difference in the perception of gender based respondents about the competency mapping for their career development H1: There is significant difference in the perception of gender based respondents about the competency mapping for their career development.
Independent t - test
It pay way for the career development of employees Equal variances assumed
Sig. (2-tailed) .022
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant difference in the perception of gender based respondents about the competency mapping for their career development.
4.24 H0: There is no significant difference in gender on the employees’ perception that competency mapping instills changes in employees’ performance. H1: There is significant difference in gender on the employees’ perception that competency mapping instills changes in employees’ performance.
Independent t – test
Instills changes in employees’ performance Equal variances assumed
Sig. (2-tailed) .012
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant difference in gender on the employees’ perception that competency mapping instills changes in employees’ performance.
4.25 H0: There is no significant difference in work tenure on the employees’ perception that the job makes use of best of the abilities. H1: There is significant difference in work tenure on the employees’ perception that the job makes use of best of the abilities.
Independent t - test
Best use of employees abilities Equal variances assumed
Sig. (2-tailed) .007
INFERENCE: It is clear that the significance value is below 0.05 thus the null hypothesis is rejected it means that there is a significant difference in work tenure on the employees’ perception that the job makes use of best of the abilities.
FINDINGS, SUGGESSTION & CONCLUSION
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
• Majority of the respondent i.e. 52% are with more than 3 years of experience. where as 48% of respondent are less than 3 years of experience • A high percentage of employees i.e. 82% feel that if competency mapping is implemented their knowledge will be enhanced; where as 18% of employees neither agree nor disagree to it. • A high percentage of employees i.e. 82% feel that if competency mapping is implemented their skills will be sharpened, where as 18% of employee neither agree nor disagree to it. • A 46% of employees agree to it that if competency mapping is implemented the competitive advantage with in the team will increase, where as 36% neither agree nor disagree to it and 18% of respondent completely disagree to it. This shows majority of the employees are ready for implementation of competency mapping. • a high percentage of employees i.e. 70% agree to it that if competency mapping is implemented it will help them in meeting targets, where as 22% neither agree nor disagree with it and 8% very minimal percent of employee disagree with it. • A 66% of employees agree to it that if competency mapping is implemented it will increase the initiative ness towards the work, where as 18% neither agree nor disagree with it and 16% of the employee completely disagree with it. • There is an association between initiative by organization towards personal development of employee and polices & practices followed by them which means if competency mapping is implemented as a policy of the company it will lead to the development of the employee.
There is a strong relationship between awareness of organizations goal and awareness of role to be performed by an employee, which means competency mapping can make the role played by an employee much clear and crisper.
There is an strong association between molding personality of an employee and personal development, which means competency mapping can identify the traits in employee n develop its personality which will lead to personnel development
As the tenure of the employee increases he becomes more aware towards the role to be played by him in a project.
As the age increases there is change in an performance There is difference in opinion between genders wheatear the appraisal should be based on team work or not
There is not much relation between the designation of the employee and awareness regarding the organizational role.
Regular training programs will sharpen the skills of employee Opinion regarding implementing the competency mapping differs from male to female.
There is an difference in opinion between male to female that competency mapping effects the individuals performance
78% of the respondents are aware of their role to be played in the project, where as 20% neither agree nor disagree with it and only 2% of the respondent do not agree to it.
70% of the employees are clear with their competencies, where as 30% of employee are not aware of it.
60% of the employee agrees that their job makes best use of their abilities, where as 32% of the employee neither agree nor disagree to it and 8% of the employee feel that their abilities are not used.
74% of employees are aware of their organizational goals and 26% of the employees are not aware of their organizational goals.
78% of the employees agree that they are able to apply the concepts learned by them where as, 22% of respondent are not able to apply the concepts learned by them.
64% of the employees feel that individual work matters them allot where as, 36% of employee say that team work matters them allot.
(1) HR person should use the competency assessing to find out the employee present competency and the future training needs. So, that proper training at right time can be given to employee to keep them updated. (2) Even if there is no competency gap while mapping, the Organization has to invest to improve employee competency continuously. (3) HR can follow the competency appraisal system to provide frequent incentives to employees who perform well. This helps to motivate the employees. (4) More Training programs have to be devised to improve the competencies, particularly for the employees with minimum experience. The employee with the right type of training will prove to be valuable. (5) Organization can follow this competency based job description, rather than following the traditional job description, as it helps the management to find and select the right kind of person for the job. (6) Manager can check the competency of employee and provide the most competent people an opportunity to grow. (7) HR and Department heads to gether should define roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placements and training needs identification.
Based on the research conducted it is evident that the employee ability and skills have the greatest potential to help the company to achieve its business objectives. The job description assigned for the employees do not match with their competency and skills level, though most of the employees satisfied with their work. The training programs are conducted frequently by the company and these programs helps in improving the competency of employees and the training programs are found effective. But company needs to work on designing a proper structure to measure each individual’s competency and help them to grow individually with the organization; this will not only motivate them but also retain them with in the organization as they feel highly satisfied. Using competency mapping as criteria for performance evaluation will also make the organizations productivity to go high.
ANNEXURE AND BIBLOGRAPHY
AGE SEX Designation Work Experience : : : 22-30yrs Male : 1-2yrs 30-40yrs Female ____________________________ 2-3yrs >3yrs 40-50yrs 50-60yrs
If the competency mapping is implemented? S NO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Particulars Employees knowledge will be enhanced Employees skills will be sharpened It can develop employees attitude It pay way for the career development of employees Will be a change in employees performance Competitive advantage with in the team of the employees It helps in meeting target of the employees It can improve tacit knowledge of employees to meet the 9. 10. 11. need of company It helps in molding personality of the employees Employees will be consistent to the area they work Will it be helpful in selecting the competitive candidates 12. 13. in recruitment process Will it be a tool for performance appraisal It can increase employees amount of initiative and 14. self reliance towards work Employees logical and analytical ability what they 15. learned can be applied in their job It will help in meeting the current demands of the industry 1 2 3 4 5
Tick the option which best suits your response to the above questions: 1) STRONGLY AGREE 2) AGREE 3) NEUTRAL 4) DISAGREE 5) STRONGLY DISAGREE
SN O: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Particulars I am completely aware of my organization goal When a project comes to me am completely aware of my role When comes to numbers, I am the best Training programs are regularly conducted According to my role my competencies are clear to me At work, your opinion counts I know what my boss expects from me My job makes best use of my abilities In past 6 months some one has talked to you about your personal development Policies and practices match each other Training program helped me to increase my performance I am completely aware of my role in organization I am able to apply the concepts learned by me Individual work rather than team work matters me allot Appraisal should be based on teamwork rather than individuals work
Tick the option which best suits your response to the above questions: 1) STRONGLY AGREE 2) AGREE 3) NEUTRAL 4) DISAGREE
5) STRONGLY DISAGREE
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Other Reference: • Model and method for competency mapping and assessment --- by milind kotwal