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EXJJBRB UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

JOHN HENRf NASH

LIBRARY

SAN FRANCISCO
PRESENTED TO THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
ROBERT GORDON SPROUL, PRESIDENT.
*
MR.ANDMRS.MILTON S.RAV
CECILY, VIRGINIA AND ROSALYN RAY
BY"

RAY OIL BURNER COMPANY

MODERN TYPE DISPLAY


AND THE USE OF
TYPE ORNAMENT.

MODERN TYPE DISPLAY


AND THE USE OF
TYPE ORNAMENT

WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED BY


HENRY T. WYSE, 5 CRAIGHOUSE
TERRACE, EDINBURGH, 1911.

PREFACE.
WRITERS
tlieir

of a former age now somewliat remote dedicated

books to

tJie

"gentle reader" hoping to bespeak

favour by kind and conciliatory words.

Authors of a

date have allowed this fashion to fall into disuse,


is still

In this preface the author desires


apologise

/tow gentle he

may

be.

Tlie

to

seems dictatorial,
It

is

it is

He

and

to

knows

in

indicate his views,

of the

lie

critical reader, no

matter

autlwr occupies a privileged position in

that though he enjoys unlimited freedom of speech, he

immediate contradiction.

the writer

helpful.

for the errors of omission and commission w//ich

his heart can hardly escape the notice

later

The two together produce

as dependent upon the reader as ever.

a collaboration which should be mutually

and yet

liis

is

not subject to

hastens to assure the reader that if

a fault of style rather than of spirit or

not to be expected that the principles

and

lie

intention.

especially

the

practice illustrated in a book dealing with that debatable quality taste,

should be accepted with anything


business

is

type-display.

consciousness

like

unanimity by those whose daily

This book has been written with the full

that in stating the case for

the use of type-ornament, the exposition

a complete statement could only be

printing art,

and such has yet

is

Modern

type-display and

not a complete one.

made by a universal genius

to

be found.

tJwse given here will find other exponents.

Other methods

Such
in the
tlian

The aim of the work


possibilities

to

call the reader s attention

was necessary

it

to

recount in a brief

of written and printed- alphabets, and


struction

page

tlic

subject,

be

to

obtained

to

some

To do

way

this

the history

say something of the con-

to

of type-ornaments and their combinations.

matter included had


books on

and ornament.

the arrangement of type

in

satisfactorily,

is

from

Mitch of

ancient

botJi

and modern

and acknowledgment of which appears

list

tlie

on

viii.

The

seven plates of early printing are here reproduced by

_first

kind permission of the Keeper of Printed Books of the British Museum,

and
liis

If.

Rae Macdonald,

He

grateful thanks.

may

appeal

better than,

to
tlic

as

being at

nsnal trade practice.

has been avoided in


questions of clearness
tastic or striking.

tJie

whom

the author renders

hopes that some of the methods suggested

readers

liis

both of

to

Esq.,

book,

and

which

legibility,

least

different

from, if not

That mnch misused word


is

artistic

concerned with the practical

rather than with anything fan-

The claim of ornamental enrichment has of course

been admitted, but only in its legitimate place.

The
in

inclusion of advertisements of type, paper,

the book requires no apology.

and

The volume was called

for the express purpose of influencing type-display, and


to be

ink as plates

is

into being

not meant

an academic production which has no connection with everyday

printing.

H.
J

Craighoitse

Tcrmcc,

Edinburgh, jotli November IQTI.

T. IV.

CONTENTS.

........

PREFACE

CONTENTS

LIST OF PLATES

BlBLIOGRAPHIA

CHAPTER

I.

The History
The Early

Printers

III.

The Early

British

IV.

Analysis of

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Some

vi.

vii.

viii.

-32

Typefounders

Type Faces

The Subject-matter
Principles of

of Advertisements

Type Display

The Design and Combination

fv.

of the Alphabet

II.

PAGE

of

42
-

48

82

Type Ornaments

87
-

of Colour in the Use of Printing Papers


and Inks -

94

Harmony

98

LIST OF PLATES.
"

"

"

Forty-two-line Bible," Gutenberg, Mainz, 1456

I.

Bonifacii

II.

Hypnerotomachia

"Opere

"The
"

Papae Liber,"

Schoffer, Gernsheim, 1473

Poliphili," Aldus, Venice,

IIIo.

1499

III6.

Volgari," Soncino, Fano, 1503

IV.

Dictes or Sayengis," Caxton, Westminster, 1477

V.

Latin Psalter," Caxton, Westminster, 1480-3

"Higden's Polychronicon," de Worde, Westminster, 1495

"Comoediae

VI.
VII.

Sex," Pynson, London, 1495

Two

Type Display without Ornaments.

Black Ink.

four sizes.

founts,

White
VIII.

Paper

Type

One

Display without Ornaments.

Black Ink.

"Antique

Paper
letters

One

fount one

One

Type

Two

coloured Inks.

Paper

Two

three sizes.

founts,

coloured

Inks.

XIII.

founts, four sizes.

Two

coloured

XIV.

One

fount,

Black Ink.

four sizes.

Paper

XV.
One

Type Display without Ornaments.

Wove"

coloured

XI.

Three

Wove"

Type Display without Ornaments.


Cream "Antique Laid"
"Antique

Two

XII.

Type Display with Ornamental Border.


"Silurian

four sizes, Capitals only.

fount, five sizes.

Four
Type Display with Ornaments.
Paper White "M.F. Printing"
Paper

Contrast of Capitals and

size.

X.

Display with Ornaments.


White "M.F. Printing"

Inks.

IX.

Type Display with Ornaments. One fount,


Inks.
Paper Grey "Silurian Wove"
Type

Different widths of margins.

size.

Wove"

Type Display without Ornaments.


Lowercase

fount, one

five

sizes.

Black

founts, seven

sizes.

Two

fount,

Ink.

Paper

XVI.

Two

Display with Ornaments.

coloured

Inks.

XVII.

Paper- Bramble "Rideau Cover"


Pomegranate

Ornaments, Diapers,
Primrose "Camber Cover"

Type Display with Ornaments.


"Camber Cover" Patterns composed

composed

Paper

Two

One

Borders.

coloured

Ink.

Paper
XVIII.

founts, four sizes.

Black Ink.

White

Paper

XIX.

One

of repeated Thistle units.

"Rideau Cover"
Patterns

and

coloured

Ink.

Paper

Birch

XX.

of Thistle

units,

One

Diapers, and Borders.

coloured

Ink.

XXI.

Birch "Rideau Cover"

Type Display with Ornaments.


White "Camber Cover"

Three founts,

six

"Camber Cover"

Paper

Diapers, or All-over Patterns, Geometric and Floral.

Primrose

Black Ink.

sizes.

vii

One

coloured Ink.

XXII.

Paper

XXIII.

LIST OF PLATES
One

Borders, Geometric and Floral.

Cover"

coloured Ink.

(contd.).

Bramble

Paper

"

Rideau

XXIV.

Panels and Tail Pieces.

and Spiral

Rose, Thistle,

One

units.

coloured Ink.

XXV.

Coloured Paper
Christmas Cards composed of Type and
Paper Toned "M.F. Printing"

Three

Type Display "without Ornaments.


Glazed

Paper

Letter

Two

coloured

Three
Type Display.
"Imperial Linen"

XXVI.
One

founts, three sizes.

coloured Ink.

XXVII.

Ornaments.

Two

coloured

Inks.

coloured

Inks.

Two

sizes.

Two

coloured Ink

Book

coloured Inks.

Toned "M.F. Printing"

Paper

Vine and Rose.

One

coloured Ink.

Black Ink.

One

Type and Ornaments.

Plates.

Programme
"

"Antique

and
Type
"

Sketches.

coloured

Patterns

Ink.

Ornamental

Display, set

One

One

Cream

Paper

coloured

only.

XXXIV.

Ink.

Paper

XXXV.

.....

One

coloured

Type and Ornaments.

Wove"

Apricot Art"

Initials.

XXXIII.

One

Ink.

Paper

coloured

XXXVI.

Ink.

XXXVII.

composed of Shamrock type

"Dark

Type

Ornaments.

Type

Wove"

Antique

XXXII.

Coloured Paper

Sketches.
Rough Composition
"

Paper

XXXI.

Dark Apricot Art

Rough Composition

Coloured Paper

'Antique Laid"
Covers.

Paper

XXX.

Type and Ornaments.

Programme.

Paper

XXIX.
One

Type and Ornaments.

"Glazed Amber"

Eleven Ornaments.

Paper

XXVIII.
three

founts,

Invitation Cards.

Title Page.

Inks.

Amber"

Headings.
Type and
"Imperial Linen"

Menu and

Ornaments.

units.

One

coloured

Ink.

Paper

XXXVIII.

coloured Ink.

by the Monotype.

Paper

"

Black Ink.

Antique Laid

"

XXXIX.

Coloured Paper

XL.

BIBLIOGRAPHIA.
2.

A
A

3.

Alphabets Old and

4.

1.

NOEL HUMPHREYS.

History of the Art of Printing.

H.

History of the Old English Letter Founders

T. B.

Guide

New

to the Exhibition in the King's Library, British

5.

Facsimilies from Early Printed Books in the British

6.

Introduction of Printing into Scotland

7.

Life

and Topography of

REED.

LEWIS

Wm.

Caxton

F.

DAY.

Museum.

Museum.

ROBERT DICKSON.
(2 Vols.)

BLADES.

The History of the Alphabet


The Pentateuch of Printing

BLADES.

10.

The

EDWARD CLODD.

n.

Typographical Antiquities

12.

Writing and Illuminating and Lettering

8.

9.

Story of the Alphabet


(4 Vols.)

ISAAC TAYLOR.

J.

F.

DIBDIN, A.B.

EDWARD JOHNSTON.

MODERN TYPE DISPLAY AND


THE USE OF TYPE ORNAMENT
CHAPTER ONE

THE HISTORY OF THE ALPHABET.

HIEROGLYPHIC; 3. HIERATIC
6. ALPHABETIC.
THE DIFFERENT
4. DEMOTIC
5. SYLLABIC
ALPHABETS: i. INCISED ROMAN; 2. PEN-WRITTEN ROMAN;
6. ANGLO-SAXON;
4. UNCIAL;
3. RUSTIC;
5. HALF-UNCIAL;
8.
ROMAN SMALL LETTERS; 9. ITALIC;
7. CAROLINE;
10. GOTHIC.
EVOLUTION OF LOWER-CASE LETTERS FROM
CAPITALS. THE INFLUENCE OF THE REED-PEN IN FORMING THE CHARACTER OF MS. LETTERS.
TYPE FORMS
DIRECTLY DERIVED FROM HAND-WRITTEN LETTERS.
STAGES:

i.

PICTOGRAPHIC;
;

2.

NY

consideration of the subject of type and its display would be


incomplete without some reference to the origin of the letters
used in modern printing.

long period of time

early prototype,

who

between the compositor of to-day and his


attempted to communicate with his fellows

lies

first

by means of graphic symbols. Antecedent to this attempt at communication


by means of graphic signs was the power of audible communication, which
Communication by
must have developed slowly during many centuries.
means of speaking and hearing had many grave defects, being limited by
time and distance.
a

The

recognition of these limitations

means of communication through graphic

suitable

distances.

surfaces,

could

be

carried

to

and

signs,

may have

which,

understood

by

suggested

inscribed

others

at

upon
great

10

not

is

pleted

be supposed that these graphic symbols in their comwere the product of a single effort.
know, for

to

We

form

graphic communications consisted of rude


diagrams of men, animals, and things, the significance of which was
understood and interpreted by those to whom they were addressed.
that

instance,

These
were
the

undoubtedly

pictures

term

graphic symbol in

such

marked

use

B.C.

5000

drawings

realistic

in

modern

any

sense,

but

the meaning intended by their writers.


the first stage in the evolution of

when drawings were

alphabet

as early as

not

accurate to convey

sufficiently

Palsographists

were

drawings

primitive

Such

the earliest

used

to

signify

Pictographs.

the

things pictured.
was the form of

This

by the early Egyptians, whose writing of a date

existed in three forms, Hieroglyphic

(or pictographic),

Hieratic, and Demotic.

In the Hieroglyphic form, a carefully outlined representation stood for


the thing itself; writing of this kind was used mostly for monumental
The Hieratic was a simplified form of the Hieroglyphic, in
inscriptions.

which the main


sacred

for

or

of the

outline

complete
priests

lines

books

leading

only were used, instead of the


kind of writing was used by the

curves

This
thing.
and records.

The Demotic,

as

its

name

implies,

was used by the people generally, and was based on the Hieratic form, but
"
was still simpler and more " cursive
in character.
It was
employed for
ordinary letter writing and for business.
Though these three different kinds
of writing were current at the same time, they were derived the one from
the other, and occupied the same position as capitals, lower-case letters, and

Each was suited for a special purpose,


ordinary handwriting do with us.
as in our own day Roman capitals are used for dignified and monumental
inscriptions, lower-case letters (mostly) for the printing of books,

and ordinary

writing for correspondence.

These
in use.
itself,

early forms of graphic expression or writing

So long
but

when

as things

ideas

were being written

of,

were rather limited

no special

difficulty presented

and abstractions required expression, the inadequacy of

the system became evident.


For example, the word calf in the Hieroglyphic
form was represented by an outline drawing of a calf.
In the Hieraiic form

the constructional or characteristic lines only of the calf were represented,


while in the Demotic form these lines were still further simplified and con-

But when such an abstraction

thirst required expression,


it was
thus two forms
a calf
represented by a calf running towards water
and water were necessary for the expression of this single abstraction.
The
ventionalised.

as

of these symbols increased to such an extent that no fewer


than one thousand seven hundred of them are known to have been in use

multiplication

during the Hieroglyphic period.

HE

second

stage

of advancement

towards

formation

the

of

alphabet was reached when a single sign represented the


sound used in naming the thing. At this stage the written
the

symbol had
represented

little
;

it

relation

to

the

appearance of the thing

stood for the sound, not for the thing

it

itself.

In the third stage it was recognised that the different syllabic sounds
were few, and that each syllable could be represented by a separate symbol.
That syllables were composed of a very few different root-sounds was the
next and

last

discovery

which

led

the formation

to

This was composed entirely of consonants accented


production of separate letters for vowels came later.

in

of the

first

different

alphabet.

ways.

The

It
alphabet which we use consists of twenty-six letters or signs.
the most important of the two hundred and fifty alphabets which have

The

is

been in use since the

first

one was invented.

more than half of these


three alphabets which have had the
greatest means of spreading knowledge
The
the Chinese, and the Roman.
still

current,

Some

fifty

of this number are

The
being of local importance only.
widest distribution and have been the
and chronicling events, are the Arabic,
forms which the individual letters of

these alphabets have assumed at different periods are, of course, endless, but
it
may be interesting to discuss and to illustrate some of the typical manuscripts used

by

scribes

The Roman

from the second

to the sixteenth century.

of
alphabet has been spoken of as the lineal descendant
many of the alphabets used successively by the Egyptians, Phoenicians, and
In its early form it consisted of some twenty-two letters, to which
Greeks.

12

some were added

while others were discarded.

at a later period,

For example,
form adopted from

the seventh letter of the old alphabet of Italy was


(Z), a
the Greek alphabet.
This letter not
being required by the Romans, was

ABODE
FG LM
I

(G)

ALPHABET FROM THE TRAJAN

INCISED

INSCRIPTION

AT ROME.
FIG>

14 A.o.

its

occupied

letter was, in fact, the greatest inno-

which occurred in the Roman


it was a
alphabet
sign to represent
vation

the hard

I made

NOPQJl
S T V X

new symbol
This new
place.

dispensed with, and a

sound, and the rejection of


room for the new symbol G.

The Roman alphabet was further


added to when the new form J was
introduced.

formerly was used for

At

both sounds.

still

was made

a difference

later period

in the repre-

two sounds formerly


expressed by V, now represented by
u and V. The latter was used at
sentation

of

'

the beginning of a word, and the


former elsewhere.
The origin of the double
or double
is self-evident.
The seventh letter of the old Italian alphabet,
or Z, which had been

discarded to

make room

for

G, was reintroduced

the end of the

at

Roman

it was
Its introrequired for the transliteration of Greek words.
alphabet
duction from the French into the English alphabet dates from the fifteenth
;

&

and
century.
included as a letter.

The

series

Column
commemorate the

letters

are

cut

originally

of incised Capitals shown

of the Trajan
to

were both

in

Rome.

in

victories

stone,

some

printed or written letters.


width and height of the

in

ligatures

Fig.

This monument

the

former

is

now

are copied from the base


was erected in 114 A.D.

of Trajan

against the Dacians.


differences are noticeable between

As these
them and

Attention might be drawn to the proportionate


individual

letters.

comparison

between

this

"old style" fount of capitals will show that, while the


nearly the same width (except M, I, J and W, which cannot

alphabet and any


latter are all

be

expanded or contracted

ad

lib.},

the

individual

letters

in

the

Trajan

B, E, F, L, P and S are narrower, and


alphabet are very varied in width.
and
are wider than the normal.
Each letter has
C, D, G, N, O, Q,

thus a characteristic width, which


shape, and

this

has

much

to

do with

materially assists identification, especially

viewed from some distance.

its

when

characteristic

the printing

With

the exception of this incised one,


the alphabets described in this chapter are reproductions of MS. letters
that is, they were written originally by hand.
is

all

pen-written Roman alphabet (Fig. 2) was used by Roman penmen


for the writing of important books entirely in capitals, since no lower-case or

The

small letters were

We

that time.

existence

in

at

can here trace the

commencement of the alterations of


form which ultimately led to the
a complete alphabet of
small letters. Notice that the letters

making of

form than those of the

are freer in

Trajan inscription
they have lost
something of the dignity of their
;

The
member of

ancestors, the incised letters.

beginning of the thick

shows

upper

pen origin, while the

its

bow

of

is

distinctly smaller

The

than the lower one.

member

of the

the upright
'

members of the other

seems

letters,

while

hardly

make up

to appear as

is

upright
higher than

or

as if

it

could

mind whether
Most of the
U.

ABODE
FGHlL
MNOPCL

RSTVX
PEN-WRITTEN ROMAN CAPITALS
op FQURTH QR FIFTR CENTURY>

its

FIG.

2.

other letters are good pen translations of the stone-cut forms, upon

they are based.

which

H
The

Rustic

Roman

capitals

(Fig. 3)

are

still

less

formal than those of

bear evidence of having been printed or written


more quickly and with less care than those shown in Fig. I. It will also
be noted that their individual distinctive proportions have been lost, and it

the

last

They

alphabet.

be concluded that they are the work of commercial scribes rather than
of literary pen craftsmen.
Mere utility, divorced as far as possible from art

may

In
the
craftsmanship, seems to have been the object of their writers.
crossbar has been dispensed with as being unnecessary to distinguish this
letter from any of the others.
The " stroking " of the
necessitated the
lifting of the pen, and the commer-

A&COEfC
HliMNOP

QJUTVT
RUSTIC

CAPITALS,

ROMAN,

cially-minded scribe omitted it and


thus saved so much time.
In the

the upper

bow

has

become more

of a loop and less of a bow, while


the lower has become proportionally
In the F the top horizontal
larger.

member

has been considerably leng-

thened, becoming, for this reason,


more like the lower-case f. The

upright

member

in

its

narrowed

letters

in the

and hurried

height, while its horizontal


member has become shorter. The

Greek alphabet.
serifs,

its

extra

long ornamental tail of


cut off short, while the

borrowed from a form used

retains

The whole

suggests a desire

to

Q has
Y has

been
been

alphabet, with

economise space

and time.

were well developed as early as the fourth century,


and from that time till the eighth century were in use for the writing of the
" uncial "
as the name
finest books.
one inch
were
Uncial

letters (Fig. 4)

They

implies.
straight
far

originally
It will be noticed that some of the

lines

to seek

are
it

is

now formed

of curved ones.

high,

letters

The

originally composed of
reason for this is not

due to the desire for increased speed and ease

in

writing.

D, for instance, could be more easily made by one curve than by a straight
It was
and a curved line together.
simpler to write E by means of one
The other
curve and one straight line than by means of four straight lines.

new forms

A, which in this alphabet is no simpler, however, than the


and
A reference to modern lower-case
form,
g, h, m, q, and u.
will show that the forms of some of these are identical with the new

earlier
letters

are

characters in this Uncial alphabet.


Any compositor may see that this
is

mixed alphabet composed partly

of capitals and partly of lower-case


It must be remembered that
letters.
at first all letters
letters,

practice

were used

as small

and only gradually did the


of employing

initial letters

come

capitals

into use.

as

In the

earlier centuries initial capital letters,

several times larger than the text,

were employed

to

mark

the beginAfter the tenth

nings of paragraphs.
century the initials became larger,
while from the fourteenth century

onwards they were often so large


that one sometimes occupied nearly

Some
a whole page in a MS. book.
.....
c .
or these initial letters are so orna-

Mopqa
srcivy
UNCIAL BETTERS, ITALIAN, OF
SIXTH AND SEVENTH CENTURIES.

mental and are surrounded by so

much

foliage as to

make

show

a tendency

to the small or lower-case form.

well-nigh impossible to decipher them.


Only nine
of the letters of this alphabet may be said to be pure capitals
the others all
it

The

alphabet

is

thus a

hybrid, being partly capital and partly lower-case in form.

In the Half-Uncial English series (Fig. 5) we find a further development


towards the formation of a complete alphabet of small letters.
Only two are

now

distinctly of the capital

form

these are

and R.

The form

of

has

i6
it
completely changed
and a connector b has
;

now composed of
lost its upper bow
is

a circle
c,

case

d,

form

hi im u op

qRsfcujc

and

is

a vertical

e are

state.

The

is

still

member

true loweris

final

still

in

lower-case

to the lower-case,
in

two

alternate

curved capital form of t


used, and the letter x is

harmony with

in character

and

in

the other letters than

an old style or
Half-uncial letters were used for
.

5.

more "cursive"

HALF-UNCIAL, ENGLISH, EIGHTH CENTURY.


FIG.

suggested in g, and h, i,
are all truly small letters

p, q and u belong
while s appears

forms.

now

while f

letters,

hybrid

and

with

less

important documents and books


from the sixth to the ninth centuries. This kind of writing was introduced
into Ireland in the sixth century from the Continent, and by the seventh
century it had developed into a style which, for beauty of form, has never

been surpassed.

An

interesting alphabet of

Saxon Capitals

shown

is

in

AngloFig.

6.

One might
them

as

be pardoned for describing


a "mixed lot." These forms

originated
scribes,

at

the

who were

hands

of

many

perhaps more open

to suggestions than their predecessors.


Some of the letters are close adaptations

from the conventional Roman

and L, while
be small letter forms

forms, such as C, D,
others seem to

raised to the dignity of capitals, such


as B, H, M, R, S,
and Y. F is half

capital

S&CDEF

and half small

letter.

UOFQPf

CYME
ANGLO-SAXON CAPITALS OF THE
EIGHTH AND NINTH CENTURIES.
FIG.

6.

'7

While the Half-Uncial writing of Ireland and England was famous


throughout Europe, the work of the French scribes had become so poor that
Charlemagne, with a view to the

improvement of the writing of

own

country,

issued

his

decree

bcdef

in

ordering the adoption of


It was known as the
a better style.

789

A.D.,

"Caroline"

miniscule,

and soon

It will
spread throughout Europe.
be seen that all the letters in Fig. 7
The transiare lower-case in form.

tion

from

capitals

to

small

letters

ghilmno

had been accomplished, except that


the letter

forms.
letters

appeared in alternate
will be noticed that the

t still

It

of this alphabet slope to the


this is the last word in easy,

right ;
cursive writing.

WRITING, NINTH CENTURY.

CAROLINE

FIG.

The

a bcdefg

hilmnop

gradual change from capitals

to

small

in

letters, already briefly


described and illustrated, culminated
distinctive

alphabet of small

letters in the fifteenth century.

countries
in

slightly

though

but,

details,

identical.

letters

shown

The Roman

small

in Fig. 8 are typical

of all the lower-case alphabets of the

The

period.

only letter since dis-

the long

whose

carded

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

to f led to its expulsion.

8.

differing

the root-forms

ROMAN SMALL LETTERS, ITALIAN,


FIG.

The

method
slope of the writing and the
of producing it varied in different

were

qrsftuv

7.

is

s,

likeness

i8

The
in

Italian

Capitals illustrated
9 are based upon Roman

Fig.

capital forms, but slope slightly to

the right.
They bear strong evidence of their pen
and are
origin,

very free

jf

and flourished

They may

MMOP

be said to be half-written,

Roman
suggesting
the best
examples of

half-printed,
capitals

and

capitals in

of these

in character.

modern writing.

letters

Most

can be written with-

out lifting the pen more than once,


an important consideration where

speed of production must be considered.


Italic
writing was used

vwxrz
ITALIC CAPITALS, ITALIAN, OF THE

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
fixes,

indices,

writing of

The

and notes.

used

extensively

FIG.

in

Italy

MS. books

It

was

in

the

Italic

Romans

Italic capitals as the small

Roman

capitals.

show
form of the two

that the general


series

books, such

as

certain

portions

of

introductions, pre-

ibcdefa

is

mnop

refer-

ence to the " Caroline " alphabet


(Fig. 7) will

distinguish

of poems.

Small Letters (Fig. i o)


naturally bear the same relation to
bear to

9.

to

^StlLTLs

similar

both in slope and character.


The
and
beginning
finishing serifs of

ITALIC SMALL LETTERS, ITALIAN,

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

FIG.

10.

the ascending and descending Italic


small letters are, however, absent in

Some

the Caroline forms.


forms, such as

Italic
o,

etc.,

p,

same

a, c, e,

identical

m,

n,

with the

used in ordinary writNotice that p, q, and the

letters

ing.

long

are

of the

have added

serifs in

beginnings and

Italic small letters are

narrower, occupy
rather

while the

the other letters are mere

constructional
endings.

serifs,

more

less

free in

more graceful
Roman.

The round

in

space, and are

character and

form than

the

writing in common
scribes throughout

by the
Europe during the ninth and tenth
centuries gradually became narrower
use

GOTHIC OR BLACK LETTER (CAPITALS),


FIG. u.
FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
and more angular

two or three

a trclefgfji)

and Ireland
in
it

it

in

the

centuries.

succeeding
In England

became pointed, while

Germany, by the fifteenth century,


had become very narrow and stiff.

The rounded

parts

were represented

by short thick and thin strokes

set at

an angle, which connected the upright


These were
members of the letters.

GOTHIC OR BLACK LETTER (SMALL


LETTERS) OF FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
FIG.

12.

This kind
placed very close together.
of printing or writing was called
" Black Letter "
by printers, because
the thick

gave

it

members and

a black or

thin interspaces

heavy appearance.

20

Gothic lettering was


Europe, except in

in

common
which

Italy,

use during the fifteenth century throughout


" round "
still maintained the tradition of the

The Germans marked this Gothic


open writing of the preceding centuries.
" black
writing for their own, and even yet the type they use is mostly
letter."
A glance at the alphabet of Gothic capitals (Fig. 1) reveals the
1

It

in

the letters are

that

fact

interesting to

is

and

11,

Fig.

members

are

in

more ornate and

flourished

Roman

than

capitals.

try and decipher the essential root forms of the letters


most of them it will be seen that about half of the

necessary

for

the

characterisation

remaining ones are merely ornamental.

of

the

These unnecessary

form,
parts

while

the

make each

letter less distinctive.

between

alphabet illustrated (Fig. 1 2) and an


alphabet of Roman small letters, will enable anyone to trace the resemblance
between the forms of the various letters.
It will be noticed that all the
letters

comparison

are

composed mostly of thick members with short thick and thin

The

of curves produces the sense of angularity and


so characteristic of most Gothic writing.
Because the letters are

connectors.
stiffness

composed of
the one with

so

from each
ordinary

difficult

absence

few

different typical
the other.
Especially

members, they are


is this so in n and

liable to
u, r

and

be confused
x.

In this

the others, the individual letters are placed some distance


other, so that their forms may be more easily appreciated, but

alphabet, as in
in

the

all

Gothic

writing,

the

letters

being

close

together

are

more

to decipher.

HE

of illustrations shown

on pages 22 and 23 exhibit


some of the intermediary forms which letters took during
seventeen centuries.
Beginning with the dignified capitals
series

of early
" cursive "

Roman

gradually developed into the


writing in common use in the fifteenth century,
when printing from movable types was invented.
From the middle of the fifteenth to the end of the sixteenth century
times,

they

printing presses had been established, and as every printer was at that
time his own type founder, many different kinds of types were in use.
By

many

21

end of the

the

first

The

presses had been


in their types the

set up.

round

two hundred and fifty


founder-printers, as was natural, imitated

of printing, about

years

fifty

early

narrow angular writing of the time, but soon the clear


writing first used in type form by the printers of Italy gained

Italian

such favour, that it gradually displaced the Gothic type, and Roman letters,
both capitals and lower-case, as we now know them, came into general use.
When type-founding as a separate business was established, printers found
purchase their type from the founders, instead of
casting it for themselves, and this reduced the variety of founts, and further
development in the forms of letters was of course limited.
it

to

their advantage

to

The

which had occurred

alterations

in

written letters before the advent

Parts unof type were mostly occasioned by increased speed in writing.


For
necessary for the distinguishing of the individual letters were omitted.
in

instance,

was the

which was unnecessary

cross-bar,

and

other,

page 22, the

the letter A,

save

to

so

example of A, the

the

first

to

penman's time

member

develops into a circle, which in

its

feature

first

to

be dispensed with

distinguish this letter from any


it
was omitted.
In the third

begins to turn upwards, and eventually


final lower-case form, a, is reduced in size.

need hardly be stated that the evolution was not regular nor uniform
The forms illustrated have been taken from many
different countries.
It

in

They
manuscripts produced during seventeen centuries in many countries.
have been arranged to show the kind of changes which took place, rather
All the letters illustrated
than to illustrate the actual order of development.
were actually

them

will

illustrated.

in

be

Many of
necessarily in the order given.
belonging to alphabets already described and

use though not

recognised

Some

scripts

as

retained

an

early

form

for

long period

this

was rather suddenly supplanted by a more cursive form, probably adopted


from another country.
This character might persist for a time, and a
return

be again

The
size

letter

and similar

Roman
lower

Script

one

has

made

to

in

its

B,
in
in

form.
it

the

an earlier

form.

Roman form, had its two bows nearly equal in


The second B shown is taken from a Rustic
upper bow has become less important, while the

become correspondingly

larger.

In

the

third

example the

Incised Letters,

Trajan Inscription,
L*4 <***

Intermediary Manuscript Forms,

Third to Sixteenth Centuries.

Lower-case

Roman

Lower-case
Italic

Ordinary

Modern

Incised Letters,

Trajan Inscription,
ii4

***

Intermediary Manuscript Forms,


Third to Sixteenth Centuries.

Lower-case

Lower-case

Roman

Italic

Ordinary

Modern

24

two bows

separated by a space, while in

are

upper one has become


next example, which

mere loop, which

a
is

in

The bow

variations.

has in

its final

The

change.

is

altered

during all these centuries beyond


wider, to be in harmony with the general

As

characters of the different alphabets.


and contains in its original shape
for

specimen the
entirely dispensed with in the

essentials a lower-case letter.

all

The form of C c has not


being made smaller, narrower, or

opportunity

the following

no

letter

is

it

form which

unnecessary

shows

an ascender

to the right side of the vertical

series

is

produced

the

to

left

and upwards.

How

made

offered

little

of

member

small letter form changed to the left side.


illustrated in the series of successive forms.

came about is
form (second example) the bow has been changed

it

parts,

easily

is

interesting

of capital D,
this alteration
"
"

Uncial

In the

into a circle,

from which

This member

in

course

of time became more nearly erect, during which process it changed to the
The gradual reduction in the size of the circular, and the
right side.
consequent extension of the vertical member, produced the d form which

we now

use.

In the letter

form

is

than

change from the straight to the rounded


Curved forms are more quickly made with a pen

e the gradual

well illustrated.

straight

ones,

penman was

and the

slow to

not

follow

the

line

of

hybrid between E and e.


The intention has evidently been to make
E, but speed and
want of care have produced a form midway between a straight and a curved

The

resistance.

least

second

illustrated

is

"
"
a
square

two of the horizontal members along with


the vertical one have been merged into one curve, while the central horiThe connection of the
zontal member still retains its form and position.
In the third example,

letter.

upper

termination

form

of the curve with

In the case of

the

unaltered

member produces

the

f the principal

change has occurred in the


in
upper horizontal arm, which has been made curved instead of straight
the small letter the bar crosses through the main member instead of beginning

final

e.

at

the right hand side as

There
This

letter

is

very

little

it

does in F.

in

small

to

suggest

its

dignified

ancestor

G.

has probably undergone more changes of form than any other

PLATE

I.

plmrate I: moms a Itptuagmta


nttibua no fcifnnDatJjec ecgo

biatt&uDiorowiq; fecitfe
;tp ambiga muitoe fbre*qui urt inui*
ittaurlfuprralin malrnt tontmtnrre
te uiDtte predara

iiltatcnru

quam fcifcetertt Dr

foplinam:

tirbirimta
!

nffnua fate- potacf.l


,<

nua^perca
arDmtinbi

TB-'-rS^

fl

oui

tue ur rrui no
in rafilio im^

latorum no flttit :

uttfummr,
nofftfaluc
ftnefufepti

^Ad

ittilege

altaarapit

mtftitabif Die ac nottej6[t mt

ntinudam

tanttp ligmi quqD platatum tft &cu9

teladofua

mirfu0 aquaru : qfi ftuiu fiiu tabit


in $2fuo^t foliu turn

yamnia qutcuq}

no DeHutt : i

fader profptcabutur.

tamertiut

f^un lit imptj no fie: to tanqj pul


qui proint uitua a farie teccc^E #
ixo no reTurgut tttipif i iiiDmo : ntq;

a&uTamta

iio

jpcccatotcs in
>

paatoruro

coftSo iutorilOuoni

am noutt inminue uia iufei^ : ittcc


is iwufift

Part of a page of the 42-line Bible printed at Mainz not


(King's Library, British Museum).

later

than 1456.

'?
>.

Be
<=>.

*S

~
H S *
j

c ffw-s s

'n % .u 43

3 w
gl^'2

lr
r ? ,a SgS
E
/3

ta

lillll2S i'?tl-u
II
II II "-^
-5*^,2
-

"

w^^-g ^ 2^

fll^li
l^lfV] !!
1

ss^lly^:2

S
a^g'Sil'li
o-Z.c o~o K^^-

i
*

V c

fWa^^f
*^

** 4J

\v

a^Mii

CQ

c 5

to
u: ve

fc)J5 s '- **

c n -Per*

KiliillliUmfiitltll

S o u

^
J.Ib g
s ;/T~~
*
o -o

S J5
o
o -=
.

j-S"
=
.2

-'

^-'^
-

E a

llSJJ'zl

.-

y,

of tfe f$ifefop$** atprmitet? >% me tfttttanp


a* Befftntffo
i)
pew of out fcjbp

is fete
tanffefety

of
o

0^

^ (no8&

^^ug6 ^i^ of

^^/$D^fctt^our anbp ^ttec6ouc o


fo* out fyfy ^a^* (^ Cf>ofc HJ ^ic ^ogame of

0w&

ttjwtt of tB
<t<tont

fotjotgte of

>9

o?

nwtt'fe*j

out
dot) tffctof MJ 60

t^ dfc fefibut o

m^Kff? ftmgt/

a pngu&t feto g t^n^ (t^^^mte m^


6> ou^fce

amende
(t

it

tffc

(agty K>JJ>

anb? tB^te a0 Jfljotoe

i^/ue if J f^f

tBag wo;^ tBe0 g

(o

prefume

nnj>gufy

^ 5006? anb? fp mg&


me

65 oue*fce \t g

t^ fcmebp
fen*

m^^ fe &f( ou^ ae X>tu^cc &(tw

fan; QWXfatifc*
(crte>

From "The

f^^ me ^ue*'ce djmape


6> ^ttn^

an^

nnf

aripo^fe g cc^c 6?

8m R^P a^ettinrnf $w& fc

Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres."

Printed by Caxton at Westminster 1477.

(The King's Library, British Museum).

PLATE

V.

<>mtnt nt in fiteoa fttc arjjti


as mtmttp in ira fcia tottipt
as medZiftrm mci Dn^ qm ffitm9
fit ;

fena

me Dtic qm cotiuteta funt

oda mca^t anima


wilt :ftD

mr Q ftitfeate 2

tit tJfic

xif^quodlonucrfe
re Dfic et cr tpc ara'ma mcH: (aluum
nit foe
miftntoiDta ftm^mi
^tct
non (6 in moitt qui mmtm fit (tit:

inmfemo autmt qitis confitebtiitc


fiBWahnatri in goniftumo

laita

to per fingulao nortco Icctu mcil :la^

cnmia meie ftrafci maim ngato


^Mitetus (G a fiicote oculue me9:

<

mttt onntto ttmntros


m^oo^O ifitWr a me omnra qui
opiamim tmqiutatcm:qucmia er ;
auDimt Dne xocem flctuo mep^l f
tnuctccaiti

autiiuit ttimmuB lepiccacone

tins

meat

mone mta

Page from the Latin

Psalter.

Printed by Caxton between 1480 and 1483.

(King's Library, British Museum).

PLATE

VI.

Itber tcrcuid
oe of flbdue/tbe tbjtoe of epgbe/tbe
.it.

as tbfe r>pre

-I

fjjtfcetb*

wntra Uuf^any of J&wtagoias tot ^wntmi

Wles

bepte bet mapOwsbeettesio flbiorbe.

m^noe ano DCeo ber u>ptte atto myn


ae to duty* of boobes/ano
twgbt
(bat man? (ucbe pwuerbes (ball b

ano oeparte (oioste fron? tfj


oye/wtconn^ge fronj tbettptte
tt

(ber^e fronj tbe uombe/treafoo oute

of tbejCpte/ftryfeout of
tbe bow*
ano
3ncontpnence
ba(tyneue oute of

aa tbpngee^ICo all tbat ftenoes b^

ue (ball be compo

fmtoe is tbe o^
of rtMrne
mutt tafee beoe
of tj?mc8 . after goo (otbnefle ftall
be tto%ppeo tbat mafee4) meo be

^e

fijer

nejct goo.

C^Cpoouis lilwo ooatio ca

DC Dde/ bete to (ones 2Dpateoirnn;/g


tbat $ io tumbles is calleo aU $ ^e
epgitfetij Deic / ^cet to ftttmes Double
3Dpapa(OQ.H6 io melodpe of one Ore
ge/?f tip Orpnge be ffte/neo enlonge
Dpoo tj>e bol owteOe ot a tree / g oe^
parteo eueo a tttob^ab^ogr (ette
t^ere tttoer io e^cfjec parts of p (ton

ge/$e (btwte

(ball be

iDrapafoo/pf

Owns be Orepned g touc|)edi2lno


t^e
Oreng be oeparteo eueo to t&t
ff
g ffc btpdge fette tutOer/(o t^a( it oe
patte b^ttbene $e tt&ep deles g^^pc

leo bptt) (dfe (opbittris tbat is


uspfe/

ctje

mao be rots/be antoeroe ano

tbat be uas a pbplofopber / tbat is a

oe/tbao $e (engec Dde of ^e ftreng


jfyt be fimcfjeo (ball peue a (bvme cal

louecof ttptte anoof ttyttoome fot


to calfe bpnj (dfe a tty>(e mao/it n>ol
Oe (erne grete booft <? pijJOe.aftenbac

leo iDpattfleroOiSnD pf it be oepar^

otber pbtlofopbiesbaoDeo b^ names

un^

of ber atKtours.ano (o tbep tbat bd^


Oe ptiagoias loote/Oiere calleo pic^

eed to

n?ne/anD tbe bipogc


aec bptttene tbe (aft parte anD cfje tw
tber Dele / t^ao tbe (engec ode of tfje
Qtengepf (tbetoucbeo (ball peue a
fotbne/ebat beee ^onus/foz njme (5
tepnetj) e^gbt/anD tt)e epgbt parte of
(ette

tapzaci . ano tbep tbat bdoeo pla^


toos iooze /Vbett calleO platontct
^Tpot.libio

pn^^ome pb^lo(opbres

baooeo names of contrees / g

Ibclwp&tagoms

From Higden's

Printed by

Wynkyn

(King's Library, British

Museum).

Polychronicon.

de

(o

tbcp
looie^ere calico

Worde

in

1495.

PLATE

VII.

t-jr"Bo flH0.te .$n t?ac fccna tf

eremplfl fmfcefttoe obtotealionte* boe


ridiculerDi-Jboad oftrata>icaiUimfUifi[ienuIIiefreimHainno;I
mtite me et hlio ^e.Coftitueratoiu iUtcoomt obfldcre
t
fj \nlta vidit fra*
iremoititqjfedeccunM.cccebicp:opc ipfuinfratrtoZDitioqrotect noqroo
iemdudG.t.e*muItoantecpej^f.qufdn5.<.Cttrqumbaeme.E'e,rero.ffer<

fence
olia flagitta ingetia.i.enoz

"""'"H'satzrci.aSt.t.
<ntintii6itimflm?ir
in nOUlS mO^ani.UC, tern
CCCU f5 ecce.t.adcf) repcntinu ms
]0 1 turbaKo gudi|.C ccc or
= cOrepaealiqmd triftereb*
itcrucnictlctisautcerte qS

aD tc tgctia buni fllius aDolefcf tte:

,.

tf,t)ocpeatfnnDUSinmeftciucmit.
fcio:0emea.el)a fcis et patf ce.mit.tiDni
te.i.inconfldcraietufdnia*
a d ere.i.ioq te naurf*

pattat.Demea.DicnHcljunocIamae.no ma

,^v
quefnttraptaa letrone poc
(iUants.mit.non niam)quiDc:Demeai itto^.rtagitf6i?ocqaoa
pUf C ell natUS:D

tene tJOJtat.DC ,

fcro eD.i.ettat invfrginent


eft crga vet contra virgin

W*

id

Ducena tnootata eft.mitio jfr ciltce t.&e mt.tao


me a. muiD nunc futurum eft . ^itfo.

cfcbino.Scif s.t.cognofcis (Hud ftagitium effc facium ec paterr .( d ell pa/


tens I'tu prrmi CUB et fcrs quaff picat ocbcrcs.mitio.quidni . id e(l cur non p3

folu

p:efertim cum medcn n on po iTi in.Dcmca.oic tnid?( non clamae. (d c:t vo


<iferda3duerfu9ercbintjmmrgtlsctinip:operii6noniufani)g.(dcf)non vcrte

liar

...

riemfurmmcumbeccernieai)itiononqiud?.ideftnencrtamofcoruppletl!i
tfcfjmo malam verbum.id elt meleftum non aliquid eliniali vt If 31^in altquib*

bene fdtcitcrq- cuenist vel t>y conu crtan rcm vt DP tanr7 vd vt


nojuntnobigcxpedire.toocQatcmoictumfrcqBeno cflapud comtcos.Btibuic
fount quod agaa.plerumqp enrm bonaiin penio.mela mutantur in meltua.

fltcuentrc fen

bcrc.o;.ct ip a
i

nr go

....

eft

oucenda.ld eft cap en da

Page from Terence's "Comoediae Sex."

in vsot cm indetata.id eft fine

Printed by Richard Pynson in 1495.

(In the possession of the Author).

ABOUT
ARNOLD & FOSTER, LTD.,
EYNSFORD PAPER MILLS,
KENT.
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made a

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The Oxford University Press.


Cambridge University Press.
The Kelmscott Press.
The Chiswick Press.
This page is printed upon Unbleached Arnold Hand-made
Antique Laid 30 Ib. Demy. Plates II. and VII. are printed
upon Unbleached Arnold Cream Wove Unglazed 30 Ib. Demy.
Plates III. and VI. are printed upon Unbleached Arnold Cream
Wove Glazed 30 Ib. Demy. These Papers, and all other
usual sizes and substances, both Laid and Wove, are made
of

the best linen rags, without the use of chemicals, by

Arnold

&

Foster,

Ltd.,

Eynsford Paper

Type by STEPHENSON, BLAKE & Co. and


Italian

Old

Style,

24 point and 14 point.

Sir

Mills,

CHARLES REED & SONS,


Italian

Old Style

Italic,

Kent.

Sheffield.

24 point and 14 point.

25
yet the two main features, the arc of a circle, and
are still present in
the short vertical member or tail seen in the capital
the lower-case g, though greatly modified in form.
Originally the letter C

the alphabet

letter in

these were the


two sounds nearly similar
Later it was found expedient to add a tail to signify
the hard sound
so G was the form evolved.
This tail, which was originally
an accent, has developed in the lower-case form until it is now the larger

was the symbol used


soft and the hard C.

to

express

while the upper part, originally a bow, is now a circle.


persistence of the tail is well seen in the series of examples shown.
second form is a C accented
in the third example, the tail has been
of the

part

The
The

letter,

twisted into a loop ; the fourth example shows a return towards the original
form, while the next three examples show the continued evolution of

the

The

tail.

represents
as a serif.

In

the right, terminating in a ball or dot,


what was formerly a pen dash
this appears in the original
small extender to

the second

example of

the

second

upright

member

has

been

while in the next specimen, the same member


is connected to the first
by a curve, instead of by a horizontal cross-bar.
What seems to be a quite unnecessary loop is also added
this is merely

made

shorter than the

first,

an ornament, as the letter was used as a capital.


The other examples are
I has suffered
essentially lower-case in form.
practically no change, except
that it has been reduced to half its height, and has had a dot placed over
it

This dot

in the small letter form.

is

a curious survival.

It

was

originally

an accent to signify double i, i.e., ii, while single i was written without
In the fourteenth century the accent began to change into a
any accent.
dot
the earliest occurrence of i instead of i was in a manuscript written
;

The fact that j also appears with a dot is a proof that it was
1327.
obtained from i by differentiation, and also that the practice of dotting
the i is older than the evolution of j.
For two sounds now represented
in

by
for

and

J,

one symbol

was used

many

centuries, but

the distinguishing of the two sounds, and the

the writing line and curved at


In
c

for

its

termination,

k no change has occurred, except

making

need arose

was produced below


J.

in the reduction

of the height

26
of the second and third members, and the necessary alteration in the form
of the serif at the upper end of the first member.
The horizontal member

of

became

lower-case

shorter and shorter as time

serifs.

upper
third

in its capital

into one, while the

merged

It

will be

form

reduced to three

is

example

a serif.

as

merely

went on,

till

now

it

noticed that the

exists in the

first

has no

members, which in the


the second and third members have been
consists of four

and fourth members are curved instead of

first

That the three members gave the letter


evidenced by the fifth example shown, where the
three upright members and connected them by

its

straight.

characteristic

form

scribe has simply


a horizontal bar.

is

drawn

The

consists
changes in N are of a nature similar to those of M.
Capital
of three members, whereas lower-case n is composed of two members
"
of N is from a " half-uncial
connected
a curve.
The fourth

example

by

MS.

which

in

be remembered capitals and small letters were used


true lower-case n was also used in this script, not

may
The

it

indiscriminately.
only in the same

The fifth example


page, but often in the same word.
shows the lower-case form raised to the dignity of a capital.
The

letter

shown

has

simple and complete in


added to it nor any dispensed with.
centuries

no

practically

narrower

itself
It

than

at

will

alteration

the

during

all

these

no parts could be

first,

be noticed that in some of

the

normal, or pointed, but its


essential form (without beginning or end) remains the same as at the first.
its lower half is
now
P has changed its position rather than its form
the

it

examples

appears

below the

These

line

have

which,

thus

p.

occurred

originally

The

of

mostly

q shows some interesting changes.


connection with the characteristic tail,

letter

in

considerable

length,

and sloping downwards towards

the right, gradually assumed an upright position thus

q.

R in its
of gradual attenuation.
In the second example given, the
of three members.
capital form consists
this member eventually disappears, while
third member has been shortened
The

lower-case

exhibits the

result

the final lower-case


career

of S

graceful

forms,

has
it

has lost one half of

been

chequered

degenerated

in

its

one.

second

member

Originally

the course of time

one

into

besides.

of
a

the

straight

The
most
line

27

with

a small curve at

each end, the lower one of which was

This, along with the other form

and both forms were

invented,

however

likeness

by

suddenly superseded

by
their work.

except

few

used

in

for

was the cause of

to

was

s,

fellow

its

bent

printers

upon

general use when printing was


some centuries afterwards.
Its
its

which

s,

finally omitted.

is

undoing, and it was rather


now almost invariably used,
mediaeval

giving

character

to

The two essential features of T are retained in the lower-case form


The vertical member has however been shortened a little, while the crossThe reduction in the total height
bar has also been shortened and lowered.
of the lower-case t was doubtless made to prevent its being confused with f.
t.

of a

were originally the same letter, V being used at the beginning


word and U elsewhere.
The form U is of very recent introduction.

The

early printers used

and

capital

modern founders make the second


thus,

form.

The

U.
v,

x,

is

In

implied,

it

is

sometimes shown

some

scripts

thin,

omitting

the

whereas

lower

serif

is

forms V, X, and Z.

name

vertical

vertical,

very similar in form to the original capital


are identical in their lower-case with their capital
was not a letter of the Roman alphabet. As its

lower-case u

and

with a thick second

the

or

doubled.

VV, showing

thus,

small

In early examples of printing, it


its
origin as a double V or U.

shown as a double U, though the


this form and make it thus, W.
It is

letter

is

type founders have mostly rejected


difficult to reconcile the
appearance of the lower-case letters

They seem dwarfed

with the other lower-case forms.

and do not exhibit the same modifications

v,

w,

and z

capitals (as they are),

most of the other

as

x,

letters

of

The fault, if any, is to be laid upon the early type


alphabet do.
founders, because w, x, and z at least were modified in harmony with their
the

fellows during the centuries when the capitals were being evolved into the
lower-case forms.
The form of
y has changed in one or two particulars,

width of the lower member, which, originally upright,


thick, and a continuation of the first member, is now thin and curved,
The alterations
actually an extension below the line of the second member.
noticeably in

the

which have taken place

in

the

"

"

ampersand

can

be

very closely traced

28
the examples shown.
very clearly as a ligature
in

form

these

in

speed

have

writing,

which have now been


forms

does

appearance,

now

not
that

The

accomplished.

form

culminated

fixed
exist,

letters

and

gradual change until the


reached, which is very unlike
a

is

originally

the

in

last

the

brought about by increased


well-known lower-case forms,

by the printing press.


but we have become

The

necessity for these


accustomed to their

so

hardly be
advantages of the use of both capitals and lower-case

return

examples show the two


is

one)

of

alterations

first

then there

written

ordinary
form.
original
(an

All

The

the

to

of

use

capitals

only

could

forms are many


besides, capitals only are still appropriate in special cases.
In the MS. of the scribes, initials were used at the beginning of paragraphs,
instead of the indentations by which the compositor marks them nowadays.
;

The

use of initials at the beginning of a page was an excuse for the scribe
to introduce one, often of ornamental form.
In the later centuries of MS.

writing, the initial letter and its decoration often occupied most of a page.
Gold and colour were very freely used, while ornamental borders and line

were

finishings

common

in the

most important books.

Thus

the ancestor

of the compositor was free and untrammelled.


The questions of one, two,
or multiple printings did not concern him, for, by the mere change of his
He
pen or brush, he could introduce any number of colours he chose.

was able
size

of

without

change the character of his printing or increase or reduce the


at will, place his lines of printing close together or wide apart

to

it

of leads, being independent of type founders, composing


sticks, cases, chases, boxes, or formes.
the

Initial

use

letters

and decorations were

early printed books.

In fact

it

is

by the scribes to the


open to doubt whether the first books

printed from movable types were not


of band-written books.

The modern

still

added

intended to be counterfeit imitations

book, however, exists on

its

own

merits, and while

the

compositor of to-day works under different conditions from his precursor,


the scribe, he has still the means (if he recognises his limitations) of
producing works both readable and decorative.

29

WIDE

has been used during the ages for the


of printed inscriptions and books.
The form of these

variety of

making

tools

These
dependent principally upon three factors.
the
second
the medium (or ink) used
are,
writing tool
for writing with;
and third
the surface upon which the
is

inscriptions
first

characters are written.

The

pictographs were doubtless made upon very rude surfaces,


and with very primitive instruments.
For drawing upon stone, skins, or
bark, burnt wood or charcoal would be used for black, and natural earths
or

would be employed when colour was

clays

were

early

used as writing surfaces, and

also

Bone and ivory


hard metal point was used for

required.

Babylonian and Assyrian scribes employed wedge" cuniform "


shaped punches, by means of which they impressed their
characters upon soft clay tablets, which were afterwards sun-baked or fired

them.

scratching upon

them permanent. The ancient Egyptians also incised their Hieroglyphic characters upon stone and plaster, which were often further enriched
to render

Writing proper, however, as we understand it, was


by means of colour.
made in most cases with a brush or a pen, and upon a smooth writing
surface, such as skin,

As

early as
with a chisel

parchment, or paper.

3500

B.C.,

the scribes of
Egypt

used a reed pen, either


bruised on the writing

simply sharpened and


The former produced writing with thick and thin strokes, the latter
end.
This writing was made
writing with lines of equal thickness throughout.
cut

surface

into

thin

upon
cut

being crossed
angles.

The

point

prepared
strips

by

or

or

from the pith of the papyrus


bands and laid close together

a similar set

fabric

of

strips

of

gummed

was then

bands

pressed,

laid

plant,
in

which was

parallel

upon them

dried

in

the

at

sun,

rows,
right

and

Some of the papyrus inscriptions which


polished smooth on the surfaces.
have been discovered are fifteen inches wide by eighty or ninety feet long.
The use of
The Greeks and Romans also used papyrus for their writing.
writing material became general during the
earlier centuries of the Christian Era along with the use of the quill pen.
The tools employed always influence the character of the craftsman's

parchment

or

vellum

as

product, and this is nowhere more evident than in the case of writing.
The form of the chisel-shaped writing point causes the variety of thick
and thin strokes, and of curves of varying thickness, which is one of the
principal

beauties

of good manuscript writing, and of

its

type imitation

good printing.

The forms

of type

produced by a reed or
use of such a pen will
is

quill
assist

are directly based

upon writing or printing


pen, and an understanding of the form and
the judgment in deciding what is and what

letters

not legitimate in the forms of type


It

seems remarkable that in

letters.

such a country
reeds of

Japan, where suitable


many kinds grow pro-

as

the

Japanese should not


have seen the artistic possibilities
fusely,

of

Thick and Thin


I

|Jthick
t
,

|e

(adopted

origin-

tKick

character of the writing produced.


Tradition counts for very much,

and

and

Mack

Yet

tool.

writing

ally from China) is produced by


means of a brush
a far more
flexible tool, and one which has
had
a
marked effect on the

/ft

/'Nwrtiol

Japanese writing

VuniionbU

such

while

China was

letter
FIG.

the early

original

bias

in

in favour of the brush,

penmen of

Empire had

13.

the

the

Roman

a tradition going back

thousands of years through earlier


Greek, Phoenician, and Egyptian civilizations in favour of the reed pen.
Diagrams are given here of the form of the hollow reed pen used by
the writers of ancient MS., and the different stages in the making of it.
In the diagram (Fig. 13) (a) represents a side view of the reed or quill,

the dotted line showing the cutting


the second part which is cut away,

away of the
(c]

first

shows the nib

cut at a slight angle by a sharp knife, and

(e)

part,
split,

represents
(d] the nib

(d]

the introduction of a thin

metal strap to contain the ink.


vertical

strokes

pen cut

in

this

and thin horizontal strokes when

fashion produces thick


used with the edge of

the nib parallel to the horizontal edge of the page, as shown in the diagram
Scribes term this "straight" pen writing.
When the pen
(_/")
(Fig. 13).
is held in a slanted
position, with the edge of the nib at an angle to the

edges of the page, it produces moderately thick vertical strokes


connected together by thick and thin "heads and tails" (k] (Fig. 13).
horizontal

At the invention of printing, the lettering of the


Europe had become very narrow and angular, and
the

It
founder-printers.
"
Black Letter."
printers call it,

early

From

is

now known

as

scribes of
this

Gothic

Northern

was copied by
lettering,

or

as

the holding of the same pen arose the two


main divisions of lettering, which are still evident in type faces
Roman,
which shows the result of the use of the straight pen, and Black Letter,
this

difference

in

the result of the use of the slanted pen.

CHAPTER TWO
GERMANY

THE EARLY PRINTERS.

ITALY FRANCE THE


NETHERLANDS SPAIN ENGLAND.

|ERMANY.
forward

in

Much
the

contradictory
various attempts

evidence

made

to

been

has

prove

brought

who was

the

inventor of printing from movable types.


It

trations

of printing

that

examples,

was issued
i.e.,

it

is

naturally assumed

has

been

and

letterpress

from movable
found that the

1457, while the

in

the

printing of illusfrom engraved wooden blocks preceded

type.
earliest
earliest

that

Taking in each case only dated


book printed from movable type
printed block-book

is

dated

1470,

thirteen years later.

One

of the

most popular

block-books was

which went through many editions.


and contained scenes from the Old and
letterpress.

only,

The

and were

examples were
produced without any
early

the

consisted

It

" Biblia

of about

Pauperum,"
forty

leaves,

New

Testaments, with explanatory


printed on one side of the paper
printing

press.

The

impressions

were made by laying the sheets face downwards upon the inked surface
of the block, and pressing upon them with a smooth burnisher.
The later
editions were printed upon both sides of the paper, and were produced in
the engraving of a page of letterpress upon a
involved more care and time than the setting of a similar

a printing press.

wooden block

Though

page of movable type, the process had some advantages, notably in a greater
freedom of arrangement.
Fresh impressions could also be taken without
the necessity of re-setting.
These advantages enabled the process to remain
1530, almost seventy-five years after the invention of movable type.
Documentary evidence exists, which proves that experiments had been
made in printing with movable types of some kind as early as 1444. These

in use

till

trials

had

been

made

at

Avignon,

in
32

France,

and

also

at

Haarlem,

in

33
Holland.

generally conceded, however, that to Johann Gutenberg


belongs the honour of the invention.
Very little is known of the life of
It

is

That it was one which was full of effort and disappointment


Gutenberg.
seems certain.
We read that in 1439 he was prosecuted for the repayment
of a loan at Strasburg, while a similar action was raised against him in
1455 for the balance of two loans advanced to him in 1450 and 1452
These loans were presumably made in connection with
by Johann Fust.
Of all the books supposed to have
experiments in the making of type.
been printed by him, none bears his name.

The

known examples

of printing from movable type are two


letters of Indulgence granted by Pope Nicholas V., and printed in 1454.
The sins of the holders of these Indulgences were pardoned upon condition
earliest

they gave a certain


war against the Turks.
that

printed

in

sum of money
These

two separate printing

two

to

King of Cyprus

the

aid

it

Indulgences,
in

offices

one

Mainz,

is

in

supposed, were
of which likely

In 1455 the first Latin Bible was printed.


This
belonged to Gutenberg.
"
Mazarine Bible," from the fact that the copy
has been known as the
the Mazarine Library at Paris was the
of bibliophiles ; it has also been called

in

first

one to attract the attention

Gutenberg Bible, from


of Gutenberg; and the "42
the

generally attributed to the press


Bible," from the fact that each of its pages contains

42

The page

letters

being

by hand

of this bible

is

folio

size

the red

initial

lines

its

line

of printing.

were stamped

the completion of the letterpress printing in black.


In the
later pages the initials were written by hand.
copy of this bible, printed
on vellum, was sold recently in New York for
10,000.
(See Plate I.)
after

Another Latin

known as the " 36 line Bible," having 36 lines


also at Mainz not later than 1461.
The larger

Bible,

column, was issued

used in the two Indulgences

two

these

Bibles

it

is

to

type

with the type used throughout in


that each of the printing offices issued

identical

is

supposed
one Indulgence and one Bible.
The printers of these early books imitated very closely the arrangement of the MS. books then in common use.
The type-letters were
imitations

of manuscript

writing

of the

time

and

locality.

The

scribes

34
no

used

nor

title-pages

pagination,

content

being

inscribe

to

colophon

the end of the volume, which usually included the name of the writer
and the date and place of production, to which was usually added a prayer
of thanksgiving on the completion of the book.
This form was imitated
at

by the early
scribes

printers,

write

to

the

who

the

for

best

is

trained

the

is

eye

books evident.
of the best

much

difference

This

examples

is

still

employed the

and add any

initials,

conjectured by some authorities


meant to be counterfeit imitations of
It

books

printed

necessary decoration by hand.


that the early printed books were

hand-written

and only to a
and early printed

ones,

between some hand-written

when

believed

easily

books

of early

were

it

remembered

is

printed

on

vellum,

that

some

and

often

enriched by hand illumination.

Only those who know what exactness of body,

sizes

and

height-toof
line
of
the
a
paper standards,
composition
necessary
type, can
When it
appreciate the marvellous results obtained by the early printers.
are

is

remembered

that

for

types were
that the ink

the

an adjustable matrix,
" dabber " and not
by a

cast

was

singly by hand,
distributed over

possibly without
the types by a

impression was made in a


very primitive press, the skill of the early printer craftsman can hardly be
over-estimated.
Gutenberg is reputed to have printed three hundred
roller,

and that

the

sheets per day.

Two

other

of

printers

Mainz

divide

the

honours of the

infant

art

These were Johann Fust, a jeweller, who seemed to


have had some business connection with Gutenberg, as it was he who
with

Gutenberg.

him

two

granted in 1450 and


From the press of these two,
1452, and Peter SchofFer, an illuminator.
in 1457, was issued the first book bearing the name of its printer and the
This was a liturgical Psalter, printed in large clear
date of its publication.

prosecuted

Gothic type,

in

the

for

which the

types in blue and red.

repayment

of

loans

were afterwards stamped by hand


similar Psalter, by the same printers, was issued
initial

letters

4,950, which
until recently was the highest price ever given at a public auction for a
The same printers issued a fine bible in 1462, printed in
printed book.

two years

later.

copy of

this

book was

sold in

1884

for

35

much

smaller type.
This is the first dated bible, and the first occasion on
which a book was issued, divided formally into two volumes. In the same
year, Mainz was captured and sacked, and this put a stop to the further

development of printing there, at least for a time.


Owing to the sacking
of Mainz, the printers were scattered, and within the next few years,
printing presses were established in nearly all European Countries.

Even before
towns

this

time

the

we

learn

had been carried

art

to

different

several

1460, another great Latin Bible


had been printed by Johann Mentelin at Strassburg.
In 1466, Ulrich Zel
issued his first dated book at Cologne, while in 1468 Giinther Zainer had
in

issued a

Germany,

book

for

TALY.

As

in

1472.

its

birth.

as

early

in

This printer was the

at

Augsburg.
Roman type, which he did
him from Italy, the land of

that

It

we

1465,

said

is

German

first

that

he brought

two German

find

to

printers,

adopt

it

with

Conrad

Sweynheym and Arnold

Pannartz, established at Subiaco, in Italy.


There they printed four books, one of them being " Lactantius,"
The
an opera, in which for the first time Greek type was used.

common custom
quotations,

which were afterwards

some German
in

printers,

was

to

leave

filled

in

by hand.

hitherto

established in

Rome,

blank

issued a

spaces for Greek


In the same year,

" Cicero de Oratore

"

Roman

The

first

type, which had, however, a certain Gothic flavour about it.


native Italian printer was an officer in the Papal household named

Philippus de Lignamine, who printed at Rome in 1470 a work


"
Vitae Caesarum."
In the same year, Nicolas Jenson, a native of
entitled
Sommevoire, in France, issued his first book at Venice. The type he used

Joannes

was

a beautiful fount of pure

Roman, which

subsequent founders of Roman type.


Italian MS. writing of the period.

sponding

to

English

(about

14

has served as a model to

all

was based on the clear, round


Jenson's type was on a body correThe capital letters numbered
point).
It

The lowercase
not being in use at that date).
twenty-three (J, U, and
contained the same number, except that u was substituted for v, and in

36
there

addition,

were

and the dipthongs

long

as

and

To

oe.

complete

the fount, there were fifteen contractions, six double letters, and three points,
and ?, making seventy-three sorts in the whole fount.
After
viz.,
:

Jenson's death,

which Andrea
is

type and matrices passed into the hands of a firm of


Torresani was the head.
Another famous printer of Italy
his

Aldus Manutius,

Torresani's

who

son-in-law

joined Andrea Torresani as a partner.


a

at

later

date,

and

inherited

finally

He
his

became

types and

Aldus was the printer of the most famous of Venetian illustrated


"
books, the
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili," a romance, illustrated by no fewer
than
68 woodcuts of great refinement, and printed in Roman letters of

matrices.

very fine form.


of Italic type.

Aldus

(See Plate Ilia.)

This

was

at

first

is

called

"

well

known

as

" Aldine " or


" Cursiv."

the originator

Venetian,

and

The punches
Italic," and in Germany,
subsequently termed
for the fount were cut by the painter, Francesco de Bologna (better known
as Francia).
For this fount only lowercase letters were cut, Roman capitals
Italics were first used in the printing of
being used along with them.
"

The type found immediate


1501.
popularity, and was imitated by many of Aldus's contemporaries.
Originally
intended for the printing of entire books, as in the " Virgilius," it was
used at a later period to distinguish certain portions of the text, such as
Virgilius,"

issued

Aldus

by

in

It
introductions, prefaces, and indices.
emphasising certain words in the text.

FRANCE.

France

is

now

new

almost entirely reserved for

1470 by the hands of


three German printers, Ulrich Gering of Constance, and Martin Kranz and
These men were invited to set up a press
Michael Friburger of Colmar.
received

the

art

in

accomby two of the professors of the College of the Sorbonne of Paris


For two
modation was assigned to them within the College buildings.
for them, and issued
years, they continued to occupy the workshop provided
;

during that
time,

they

time

moved

other craftsmen,
College.

several
to

new

who had

After this
mostly of a scholastic kind.
premises, and began to print in opposition to
established presses without the assistance of the

books,

37

THE NETHERLANDS.

In the year 1473, the

first

dated book was

It is practically certain that fifty books were


printed in the Netherlands.
can be assigned to any of
printed there before 1473, but no date or place
them.
They were rather rude, and certainly could not have been printed

by craftsmen

who had

been trained

at

Two

Mainz.

issued books in

firms

these were Nicolaus Ketelaer, and Gerard


1473
Leempt at Utrecht, and John of Westphalia and Thierry Martens at Alost.
John of Westphalia was the first printer of the Netherlands who used

Netherlands

the

Roman

in

and

type,

the

only

printer

of that

country

who

used

in

it

the

fifteenth century.

Our own
Colard

English printer, Caxton, also issued, with the help of


two books at Bruges.
During the fifteenth century,

first

Mansion,

printing presses were at work in twenty-one towns in the Netherlands.


Two other printers, though of much later date, must be mentioned in
These are the Plantins, who established
connection with the Netherlands.
a

press

at

Antwerp

in

1555, and

books

are

famous for a

Roman
by

later

type

tradition

great

fine

amo

Edition

of the

Latin

Flemish

Printing was introduced


printer

named
set

up

not occupy a very important

as

1680.

Their

Classics.

into

Lambert
a

press
place in

Spain in

model

Palmart,

one-third

of

Spanish manuscript

in character.

German

who, along

with

Alonzo

Valencia.

Spanish printing does


the annals of the art
less than six
at

them being printed by

important centres of printing in


Salamanca, Burgos, and Toledo.

1474 by

hundred Spanish books were produced before the close of


Most of these books were the work of foreign
century.

the

to

English type-founders.

Fernandez of Cardova,

than

for

who produced

Elzevirs,

was cut by Christopher van Dijk, and was used

SPAIN.
or

the

Amsterdam and other Dutch towns from 1595

fine

in

maintained

generations, and

printing there through several

many
They

who

Spain

The

writing of the

native

were

the

printers,

craftsmen.

Saragossa,

fifteenth

Seville,

less

The more
Barcelona,

mostly used was based upon


period, and is dignified and fine

type

NGLAND.

England was the last important European country


to receive the new art, which she did
through the medium of
one of her own sons.
William Caxton had had a very chequered
Born

career.

about

apprenticed in 1438 to a
the death of his master soon

Upon

at

living

times

different

in

Weald of Kent, he was


London mercer named Robert Large.
the

in

1420

he

migrated to the Continent,


Flanders, Holland, and
Zealand,

after,

Brabant,

becoming afterwards the Governor of the English

Merchants

at

Bruges.
of
he
the
Duchess
of
entered
the
service
of
fifty years
age,
Burgundy (the sister of Edward IV.), as her Secretary, and was encouraged
" Recueil des histoires
by her to continue a translation of Raoul le Fevre's

When

about

de Troye," which had been interrupted by other affairs.


finished the translation, and as he had
promised copies

By 1471, he had
of

he looked about for the means of producing them.


accomplishing this, however, were not at hand, and some
friends,

he was

before

able

to

himself

associate

with

Colard

to

it

several

The means
years

Mansion,

of

elapsed
skilled

Together, they printed the book at Bruges in 1475.


The translation was begun on i8th March 1468, and finished on igth
He quaintly describes the translation and printing of the
September 1471.
"
book
Thus ende I this book whyche I have translated after myn
writer of manuscripts.

Auctor

as

as

nyghe

laude and preysing.

God hath gyven me connyng, to whom


And for as moche as in the wrytyng of

be gyven the
the same my

penne is worn, my hand wery and not stedfast, myn eyen dimmed with
overmoche lokyng on the whit paper, and my corage not so prone and
redy to laboure as hit hath ben, and that age crepeth on me dayly and
febleth

the

all

bodye

gentilmen and to
sayd

book.

my

to

also

because

frendes to addresse to

Therefore,

and dispense

and

ordeyne
see, and

have

this said

practysed

book

have

hem

to

promysid

as hastely as I

and lerned

at

in prynte after the

my

dyverce

myght

great

this

charge

manner and form

not wreton with penne and ynke, as other bokes


ben, to thende that every man may have them attones, for all the bookes
of this storye named the Recule of the Historyes of Troyes, thus enprynted

as

ye

as

ye

may

may

here

here

see,

is

were begonne

in

oon day and

also

fynysshid in

oon

39

But for troublous times

day."

might have continued


to return to

The

in

to translate

the

country

of his

and print there, but he thought

England, which he accordingly did

in

Caxton

adoption,
it

better

1476.

English printer set up his press in September 1476, in a


Here, in the autumn of
shop attached to the Sanctuary at Westminster.
the following year, Caxton issued the first dated book printed in England,
first

Mr Blades (Caxton's
Philosophres."
Type
Biographer) distinguishes several different founts used by Caxton.
"
and also for "The Game and Playe
No. i was used for "The Recuyell
of the Chesse," both of which were printed with the help of Colard
"The

or

dictes

Mansion

Sayengis

of

the

This fount was about greatprimer


in size (rather larger than 18 point), and was composed of no fewer than
163 sorts; it was left behind at Bruges.
Type No. 2 was cut by Colard
at

Bruges

in

1475 and 1476.

Mansion, and brought by Caxton himself when he returned to England in


This fount was on a body equal to two-line longprimer (about
1476.
The capitals were very irregular.
20 point), and consisted of 217 sorts.

Twenty books were printed in this type between 1477 and 1479, including
" The Dictes or
"
Sayengis," Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales," and a second
"
The Game and Playe of the Chesse." The two founts already
edition of
referred

to,

well

as

manuscript writing
quite

Psalter,"

other

different

types

known

character.

as

4,

5,

and

"Secretary."
It
was used

6,

were based upon a style of


Type No. 3, however, was of

for

the

" Latin
printing of a
as well as for a few

sometime between 1480 and 1483,


books, and for occasional headlines elsewhere.

issued

church

as

The

beauty
of this type can be seen by referring to a reproduction of a page of the
Psalter from the only known copy in the British Museum.
(See Plate V.)
The fount consisted of some 194 sorts.
Type 4 was similar to type 2,
"
but rather smaller.
The book of the subtyl hystoryes and Fables of Esope

which were translated out of the Frensshe into Englysshe by William Caxton,
1483," was printed with this type.
Type 5 was like type 3, but of a less
was similar to type 2, and consisted of 141 sorts.
size, while type 6
Eighteen works were printed with type 6 between 1489 and 1491, including
" The Fifteen
This book consisted of fifteen
Oes," and other prayers.

4o
prayers, each beginning with the invocation

known

ornamental

borders

dedicated to

Edward IV. 's Queen.

he was

before

have

to

been

is

it

the only book having

Though Caxton

Caxton,

by

printed

and was

did not begin to print

years of age, he produced no fewer than one


the next sixteen years.
His time was so much

fifty-five

hundred books during

occupied in translating, that it is doubtful, if after the first year or so, he


set or printed
Most of the works
any of his books with his own hands.

he

issued

his

business

were printed in English


they were almost all of a popular
character, and it is not likely that books of any other kind would have
found a successful sale in England at that time.
Upon his death, in 1491,
;

was continued by

his

assistant,

de

Wynkn

Worde, generally

It is conjectured
supposed to have been a native of Worth, in Alsace.
that he came from Bruges, along with Caxton, in 1476, and no doubt
held an important position in Caxton's office from then till 1491, when

he

succeeded

to

his

master's

new

matrices, and, besides, cut

He

business.
letters for

inherited

He

himself.

most

was

of

Caxton's

a better printer

than scholar, and produced some six hundred books, including new editions
and pamphlets.
The black letter founts that he cut became models for

He

introduced some improvements upon the


practice of Caxton, notably the introduction of title-pages, and the more
Though he printed some important
regular use of ornamental initials.

England and the Continent.

of which were reprints of his master's, he could hardly be


of the best printers of his time.
From 1491 to 1500 he

books,

many

called

one

continued to print in Caxton's house, after which he removed to the Sign


The illustration shown on Plate VI. is a page
of the Sun in Fleet Street.
"
"
or Universal History, printed by Wynkn
from Higden's
Polychronicon
De Worde
it is the first
de Worde
example of music-printing in England.
;

died in

1534.

Pynson is the third of the well-known printers working in


He seems to have been a
the end of the fifteenth century.

Richard

London

at

Norman by
centre

year

in

at

birth,

this

which

and probably learned his

early

time.

Caxton

He

died),

started

and

is

craft

business

supposed

in

Rouen, a great printing

in

London

to

have

in

taken

1491
over

(the

the

fh
^
s

s?i

(*)

^
i 5 i 53^
S3
*cd

^ =3

North

<U

_J
Style.

t||
II

ii
II

if

4->

CO
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(U

J2

cu

o5

-C

JJ

1JI

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>
"

TRUTHS

.-

CO
rt

SELF-EVIDENT

03

CO

._,

rt

n3

*-!-<

OJ

asfs
o
S-H

^C
4->

&

O
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<u

rt

flT-O
co

8.8
<U
CO

d>

3!

C
3 fi
O O 3 O
C

^.

^l

X ^

C
3 o
O C

<U
CO

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UH

^^
3^

cu

<L>

ol

Oj

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03

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fli

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*-i

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X
UJ

PLATE XL

THERE WAS A
TIME WHEN
CASLON TYPE
WAS NOT MADE, BUT
THIS WAS BEFORE THE
YEAR I7I6A.D., IN WHICH

WILLIAM CASLON
TURNED

ATTENTION TO THE CUTTING OF


LETTERS. HE SERVED HIS APPRENTICESHIP TO AN
ENGRAVER IN LONDON, AND AT THE EXPIRY OF
HIS TERM AT ONCE BEGAN BUSINESS AT VINE
STREET IN THE MINORIES. HERE CHASING OF
SILVER AND DESIGNING OF TOOLS FOR BOOKBINDERS
GENERALLY, OCCUPIED HIS ATTENTION. WHILE
THUS ENGAGED SOME OF HIS BOOKBINDING
PUNCHES WERE NOTICED FOR THEIR ACCURACY BY
MR. WATTS THE EMINENT PRINTER, WHO, FULLY
ALIVE TO THE DEGENERATE STATE OF THE TYPOGRAPHICAL ART OF THIS COUNTRY, QUICKLY
RECOGNISED THE POSSIBILITY OF RAISING IT AGAIN
TO ITS PROPER POSITION. WILLIAM CASLON WAS
IN THIS WAY THE FOUNDER OF THE FIRM OF
HIS

H. W. CASLON & CO. LTD.,


82 & 83 CHISWELL ST., LONDON, EC.
Paper

Type by H. W. CASLON & Co., Ltd., London.


" Silurian Wove" The Culler Mills
Paper Co.,

Old Face

48, 36, 24,

and 14

point.

Ltd., Mill No. 9, Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE

XII.

Photochromatic Printing Inks


Shade

and

Permanence guaranteed for the


Three Colour Process.
Art Shades in all colours for
Correct

HALF TONE WORK.


SPECIAL

EBONITE
Lustre Half

We

Tone

make a

spe-

Process Black, for

ciality of

Coated Stock and

High Class Dry

Art Papers.

New

lines for lustre


effect.

Colours, and keep

a large selection

new

Ink on

requirements,

tions

be

'EBONITE*

be sent

will

from our Colour

handled right away.

Special Grade

Department.

of

make a
for

also

of

Varnishes

made

is

for Letterpress

This ink
in

and

Lithography, made

three

different qualities

We

speciality

Supercalendered
Papers.

and

samples and quota-

mediately, allowing
to

in

Please state

stock.

and

Dries im-

the sheets

supplying

only from fine old

matured Linseed

'A'Grade-l/61b.

All consist-

Oil.

'

B* Grade -l/91b.

encies

'C* Grade -2/-1B.

A. B.

fully

FLEMING &
CHIEF OFFICES

and

quality

guaranteed.

CO., LTD.,

AND WORKS:

CAROLINE PARK,

EDINBURGH.
LONDON OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE:

15

WH1TEFRIARS STREET,

E.G.

ALL THE COLOUR EFFECTS IN THIS VOLUME


WERE PRINTED WITH OUR LETTERPRESS INKS.
Paper

"White M.K.

Printing,"

W. H. &

A. Richardson, Mill No. 91, Springwell Paper Mills, Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE

XIII.

Mill No. 91.

W.

&

A. RICHARDSON,
SPRINGWELL PAPER MILLS,

H.

JARROW-ON-TYNE, ENGLAND.
Makers

White

of

& Tinted

The raw

materials used are

and

Esparto and chemically pre-

Envelope Papers, Lithos,

pared Wood Pulp; no


mechanical wood pulp is

Printings, E.S. Writing

S.C.,

and Antique Printings.

Our machines make

Cartridges, Duplicatings,

used.

Colouring and

paper 68 and 74 inches wide.

Gumming

Papers in Sheets and Reels.

The

Thick Bulking Esparto,


Wove Book
Antique Laid

export

&

papers are packed for

in

hydraulically

pressed bales or in

wooden

cases.

Papers.

Our Mills are situated conveniently for the


Tyne Ports and Middlesborough - on - Tees,
giving special facilities for shipments to India
and the Far East, Australia and So. Africa.
Our Papers are Supplied through Wholesale
and Paper Merchants only.

Stationers

TELEGRAMS: "RICHARDSON, JARROW,"


TELEPHONE: No. 2 P.O. JARROW.

CODE USED:

ABC

(5th Edition).

Type by STEi'HENsox, BLAKE & Co. and Sir CHARLES REED & SONS, Sheffield.
Windsor, 24 point and 14 point; Italian Old Style, 14 point; Italian Old Style Italic, 14 point; Winchester, 8 point.
Paper

"White M.F.

Printing,"

W.

H.

&

A. Richardson, Mill No. 91, Springwell Paper Mills, Jarrow on-Tyne, England.

PLATE

XIV.

THE CULTER MILLS


PAPER COMPANY,

Ltd.

Manufacturers of

&

Antique Printings, Enginesized and Tub-sized Writings, Imitation


Superfine

Hand -made and

Deckle-edged Papers.

Drawing, and
Music Papers. White and Tinted Art
Papers. Chromos & Enamelled Papers.
Cards r Cardboards of every description.
Cloth -lined Papers and Boards.
Plate,

Lithographic,

WORKS: PETERCULTER,
ABERDEENSH1RE.

MILL No.

9.

London Warehouse: 218 Upper Thames St., E.G.


TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESSES:
NINEMILL,' PETERCULTER.

NINEMILL; LONDON.

Type by STEPHENSON, BLAKE & Co. and Sir CHARLES REED & SONS, Sheffield.
Westminster 24 point and 18 point; Italian Old Style Italic 14 point; Winchester 8 point.
Paper

" Silurian

Wove" The

Culler Mills Paper Co., Ltd., Mill No.

9,

Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE XV.

MILLER & RICHARD


TYPE FOUNDERS
REIKIES COURT, NICOLSON

ST.

EDINBURGH
WATER LANE, LUDGATE HILL

LONDON,

E.C.

Supply everything necessary for the Printer,

in-

cluding Metal and Wood Type, Cases, Chases,


Leads, Hard Brass Rule, Galleys, Frames,

Racks, Imposing Tables, Furniture Racks, Lead


Racks, Forme Racks, Galley Racks, Case Racks,
Galley Presses, Printing Presses, Inking Tables,
Mitring Machines, Lead Cutters, Roller Frames,

Roller Moulds, Platen Machines, Paper Cutting


Machines, Label Cutting Machines, Paging and

Numbering Machines, Perforating Machines,


Stereotyping Apparatus, Wire Stitching
Machines,

etc., etc.

Are also makers of Cylinder Letterpress Machines


in

10

sizes,

with

latest improvements.

Type by MILLER & RICHARD


Paper

"

Featherweight Antique Laid"

Old Style

Italic 36, 30, 24,

THE FOURSTONES PAPER MILL


Northumberland.

and 18

point.

Co., LTD., Mill No. 100, South

Tyne

Mill, Fourstones,

PLATE

XVI.

4
4

STONES

4
Fourstones Featherweight Pure Esparto Antique Laid and

Papers have a world-wide reputation for their high


colour,

and printing

qualities.

quality, purity of

These papers are much more bulky than

the ordinary antique papers, our standard bulk for Antique

60

Ibs.,

320

516

pages.

wood

pulp.

sheets, being

Wove Book

Wove

30x40,

equivalent to a thickness of one inch for

They are made of pure esparto grass and chemically prepared


The machinery employed produces papers up to sixty-five

inches wide.

These papers may be packed

pressed bales or

wooden

cases,

and can be shipped from the Tyne

shipping ports and Middlesborough.


Stationers and

Paper Merchants

for export in hydraulically

They

are supplied by Wholesale


'

only.

Telegrams

Paper, Fourstones.'

THE FOURSTONES
PAPER MILL
MILL

CO.,

LTD.

No. 100

SOUTH TYNE

MILL,

FOURSTONES

NORTHUMBERLAND.
Type by H. W. CASLON & Co.,
Paper

"

Ltd., London.

Featherweight Antique Wove," The Fourstones Paper

Cheltenham

36, 24, 18,

14,

and 10

point.

Mill Co., Mill No. too, Fourstones, Northumberland.

matrices and type of William Machlinia, a foreign printer who had been in
business in London for about ten years previously.
About 1510 he was
appointed Royal Printer to Henry VIII., and fully deserved this honour, as

books were more important and better printed than those of de Worde.
Prior to 1518 all English printers had used "Black letter" type for the

his

In that year Pynson used Roman type for the


printing of their books.
"
"
he also was the first to
Oratio in Pace Nuperima
printing of Pace's
;

The new form


introduce diphthongs into the English typographical alphabet.
of letter did not meet with immediate favour, and for some time a struggle
for the mastery went on between the old form and the new.
Some books
were printed
often

also

in

in

which both founts appear, not only on the same page, but
same words.

the

Pynson

died

about

1530, having printed


the
over three hundred and seventy books.
Among
many books which he
"
Comoediae Sex," the first Latin classic printed in
printed was Terence's
" Cicero "
printed at Oxford, of which
England, with the exception of a
a fragment only

is

known

to exist.

Walter Chepman and Andrew Myllar were Scotland's earliest printers.


They were licensed by James IV. in 1507 to set up a press in Edinburgh.
Other early Scottish printers were Thomas Davidson and Thomas Bassendyne
;

the latter published the


in

Roman

first

Scottish Bible,

type in Great Britain.

which was the

first

Bible printed

CHAPTER THREE.
THE EARLY BRITISH TYPEFOUNDERS.
the inventor of printing, as well as his immediate
successors, cut their own punches, made their own matrices, and

[UTENBERG,

own

In the early part of the sixteenth century }


however, as the number of printers increased, type-founding as a
regular business began to be developed, and periodical markets

cast their

type.

were held throughout Europe.


In England the pioneers
of printing, Caxton, Wynkn de Worde, and Pynson, were founders as well
One of the
as printers, casting type however mostly for their own use.
for the sale of type

most noted of these founder-printers was John Day, who began business in
He cut founts of Roman, Saxon, and Italic letters, and was the first
1546.
English founder-printer who cut Roman and Italic letters which would range
as one fount.
After Day's death, English printers had to depend upon Dutch
The year 1585
matrices from which to receive their supplies of type.
witnessed

revival

of

the

Oxford

University Foundry and Press under


century it received two important gifts.

During the next


Dr John Fell, its Chancellor, in 1677 presented it with a complete foundry,
consisting of over seventy sets of punches and matrices for Roman, Italic,
Oriental, Saxon, and black letter founts, as well as all the necessary utensils
In the same year
and apparatus requisite for a complete printing office.

Joseph Barnes.

Francis Juvinus presented similar gifts to the University.


the middle of the

In

seventeenth

century type-founding and printing

Joseph Moxon
began to be carried on as separate businesses in England.
(1659-1683), Robert and Sylvester Andrews (1683-1733), and Thomas and

John James (1710-1782) all figure as early English type-founders.


Moxon combined the business of type-founder and printer with
In 1669 he printed what is supposed
hydrographer to the King.
been the
ceeded

to

of

have

Moxon was suctype-founders' specimen issued in England.


Robert Andrews and his son Sylvester, who had established a

first

by

Joseph
that

42

43

London by Thomas James, who


but had

his

left

service

purchased in 1733 and removed to


had been an apprentice to Robert Andrews,

This was

Oxford.

in

type-foundry

before

1710, being joined

by

his son

John

at

they cut any punches for themselves ;


By 1758 James'
they depended upon Holland for their supply of matrices.
no
than
nine
of
the
old
had
absorbed
fewer
English foundries.
Foundry

later

date.

does not appear that

It

varying fortunes of the Caslon firm form an interesting


William
chapter in the history of type-founding in England.
Caslon

I.

(1692-1766)

may

be said to have been the

first

English
devoted
himself
to
the
cutting
type-founder
whole-heartedly
of punches and the casting of type.
an
engraver of
Originally
gun barrels, he attracted the attention of Mr Watts, an eminent printer of
This printer, struck by the neatness and taste displayed by Caslon
his day.

who

in his engraving,

and being

in

need of a

new

fount of type, enquired whether


After one day's consideration, he

he thought he could cut letters for him.


he could, and straightway began to cut a
replied that he thought

series

of

It is interpunches for the type which is now known as Caslon Old Face.
esting to know that Benjamin Franklin, who later became the well-known
American printer, ambassador, and statesman, was at this time a journeyman
The efforts of Caslon gave such satisprinter in the service of Mr Watts.

the type he had produced was so much better than that in common
use
that the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, being in
In the
need of a new Arabic fount, commissioned him to cut it for them.
faction

same year (1720) he cut a Pica Roman and Italic fount. His next performance was a Pica Coptic fount for Dr Wilkins' edition of the Pentateuch.
These successful founts soon made him famous, and by 1730 he had eclipsed
most of
printer.
first

competitors, and secured the exclusive custom of the King's


About 1733 he cut a black letter fount, and in 1734 issued his
his

specimen

thirty-eight
his

own

from

Street,

and

it

contained

no

fewer

than

of which, with the exception of three, were from


These thirty-five founts represented the untiring industry

founts,

hand.

Chiswell

all

44

The production of this specimen placed Caslon at the


of fourteen years.
It was
head of his profession, and his type was regarded as the standard.
second edition of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia in 1738.
In 1739 Caslon purchased half of Robert Mitchell's matrices, the other
half being bought by John James.
In 1742 Caslon assumed his eldest son,

illustrated in the

Wm.

Caslon

appears as

partner, and in the specimen of the

II., as a

Wm.

Caslon

&

Son.

Caslon

II.

was

as

same year the firm

expert as his father at

" Ames'
punch-cutting, and the following notice appears in
Typographical
to
be
in
"The
art
seems
carried to its
1749:
Antiquities," published

by William Caslon and his son, who, besides the type of


manner of living languages now by him, has offered to perform the same

greatest perfection
all

can be recovered, to the satisfaction of any gentleman


desirous of the same."
The "Universal Magazine" of June 1750 contains

for

the dead,

that

an article on letter-founding, accompanied by a picture of the interior of


Caslon's Foundry.
The print includes representations of four casters at work,

one rubber (Joseph Jackson), and one dresser (Thomas Cottrell). Punch-cutting
and justifying was carried on in secret by the Caslons themselves, but Jackson
and Cottrell found means to observe them

at

work, and learned for themselves

In the year 1757 a movement


the manual part of the "art and mystery."
for higher wages was made by the men in Caslon's employment.
The increase

of wages was granted, but Jackson and Cottrell, the ringleaders, were dismissed.
In the specimen of 1764 eighty-two different founts were illustrated, more
than twice as

many

as

had been shown

in the

specimen of 1734.

Most of

new

founts had been cut by Caslon II.


Caslon I. was in many ways a
cultured man, being extremely fond of music.
He was married three times.
the

His

first

family consisted

of one

William, who
daughter and two sons
became an eminent bookseller. Caslon I.

succeeded him, and Thomas, who


died at Bethnal Green on January 23, 1766, aged seventy-four.
In 1766
Caslon II., who had succeeded to the business on the death of his father,
issued a specimen on the title-page of which the original name of Wm. Caslon
Caslon

1778, aged fifty-eight, leaving the business to


his son William (Caslon III.).
In 1792 Caslon III. disposed of his interest
in Chiswell Street to his mother and sister-in-law.
Mrs Caslon senior died
appears.

II.

died in

45
1795, and

her will was the object of some litigation, the estate was
thrown into Chancery, and the foundry put up to auction. It was bought
in

as

by Mrs Henry Caslon for


520, whereas seven years previously one-third
share of the concern had been sold for
In buying the foundry, Mrs
3000.

Henry Caslon determined

to revive the business,

and for

purpose secured
Canon, Pica, and Double

Mr

this

John Isaac Drury, who cut new


Pica founts.
At the same time, Mr Nathaniel Catherwood, a distant relative,
was introduced as a partner.
By 1808 the foundry had regained its former
Both Mrs Henry Caslon and Mr Catherwood died in 1809.
In
position.
the services of

1802 the firm appeared as Caslon & Catherwood, but in 1809 it was styled
Wm. Caslon & Son once more. From 1814 to 1821 the partnership included

John James Catherwood, brother of a former partner. From 1830 to 1834


it was
styled Caslon & Livermore, then in 1839, Caslon Son and Livermore
in 1846 Caslon & Son
and in 1850, H. W. Caslon & Co., Ltd.
the name
by which it is now so widely known.
;

HEN,

Wm.

Caslon

summarily dismissed his


two workmen, Joseph Jackson and Thomas Cottrell, he
little
thought that his action would lead to the starting
in

1757,

I.

new businesses, which would develop into rivals


of his own and his successors.
Thos. Cottrell started
type-founder in 1757, and had associated with him for some time,
of two

as

Joseph Jackson,

unfortunate

his

coadjutor.

Cottrell's

business

eventually
into
that
of
Sir
Charles
Reed
while
Sons,
Jackson's foundry,
developed
established in 1763, at length became that of Stephenson, Blake
Co.,

&

&

both firms being joined under the same management in 1906.


The story
of the ups and downs of these firms would be too lengthy for narration in
such a work
or at least

be interesting to relate that the foundries,


the punches and matrices of about a dozen concerns were absorbed
but

as this,

it

may

by Thos. Cottrell's successors. These belonged to Joseph Moxon, 1659-1683


Thomas & John James, 1710-1782
R. & S. Andrews, 1683-1733
Fry
Edmund Fry & Co.,
and Pine, 1764-1776 Joseph Fry & Co., 1776-1782
;

46

1782-1794 Edmund Fry and Isaac Steele, 1794-1799 Fry, Steele & Co.,
and Edmund Fry & Son, 1816-1829, at which date William
1799-1808
Thorowgood, who was the then living successor of Thos. Cottrell, took over
the business of Edmund Fry & Son, then known as the Polyglot Letter
In 1838 the style of the firm was Thorowgood & Besley
in
Foundry.
in
in 1861, Reed & Fox; and
1877, Sir Charles
1849, Besley & Co.
;

&

Reed

Sons.

The foundry

by Joseph Jackson in 1763 was put up to auction


his death in 1792, and was acquired by Caslon III., who had left the

after

started

Chiswell Street firm.


Caslon

In

III.

Blake, Garnett
it,

In 1807

1819,

&

Co.,

Wm.

it

belonged to

Caslon,

Junior,

who had become

and the entire stock was removed

known

as

Blake

&

Stephenson, Blake

Reed

&

Son,

it

Wm.

Caslon, Junior, son of


disposed of the foundry to

partners for the purpose of acquiring


In 1830 the firm was
to Sheffield.

Stephenson, while in 1841, it went under the style of


Co., the name which, in association with Sir Charles

&

now

bears.

An

obituary notice of Thomas Cottrell, written by his friend Nicols,


throws a curious light upon the usages of the time, and is as follows
" Mr Cottrell
died, I am sorry to add not in affluent circumstances, though
to his profession of a letter founder, were superadded that of a doctor for
:

"

It is
the toothache, which he cured by burning the ear
interesting to
notice that many of the early type-founders forsook other occupations to
Caslon I.
follow that of punch-cutting.
Joseph Moxon was a hydrographer
!

Alex. Wilson of St Andrews, the first


was an engraver of gun barrels
Scotch type-founder, and Joseph and Edmund Fry were all doctors, while John
Baskerville of Birmingham was successively a footman, a writing master, a
;

printer,

and

finally a

a remarkable

Baskerville seems to have been in

type-founder.

man.

He

ways
improving the typography of

spent
his

six

own

years of effort and over

He made

day.

many

600

in

everything required

business,
punches, matrices, type, ink, and even printing presses.
and the issue in 1757 of the
His type was of beautiful and elegant form
book printed with it (Virgil) was hailed with delight by the entire
first

for

his

literary

world.

This was not

sufficient,

however, to

compensate him for

47

The printers of his own


the years of labour he had spent on his founts.
day preferred the bold Caslon Old Face, which had taken them by storm.

He

spared no effort to bring his founts into the market, but without success.
His entire stock of type-punches and matrices were eventually purchased by
"
for
Beaumarchais for the " Societe Litteraire Typographique
3,700, and
transferred to France.

COTTISH

printers

received their supplies

of

type

in

the

early

The first Scottish type-founder


days of printing from Holland.
was Alex. Wilson, a native of St Andrews, who migrated to
London in 1737 as an assistant apothecary.
Accompanied by
a friend, he was conducted over a type foundry there, and,
thinking he could improve upon the current methods of type-founding, he

Mr

Baine, a type foundry in his native town in 1742.


The business prospered to such an extent, that the foundry was soon removed
While in Glasgow, Wilson
to Camlachie, a small village near Glasgow.
started,

along with a

formed many friendships with the professors of the University there, and
Robert and Andrew Foulis, the University printers.
He is
also with
probably best known by the magnificent founts of Greek letters which he
cut,

and which were used for the splendid edition

of the

Greek

classics

In 1834 the Glasgow Type Foundry, as it was


by the University.
In 1845 the firm became bankrupt,
called, was transferred to London.
William
and most of the punches and matrices were bought by the Caslons.
issued

Miller, a foreman

the

Glasgow Foundry, started business in Edinburgh


In 1822 the title of the firm was changed
in 1809 as Wm. Miller & Co.
In 1832 Mr Richard was admitted as a partner, the
to William Miller.
In 1838 it was styled Miller and
firm again becoming Wm. Miller & Co.
Richard.

To

in

this firm belongs the credit

of being the

first

British

Foundry

William Miller died


successfully introduce machines for casting type.
Mr Richard and his son carried on the business till 1868 when
in 1843.
to

Mr
Mr

Richard,
J.

M.

proprietors.
in Scotland.

senior,

retired,

Richard and
Messrs

the

conduct of the

devolving upon
Richard, whose sons are the present
Richard are now the only type-founders

Mr W. M.

Miller

&

business

CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF TYPE-FACES.


ROMAN,
A

BLACK-LETTER.

ITALIC,

comparison of the four A's shown on

differences as well as similarities.


to those used

Ai

by the penmen of the

is

first

page will reveal several


a pen-made letter, similar in form
this

few centuries of the Christian Era.

introduced here for comparison with the three other


A's, which are type letters.
Throughout the analysis of
It is

^L

2 \

A
/ m
"^^

A
/ X
FIG

the same

the order will remain

this series

/~\^

the left-hand

top letters being pen forms of the period mentioned, while


the right-hand top letters are 48 point Old Face, the lefthand lower letters are Cheltenham Old Face, and the

lower

right-hand

letters

are

Old Face Heavy,

all

from

&

the foundry of Messrs H. W. Caslon


Co., Ltd., London.
The general forms of all four examples are similar. The letters differ from
each other, however, in their general proportions of width and height, as
I4>

well as

in

of each

letter,

which exist between the thick and thin members


Dutch printers call them, the fats and leans.
As

the relations
or as

these relations are uniform throughout each series, it will not be necessary
to refer to them when considering the other letters.

The

length and form of serifs have a great influence in determining


Notice the weight of the serif in the
the appearance of different founts.

member

of course, in harmony with the bold and


In A3 the serifs are less heavy, and
heavy appearance of the whole letter.
finish in thick terminations, quite unlike the sharp finish of those in Aa.
thin

The

of

position

A4

this

of the

is,

cross-bar

also

varies

the forms of the beginnings of the thick


Attention may be drawn to
each other.

in

the three

members
the

This

are also

relative

examples, and
different

quantities

from

of white

dependent largely upon the


In A 2 and A3 a light
relative weights of the thick and thin members.
effect is produced, because the enclosed white spaces are large in relation

and black

in

each of the three

letters.

48

is

49
In A4 the white spaces are
quantity of black surrounding them.
this has produced a heavy effect, and is of
small in relation to the black
The horizontal beginning in Ai is produced by the
course intentional.
the

to

use of the reed-pen or quill, and is different


from the same feature in
2, A3, and A4,

though these forms had doubtless


also

in

their origin

the use of a pen.

The

tendency to
to

owing

capitals,

the

alter

form of the

the

necessity for increased


noticeable in Bi, which
r
TIL

speed in writing, is
FIG. 16.
r>
The upper bow
is an
early Roman pen form.
The original proportion of the two
has become smaller and narrower.
The relation between the width
bows has been restored in Ba, 3, and 4.
FIG

1 S-

The
height of these letters is varied, 63 being the narrowest.
heavy effect owing to the great disproportion between thicks and thins in
fount 4 is very evident in 64, where the enclosed spaces are little wider
and

the

than the thicks of the several members.


will be

It

Ci has no

seen that

while

serifs,

Cz and 04 have two and

one only.
In Ci the thick beginning of the curve is formed by the
broad nibs of the pen, and the movement from right to left causes the nib
in the inside of the curve to cross to the outside, producing in its course a
3

narrowing and subsequently


greatest

_J
D^^
D~^^
-*

FIG.

17.

The

broadening
breadth midway

which

towards the

it

gradually

down

the

till

becomes narrower

gradual thickening
the curves in the other

and thinning of all


rottnd capitals is caused

the same way.


03 approaches most nearly the form of the
In Ca and C4 the serifs at
pen written Ci.
(.fog
beginnings and ends are very pronounced.
in

attains

its

curve,

The

finish.

it

\ ^
I

I
\.

^
*|"i"*

comment.

Beyond the general differences which


the individual character of the founts of which they are members,

D's

pertain to
they are to
F

after

of the stroke

all

call for little

intents

and purposes

identical.

It

may

be stated as a general

principle that letters of simple elementary form, such as C, D, H, I, O, etc.,


offer the designer of
type little opportunity to improve or degrade their forms.

There

are

of the number and position of its parts, is


open to a variety of treatments at the hands

A
F|_J

very considerable differences in the shapes of the four E's


shown.
This is a letter which, on account

of the type-designer.

_
j^

letter,

Ea,

as

and

3,

evident.
FIG.

19.

hi

are

in

El,
4.

it

Its three
.....
uniform in

horizontal
i

\^J
^^^^

[^ WM
l^J^

also

members

^J

Originally a narrow
has been expanded in

Other differences are

*V

in

FIG

20

length, while in the type

forms Ea, 3, and 4, the central bar has been shortened and the upper and
than the
lower bars lengthened.
In
3 and 4 the lowest bars are longer
The serifs in
3 and 4 are in
upper ones.

sharp contrast to each other, the short stumpy


in comserifs of
3 occupying a small space
4, which seem to take
parison with those of

L A

Hup

a large part of the space at the right-hand

side of the letter.

The

differences

between the characters of

the vertical, horizontal, and sloping serifs of


4
those
of E.
to
similar
of
F
are
The
features
should be noticed.
naturally

In the examples of G's shown, the form of


In 63 the shape
pen-written Gi.

letter
It is

Ga

follows that

of

the

of the

undergone considerable alteration.


narrower, and in the characteristic feature
has

of the letter (the short vertical stroke) the serif


while the lower end
projects to the inside only,
of the

FIG

pensate, as
27.

serif

G4
end,

curve
it

extended outwards, to comwere, for the want of the half


is

which should normally be above

will be noticed that the

it

form

common

in

short

modern

vertical

Roman

member
founts,

FIG.

24.

In

it.

is

and

split

one

at

the

lower

which was

5*

from Gothic

probably adopted

some alphabets of which

in

letters,

is

it

very pronounced feature.

and

are

two

which show

letters

no

practically

H4 appears
examples shown.
much narrower than the others, but is
the
in reality the same width as Ha

the

in

change

different

L\

narrowness

extreme

thickness

common

well

is

known, the

^fcj

much narrower
v andj
Ka

27.

sides of this

than

members

The

the

other

narrow

|/

A
~]

in

"^

vertical.

Ma,

forms

pen

letter.

the Trajan

f"^L
I

^^

the

in

FIG.

28.

the same serif in K-3 extends on both


type forms of La, 3, and 4 are much wider
;

The Roman
inscription

incised

has no

is

used
at

serifs

the beginnings of its thick members, while


the first and fourth members are sloping.

These sloping members were retained by


the scribes as

It
3,

alphabet.

two.

than the original pen form Li, which

""

in

member.

the

it.

though K.4, owing to


the heaviness of its members, appears

terminations of their third

~\

K's illustrated are approximately

4 suggest

/f

"A
* \J

the same width,

|^^

TV

close

J is a later addition to
J exhibited show some
Ja and 4 finish upon the

writing-line, J3 descends below

The

^1

of

While

variety.

NT^k^|

^^
1^

fount.

this

verticals,

letter

The forms

FIG.

the

the

by

and character.

in length

^k

of

in

caused

is

scrutiny of the serifs of the four I's will


show that each of these is distinctive

25.

As

apparent
feature

* *

FIG.

A^ L^V/IA

* w \.

shown

and

may

be worth while

the

first

in

Mi.

and fourth

In

Ma,

3,

members

pointing out

that

are

and 4 are halved, extending outwards only.

the

FIG

beginning

serifs

52
In
is

all

the

of the

narrowest

between

difference

bows

of

in

of thicks and

The bow

the

thins

The

similar in form.

all

it,

Pi,

of P%

of

exception
the different

in

an

to

tail

squarer in

is

3,

and

4.

been

form, a compromise has


advantage has been taken of

early

In 03,

made, and

beard for the inclusion of the longest


possible on the type body.

I)

of the pen- written R i has


been well adhered to in the type forms

The form

Ra,

~^^

3,

third

and

member

each of these

In

4.

form which

straight, a

is

the
lGl

IG. 33-

gives an appearance of strength as compared with the curved third member used in modern Roman founts.
differs

from the others


its

W
^^

FIG> 35

O's,

P's call for

In the pen-written
form Qi we see in the pen flourish so characevidence of the delight of the scribe in his craft.

Tthe

^7

the

and 4 are composed of curves


hand of the type-founder is

apparent in Qa,

the fullest

83

N%

2,

The

only.
"

which harks back

Tr

With

shown.

M.

character than those of the others, being composed of horizontals and a curve, while the

X.X*.

f^L
-*

examples

comment.

little

R"^

follows the same character as those of

the relations

they are

R)
teristic

features

its

same

its

lower

is

distinctly

In the other examples


halves are apparently the

two

relative

larger

than

\A/

\\

size.

The
mark

that

half.

upper

the

in

^^->^
M

forms

of

serifs

of

thickness

and

the

members

the

the

only differences
the four T's illustrated.

^^ T ^L 1^ /
\/\/
T T

"\

between

'

Neither the U's nor V's

any notice.
The double V or double U,

as

it

is

now

call

for

called,

is

one of the

latest

53
additions
is

hence

self-evident

the

it

Its origin
end of the alphabet.
and W"3 shows
used to be sometimes printed thus

inclusion

its

two V's quite

near the

W,

distinctly.

X, Y, and

exhibit the characteristics

which they

of the three founts from

Otherwise

taken.

same
"

they are essentially the


"
"

The

forms.

in their root

are

and

or

used to be called, was


" et
a contraction for the phrase

ampersand,"

originally

"

as

it

7 ^kT"

This was later


by itself).
"
and per se and," then finally
corrupted into
into ampersand or amperzand
it is now
commonly called "and," the former
It is difficult to see the conpart of the corrupted form having been dropped.
se

per

(and

nection between the forms

shown

in

&2,

and

3,

4,

and the contraction

et

&

in the Italic form.


thus
this, however,
quite evident in the letters E and
Some particulars in reference to the three faces just discussed may be
of interest.
Caslon Old Face (No. 2) was designed and engraved by William
is

Caslon

I.

issued in

The

1720, and

all

Roman and

founts of the series, both

earliest

Italic,

were

the others of this series were

completed by 1730.
Cheltenham Old Style (No. 3) was designed by Mr Ingalls Kimball for the
Cheltenham Press, New York, and was first engraved and issued by the
American Type Foundry Co. of New York

in

the

1900.

long

The

peculiarity of this series is


ascenders and short descenders.

Old Face Heavy (No.


reproduction in
heavier scale,

FIG.

39-

an

is

imperfect
the lower-case forms, on a
4)

of Caslon Old Face

it

was

cut and issued by the Inland

Type Foundry,

St Louis,

Old Face, Old

U.S.A., in 1908.

&&
FIG

'

40>

Heavy, and Cheltenham are issued by H. W. Caslon & Co., Ltd.,


London. All the other alphabets analysed and illustrated in this chapter are
from the foundries of the following British Firms
H. W. Caslon & Co.,
Face

Ltd.,

and

London

Sir Charles

Miller

Reed

&
&

Richard, Edinburgh
Sons, Sheffield.

and Stephenson, Blake

&

Co.

54
1

HE

which taken together make up the character of


lower-case letters, are different from those which
give
to
the
of
the
same
founts.
individuality
capitals
features

In the case of the capitals the proportions of width to


In
height, and of thicks to thins determine their character.
the lower-case

the lengths of ascenders and

forms,

descenders,

along

with

the forms of beginnings and finishings, are important elements.


Attention has already been directed at some length to the evolution of
the lower-case or small letters from capitals during the course of
many centuries.

In

the progress of this evolution, and owing to accelerated speed in


this reduced
writing, there was a tendency to join letters, one to the other
to a minimum the lifting of the pen, and was a
consequent saving of the
;

Some

penman's time.

such

as a, c, e,

and

still

bear traces of these

in fact most lower-case letters give evidence that


"
"
one time they were
in form, i.e.,
cursive
The loops
rapidly written.

joinings or connections
at

letters

seen in b,

f,

g,

h,

j,

k,

1,

q,

and y

in

ordinary writing

owe

form

their

to

the same necessity.


In analysing the forms of the Old
Face lower-case letters illustrated (Fig.

abcdefg
hijklmn

opq
u v wxy z

r s t

OLD FACE

Messrs H,

W.

Lower-case 48 Point.

Caslon

FIG.

&

Co.

41.

Ltd.

London.

may

41), it
in the

first

be advantageous to consider
place the beginnings of the

whose ascenders are


full height and commence from the left.
Each of these beginnings consists of a
letters

short
serif,

b, d, h, k,

1,

upward sloping stroke, a natural


which suggests the remnant of a

connecting link with the previous


t

has a

is

similar

almost

letter

commencement, which

hidden

by

the

cross - bar

The half-height
immediately below it.
letters i, m, n, and r have like
beginnings,
and

also

the descending letters

and

p.

c and f have beginnings similar to each

55

These commence

right-hand side, and are quite different from


those already described.
Such forms now appear with rounded beginnings,
whereas in the pen forms they were square.
The graduated curves were
other.

at the

produced by the alteration of the inside nib of the pen

to the outside position.

The commencement of a is similar to those of c and


the left side.
The commencements of g, o, and q are not
occur on the circle common to them all
the beginnings

but begins at

f,

apparent, as they
of g and o are

covered by the joints, and those of q and p also by the straight members,
e and s occupy classes by themselves,
e begins by a horizontal line on the
In the pen-written form of
seen in f and c
the form of the

inside of the curve.


to

that

still

the beginning was similar

in

this

fount, however,

is

exactly the same as a capital S, having similar serifs both at the beginning
and at the termination of its form.
v, w, x, and z are exactly the same
as in the capital forms,
u is distinct
y has a commencement like capital Y.

from

its
in fact it looks
beginning and ending
n
turned upside down, except that the beginnings of the
very
two thick members are half instead of whole serifs. It would be interesting

all

the other letters both in

much

to enquire

like an

why

this lower-case

is

out of

harmony with the other lower-

Many of the early printers and type-founders


used this form, especially those of Northern Europe, whereas most of the
Italian type-founders produced a u in
case

letters of this fount.

harmony with the


/..,

rest

of the

letters,

having sloping upper serifs and a


lower one.
As this latter

horizontal

form of u originated
the

first

Roman

some excuse
inverted n form
is

fount
for
is

in

Italy,

was

where
there

cut,

the
thinking
not the appropriate
that

and a too strong attachment to


tradition
may account for it being

one,

still

The

r
terminations of

have already been referred

klmnopqr
stuvwxyz
CHELTENHAM OLD STYLE

in use.
rni

abcdefghij

a,

c,

to.

e,

and

48 Point
t

In these

, r
W. r
Caslon &
Co.,
.

H.

FIG

Lower-case

Ltd., London.

Letters,

56
letters

we

the

see indications that before

invention of printing these letters

were joined to those following.


The letters f, h, i, k, 1, m, n, p, q, and r
have horizontal serifs at the endings of their principal members.
The
second members of d and u finish in upward sloping serifs, which seem to
and y finish as
j
suggest attenuated connecting links to the next letters.
The curious ending
a, c, and f begin, that is, in a ball or thickened knob.
of g has already been referred to

The

in

connection with the evolution of lower-

projecting member finishing in a knob to be


seen on the right side of g is an attenuated pen-dash.
The finishing serifs
of d and u are similar.
case

letters.

peculiar

In the analysis of the forms of Old Face Caslon (Fig. 42) attention
was drawn to the slanted beginnings of the principal members of the letters

The same

of that face.

In b, d,

are horizontal.

beginnings in the lower-case letters of Cheltenham


h, k, and 1 (ascending letters), i, m, n, r, and u

(half size letters), and j and p (descending letters), the beginnings are from
Not only so, but the finishings as well as the
the left and are horizontal.
Notice that the beginnings are
beginnings are nearly all horizontal also.

the endings are whole

except those of d, q, and u.


The reason for the first and last is easily understood, but not for the finishing
serif in q, which should normally be the same as that of p.
half

serifs,

The

while

is

this

of the lower-case
height where

The
ascenders

it

letters.

is

usually

f,

for

of

this

instance,

made only

is

extremely narrow, and

is

full

three-quarters.

the descenders in relation to the length of all the


characteristic of the whole of the lower-case letters of the fount.

shortness of
is

serifs

whole fount, both capitals and


the slight difference evident between the thicks and thins.
general feature one notices individual peculiarities in some
characteristic

principal

lower-case,
Besides

all

all

made

neither in condemnation nor in praise ; the peculiarity


is
simply pointed out as being the means of producing a certain character
which is evident in the fount.
The g is unusual, though it has a good

This statement

historic basis

is

for

its

form.

Notice the way that the second member of r


s
begins and finishes in two balls or knobs,

above the writing line.


while t has no beginning serif.

rises

PLATE

XVII.

TA YLOR gg
AND

mmm
,

W'A TKINSON
ARE THE BIGGEST MAKERS OF
MACHINE CAST AND PLANED

Printers Leads
IN

& Clumps

THE WORLD. CONTRACTORS

TO

GOVERNMENT. WORKS:

H.M.

BELGRAVE FOUNDRY,
NEW BRIGGATE, LEEDS.
Code,

Telephone
4001 Central.
:

ABC

Italic,

48 and 24 point.
S.

Paper
Bramble Rideau Cover," stocked in 18 x 23, 40

Jones &
Ibs.

Ltd., London.

Cheltenham Old

Style, 36, 30, 24, 14,

and 10

point.

Co., 7 Bridewell Place, London, E.G.

2oJ x 25$, 50 Ibs. zoj x soj, 60


480 sheets to the ream.

Telegrams

Pica." Leeds.

(Fifth Edition).

Type by H. W. CASLON & Co.,


Cheltenham Old Style

"

Ibs.

23 x 36, 80 Ibs

at 3$d. per lb., 5 %.

PLATE

XVIII.

POMEGRANATE ORNAMENTS.
Seven

units

employed

in the

formation of Pomegranate Ornaments.

Ten Ornaments composed


Ornaments by H.
Printed

upon

S.

W. CASLON &

of

Pomegranate

units repeated.

Co., Ltd., 8a and 83 Chiswell Street, London, E.C.

JONES * Co.'S "Primrose Camber Cover," stocked


23x36, 96

Ibs.

in

18x23, 4 8

at 3d. per lb.,

5%.

Iks.

20x25, 58

Ibs.

20.^x30^, 72

Ibs.

PLATE

XIX.

ESTABLISHED

1853.

DANE&CO.
MANUFACTURERS OF
LITHOGRAPHIC AND
LETTERPRESS INKS,
DIE PRESS INKS, DRY
COLOURS, VARNISHES,
PRINTERS' SUNDRIES.

LONDON

STRATFORD,
(FACTORY)

(OFFICES)
91 and 92

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SHOE LANE.

'Phone: 514 Stratford.

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EDINBURGH

(AGENTS)
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(OFFICES)
3

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ST.

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(Colonial

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AUGUSTE DESMET,

Rue Aux Choux

155 Warmoesstraat,

56,

AMSTERDAM.

BRUSSELS.

&

Co.'s

and Foreign) Ltd.

HOLLAND

BELGIUM

Dane

E.

Book Black Ink No. Z219 was used throughout

Type by H. W. CASLON & Co.,


'White Camber Cover," stocked

Ltd., London.

Old Face 48 point; Cheltenham

this

24, 12,

Paper S. JONES & Co., 7 Bridewell Place, London, E.G.


in 18x23, 4 8 lbs
23x36, 96
20x25. S 8 lt>s ! aojxjoj, 72 Ibs.
504 sheets to the ream.
-

Publication.

and 10

Ibs.

point.

at 3d. per Ib.

5%.

PLATE XX.
PATTERNS COMPOSED OF REPEATED UNITS.

Five Thistle Units employed

One

in the formation of the patterns

below and

Two

rch Rideau

Units repeated".

on Plate

One

Unit repeated.

Two

also

Unit repeated.

Units repeated.

One

XXI.

Unit repeated.

PLATE XXI.
lrC'.St.lJ

\Jr

Two

units repeated.

unit repeated.

Three

units repeated.

Two

units repeated.

PLATE

XXII.

ESTABLISHED OVER A CENTURY.

SamuelBRIDEWELL
Jones &

Go.

PLACE

LONDON,

E.C.

MAKERS OF

patent Ifton^curling (3ummeb flbaper


GOLD, SILVER, AND COLOURED FOIL PAPERS
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Works:

CAMBERWELL
Agent for Scotland :

B. MACNAUGHTON,
74 YORK STREET,

JOHN

GLASGOW.
This

is

printed upon our

Type by

White Camber Cover, stocked

MILLER & RICHARD,

in 18x13, 4* Ibs.

20x25, 58 Ibs.

20.1x30;, 71 Ibs.

Edinburgh and London Old Style Antique, No.


Brass Rules, 5 Point, No. 13, and 8 Point, No.

(Roman and

66.

23x36, 96 Ibs,, at 3d. per Ib


Italic),

and Tudor Black;

5%

PLATE

XXIII.

DIAPERS OR ALL-OVER PAT

K
vj
>L-

;;

3]

A.

C.

Open

Diaper, one type unit repeated.

Close Diaper, two type units repeated.

a r~] BUI mj*

r~r?\

rilJlir^ tFrl

rTli *Jr;

V"

"^-

fu

i:

Close Diaper, one type unit repeated.

PLATE XXIV.

BORDERS.

Hrte-J

THE ENTIRE SERIES

ELGIN

OF ORNAMENTS &
ORNAMENTAL INI-

CELTIC

JH1

CLUB

TIALS USED IN THIS

-J

;.

^KF^

')

BOOK WILL

BE

ISSUED BY

W.

H.

SESSION
1911-12

CASLON & Co LTD


82&85CHISVELL
ST., LONDON, E.C.

LhJTEJ
B.

Border composed of two type

units repeated.

rder composed of one type unit repeated.

ESTABLISHED IN THE
REIGN OF GEORGE I.

SOCIETY

H.W. CASLON

Co.

LIMITED

TYPE FOUNDERS AND


PRINTING MATERIAL

MANUFACTURERS

GEORGE

82

PROGRAMME OF
ARRANGEMENTS

composed

of r

83

CHISWELLST.

LONDON,

E.G.

ENG LAND

SESSION 1911-12

dler

&

aits

repeated.

Type and Ornaments by H. W. CASLON & Co.,


S.

Paper
Jones
" Bramble Rideau
Cover," stocked in 18 x 23, 40

&

Ltd., 82-83 Chiswell Street,

London.

Co., 7 Bridewell Place, London, E.G.

2oJ x 2sJ, 50 Ibs. zoj x 30^, 60


480 sheets to the ream.

Ibs.

Ibs.

23 x 36, So

Ibs.

at 3J,d. per lb. t 5 %.

57

Beyond the necessary

abcdefg
fY^ ^^
A
AAA
AA
AAA
ijklmn
opqrstu
v wxy z
^
1^%

-tf

**

-*

l^y
I .Am.

OLD FACE HEAVY


H.

W.

Caslon

&

Lower-case, 48 Point.

the proportionate relations of black and


white in this lower-case fount, the letters
are

practically

same

upon which the fount

as

is

Old Face,

The

based.

shortness of the descenders in g,

j,

p, q,

and y might be noticed, while the pendash usually found to the right of g

upwards from the centre of the


circular part of the letter.
This fount

rises

is

be

useful

any printing which must

for

readable

some

at

distance.

It

is

excellent in form, clear and distinct

in

compete for grace


with the fount of which it is a near

43-

though
For pure dignity and

the

character, but cannot

Co., Ltd., London,

FIG.

differences in

Old

less

elegant relation.

careful
unapproachable.
of
similar
founts
different
founders
reveals
minor
differences.
comparison
by
only
These are mostly in relation to the prolegibility,

portionate breadths of thicks and thins,


and while this feature affects the character

of the

letters,

it

does so to a limited

The

extent only.

differences

great

in

are brought about

principally by
the proportions of the letters, the form
of the rounded parts, and the character

style

of the

In the fount before us,


particular attention might be called to
the pleasing forms of C, D, M, N, S,

are

serifs.

Z, forms which in their essentials

characters,
is

allied

closely

based.

to

upon which
It

will

be

early
all

Roman

modern type

noticed that

Style

is

A BC D E F G
HIJKLMN
O P
R S T
U V W X Y Z
abcdefghi
k m n o p qr

stuvwxyz
LINING

OLD STYLE

Stephenson, Blake

&

NO.

5.

24

Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

44.

&

Sons,

58
and

member

are elliptical rather than circular, and that the fourth

of

in the early
longer than the second, which is longer than the third
forms those three were similar in length.
There is a tendency to uniformity
of width of capitals in this particular alphabet, which is common to all old
is

This

style founts.

normal, and in

The

is

H, O,

especially noticeable in E, which is wider


and Q, which are narrower than normal.

of this fount

capitals

than the

have already been referred to as the acme


same can be truly said of the lower-case

of dignity and legibility.


The
letters.
Like all forms which have persistently held their own against the
march of time and invention, they cannot but contain within themselves

ABCCDE
FGHIJK

LMNOP
RSTU
Qry
VWXYZ
O

A V.

^J

JL

\^J

abcdefghi

jklmnopq
rstuvwxyz
Stephcnson,

BASKERVILLE 36 Point.
Blake & Co. and Sir Charles Reed &
Sheffield.

4S>

much

that

is

eminently legible as well


Particular attention

as beautiful.

might

be directed to the length of the ascenders


and descenders in relation to the depth
writing line, and though the
descenders of p and q are rather shorter
than the normal, these letters are perfectly

of

the

legible,

and

tion of j

fine in

form.

The

termina-

quaint and effective.

is

The forms

in

Fig.

45

are

very

and almost defy analysis. A


cursory comparison between them and
those of old style would reveal few
beautiful,

differences.

An

individual examination

of the letters and especially of the thick

members

and

serifs

is

necessary

in

attempting to say what really gives the


fount its character.
The main proportions
identical,

members

and forms of the


but

the forms

letters

of the

are less mathematical and

are

thick

more

Sons,

subtle than the


style fount.

same

features of an old

Notice that the upper

serifs,

59

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN

especially of
curved instead

lower-case

stuvwxyz
BASKERVILLE
W, Caslon & Co.,
FIG.

30

Point.

Ltd., London.

46.

The

fount in Fig. 46 is very pure


Some of the capital
and distinctive.
letters are

ularly

unusually fine in form, partic-

the

member

D, Q, and

S.

The

third

unfortunate in shape.
All the lower-case letters are of good

of

is

shape and very legible.

This fount of

was engraved and issued by


Caslon & Co., Ltd., from French

Baskerville

H. W.

designs, in 1909.

The

distinguishing features of this


fount (Fig. 47) are the slight difference

which

exists

between the widths of the

thicks and of the thins, and the exces-

heavy
squarely on
sively

serifs.

their

The
ends,

serifs

and

are

slightly

This fount was

letters.

first

by John Baskerville of Birmingham


about the middle of the i8th century.

mnopqr

H.

N,

issued

abcdefghij
1

and

of being quite straight,


and that the lower serifs join on very
g is
gradually to the main members,
the most distinctive form among the

OPQRST
UVWXYZ
k

finish

are

not

ABCDEF
GHIJKL
M NOPQ
RS T U V

X Y

a b c d e f
g h i j k 1
mnopqr

stuvwxyz
OLD STYLE ANTIQUE
Miller

&

No.

7,

Richard, Edinburgh.

FIG.

47-

36

Point.

6o
graduated in

except where they are sloping


are

form and

in

good

The

the

to

their joinings

as

in

members

which they are attached,


Most of the letters
E, F, T, and Z.
to

satisfactory in proportion.

characteristics of the lower-case letters of this

and weight of the

fount are the size

and the small variety in the thickness of the various


members composing them. Each of the letters is clear and distinct in form,
and well proportioned. This fount was first issued about 1865.

Old

Italian

serifs,

a fount in

is

Style

which the widths of the various

are approximately similar, while the thicks


It

y^

J^

f]

p*

[j

as

(j- J-J
*

J^ \J

L, j\/[

Q) \

also are nearly uniform.

distinguished by thick serifs of square character, which give the


impression of having been added abruptly,

also

is

and thins

letters

LJ

\V

1\,

'*

if

no attempt

had

been

made

to

These characproduce suave joinings.


teristics have produced a fount which,
while not without character, has an
unrefined

and

unfinished

such as Q,

Several letters,
call

for

air

special

attention.

peculiar form of the

about

R, and T,
Notice the

of the Q.

tail

it.

It

seems to have intended to remain unITALIAN OLD STYLE,


Stephen**, Blake

& Co

24

Point.

and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons,

Sheffield.

compromisingly upright, but afterwards


changed its mind and its direction (to
the right).

FIG. 4'

The

third

member of

has a certain springy appearance about


termination in a sharp point, rather than in a serif, which

caused by its
is the usual ending of such a member.
the upper serifs both
In the
point towards the left, instead of following the usual practice of pointing
it,

and

The bows

B, P, and

expanded so that they are


much wider from side to side than from top to bottom, that is, the enclosed
space is bounded by a semi-circle and two horizontal lines.
The lower-case letters of this fount have all the family characteristics.
The serifs both at beginnings and endings show a wide variety of forms.
left

b,

d, h,

right.

i,

j,

k,

1,

m,

n, p,

r,

u,

are

and z have beginning

serifs

which

slope,

6i

while w,

and y

x,

have horizontal beginning

usual

as

serifs.

has

no

The endings are still more varied three forms are used.
beginning serif.
a, c, e, and t have link endings as usual, f, h, i, k, 1, m, n, p, q, and r have
horizontal serif-endings, while the lower
;

serifs

of

d, u,

fount was

first

Lining

The

and z slope upwards.


issued in 1896.

Antique Roman

a fount

is

composed of well proportioned


of heavy form, whose members

letters

are

as

nearly as possible of uniform thickness.


Very considerable differences of widths
exist

between the various

some of them, such

though

B, E, F, and L,

as

might have been of

letters,

better

they been slightly narrower.

form had

The

lower-

case letters are particularly good in form.


The fount was first issued in 1895.

Antique Old Style (Fig. 50) is a


very distinctive and effective fount of
Old Style letters, especially useful where

certain heavirequired.
ness is evident in this fount, due largely
to
the slight difference which exists

emphasis

is

between the thicks and


to

the

the

thins,

and

also

squareness of
It will be noticed that in

uncompromising

serifs.

the lower-case letters, the ascenders and

descenders

are

unusually

short.

This

fount was engraved and issued by the


Inland Type Foundry, St Louis, U.S.A.,
in

ABODE
FGHIJK
LMNOP
QRSTU
VWXYZ
abcdefg
hijklmn
opqrstu

wx

ANTIQUE ROMAN
Stephenson, Blake

&

y z
36 Point

Co. and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons,

Sheffield,

FIG.

49.

1902.

Lining Winchester (Fig. 51) is a fount both distinctive and of good


form, though the letters are rather narrower than the normal and as nearly

62

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU

WXYZ

abcdefghij
k1mnopqr

stuvwxyz
ANTIQUE OLD STYLE
H.

W.

&

Caslon

capital

with

(Fig.

forms are rather

of

the

issued in

No

usually

52)

where

narrower and

Winchester,

the

only

1909.

fewer than twenty-two of the


capitals
(Fig. 53) are of

open.

in

ball-like

case r are given.


issued in 1908.

This uniformity would

The

shapes of M, R,
and S are very distinctive
the latter
The charappears in alternate forms.
acteristics
of De Vinne letters are,
less

the

letter.

f,

and

the

These are

y.

form,

in

but

in

this

fount the forms approach more


nearly
those naturally made
a
by
reed-pen.
Alternate forms of capital C and lower-

be disastrous in a fount where the letters

were

of

character

nings of a, c, and
terminations of g and

De Vinne

identical width.

general

Special characteristic features are evident


in the lower-case forms, in the
begin-

differences being in the increased heaviness of the members.


The fount was
first

The

possible.

no more than noticeable, while the


serifs are of a form
very appropriate to

nearly uniform than the normal.


root forms of the letters are identical

those

as

is

more

The

width

difference between the thicks and thins

50.

fount

is

Point.

in

The

fount was

first

Co., Ltd., London.

FIG.

This

30

uniform

ABCCDEF
GHIJKLM
NOPQRST

UVWXYZ
abcdefghijklmn

opqrrstuvwxyz
WINCHESTER OLD STYLE

36 Point

Stephenson, Blake

&

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

51.

&

Sons,

63
however, more evident in the lower-case
It
will be noticed that the
forms.
thickest parts of the curves are not in
the middle but under the middle, and
this

throws

the

This

downwards.

letter

noticeable in certain

is

d,

c,

e,

not apparent in the other


Thin members in the
letters.
is

it

lower-case

of

letters

of

fount

this

reduced to the minimum.


ning

the

of

only, such as lower-case

letters

and q
round

weight

The

are

are

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSST

UVWXYZ

abcdefghij

klmnopqrs

stuvwxyz
Stephenson, Blake

&

36

Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

S3-

Sons,

abcdefghij

klmnopqrr
stuv wxyz
WINCHESTER BOLD
Stephenson, Blake

&

36

Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons,

Sheffield.

FIG.

exceptional
issued in

forms.

52.

The

fount

fount

(Fig.

54),

which

composed of well-proportioned
is

was

1893.

This

characterised

is

letters,

certain

by
"
"
in
the
freedom
of its
easy
drawing
members.
It is as if the letters had
specially

been made by a

skilful

penman, who

moment was trying to avoid


"
the
deadly dullness of perfect form,"
at

&

VWXYZ

begin-

and the ending of

DE VINNE

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU

the

by writing

his letters quickly

and with

64

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU
V WX Y Z

little

resultant

fount

is

than

care

less

effect

is

kinds of printing.
The angularity of
the curves is particularly noticeable, as
also

and

the absence of sharp terminations


acuteness at the joinings of the

is

different

members.

This

klmnopqr
stuvwxyz

about 1890.

MORLAND
Caslon

&

30

Inland

Type Foundry,

by the

issued

St Louis, U.S.A.,

Westminster

Lining

was

fount

is

fount

very evidently based upon early Roman


incised letters, several of the distinctive

Point.

features

Co., Ltd., London.

FIG.

the

of undoubted value for certain

abcdefghij
W.

and

pleasing,

designed, engraved, and

H.

The

usual.

will
54-

be

of which are
noticed

that

introduced.

It

widths

and

the

relative height of the letters vary very


while
the
difference
between the thicks and thins is hardly
considerably,
Most
of
the
serifs
are
also
All of these features
perceptible.
very short.

are

common

incised

and

to the
early

Roman

The bows

in stone.

in

letters

B,

P,

do not quite join to the vertical


members, while the horizontal members
of E and F are all of equal length, early
forms which

good

effect

in

have been retained with


this

Notice the

fount.

great width of H, N, and T, and the


extreme narrowness of B, P, R, and S,

which

features are characteristic of early


forms, and in distinct contrast to the

modern tendency
letters

While

to

make

approximately
it is

the

the capital
same width.

H
O

B
I

C D

M N

W
X Y
abcdef
U V

ghijklmn

opqrstuvwxyz
LINING WESTMINSTER

OLD STYLE,

all

true that a certain uniformity

E F
J K L

Stephenson. Blake

&

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

55.

24

&

Point.

Sons.

65
necessary in all the capital letters of one fount, this should be restricted to
such features as the relations of thicks and thins, and the character of serifs
is

and curves.
in a letter

must not be forgotten that the proportion of width to height


one of its most distinguishing features, especially when seen from
It

is

when

a distance, so that

the width of a letter

is

made

less

or greater than

its normal,
characteristic proportion, and therefore becomes less
a grave weakness where legibility is all-important.
Certain peculegible
liarities of some of the letters of this fount
may be mentioned. Notice the
it

loses

its

narrowness of the

and K, and the more than normal width of the

J,

the latter case decreased legibility cannot be urged against the


though
broader form.
The long upper serifs projecting to right and left only of
the M, and the extreme shortness of its second and third members, are worthy
in

of attention, as also are the extreme shortness of the tail of the


convex form of the third member of the R. The form of the

double V, making

remark

it

a very broad letter.

of the other letters

is

a real

calls for

the whole alphabet has a certain quaint pleasing effect,

any special
without at the same time having
;

None

and the

lost

any of

its

legibility.

In the lower-case letters of Lining Westminster Old Style the difference


between the thicks and thins is hardly perceptible.
The main member of

modern type forms of this letter, though a


one
in
some of the middle-age scripts. The sloping position
very
occupied by the cross-bar of the e and the extreme shortness of the tail of
the g are special features.
The cross-bars of f and t are unusually lengthy,
a

is

sloping,

a rare feature in

common

while the mixed beginning


issued in

serifs

in

u are unusual.

The

fount was

first

1905.

Lining Carlton (Fig. 56)

is

a fount of very light

and dainty character

based upon a very pure form of pen-written letters.


Several of the letters
have alternate forms, such as A, P, and Y.
These variations add a certain

piquancy and charm to the fount, which when not overdone has a distinct
The varieties of the same letter suggest the human element,
artistic value.
which is seldom evident in the product of a printing machine.

Most of
H

the letters are beautifully proportioned, particularly C, D, G,

66

R
^

A X
** '*

F F

P)

'

'

GHIIKLMN
G
/"~\

T~\

Y~\

~T

UVXY YZ
abc

M, N, O,
it is

S,

and

adherence

strict

to

While

to Z.

unnecessary to insist too

much upon

early

standard

forms, the sub-divisions of B, P, and


would not have been any less pleasing

had they been more nearly uniform in


size.
The letters
and T are narrower

than the normal, while the joinings of


B, E, F, K, P, and R are all either

above or below the middle of the

member.

o pq

rs

u v

wxy z

LINING CARLTON 30 Point.


H. W. Caslon & Co., Ltd., London.
FIG.

second

thick

Q,

has

been

and

the second

same

56.

member,

of

first

Notice that the third member


is

in

length

apparently longer than


reality it is exactly the

as

the

second

member,

The
together with the sloping serif.
old form of the U, which contains a
adhered to.
The form of the
is

particularly chaste.

The
same

lower-case letters exhibit the

characteristics

daintiness

as

The

fount.

of

lightness

and

same

the

capitals

of the

skill

of the

type-designer

degree when
designing lower-case letters than when
deciding' upon the forms of capitals.
is

taxed

In

the

in

fount

greater

before

us

ascenders

the

and descenders are of abnormal length


this

is

case of

particularly
f,

noticeable

which goes below

in

the

*,

r,

Ik

II

OO

EUl HH

If If

as well as

The unusual
writing-line.
of these parts produces an open
length
'
above

IF

the

character

when

the type is
composed, and this of course is one of
light

CHELTENHAM BOLD OUTLINE


MessrsH w. Casion&
,

FIG

30

Point.

Co.. Ltd.. London.

S7

67

ABCD EF

the characteristics of printing produced


Following the variety of
by this face.
width of letters, already noticed in the
capitals of this fount,

and

we

'find that

f,

appear specially narrow, while

appears specially broad.

w are so placed

The two

GHIJKLM
NOPQRST

k,

m
v's

produce a narrow
letter, which is, however, very pleasing.
This fount is of German design, and was
in

as to

UVWXYZ
ATHENIAN

produced in the Caslon Letter Foundry

Stephenson, Blake

in 1910.

&

Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons,

Sheffield.

FIG.

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU
V WX YZ
abcdefghij

klmnopqr
stuvwxyz
HALLAMSHIRE OLD STYLE
&

36 Point

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

59.

&

Sons,

58.

This fount (Fig. 57)


variation of
in

display

is

an outline

Cheltenham Bold. Its use


is
appropriate where size

It
without great weight is required.
is clear,
legible, and of very good form.

Athenian
legible

letters,

is

fount of clear and

which

however, as
uniform in width.
are,

nearly as possible
The difference between the thicks and

no more than perceptible, and


the serifs are very appropriate.
This
thins

Stephenson, Blake

30

is

fount was

first

issued in

1889.

Hallamshire Old Style

having the

is

fount

proportions of its
The letters
capitals distinctly narrow.
owe little of their character to traditional
forms.

general

This

particularly evident in
the curves of B, P, R, and S, and in the
is

omission of part of the double V form


of W.
disregard for mathematical

68
precision in the drawing of the letters, has allowed an element of freedom
to enter into the
rendering of the forms, which gives the fount its uncon-

ventional

character.

Notice

that

the

member

second

of

not

is

In the lower-case forms the great length of the ascenders


straight.
noticeable.
The fount was first issued in 1904.

The

ABCDEFG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU

VWXYZ

abcdefghi

jklmnopq
rstuvwxyz
LINING

MODERN

Steplienson, Blake

&

No. 20, 36 Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons,

Sheffield.

FIG.

60.

is

very

principal characteristics of the

capitals of this fount are, the comparative


similarity of proportion of the letters,

identical

which

of

twenty-two

are

practically

width, the great disproportion between the thicks and thins,


and the slenderness, unusual length, and
in

abrupt joinings of the

Charac-

serifs.

teristic details are noticeable in

of the

tails

member

of

and Q, and

of R.

The

the form

in the third

lower-case letters

have the same general characteristics.


This fount (Fig. 61) lays no claim
to artistic consideration, but

legible

and

distinctive.

it

is

at least

The members

of equal thickness throughout,


while the letters, with one exception,
are

have

all

no

The

serifs.

white

spaces

between the members are greater than


the thickness of the members themselves, and this openness increases their
legibility.

There

variety of width

no fewer than nine

quite

is

in

also a considerable

the

letters,

where

proportions between width and height exist.


As has been already stated, these distinctive proportions increase the legibility
of the letters.
The one letter of this series which has a serif, is
it seems
different

unnecessarily complicated, and would be quite as legible and certainly more


appropriate, were the serif dispensed with and the form made as shown (after

Z)

69

ABODE
FG

K L M N
O P Q R
S T U V

WXYZG
GROTESQUE CAPITALS,
Miller

&

36

Point.

Richard, Edinburgh.

FIG.

The

from any artistic


Having no variety between

standpoint.
its thicks and

legible

certain

relations

that

to

This alone
legibility,

the

is

cases than the

word

last

Abandoning the

lettering.

in
art

discuss

it

purely from

this

point

Having been designed and produced


meet the wants of printers and the
clients of printers, who desire the maxito

mum

number of words per

line of this

presumably without any loss of


cannot be said even from
legibility, it
size,

this point of

It

view

to be a success.

In

characteristic

is

produced by
exist between

which

height,

as

ABCDEFGH

must

well as

JKLMNOPQ
R5TUVWXYZ

its

in

sufficient to decrease their

but as the white spaces between

members

the

it

of view.

width, while four are


narrower and two wider than the normal.
identical

be

serifs,

regarding the fount as


merely utilitarian, it may be worth while

In
separate parts.
the fount before us, twenty of the letters
are

to

said

nor any

standpoint and

the

letter

extreme width and

by the form of

thins,

61.

ficed to the exigencies of space.

remembered
root form of a

be

may

produce such letters,


of their legibility has been sacri-

be

illustrated in

Fig. 62 defy criticism

the endeavour to

much

capitals of fount

are also narrower in

most

members themselves, they

abcdefghijkliun

opqrstuvwxyz
SANS-SERIF
Miller

&

No.

7,

36 Point

Richard, Edinburgh.

FIG.

62.

7o

by this means made still


narrow letters E, F, and Q

are

is

The

height of the characteristically


four times as great as their width, while the
wide letters
and
are twice as high

less legible.

ABCDEF
GHIJ K

LMNOP

\STTU

vwxrz

as

they are wide.

distinctness

and

Greater legibility and


the same quantity of

copy could have been obtained by using


a

fount,

grotesque

height.

The same

portions

of

say

two-thirds

the

might have
been reached by using the same proresult

but

letters,

members only half

as

the

having

The

thick.

use

of such a fount seems to be an attempt


to get too much for too little, an attempt
to

where

reap

the

sowing

has

been

niggardly.

The remarks made

in reference to

the capitals of this fount apply equally


Some of
to those of the lower-case.

the letters here are unusually unhappy,

abcdefghij

klmnopqr
stuvwxyz
OLD FACE

H.

W.

Caslon

ITALIC, 48

&

Fj G

Co.,

63

Ltd.,

Point.

London.

particularly

of

the

f,

the normal.
in

are

r.

under,

The

Twenty-one

uniform

are

letters

while three

and

j,

in

and

fount was

width,
two over

first

issued

1906.

Old Face Italic, based upon Old


Face Roman, was cut by Caslon I. in
1720.
imitation

The
of

letters

are

Roman Old

very

close

Face,

with

the alterations necessary for the slope.

writing was a script much in use


The
i6th century.
Italy in the

Italic

in

reason as it exists in modern writing.


slope existed in this script for the same
It is a matter of following the line of least resistance, and, as we write from

71
right our writing
character of Italic writing
to

left

naturally

made

slopes

towards

the

The

right.

free

deservedly popular among Italian scribes.


The writing of books entirely composed of Roman capitals must have been
a tedious operation to the penman, who would find in a sloping style more
freedom and more opportunity for an occasional flourish to enable him to

show

his skill,

of the letters

Some
and get off the conventional track once in a while.
in the alphabet under review, J, Q, T, Y, show this desire

of the scribe for a

The
in

This was

and was
carried

entirely in
is

it

Italic

a matter for

ideal,

and

ought

little

fount of

first

Venice,

as

to

it

it

Italic

for a

originally

for

French printer named Jenson


printing of entire books.
printed an edition of Virgil

the

by Jenson, who
Without doubt Italic

effect

1470.

regret that
is

was cut

intended

into
in

freedom.

it

is

not

more

is

extensively used.

eminently readable, and occupies

appeal to

all

who

a beautiful face,

attempt to get as

For verse

space than

less

much

and
it

it

is

Roman,

printing as possible

into a page.
It

is

interesting

to

observe that Old

Face

Italic

lower-case letters of

types approach most nearly to the form of good modern handwriting.


In it the connectors between one letter and another are plainly visible even
all

though they are without any function, seeing that the


each other.

letters are

not joined

Some of

the letters are particularly graceful in form, noticeOne characteristic of this fount is the harmony
ably the f, g, p, v, w, and z.
which exists between all the letters in it.
v, w, x, y, and z, even though
to

they are unlike any of the other letters in detail, yet are quite in harmony
This is more than can be truthfully said of the same letters
.with them.
in

most of the other lower-case founts,

in

which they seem nearer

relations

of the capitals than of their fellows in the lower-case.

The

fount Fig. 64, based upon Cheltenham Old Style, offers the printer
alternate forms of several of the letters.
The opportunity of occasionally
introducing a more ornamental form of capital, if not overdone, gives a
certain variety, not out of keeping, in the use of Italics.
of course be introduced sparingly ; too much of a good

how

good,

is

good

for nothing.

Such ornamental

Such forms must

thing, no matter
variations cease to be

72

AjlBCD

either ornaments or variations, if used

upon

every

possible

The

occasion.

between the thicks and thins

relation

of this fount

of course, similar to

is,

that existing in the parent fount, and

while this

HIJKLM

right and appropriate in


is
hardly so in the case

is

the parent, it
of the Italic.

The

shows the

latter

marked influence of the reed pen,


which renders very pronounced the
difference between thicks and thins.

An

alternate

feature

teristic

form

of some

charac-

is

of the letters

where

of this lower-case alphabet

h,

The
y are in duplicate.
similarity between the thicks and thins
of the lower-case forms is as unw,

WXYZ
a

and

fortunate as

CHELTENHAM OLD
H.

W.

Caslon

&

in the capitals.

On

Whether
genitor of all italic founts.
it
is
because the eye through long
usage has become accustomed to the
Face

Italic

forms,

or

whether

these original forms are so much


beautiful in themselves, are points
which arguments could be based.

more
upon
It is

certainly true that the Old Face Italic


letters are more beautiful to look upon

and more pleasant to read than those


under review. This fount was issued
STYLE.

48

Co.. Ltd.. London,

FIG.

is

the whole this fount bears comparison


badly with Old Face Italic, the pro-

Old

J^lmnopqrst

it

Point.

along

Roman
64.

with
in

Cheltenham
1900.

Old

Style

PLATE XXV.
ROSE, THISTLE,

AND SPIRAL PANELS AND TAIL

PIECES.

cccoo

Ornaments by H.

W. CASLON &

Co.,

Lm

82 and 83 Chiswell Street, London, E.C.

PLATE XXVI.
CHRISTMAS CARDS.

fmas

1911

Mr & Mrs

MAY THE COMING


YEAR BRING YOU

ST.,

this

Christmas Season
all

to

their friends.

Manfield

Mr & Mrs JOHN BELL

ROSE

Martin

Best Wishes for

BETTER THAN YOU


EXPECT - OR DESERVE.
27

J.

desire to extend their

Boroughbridge

YORK.

Yorkshire.

Christmas 1911.

Witf) tfe best wisSes and


tQe Kindest trjougrjts for

Jtappy Qfjristmas and a


5drigdt

fiew year from

Mr # Mrs

^eorge Gross

127 ffewington gardens


fllanedester.

^December 25t6,

Paper

"Toned M.F.

Printing"

W. H. &

A.

RICHARDSON,

Mill

No.

91, Springwell

Paper

Mills,

Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE XXVII.

STEPHENSON, BLAKE & CO. AND


SIR CHARLES REED & SONS,
LETTER FOUNDERS, SHEFFIELD.
1757

1763

COTTRELL

JACKSON

PICTURE TO YOURSELF
the
1794

THORNE

BESLEY

monk,

with

What a period of
printing a book.
invention and industrial activity lies

identified with this


prestige, energy,

1819

BLAKE

1757 the
Reeds, and their

have been intimately

predecessors,

1792

CASLON

Since

Stephensons, Blakes,
1849

the

modern method of

this the

between the two

FOX

in

sitting

Scriptorium, laboriously adding letter


to letter and page to page, and contrast

1838

mediaeval

development.

The

1819

GARNETT

and progressiveness

make Stephenson, Blake


and Co. and Sir Charles Reed & Sons

of the firm
1861

REED

1830

STEPHENSON

an even greater necessity to-day than


their predecessors were to the printer
1877

CHARLES
REED & SONS

of a century ago.

1841

STEPHENSON
BLAKE & CO.

SIR

STEPHENSON, BLAKE & CO. AND

CHARLES REED & SONS,


WERE AMALGAMATED IN 1906.
SIR

Type by STEPHENSON, BLAKE & Co. and


18 point Baskerville
.

Paper

"Glazed Amber"

Old Style

The

18 point

Sir

CHARLES REED & SONS,

Old Face No.

Culler Mills Paper Co., Ltd., Mill No.

Sheffield,

8 point Winchester.
9,

Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE

XXVIII.

LETTER HEADINGS.

ENDERSON & MACNAUGHT


SPADES
.

Slock

in

Always
.

In

CANES

Garden

BULBS

RAFFIA

AND
Every

Season

AND SEEDS
BEDDING OUT
PLANTS IN POTS

TROWELS

LAW MOWERS

their

AND
Everything [or the Garden.

Requisite.

KNOX

GLASGOW.

ST.

SMITH

KEMP

&-

NURSERYMEN
SEEDSMEN
FLORISTS
725

GEORGE STREET
EDINBURGH

HAMPTON

BROTHERS

FURNISHING

IRONMONGERS

LEA ROAD
Type by H. W. CASLON & Co.,
Paper

Ltd.,

SOUTHSEA

London, and STEPHENSON, BLAKE

"Nechtan Imperial Linen" Extra Strong

JOHN

B.

&

Co. and Sir

CHARLES REED & SONS,

MACNAUGHTON, 74 York

Street,

Glasgow.

Sheffield.

PLATE XXIX.

NECHTAN
WATERMARK

THIS

IS

A GUARANTEE

and the distinguishing


NECHTAN PAPER, which takes
a clear and sharp impression from the typewriter and is equally satisfactory for use with
the pen. The paper is stocked and boxed in
both letter and legal sizes, as well as in Large
Post 15, 18, 21 and 23 Ib. and Dbl. Large Post
30, 36, 42 and 46 Ib.
of quality and strength,
mark of

FOUR THICKNESSES

but only

ONE QUALITY.

Samples and Prices for the asking,

JOHN

from

MACNAUGHTON,
AGENT FOR ALL CLASSES OF PAPERS,
74 YORK ST., GLASGOW.
B.

Type by STEPHENSON, BLAKE & Co. and Sir CHARLES REED & SONS,
Old Style No. 5 48 point and 18 point Windsor 14 point Italian Old Style
;

Paper

"

Nechtan Imperial Linen" Extra Strong

JOHN

B.

MACNAUGHTON,

Sheffield.
Italic,

14 point.

74 York Street, Glasgow.

PLATE XXX.
MENU AND INVITATION

CARDS.

nn

MENU

TOASTS

SOUP

"THE KING"
Proposed by

Tomato

Clear

THE CHAIRMAN

FISH

"OUR GUESTS"

Baked Halibut

Salmon

Responder

Proposer

Mr

MASON

Mr MILLER

JOINTS
Roast Beef

Lamb

Roast

"THE PRESIDENT"

Cabinet Pudding

Responder

Proposer

SWEETS

Mr

BRAND

"THE LADIES"
Proposer

nn

ANDREW

Apple Tart

Fruit Salad

TEA

Mr

COFFEE

Mr

ICES

Responder

MANDER

Mr PURVIS

nn
ua

THE BIRMINGHAM ART SOCIETY


TENTH ANNUAL DINNER.

The President and Council request the honour of

Company

to

Dinner

in

the

Art

Galleries,

Evening of Tuesday, 24th October,


R.S.V.P

Paper

" Glazed

Amber"

The

to Charles

on the

at Six o'clock.

M. Swan. 25 Guelder Road, Birmingham.

Culler Mills Paper Co., Ltd., Mill No.

9,

Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE XXXI. TITLE PAGE.

THE
GREEKS 6? ROMANS
THE

LIFE OF

DESCRIBED FROM

ANTIQUE MONUMENTS
BY

E.

GUHL &

W. KONER

TRANSLATED FROM THE


THIRD GERMAN EDITION
BY

F.

HUEFFER

LONDON

CHATTO & WINDUS, PICCADILLY

Paper

"Toned M.F.

Printing"

W.

H.

&

A.

RICHARDSON,

Mill

No.

91, Springwell

Paper Mills, Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE XXXII.
Eight ornaments composed of three Vine units repeated.

Four ornaments composed


Ornaments by H.

W. CASLON &
'

of four

Rose

units repeated.

Co., Ltd., 82 and 83 Chiswell Street, London, E.C.

73

The

65 are more staid and sober in form than those


of Cheltenham Italic.
No alternate forms are included nor are any of the
Even the Q, which
letters flourished.
is
is

capitals of

Fig.

usually a lively letter iri Italic founts,


severe and self-contained.
Few, if

of

any,

the

remark

for

call

letters

being undistinguished, they do not invite

condemnation or

either

praise.

comparison between this lowercase fount and Cheltenham Italic, its


parent, shows very
ences indeed.
It

word

in

Italic

few

essential differ-

in

fact

founts in

the

is

the

last

direction

of heavy respectable convention. When


one compares it with Old Face Caslon
Italic,

one might be excused for thinking

of the Cheltenham Heavy Italic as being


the Old Face Italic grown to years of

and

discretion

All

respectable

ponderosity.

sparkle and gaiety of youth


departed, and only conventional

the

have

respectability remains.

Fig. 66

is

a very graceful fount

of

based upon Italian Old Style,


and having the characteristics common
capitals,

Notice the almost equal


of thicks and thins, and the

to this family.

breadth
squarely
letters

finished

call

serifs.

Few

of

the

for

special mention, except


the Q, which has a very graceful tail
the form of the whole letter suggests
;

the

of good modern penmanship.

This lower-case

Italic

has a character

ABCDE
FGHIJK

LMNOP
QRSTU
VWXYZ
abode fg
h

ijklm

nopqrst

uvwxyz
CHELTENHAM HEAVY
H.

W.

Caslon

&

ITALIC, 48

Co.. Ltd.. London.

FIG.

65.

Point.

74

ABCDEFGHI
JKLMNOPQR
STUVWXYZ&

which

of the same
difference

&

Stephenson, Blake

Style

Italic,

24

Co. and Sir Charles Reed

Sons,

Sheffield.

FIG.

66.

includes a certain

letters

imparting to

their

subtle

forms a

spring,

lively

The

here.

Point.

&

The

very

slight

thicks

and

thins,

fount.

between

the capitals

evident throughout all the members of


the family, is particularly noticeable

abcdefghijklmn
o pq rstuww x yz
LINING ITALIAN Old

harmony with

in

is

general

character

of

the

VEFGHI
JJKLMM

and

which is pleasing and


In some of the forms there
distinctive.
is a
simplicity which suggests a breaking
away from historic precedent, without
sturdy appearance,

impairing in any

The

the letters.

evident in

serifs is

and

f,

g, h, k,

m,

most other forms of the

like

z,

same character, seems out of harmony


with the other letters, being simply a
z

capital

made

joinings are
1,

m,

n,

t.

in

9.0

and

that

clearly
e and

still
t.

it

of

smaller.

Vestiges
evident in the h, i, k,
"
"

The

is

and

shows

combination

This fount was

VWXYZ&

n, p, q,

while d and u retain these features.

r,

The

the legibility of
absence of terminal

way

RftSTTU

of

abcdefghij

klmnopqr
r

stu

WINCHESTER OLD STYLE ITALIC


Stephenson,

first

issued

vw xy z

Blake

&

Co.

36

and Sir Charles Reed

Sheffield.

FIG.

67.

Point.

&

Sons,

75
Winchester Old Style (Fig. 67)
a very

fount of

graceful

is

The

Italics.

capitals consist of thirty-six sorts, ten of

being issued 'in two forms.


The lower-case letters are very distinctive
in their character, which is not
quite
the letters

similar

to

of the

that

somewhat angular,

as in

capitals,

being

v and w.

The

ABCDBG
HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU

VWXYZ

angularity of the curves is evident to a


less
degree in the other lower-case letters.

The

fount was

De Vinne

Italic

of

form each of

(Fig. 68)

its

members.

capital

is

abcdefghij

in all

De Vinne

with

respects identical
in the slope

issued in 1909.

first

except
Only one

and lower-case

klmnopqr
stuvwxyz

A'BC'DEFG

HIJKLMN
OPQRSTU

WX YZ

abcdefghij

klm nopq r
stu VW xy z
MORLAND

H.

W.

Caslon

ITALIC 30

&

Co..

FIG.

69.

Ltd..

Point.

London.

DE VINNE ITALIC

Stephenson, Blake

&

36 Point

Co, and Sir Charles Reed

&

Sons.

Sheffield.

FIG.

is

The

however given.

first

in

68.

fount was issued

1894.

Morland

69) has all


the general characteristics of its parent
Morland.
Some of the forms of the
individual
especially

Italic

letters

the

are

capitals

and lower-case

Lower-case h

(Fig.

is

letters

very

pleasing,

Q, T, and D,
v, w, y, and z.

perhaps the

factory of the whole series.


was issued about 1890.

least

satis-

The

fount

76

Writing of Gothic
character was confined
almost

Northern

of

nations

Europe, and

we

result

the

to

entirely

as a natural

find

that

the

types cut by Gutenberg


of Metz, the first printer,

were imitations of penwritten letters having this


character.

The

principal
feature of Gothic or Black

Letter

the placing close


together of the heavy
is

straight upright

while

the

members,

white

inter-

spaces are often narrower


than the members them-

Black Letter

selves.

r f0f)t jf1 1

seldom

round

acter

in

form

it

heavy
connected by

angular

thick and

thin joinings.
Gothic

char-

extreme

its

consists of

members
short

in

is

Like

Architecture,

it

home
the Southern

never really found a

among

and any examples


produced away from

nations,

of

it

native place, show the


influence of the people

its

ORIGINAL BLACK, 48
H. W. Caslon & Co., Ltd..
FIG.

70.

Point
London.

among whom
itself.

it

found

77

When

founder printers, while yet their


or

diamond

is

it

size,

readable,

skill

but

Newspaper or book

type, to the unaccustomed eye it


Its use in modern times in countries

quite illegible.
have had the clear

Roman

type,

is

work of

the early
was insufficient to cut type of pearl
as may be seen in Modern German

written or printed of a large size, as in the

limited to

initials,

may

be said to be

which for centuries


which are very often

The

capitals of this fount are never used alone,


except by an occasional sign painter more daring than usual, whose inscription
over the door of a shop usually leaves the passer-by as wise as ever as to

printed in red (rubricated).

the purport of the inscription.


use by compositors should be rare, and only then of a size which
readable ; it is questionable if any fount under 1 2 point fulfils this
is
Black Letter capitals of the size illustrated (48 point) are
condition.
effective as initials, especially if rubricated.
As is well known, rubricated
Its

appear smaller and lighter than the same letters printed in black.
The fount under consideration is very heavy, and is very distinctive in
"
"
it is well named
character
Black.
The letters are very wide
Original
in relation to their height, averaging over thirteen units in width to ten
letters

Some

units in height.

the K, which

is

of the letters are not very individual,


very like an R, while I and J are identical.

as, for

instance,

Black Letters, apart from their form, differ much from Roman ones.
In the latter characters no unnecessary parts are introduced beyond serifs
in Black Letter or Gothic, on the other hand,
or beginnings and finishings
and especially in capitals, many of the features are introduced for ornament
;

Thus in C, in the alphabet


confounding the root forms.
under consideration, one member only is necessary, while the three added
only,

ones

E,

thereby

tend

H, N,
The

to

W,

make
etc.,

lower-case

the

less

distinguishable.

Other

letters

such

as

contain unnecessary ornaments.


letters

extremely heavy, following the same proBoth ascenders and descenders are very short.
are

portions as the capitals.


Notice the slope to the left of the ascender of d, a form evolved during
the period when uncials were coming into use.
The beginnings of the

ascenders in b, h, k, and

1,

and the terminations of the descenders of p and q

78
are split, a form naturally produced by
the use of a soft reed pen.
Each letter
is
One's attention is
quite distinctive.

peculiar ornamental
pen-dash seen at the left sides of b, h,
and k, and to the curious misshapen
attracted

the

by

dash at the right hand of g.

Notice

the interspaces are always smaller


in area than any of the members
this
that

makes

This fount was

for illegibility.

designed and
about 1740.

The

by Caslon

engraved

I.

71 are very
harmonious in relation to one another,
in

letters

Fig.

though the O, N, and


confounded with one

form of these

capitals

are apt to be

The

another.

shows evidence

of the pen of the scribe, and all the


different details are. such as would be
naturally made by a reed pen skilfully
"
in
The letters are " square
used.
character, i.e., they are composed mostly

upright heavy and thin members,


while comparatively few curves are
of

In

employed.
also

some

considering

this

fount

necessary to remember that


of the members are used to dis-

it

tinguish

is

the

form,

while

others

are

added purely as ornament. For instance,


none of the thin verticals contribute to
BLACK
H.

W.

No.

Caslon

&

4,

48

the

Co., Ltd., London.

FIG.

71.

characteristic

form of the

letters,

Point.

nor do the short sloping thin bars connected together by short thick verticals ;

79
these are added solely for the purpose of giving a sumptuous effect, and as
has been noticed in the case of O, N, and V, confuse rather than differentiate

the

forms.

Letter

comparison of Black
generally and Roman

capitals

the

reveals

capitals

that

fact

the

in

characters the type or root form


Thus, in A, B, C,
always evident.

latter
is

added only
by way of workmanlike finishings, while
the thicks and thins in Roman letters

D, E,

the serifs

etc.,

are

forms produced by the

are the natural

use of a chisel-shaped point.

The

lower-case letters of this fount

good and

are extremely

distinct in form.

suggest the source of their origin


(the reed pen), while each is clear and

They

no

having

legible,

Black No.

unnecessary

parts.

4 was engraved and issued

early in the

igth century.

This Black Letter face (Fig. 72) is


quite distinctive in character and utterly
unlike

Black

principal

No.

members

beginning

thin,

Most

4.

are

curved,

swelling

of

the

usually

gradually

to

the greatest thickness, and finishing thin.


This imparts a distinctly flourished character to the

more
than
letters

fount, thereby making it


ornamental, and rather less legible
The individual
Black No. 4.
are,

however,

no one being

at

all

taken for any other.

more
likely

ANGLO-SAXON
H.

distinctive,
to

W.

Caslon

&

48

Point.

Co., Ltd., London.

FIG.

72.

be mis-

The name Anglo-Saxon, by

the way, is a misnomer,


since Anglo-Saxon script has a character quite distinct from that of this face.

80

33

2)

<L

The
are very

lower-case letters of this fount

much narrower

Black No.
angles

while

4,

between

the

nearly equal, than

than those of

naturally

members

also

the

are

less

those of that fount.

The

joinings of the thicks and thins


show no natural thickenings, while the
short sloping serifs or connectors seem
to be inserted too

low or too high

in

abcfcefgbij

hlmnopqr
TUDOR BLACK

36

Miller

&

FIG.

73-

Point.

Richard, Edinburgh.

the thick members.

They do

not seem

grow out naturally, and give therefore a stiff effect.


The fount was issued
to

early in the igth century.

Fig.

73

is

a fount of Black Letter

of a particularly free
in

character,

it

tinctive.

No

all

to

likely

klmnxxpqr

is

Being open
very legible and disstyle.

one of the

letters

be mistaken for

is

at

another,

BLACK No
Stephenson, Blake

&

3.

36

Point.

Co. and Sir Charles Reed


Sheffield.

FIG.

74-

&

Sons.

8i
a fault

common

in

many Gothic

Most of

founts.

the letters

show

their

The terminations of
A, E, K, L, P, T, and V.
H, I, J, M, X, and Y could not have been produced naturally with the
pen, while the thin members of C, G, and T would have been more appropen

origin, particularly

priate

had they been

The

vertical instead of being slightly sloped.

lower-case letters here are

same fount, having


which seem particularly

their

are

a,

c, d, e,

good

harmony with the

in

qualities

as

The

the

letters

harmony with the general character of the fount


g, h, o, p, q, s, v, w, y, and z, while most of the others are
form, suggesting the use of a stiffer and less flexible pen.
in

more stiff in
Tudor Black was derived from an

old

MS., adapted

for

type, and

issued

&

Richard in 1878.
Black No. 3 (Fig. 74) is a fount of black

by Miller

capitals of

well as their defects.

letters

of more than normal

No

fewer than nineteen of the capitals possess a similar ornamental


flourish which extends below the line.
This feature is so important that
it
practically dominates each of these nineteen letters, and makes them
width.

The lower-case forms are particularly good,


approximately similar in shape.
though the beginnings of b, h, k, 1, and t, and the endings of j, p, and q
have rather an unfinished appearance.
The fount was issued first in 1885.

CHAPTER

FIVE.

THE SUBJECT MATTER OF ADVERTISEMENTS.


DVERTISEMENT

by means of

circulars,

booklets, and

pages
such
an
in
modern
business,
magazines occupies
important place
that in such a book as this a special chapter seems
necessary for
in

the discussion of

its

principles, and

the illustration of

its

practice.

By means of printed advertisements the manufacturer may reach


Whether his advertisement brings an adequate
thousands of possible buyers.
return or not depends upon several things, among which are the quality and
price of his goods, and his power of appeal, or the ability he displays in
framing his advertisement, to which must be added the compositor's capacity
Should any one of these factors be unsatisfactory
in displaying the type used.
the likelihood is that the money spent on the advertisement is to a large extent

thrown away.
of

skill

In fairness to the compositor it should be said that no amount


in type-display will be of much avail if the advertisement is badly

worded or the

wares ineffectively stated.


Provided that the
subject matter of the advertisement is ably written, much can be done by the
The business
compositor to make the advertisement inviting and attractive.
qualities of the

advertisement or booklet printed upon a low grade paper and from poor type
whereas the
badly displayed, cannot long escape the waste-paper basket
;

attractive booklet of good size and shape, with its message interestingly stated,
pleasingly displayed in good readable type, and well printed upon attractive

paper, cannot fail to achieve its end, and its pleasant appearance and character
will save it at least for some time from the fate of all advertising literature.

Advertisement writing, especially for daily newspapers, is now a recognised


"
business, and is in the hands of
experts," many of whom seem to think that
"
if they use a
sufficiently sensational succession of unfortunate and unusual
so to arrange their sentences that the verbs occur
adjectives," and contrive
82

83

where the nouns should

they have attracted the attention of the buying


public.
They may also have brought upon themselves, and the firms they
The art
represent, the scorn of many who respect the English language.
of advertising, like the art of salesmanship, is a fine one, and tact, good"A
humour, and honesty are just as necessary in the one as in the other.
well-designed and worded advertisement should produce in the mind of the

buyer

second,

interest

satisfaction.

mental

First, favourable attention


third, desire
sixth,
fourth, confidence
fifth, action
one who can by means of a well arranged and displayed

six

possible

be,

successive

states

Any

advertisement induce these six mental states in the minds of a large percentage
of people within the area of his possible clientage, is a business builder, and
will

have a profitable business."

September 1910.)

Twenty

(Arthur Frederick Sheldon.

The Fra,

years ago the public were cajoled by paragraphs

newspapefs, which, beginning as stories, ended by proclaiming


the virtues of somebody's Cough Mixture or Antibilious Pills.
At the same

in provincial

period the attention of the public was arrested by placards on street hoardings,
but
offering something, always in large type, sans serifs, for nothing
;

now

that a public deluded is not likely to patronise the


warehouse of the deluder.
Bogus cheques promising to pay five thousand
advertisers

realise

good wishes, and

of purses
interest of the public of former times.
illustrations

containing sovereigns excited the


These crude methods would be

entirely useless at this date, and buyers are now satisfied if they can secure
a good article at a reasonable price, and the sensible manufacturer or merchant

now employs

legitimate

means only

believing that fair dealing

An

is

to secure the attention of likely patrons,


the only possible basis of a sound business.

appearance is an essential of a successful advertisement


whose first appeal is to the eye, and to make this effective the cover and
general arrangement should not only be attractive but, if possible, novel.
attractive

Now

novelty of appearance is a quality which is continually changing, for


what is novel and therefore compels interest to-day, may not, indeed will
for to-day's novelties are to-morrow's commonnot, claim attention to-morrow
;

places.
in

The

displaying

must know what is the prevalent style


and carefully avoid it.
If he copies what others are doing,

successful compositor

84
he

produces will be conventional, and conventionality in type


No compositor should have any
display for advertisement purposes is fatal.
difficulty in displaying a page of type which will be different from the normal.

anything

The performance

of such a feat

is

not, however, sufficient.

The page

should

not only be different from, but better than, the normal.

Perhaps

it

may

be worth while to consider the conditions under which

the display compositor usually works.


Under the most cramped conditions
his business is merely to set his
In such
type, following the MS. supplied.
a case he may not alter the order of the sentences or substitute a more
suitable

for a less

satisfactory

word.

The

of attractive display
Under the freest conditions

possibilities

under such conditions are necessarily limited.


he will be allowed to rearrange the matter supplied, so that the advertiser's

message will, through his expert arrangement of type, make its strongest and
most effective appeal to possible buyers.
Advertisers who are not thoroughly
acquainted with the possibilities of type-display, would do well to give such
an expert compositor a fairly free hand in composing their advertisements.
In any case, as the final proof must be submitted to them, they have the
ultimate decision as to the form their advertisement should take.
The two

component items

in

the

construction

of a display page
the idea, and its
of a single individual, though the two

should really be the work


expression
the merchant and the
partners involved

which

compositor

may exchange

ideas,

will result in a distinguished advertisement.

All advertisement writers and compositors realise that their function is


to make their message appeal to the reader, but a good many different ideas

what is the most effective form of appeal. Though there is an


infinite number of different ways of displaying type upon advertisement pages,
two different
these are for the most part expressions of two distinct ideas
The first and more common of these two points of view
points of view.
finds expression by means of long and short lines of type, set in many sizes
In the second form the compositor limits himself to the use
and faces.
The idea in the first
of a few related or contrasted faces of a few sizes.
method is to supply interest by means of variety of size and form the idea
in the second method is to ensure legibility and harmony by the introduction
exist as to

85
In the first method each
of necessary contrast only, both of size and form.
line stands by itself, and claims individual attention on account of its individual

This

character.

on the page.

common

apt to lead to undue competition among the various items


In the setting of a page of twenty-five lines, it is not unis

to see used a

dozen different founts

No
twenty sizes of type.
page without irritation and

set in

eye or mind can contemplate such a


consequent bias towards its compositor, so that which was designed to attract
In the second method the advertiser shows a genuine desire
merely repels.
to gain the attention of his possible client by directness of statement, legibility
sensitive

of type, and orderly arrangement.


To attain this the message is set in goodsized legible type in the form of a panel occupying a central position on the
This panel is composed of well arranged sentences and paragraphs.
page.
bulk, form, legibility, and position, compel the attention of the reader,
and as the other items of the advertisement
the firm's name, address, and
Its

are set in large type, each part of the advertisement


possibly a catch line
obtains its due share of attention, and establishes the relations desired by the

If the advertisement
enterprising advertiser with the sympathetic reader.
reaches the class who are users of the goods advertised, business will
naturally result.

who

are expert manufacturers, have


the crudest possible ideas as to the framing of an advertisement.
Some firms
persistently pursue the policy of trying to get too much for their money
in advertising.
They attempt to compress into a page as much matter as
It

is

not unusual to find that firms

would reasonably fill two pages.


In such
chance of making an effective display, and
very small

is

compositor has no
compelled to use type of a

case

the

The

reader will not take the trouble to adjust his spectacles


fathom the advertiser's scheme.
The possible client must be

size.

and try to
wooed, not

Advertising in this manner is simply throwing away


Not only so, but the possible client gradually develops a bias
money.
against such firms, and, taking their advertisement methods as an index of
bullied.

their general business capacities, resolutely avoids the firms which adopt such
If the advertiser has something
really worthy of the attention of
he
the buyer,
should display his goods judiciously.
There is no need for
tactics.

86

him

expose the whole of the contents of his shop on the counter at one
A printed advertisement should be so well and so attractively arranged
time.
that all who run may read.
Advertising in extremely small or illegible type,
to

not only poor advertising, but very poor business indeed.


An advertisement
of ten pithy lines of good type, carrying an interesting and concise stateis

ment, written with a spice of humour, is infinitely more attractive and


convincing than one of fifty lines of uninteresting matter set in small type.
Such we avoid as naturally as we avoid the conversational "bore."

CHAPTER

SIX.

SOME PRINCIPLES OF TYPE-DISPLAY.


"1

HE

which underlie the arrangement of type upon


advertisement pages are the same as those which govern the
For the compositor is a designer.
productions of all designers.
He must decide the size, character, and position of the various
founts of type he employs.
In the case of ordinary bookwork
principles

the size and disposition of the type has already been settled by tradition and
practical considerations, but the display compositor has still in most instances
a wide choice of founts and sizes to select from, and a variety of arrangements
is

open to him.

The

who

designs a cathedral or public building, the designer


who plans the form and colour of a carpet, and the artist who paints a picture,
are all faced with the same problems as the type-display compositor ; though
in

architect

the former cases the units

more complex,
observed.

still

in

involve

may

the latter case

more knowledge of

the

detail

and be

same great principles must be

All are assisted, though also limited, by conditions of construction

thorough knowledge and acknowledgement


of these conditions will enable the designer, no matter in what material he

as well as

by

art considerations.

make

the most

of his opportunities
and the recognition of his
limitations should prove a help rather than a hindrance to him.
The architect
The designer is restricted
is limited in the size, site, and cost of his building.

works, to

to

the use of a certain

number of

colours for his carpet, and

is

compelled

The artist must plan the


recognise the conditions of its manufacture.
In fact
positions, form, and colour of the features of interest in his picture.
to

none of them are absolutely

in

their

know

limitations they

they cannot do

free

work.

If they

recognise

their

that there are things they may do, and things which
and the success or failure of their efforts will be largely
87

influenced

Such

also

by their acceptance of the conditions


is the case with the
display compositor.

under which

they work.

His conditions

will likely

be fixed by the client or master-printer.


A certain size of paper and a fixed
quantity of copy will require to be compressed or expanded upon the page.
His problem in design and it amounts to nothing less is to arrange his

and words

be most effective from the point


of view of the client
and second, so that the result shall combine with
this the maximum of good taste founded
upon sound principles.

letters

first,

that

they shall

The
ment,

great principle of order is necessary and inevitable in any developwhether national or personal.
The compositor who picks up his

types and spaces from his case, arranges them in lines, and after printing,
returns them to their separate boxes, constantly recognises and acts upon
this great principle of order.
The human mind, while recognising and

We

acting upon this principle, is also open to the influence of variety.


are so constituted that not only permanency but also change appeals to us.
So the observance of this principle of variety, along with the other one

of order, goes a long way to making up the sum of our human experiences.
The repetition of the same actions from day to day co-operates in the
formation of order, so that repetition is also one of the great principles, or
In the examples of type-display illustrated throughout
at least is a part of it.

volume, these principles of order, repetition, and variety are constantly


order in the arrangement of parallel lines of type and spaces,
demonstrated
repetition in the use again and again of the same letters, and variety in
this

the

differences

between

one

letter

and another, and

In Plate Xa, where

between

capitals

and

the type is of one fount and one


size, each word or group of letters has the same value to the eye as any
other, and the importance of the words forming the text must be estimated

lower-case

letters.

all

Plate XL is in striking
by the reader's knowledge of the language used.
In Plate XI. the principle of contrast with its auxiliary
contrast to Plate X.

emphasis

is

introduced.

In

this advertisement

the brain and hand

of the

Either the composer of the letterpress or the


compositor are evident.
compositor of it has seen fit to give special emphasis to certain words or
phrases by diverse devices.

As

the whole advertisement

is

set

in

capitals

k
ft

I
'

<L>

.3

o
OH

x
x
X
UJ

H
<
j

Du

">.

O
o
O

e*

1
00

c
-g

PLATE XXXIV. BOOK PLATES.

EX

EX

LIBR1S

LIBRIS

CHAS. A. SCOTT

ALISON LOTHIAN

Ex

ROBERT
CALLANDER

ALEXANDER

YSE
IS

Paper

FORBES

THOMSON

BOOK

"Cream Antique Laid"

W. H. &

Libris

A.

RICHARDSON,

Mill

No.

91, Springwell

Paper

Mills,

Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE XXXV.
PROGRAMME COVERS.

Birmingham
Dramatic Club

ORPHEUS
MUSICAL
SOCIETY
SESSION
1911-1912

MEETS EVERY MONDAY EVENING


FROM OCTOBER TILL MARCH AT
SEVEN O'CLOCK FOR PRACTICE.
::

::

::

::

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION
at

Payable
Ladies

Opening
-

of

Gentlemen

Session
-

7/6

::

::

: :

::

::

Southern Fruit-Growers'

DERBY HORTICULTURAL

Association

ASSOCIATION

PROGRAMME OF
ARRANGEMENTS

Annual Spring Exhibition

SESSION
Paper

"Dark

1911-12

Apricot Art"

THE CULTER PAPER MILLS

April

Co., LTD., Mill No,

9,

&

9,

1912.

Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE XXXVI.
ROUGH COMPOSITION SKETCHES - TYPE ONLY.

Paper" White

Antique

Wove" W. H. &

A. RICHARDSON, Mill No. 91, Springwell Paper Mills,


Jarrow-ou-Tyne, England.

PLATE XXXVII.
ROUGH COMPOSITION SKETCHES

Paper

" White
Antique

Wove "

W. H. &

A.

RICHARDSON,

TYPE AND ORNAMENT.

Mill No. 91, Springwell Paper Mills, Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE XXXVIII.
PATTERNS COMPOSED OF SHAMROCK TYPE

UNITS.

Five units employed in making Shamrock Patterns.

Pattern composed of two units repeated.

Pattern composed of three units repeated.

Pattern composed of three units repeated.


Pattern composed of one unit repeated.

Pattern composed of one unit repeated.


Ornaments by H. W. CASLON & Co., Ltd., 82 and 83 Chiswell
Paper

"Dark

Apricot Art"

The

Culler Paper Mills Co., Ltd., Mill No.

Street,
9,

London, E.G.

Peterculter, Aberdeenshire.

PLATE XXXIX.

Paper

"

Cream Antique Laid"

W. H. &

A.

RICHARDSON,

INITIALS.

Mil] No. 91, Springwell Paper Mills, Jarrow-on-Tyne, England.

PLATE
IIV/-\^V*;Q*JUtMUiv5Ul MUjvlUKaUaVBUIl

XL.

LJ*<;>*LJWJLJVLJ

U*vUlw JUvU

LJ*V*UkvlLJ*V**LJ<??tW?tVLJII

oooononDDDaz^zaDaDtotaaaazoiDDDDtotDDDa^rDDDa^tDaDa^raaan^tDDDDnonD^^-xx^ODii
1
^
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the Jobbing Printer.


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89

by
only of one fount, he has employed two methods to produce emphasis
The larger type being more distinct and
contrast of size and by colour.
more easily seen, appeals to the mind through the eye with special emphasis,
and the inscription as read by an intelligent reader, bears a close resemblance
It is a
to the same statement delivered by the voice of a trained speaker.
visible oration.

One

calls to

mind the means taken by the pedagogue of our

youthful days, who, to show the value of accent or emphasis, repeated the
same sentence with many different inflexions, emphasising each word in turn,

and

in

each case altering

may do

compositor

different colour the

whole

its

significance.

In

By means of type of

the same thing.

limited

way

the

a larger size or a

example has emphasised certain phrases


and words.
He thus occupies an important place in the relations between
He is the interpreter, the
speaker and hearer, between writer and reader.
Other means of emphasis are within his power, such
go between of both.
as

compositor

in this

surrounding a selected word or sentence by

or isolating a sentence, framing


There is a constant temptation

who

sets

each

end he has

new

in view,

been more effective.


it

is

line

in

XVII.,
were by a border of unprinted paper.
here to over-emphasis, and the compositor

it

as

it

a different fount of a

by producing crude

The

however important

a line or rule, as in Plate

effects

"
use of a " catch line

is

different size,

defeats the

where subtlety would have


illustrated in Plate

XXVII.;

that after this has caught the eye of the reader, the

subsequent statements should be interesting.

forms of the units to be used are designed by the


In the case of the compositor the forms of the
craftsman himself.

most

crafts the

and spaces) have already been fixed for him.


He,
units
he
not
the
of
the
is
still
however, though
employs,
designer
an arranger of them.
Unless he is required to imitate from a
units

(letters

first, the sizes of his type, second,


printed copy, he has still to decide
the character and number of founts to be used, and third, whether capitals

only or capitals and lower-case letters shall be employed in the whole or parts
He must also determine the positions and general shapes of the
of the page.
masses of type employed, the relative importance of certain words and phrases,

and

also the

margins of paper surrounding the printed matter.

At

first

for variety

Plate

IX.

may
may

may seem

very limited choices, and the opportunities


appear restricted, but a reference to examples a and b on
show that upon the single question of proportion between

sight these

The arrangement of
printed surface and margins, some variety is possible.
Two similar panels of type,
type shown on Plate IX. is the obvious one.
each containing identical matter set in capitals only, are shown. In example a,
the space occupied by the printed matter is large and the margins are narrow.
In example d, the panel of type is smaller and the surrounding margins

correspondingly larger.
will serve to

illustrate

of the ordinary letterpress pages of the book


the normal proportions of type and margins.
Each

Any

of the three examples produces a different

As extremely narrow and


therefore more distinctive and

effect.

extremely wide margins are unusual, they are


more noticeable than normal margins. A wide divergence of opinion exists

among

printers as to

what

is

a suitable

of the functions of margins may


as to the width they should be.

assist

width for margins, and a recognition

us to

come

to

some

definite conclusion

Margins are the unprinted borders which


surround the text.
They bear the same relation to type as a frame does to
a picture.
They are necessary for the purpose of isolating the text, and
have also a function in relieving the eye when it is tired.
Excessively wide
are
to
draw
one's
attention
to
the frame, to the consequent
margins
apt
unduly
neglect of the picture, while very narrow margins may give a sense of meanness
Two well recognised proportions of margin are
or parsimony to the page.
These proportions are used on different kinds of pages.
acknowledged.

Firsts when a page is meant to be looked at by itself, as in the case of


an advertisement, where no recognition of the opposite page is implied, the
panel of type is centred, and the outer and inner margins are equal and
usually rather wider than the margin at the top of the page, while the

lower margin in all cases is twice as wide as the top margin.


Second., in
the case of ordinary printed matter, two pages facing each other must be
The relations of upper and lower margins are
taken together as one unit.
the same as in the previous case, but the two outer margins at right and
left sides of the double page are twice the width of the inside margins, or
in

other

words,

each

outside

margin

and

the

two

inside

margins

taken

of the advertisement pages illustrates the former


latter case can be seen anywhere throughout this book wherever

together are equal.

The

case.

two pages of the

Any

text

each

face

Practical

other.

considerations

make

it

necessary that the margin at the lower edge of the page should be the widest,
" handle " of the book
as this is really the
the part it is held by.
Were
it narrower the thumb and
fingers would cover the print, and necessitate the

book being held by another edge while the


If the size of the page

is

last lines

of print were being read.

fixed for the compositor

and a

definite

amount

of printed matter is required to be placed upon it, he must first arrange the
relative width of the type margins.
After this has been settled, his next
consideration is the general disposition of the masses of type.
This depends
almost entirely upon the nature of the advertisement and the items composing
If the advertisement is mainly composed of a paragraph consisting of
it.
connected sentences (a form of advertisement eminently readable and clear)
the subsequent procedure consists mostly in

selecting appropriate founts and

and setting them, as in Plates XI., XIV., XVI., XXVII., and XXIX.
In most cases the details of the advertisement suggest the most suitable

sizes

XIX.

the items were supplied without any attempt


at arrangement, this being left in the author's hands.
When these were
sorted out it was found that they were not suited for a paragraph of sentences.

In Plate

arrangement.

mostly of the goods to be advertised, with the names and


addresses of offices, works, and agents, etc.
The tabular arrangement used in
Plate XIX. was immediately suggested.
The advertisement really consists of

They

three

consisted

main

advertised.

The
by a

third item
rule.

The

two

name of

the firm and the goods being


These two items are combined into a panel of type set in capitals.

items.

is

first

are the

made up of

Each of the

a table of six parts set in two columns divided


tabulated items consists of the location of office,

The margins left


works, or agency, with its address, 'phone numbers, etc.
at each side of the
upper panel suggested the inclusion of six uniform
ornaments.
The items of Plate XIII. suggested a different arrangement.
The information to be conveyed in this page naturally divided itself into
three

parts

first,

the

name and

address

of

being advertised, and third, the information

the

firm,

second,

the

the

lowest

contained in

goods
sub-

92

The

panel is divided into two compartments separated


by rules and ornaments. The compartment to the left-hand side contains
the names of the different kinds of goods manufactured, while the
rightdivision.

central

hand compartment

contains

particulars

manner, and

is

different

to

as

the

materials

This advertisement might have

manufacture, sizes,
ways, but the arrangement shown
etc.

is

at

least

been

readable, arranged

from any other advertisement

in

used

in

set

in

in

the

other

a sensible

The

the book.

This
arrangement of Plate XII. arises out of the necessities of the case.
the
of
the
trade
mark
of
the firm, which is surrounded
page required
display
border composed of two separate units
The spaces at
repeated.
each side of this central panel were suitable for the inclusion of the
necessary

by a

thistle

These two panels have


descriptive matter relating to the goods advertised.
been set in type of readable size, and the inclusion of four thistle ornaments
appropriate as enrichment for an advertisement by a Scotch firm of manufacturers, completes the main features of the page.
Practically the entire
is set in five different sizes of one fount.
Different effects are produced
page

by the use of

the former
only or lower-case letters only
illustrated in Plate X. (a) and
(V) and in Plate XL, the latter in Plate
capitals

is

well

XXVII.

In Plate X. (a) the panel is set in one fount of one size, and
capitals only
are used
in (b) the same matter is set in one fount of one size, and lower;

case letters only with


necessary capitals
case is distinctive.
The panel
is
(a)

an

are employed.

The

effect

in

each

and monumental, and such


the amount of matter is limited.

dignified

where
arrangement
very
This arrangement was in common use among the ancient Romans for init
was the only arrangement possible in those early
scriptions on stone
suitable

is

times, as small letters


at

(b)

had not then been evolved.

The

second arrangement

shows more variety of form, since the ascenders and descenders of

the lower-case letters introduce a


variety not possible in the use of capitals
only, the forms of which are all equal in height and approximately similar
in shape to each other.
The variety of units introduced in (b) makes its
effect,

as a whole,

With
variety

the

less

pronounced and

introduction of two or

of effects

is

increased.

Plate

distinctive than that of (a).

more
XI.

of the same fount, the


illustrates the use of four sizes
sizes

93
Plate XII. has
of one fount of capitals only.
both capitals and lower-case letters are employed.

and

five

sizes are

used.

In Plate

XIV. two

five

sizes,

case of one fount, are use'd for the principal features.

of

five

its

italic,

sizes

of one fount, and

In Plate XIII. four founts

both capitals and lowerPlate

XVI.

is

composed

One fount only, with


capitals and lower-case, of one fount.
used in Plate XVII., while capitals only and lower-case letters

sizes, in
is

only are well contrasted in Plate XXVII. the latter being employed for
the central panel and the former for the surrounding border
similar contrasts
,

are
in

shown

in

form and

Plate

XXIX.

position.

the

contrasting masses are however different

CHAPTER SEVEN.

THE DESIGN & COMBINATION OF TYPE ORNAMENTS.


OR

purposes

of type-display the

inclusion

of a

good selection
ornaments are the

These
type ornaments is necessary.
means of introducing variety into the page,
be used with knowledge and discrimination.
of

One

it.

is

the

but
It

they
is

must

quite

as

easy to destroy a fine effect by their inclusion as to enhance


of the commonest pitfalls always yawning for the unwary compositor,
to

temptation

place

ornamental

unlike

units

together

on

page.

ornaments are each good of their kind which is not


Even where
there is a tendency to place together on the page ornaments
always the case
which suggest different periods, countries, and associations. The ornaments
these

used in one piece of work should be in


form, such as borders, corners, head and

series,
tail

that

pieces,

is,

etc.,

units

of different

should

all

be of

the same style, so that if combined they will harmonise with each other.
Whether they will harmonise with the type or not, is quite a different
question.
Though the compositor is not called upon to design the type
ornaments he uses, he should understand the principles involved in their
design, so as to be able to

combine them.

The forms

may

used in type ornament or indeed in any kind of ornament,


All ornamental
be based upon, but should not be imitations of nature.

units are derived

from one of two

sources.

They

are obtained either

from

natural forms, such as plants, animals, fish, etc., or from forms not directly
traceable to nature, such as the elemental geometrical forms
straight and
In the
curved lines, triangle, square, circle, etc., and their combinations.
former case the designer is apt to succumb to the temptation to imitate
nature.

He

forgets that

ornament

is

an adaptation for a special purpose, not


94

95
this to be

kept in view

when

designing type ornaWithout being too pedantic upon the question of historical accuracy,
ments.
there should be at least a natural if not an historical harmony between the

an imitation.

Especially

is

It must not
printed page.
Ancients themselves were not slow to borrow from

all

The

are

various items

letters

upon

and words used

on

the

communication between writer and


upon forms produced by the

printed
reader.

skilful

use

enrichment for a page of type should

page

The

of the

be

forgotten that the


the preceding ages.

symbols,

means of

type-characters are based


The
reed-pen or quill.

suggest the pen, not the brush,


which the reproduction by half tone blocks suggests. If the type ornament
is based oh natural forms, it should be rendered with a
pen in such a way
also

type characters, which also were originally


produced by a similar instrument.

as

to be

in

harmony with

the

form, and colour of an ornamental unit taken together make


Character in printing, as in life, is all important.
A
up its character.
piece of ornament may not be refined, may not be dainty or dignified, but

The

if it
it

size,

has personality or character, the eye of the discerning will never pass

without recognition.

RINTERS'

ornaments, by which is meant the units employed


in the enrichment of a page of type, may, apart from art
The
considerations, be either bold or dainty, heavy or light.
effect of the completed page will depend upon the harmonious
relations

existing

between

the

two

elements

associated,

viz.,

It is not sufficient to say that bold type will


type and ornament.
require
bold ornament, nor to say that light type will always be in harmony with
Were the principle as simple as this, none could err.
dainty ornament.

Other considerations

exist,

such

as the

relative quantities of type

and orna-

ment, the positions and sizes of the various units, as well as the community
of spirit which should exist between them. It would be manifestly unfortunate
that a fine fount of type should be associated with ornament which was trivial
in character, or that type which was poor in form should be printed along

with

fine

ornament.

In fact poor ornament as well as poor type should never

96

be used, even though the page

is

advertising something of a trifling nature.

The

he may,
compositor has not the option of rejecting undignified matter
He must make sure that his
however, set the matter in an attractive style.
When two coloured
part of the business is as well done as he can do it.
;

inks are employed in the decoration of a page, a new element is introduced,


and ornament which would look too heavy if printed along with type in
See Plate XVII.
black, may look appropriate if printed in a lighter colour.

type and ornament

determined partly by the considerations already set forth, and partly also by custom and usage.
Type is a series
of symbols based upon pen writing, by means of which we communicate with
Most people in reading are so much occupied with the sense
one another.

Harmony between

is

contained in the communication that they are not consciously aware of its
form, arrangement, or enrichment.
They are, however, unconsciously affected

by the interest of the message, to produce which is the function of the writer
and by the value or proportion of emphasis and its agreeable arrangement and
His business
enrichment, to produce which is the function of the compositor.
;

and display his units of type and ornaments so that the message
The
of the writer shall be felt, and this with the greatest charm possible.
compositor is the first to appreciate the. intention of the writer, and in making
is

to arrange

the message easy to decipher and pleasant to read, he collaborates with the
writer, and by judiciously emphasising his meaning, he stands in the relation

of guide to the reader.

own

and illuminates

his

which govern the construction of ornament

are

In

serving

both

he

glorifies

craft.

HE

principles

The forms
upon the observation of natural form.
employed in ornament are similar to those created by nature
These forms exhibit symmetry or like-sidedness, as
herself.

based

in

leaf,

fs^pT]

or by the

\*BJ*fr4

flowers

ifv^ji

arrange
and of

t^^H ment
^*<^ men.

radiation

illustrated

by

the

petals

of

The same
junction of stems and leaves.
in the bodies of animals
parts is seen

S*^a
of
Other principles of construction

are illustrated

forms are combined, so as to produce new ornamental units


symmetry with and without variety, distribution of interest,

when

these are balance,

etc., etc.

97
In

the

The
important principle.
in the case of type, the twentyThese he arranges and combines under conditions.

of

art

printing, repetition
uses
a
limited
number of units
compositor
six letters of the alphabet.
Such also is the case in the use

is

an

He may

of his ornaments.

take a simple

placing each
type ornament, say a leaf, and repeat it in a horizontal line
Different borders may
unit close to the last, he may form a band or border.
;

be formed by using the same units and altering their positions (Plate XXIV. D).
Other variations are possible in the making of a simple border with one unit.

Borders of a more ornate character

may

be

made by

using two or

more

XXIV., B, C, and D. A border of a much more ornate


character is shown in Plate XIV., where three units of more complicated
form are employed. The use of borders by printers is obvious.
Diapers
or all over patterns may be formed by repeating one or more units in
A is composed of similar units
horizontal lines, as shown in Plate XXIII.
units, as in

Plate

the resultant
equal spaces and placed in horizontal lines
named an open diaper, so called because the ornamental units are

alternated with
is

pattern
B is a close diaper in
not placed close together.
C
close together, but point in different directions.

which the
is

units are placed

a close diaper

composed

is an
of two repeated units.
open diaper composed of two floral units.
It will be noticed that the roses and leaves in this diaper are diagrammatic

The

use of diapers by printers is a restricted one ;


they are,' however, useful as panels in the decoration of a cover containing
few words.
Diapers are also suitable for the printing of end papers, and
rather than imitative.

an inventive compositor can often produce by means of rules and diaper


units an end paper which is infinitely more appropriate than those made
for the trade.

The

use

of a single ornamental unit repeated several times

A few examples are given


on a page is shown on Plates XIX. and XXII.
As a
on Plate XXV. of panels and tail pieces not meant to be repeated.
more

can bear repetition.


Letters which
are over-ornamented or are very ornate in themselves may be admissible as
initials, but their ornateness tends to make them illegible, and when they
rule,

the simpler the unit the

it

occur in large numbers, both mind and eye become quickly tired in trying
A series of Initials based upon mediaeval capitals is
to decipher them.
illustrated

on Plate

XXXIX.

CHAPTER EIGHT.

HARMONY OF COLOUR

THE USE OF
PRINTING PAPERS AND INKS.

EFERENCE
materials

been

has

IN

made

which were used

in

an

earlier

for writing

upon

chapter
in

to

the

early historic

The

invention of the printing press and the consequent


large amount of printing which was the natural result called
for a printing surface which could be cheaply produced.
times.

Immediately prior to 1455 vellum or parchment was used for MS. written
books, and also after 1455 for printed books of the best class.
Paper had been used in China as early as 200 B.C., but was first made
in

Europe during the eleventh century.

made of

cotton rags,

were combined

in

European country

while

in

The

European papers were


the twelfth century linen and cotton rags
early

their manufacture.

Spain seems to have been the first


and Italy, France, and Germany soon followed

to

produce it,
The printers of our own country imported most of their paper from
suit.
The first English Paper Mill was established at
France and Holland.
English paper was made there by
John Tate in 1495. Rags were so cheap, there was no attempt to introduce
any other fibre into its manufacture till the end of the eighteenth century,

Stevenage in Hertfordshire, and the

when paper-makers began

first

experiments with
with the view to their use in the making of paper.
to

try

other

Modern papers are made principally from linen and


For hand-made printing papers
grass, and wood pulp.

vegetable

fibres

cotton rags, Esparto


the strongest fibres

This quality of paper is used for


employed clean linen rags.
Editions-de-luxe and for books of an important and permanent nature.
It is, of course, more
It is usually finished
costly than the commoner sorts.
only

are

98

99
with three surfaces
and VII.

Plates II.

Antique Laid,

Wove

and

Plates

I.

and VIII

Glazed, Plates

III.

Wove Unglazed,

and VI.

The

first

is

not too small a size, but for line illustrations, either


quite suitable for type of
of the two latter is preferable.
Papers made principally from Esparto grass
These papers are
are much employed for printing of the best description.
variety of surfaces
Antique Wove, Plates

in

finished

Smooth,

Plates

XII., XIII.,

XXVI., and

XXXVI. and XXXVII. and Antique


"
"
Laid, Plates XXXIV. and XXXIX.
Featherweight
papers made almost
for the
entirely of high grade Esparto grass are very much used nowadays
XXXI.

production of novels.
are finished in different

Antique Wove,

Plates

These papers are very bulky for their weight, and


and
surfaces
Antique Laid, Plates X. and XV.
IX. and XVI.
Art Papers are usually employed
;

White Art Paper,


and Tinted Art Paper, Plates XXXV. and XXXVIII.
Plates XL, XIV.,
Several Tinted Printing Papers are also illustrated
Plates
XXVIL, and XXX. and Cover Papers, Plates XVII. to XXIV.
XXVIII. and XXIX. are printed upon a Smooth Linen Paper.

for the printing of


Plates IV. and V.,

half-tone and three-colour blocks

The

attention of the printer is, however, more naturally directed towards


the surface of the paper upon which he prints, and to the qualities of hardness
or porosity, smoothness or roughness, they may possess.
and internal structure of the paper affect any printing

upon it. The particles of fibre of which paper


by means of size, and if the proportion of size

is
is

Both the ingredients

which may be placed


composed are held together
a limited one the resultant

the limit of porosity is reached in the case of blotting


paper, which has the smallest quantity of size in its composition.
paper
which has a great deal of size in it is naturally very hard. The surface of

paper

is

soft or

porous

printing papers

paper pulp

is

produced by the character of the felt upon which the fluid


run when being made.
Very smooth and glazed surfaces are
is

Not only
produced by passing the paper between polished cast iron rollers.
does this make the surface of the paper smooth, but it presses the fibres of
the paper closer together, and makes it harder and less spongy.
When line
blocks

are

printed upon

soft

should the impression be at

all

surfaced papers the lines are apt to spread,


a heavy one.
If the impression is at all light

100
the resultant print will be poor and weak, both in colour and in distinctness.
The weakness of the print is due partly to the absorbency of the paper and
partly to the openness of
art papers

whose

its

surfaces

The

surface.

are

sharpest impressions are got


coated with Kolin, Porcelain Earth, or

from

some

such clay.
The printing surface when applied to this paper makes an instant
and perfect contact, leaving a full deposit of ink, which dries
quickly and
does not spread.

HERE

is

no need

in

book which concerns

itself

with the

art

aspect of type-display to refer to the chemical composition of


It is well enough known that the ideal
type, papers, or inks.

printing ink is one which in the press fulfils


the minimum trouble to the machineman.

its

functions with

Inks which vary


in quality or consistency, being at one time strong and at another time weak,
which take a long time to dry, or are so sticky that the paper fails to leave
the type after the impression is made, are unsatisfactory.
Some inks are
required to appear bright and shining when dry, while others are required
to appear dull, and these can be readily supplied by any skilled ink-maker.

In any case the machineman likes to use an ink which can be depended upon
to

produce uniformly good

results

without

undue washing up.

He

also

expects that after careful making ready every print shall be clear and sharp,
and that each print shall be perfect and all prints of the same standard.

These

depend not only upon the quality of the ink, but upon
many other things, such as the making ready, the good working surfaces and
qualities of the rollers, the appropriate surface of the paper, and the absolute
desirable results

In the early days of printing the ink was


precision of the printing machine.
distributed by hand by means of leather pads or dabbers, and it is wonderful

what comparatively admirable

results

were obtained by the use of

this primitive

Plates I. to VII. are reproductions of early printed pages,


inking instrument.
the inking of the type of which was carried out by this simple means.
There is, however, about modern printing a certainty of result hardly ever

attained at the

dawn of

the

art.

101

RINTERS

of course, aware of the infinite variety of shades


and colours produced by the use of three inks only in the three
are,

colour process.

In this process the three inks employed are a

bright and pure yellow, a pure crimson red, and a strong blue.
The resulting prints from such inks are usually fairly like the
originals,

the

and would always be so

The

colours

pure.
neutral

pure, i.e.,
no blue or

red

in
in

yellow,

red,

yellow to be absolutely pure must have


If it is tinged with the smallest
composition.

colour.
its

supply of ink were uniform and


and blue inks are never absolutely

the

if

Should
quantity of red it becomes orange, and if with blue becomes green.
it contain even the smallest
quantities of both of these colours it becomes
correspondingly duller in colour and lower in tone.
neutral red would be free of either yellow or blue.
it

slightly orange

of both would

and the

make

it

In the same

way

a pure

The former would make

latter slightly violet in colour,

while small quantities

duller in colour and lower in tone.

pure neutral

blue would contain no red or yellow, it would not incline either to violet
or green.
Such pure inks are entirely theoretical, and neutral coloured inks
as described

have yet to be produced.

tendencies indicated they are always


combination with any of the other

The

three colours

the eye does not perceive the


present, and when the colours are in
colours, these tendencies are revealed.

Though

named and the three inks used are


primaries named by the scientist

and though the


from the point of view of the

the well-known primaries,


are

different

from

these,

artist, ink maker, or printer, the primaries are


The yellow employed in the three colour process is
yellow, red, and blue.
usually tainted with blue, the red usually also tainted with blue, and the blue

with yellow.

has been

impossible so far to produce absolutely


neutral yellow, red, and blue printing inks, and the printer is perforce obliged
to use the biassed inks already indicated.
Secondary colours or inks are
It

in

fact

obtained by combining any of the two primaries, producing by means of yellow


and blue green, by yellow and red orange, and by red and blue violet.
The resultant greens obtained by mixing yellow and blue together will depend

upon the proportions of each of the two colours employed. A wide range
of greens may be obtained, varying from one which is almost yellow to

IO2
one which

almost blue.

is

It

is

in fact practically impossible to say

where

green ends and yellow begins, or to say when green ends and blue begins.
The same may be said of violet and orange colours. Vermilion, for instance,
usually classed as a red, contains as

practice practically any colour

may

in varying proportions, especially if

Inks

may

be

made

lighter

much

With a little
yellow as crimson.
be made by mixing the three primaries
white and black also may be employed.
medium, which still
by the addition of white, which renders

by the use of

keeps them as transparent as

at first, or

printers' thinning

When yellow, red,


gives the colour a different quality.
and blue are combined in certain proportions, a series of browns and greys
them opaque and

Brown

composed of yellow and red with a small quantity


while greys are composed of yellow and blue with a smaller quantity
The tone of ink may be made darker by the addition of black, which

are produced.

of blue,
of red.
will in

all

cases

make

is

it

duller as well.

Though

it

is

usually advisable to get

the exact colour of ink required from the ink maker, it is sometimes an
advantage to be able to slightly alter the tone or colour of an ink in the
In any case a knowledge of the primaries and their comalways necessary in preparing trial prints in colour on the hand

machine-room.
binations
press.

is

As most coloured inks

are

more

or less

transparent,

and

as

in

any

case the film of ink on paper is always comparatively thin, the ultimate colour
of the print is dependent upon the colour of the paper as well as upon that
of the ink.
Bright inks printed upon neutral coloured paper will therefore

always appear duller than

if

EFERENCE
ment

in

principles

printed upon white paper.

has already been

design

come

made

to principles of

order,

repetition,
into operation

in

and

variety.

connection with

arrangeSimilar
colour,

By proportion
principally those of proportion and contrast.
is meant the
relative quantities of colours occurring in a
printed page, as, for instance, the quantity of black type in relation to the
The
white paper.
Black, white, and grey may be termed neutral colours.
So
dictionary meanings of black and white are identical, viz., colourless.
long as white paper and black ink are used together, very little can be said

103
about the relative quantities of these, but when any other colour is used with
black upon white paper, the possibilities of harmony or discord are increased.
It

when

should be remembered that

a bright colour

and black are used

in the

printing of a page, the' former will attract the eye more strongly than the
As has already been said in relation
latter, bu,t only up to a certain point.
variety of form,
produces confusion.
to

little

creates

interest,

but too

much

variety
use of colour in, say, an initial or a headline may
along with black produce a fine effect, whereas alternate lines or alternate
words in black and colour is anything but effective, being distracting and
variety

The

printed in colour does not appear so heavy as the


Not only bright but also dull colours may be
same type printed in black.
a larger quantity of coloured lettering may
introduced along with black
tiring to the eye.

Type

The

tone value of two colours printed


upon the same page should be as nearly as possible equal, at least if the
Pure
lettering in the two colours is at all nearly equal in quantity (area).
be introduced if

its

colour

ornament should be made

is

dull.

conspicuous than the printing which it enriches.


It is a questionable practice to make the ornament more attractive and forcible
than the printing which it accompanies, and reminds one of a frame which
less

more commendation than the picture which lies inside it. The
is
employed and illustrated in the use of black and
principle of contrast
coloured inks upon white and tinted papers.
Jet black ink printed upon pure
calls

forth

white paper gives the maximum of contrast, whereas when the tone and colour
A
of paper and ink most nearly coincide, the contrast is a minimum one.
careful comparison of many samples of black ink demonstrates that all are not
equally black, and a print from a half-tone block will reveal tendencies to blue,

green, or brown, not visible

While

it

would be

when

the ink

is

used in line or mass.

a very difficult thing

and probably an injudicious one

frame rules of colour harmony, several general propositions may


Avoid too
be advanced, which, if not brilliant, may be considered usually safe.
many colours upon one page. Musical harmony is not necessarily produced
to attempt to

because the orchestra consists of

form

is

not

necessarily

Colour harmony

is

many men with

produced by the

instruments.

inclusion

of

many

Harmonious
varied

parts.

not always the result of the inclusion of a great variety

104
of colours and

tints.

Two

colours,

as

a rule, are

sufficient,

one of which

should always be predominant either in quantity or interest.


There should
be no competition between the different colours employed in a page.
Competition can be prevented, and principality or emphasis produced by the

employment of unequal quantity and unequal interest. In a colour harmony


employing two colours, one bright and one dull, the dull colour acts as a foil
to the bright,

and the bright colour

acts as a contrast to the

dull.

Should

three colours be used they may appear in something like the following prothe greatest quantity of surface should be printed with the dullest
portions
colour, the middle quantity of surface covered by ink of a moderate tint, and
:

It
the brightest of the three colours should be employed most sparingly.
may not be out of place to explain some of the more common terms

These terms are applied in describing


describing colours.
of the colour, and second, in describing the tone of the colour.

employed
the

hue

in

first

The

terms bright and dull refer to the hue, and the terms light or dark refer
can thus have a bright light or a bright dark colour, a
to the tone.
dull light or a dull dark colour.
The proper use of such terms will enable

We

anyone to describe both the hue and tone of

a colour

more accurately than by

the employment of such loose terms as are in common use.


Do not spot the
bright colour all over the page, but concentrate it on one or two main features.
Jet black ink upon white paper has received the approval of both printer and

but the printer who essays the use of coloured


public from time immemorial
Not that
inks upon coloured papers is liable to criticism as well as failure.
;

he need mind criticism too much.

Many

kind friends

who would

never

dream of departing from established precedent are always willing to expend


their critical powers upon work which they have neither the initiative to
conceive nor the courage to produce.

THE END.