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Project Management

Executive Director: Professor Denis Goodrum, FACE (Australian Academy of Science)


Director of Curriculum Development: Jef Byrne
Director of Professional Learning and Strategic Development: Dr Kerrie Wilde
Web and Digital Co-ordinator: Dr Jen Liu
Administrative Coordinator: Katie Ryan
Administrative Officer: Kathy Hamilton
This resource was written by: Dr Brenda Grieve and Dr Kerrie Wilde.
Science by Doing would like to thank Spinks and Suns for the design and development of this resource.

Funding Acknowledgement
Science by Doing is supported by the Australian Government.

Disclaimer
The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the Australian Government, Department of
Education or Education Services Australia.
These materials are intended for education and training only. Every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the
information presented in these materials. We do not assume liability for the accuracy or completeness of the information
contained within. The Australian Academy of Science accepts no responsibility for any loss or damage whatsoever
suffered as a result of direct or indirect use or application of any of these training materials.
This unit incorporates a number of chemicals and chemical processes for experimental and investigative purposes. The
appropriate and applicable risk assessment and policies should be implemented by a suitably trained teacher on each
occasion, as relevant to each schools standards, teaching environment and context. Teacher demonstrations should only
be undertaken by a suitably qualified and trained teacher following a full risk assessment and safety analysis.
Australian Academy of Science, 2015
You may freely use this resource for non-commercial educational purposes but please acknowledge the resource
and the Australian Academy of Science as the source. Please note there are third party items in this resource that are
outlined. To use these items other than in this resource you must obtain permission from the third party owners.
Under no circumstances may copies be sold in any form.
ISBN 978-0-85847-369-0-376-8
Published by the Australian Academy of Science
GPO Box 783
Canberra ACT 2601
Telephone: 02 6201 9400
Fax: 02 6201 9494
www.science.org.au

CONTENTS
Unit map

The periodic table of elements

PART 1:

IT'S ELEMENTARY

Activity 1.1
Activity 1.2
Activity 1.3
Activity 1.4
Activity 1.5

Whats the matter?


Atoms matter
Atomic structure
What makes chemicals different?
Isotopes

PART 2: REACTIONS HAPPEN


Activity 2.1
Activity 2.2
Activity 2.3
Activity 2.4
Activity 2.5
Activity 2.6
Activity 2.7
Activity 2.8

What is a chemical reaction?


Conservation of mass
Ionic compounds
Writing chemical formulae
Sharing electrons
It's falling apart
Reactions in solution
Chemicals revised

PART 3: ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS


Activity 3.1
Activity 3.2
Activity 3.3
Activity 3.4
Activity 3.5
Activity 3.6

What is radioactivity?
Researching radioactivity
Detecting radioactivity
How long does it last?
Nuclear energy
The future

4-15
5
7
9
11
15

16-34
17
19
21
25
26
29
31
34

35-44

PART 4: ENERGY AND CHANGE


Activity 4.1
Activity 4.2
Activity 4.3
Activity 4.4
Activity 4.5

What is energy?
Hot and cold
Combustion
Reactions in nature
Industrial chemistry

PART 5:

ACIDS AND BASES

Activity 5.1
Activity 5.2
Activity 5.3
Activity 5.4
Activity 5.5
Activity 5.6
Activity 5.7
Activity 5.8

Acid or base?
Indicators
The pH scale
Neutralisation
Acids and metals
Acids and carbonates
Acids and bases everywhere
Are you a chemist?

Glossary

45-55
46
47
49
51
54

56-71
57
59
61
64
66
67
68
70
72

36
37
38
40
42
43

PART 1

PART 2

PART 3

PART 4

PART 5

ITS
ELEMENTARY

REACTIONS
HAPPEN

ENERGY
FROM THE
NUCLEUS

ENERGY AND
CHANGE

ACIDS AND
BASES

Icon
Meaning

Digital interactive

Hands-on inquiry

Classroom activity

Notebooking

Discussion

15

Hydrogen
1.008

Li

Lithium
6.94

11

Be

THE

2
53

68

Er

66

Dy I

53

He

Helium
4.003

TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

Beryllium
9.012

12

37

Rb

38

Rubidium
84.468

Strontium
87.62

55

56

Potassium
39.098

Ca
Calcium
40.078

Sr

Cs Ba
Cesium
132.905

87

Fr

Francium
[223]

Barium
137.327

88

Aluminum
26.982

21

Sc

Scandium
44.956

39

Yttrium
88.906

57

La

Lanthanum
138.905

89

Ra Ac
Radium
[226]

Al

14

13

Magnesium
24.305

20

19

Boron
10.81

Na Mg
Sodium
22.990

Actinium
[227]

22

Ti

Titanium
47.867

40

Zr

Zirconium
91.224

72

Hf

Hafnium
178.49

104

Rf

Rutherfordium
[267]

23

24

25

26

Chromium
51.996

41

42

Manganese
54.938

43

Nb Mo Tc
Niobium
92.906

Molybdenum
95.95

Technetium
[98]

73

74

75

Tantalum
180.948

Tungsten
183.84

Rhenium
186.207

105

106

107

Ta

45

46

Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd

49

Ruthenium
101.07

Rhodium
102.906

Palladium
106.42

76

77

78

Au Hg

81

111

113

114

Ununtrium
[286]

Flerovium
[289]

66

67

Re Os
Osmium
190.23

108

Db Sg Bh Hs

Dubnium
[268]

58

Ce
Cerium
140.116

90

Th

Thorium
232.038

Seaborgium
[269]

59

Pr

Praseodymium
140.908

91

Pa

Bohrium
[270]

Hassium
[269]

60

61

Ir

Iridium
192.217

109

Mt

Meitnerium
[278]

Ni
Nickel
58.693

Pt

Platinum
195.084

110

92

Protactinium
231.036

Uranium
238.029

alkali
metal

alkaline
earth
metal

16

Nitrogen
14.007

Phosphorus
30.974

33

Oxygen
15.999

Se

Antimony
121.760

Tellurium
127.6

83

84

Silver
107.868

79

Cadmium
112.414

80

Gold
196.967

Mercury
200.592

112

In

Indium
114.818

Tl

Thallium
204.38

Germanium
72.630

50

Arsenic
74.922

Sn Sb
Tin
118.71

82

Pb
Lead
207.2

Bi

Bismuth
208.980

115

18

35

Sulfur
32.06

52

48

Gallium
69.723

Cl

Selenium
78.971

Te

Po

Polonium
[209]

116

Ne

Fluorine
18.998

17

51

Zinc
65.38

10

47

Copper
63.546

Neon
20.180

Ar

Chlorine
35.45

Argon
39.948

36

Br

Kr

Bromine
79.904

53

Krypton
83.798

54

At

86

Xe

Iodine
126.904

Xenon
131.293

85

Rn

Astatine
[210]

Radon
[222]

117

118

Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo

63

Samarium
150.36

Europium
151.964

93

94

95

Neptunium
[237]

Plutonium
[244]

Americium
[243]

metalloid

non-metal

64

65

Gadolinium
157.25

96

Terbium
158.925

97

Np Pu Am Cm Bk
transition
metal

Cu Zn Ga Ge As

Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium


[281]
[280]
[285]

62

Promethium
[145]

32

34

Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb

Neodymium
144.242

31

Silicon
28.085

44

Cobalt
58.933

30

Si

15

Carbon
12.011

Co

Iron
55.845

29

28

Cr Mn Fe

Vanadium
50.942

27

Curium
[247]

basic
metal

Berkelium
[247]

halogen

Dy Ho

Dysprosium
162.50

98

Cf

Californium
[251]

noble
gas

Holmium
164.930

99

Ununpentium Livermortium Ununseptium


[289]
[293]
[294]

68

69

70

lanthanide

71

Er Tm Yb

Erbium
167.259

100

Thulium
168.934

101

Mermium
[257]

Mendelevium
[258]

Lu

Ytterbium
173.054

Lutetium
174.967

102

Es Fm Md No

Einsteinium
[252]

Ununoctium
[294]

Nobelium
[259]

103

Lr

Lawrencium
[262]

actinide

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PERIODIC TABLE

Activity 1.1
Activity 1.2
Activity 1.3
Activity 1.4
Activity 1.5

Whats the matter?


Atoms matter
Atomic structure
What makes chemicals different?
Isotopes

PART

PART 1: IT'S ELEMENTARY

1
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

ACTIVITY

1.1

ATTER?
M
E
H
T
IS
T
A
WH
m is tr y
e sh yo u r ch e

ACTIVITY TYPE

WHATS THE MATTER?

PLAY

re fr
to re vi se a n d
.
k n o w le d g e
ill
: Your teacher w
r
u
r on yo
place a sticke
a mystery
h
forehead wit
g!
rd. No peekin
chemistry wo
, take turns to
In your group
uestions and
ask Yes/No q
is on your
deduce what
get a No
sticker. If you
ve onto the
response, mo
next person.

RULES

HYDROGEN

Am I a
gas?

Am I in the
periodic table?

Am I
ductile?
hmmm I mean
malleable and
shiny?

Am I the
smallest part of
matter?

SPAT
ULA

Am I
something from
the lab?
BUNSEN
BURNER

Ha!

YES!
NO!

HINT: Use your knowledge of elements and their properties, as well as chemistry apparatus. What is the best way to group or classify these chemistry terms?
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

ACTIVITY 1.1 WHATS THE MATTER? CONTINUED

HOME

provides easy navigation to


all of the different sections.

NOTEBOOK PROMPTS

assist you to share your ideas


and understandings.
These symbols indicate
discussion and
notebooking.

PIN ICONS

Before you go
to the digital resource
PART 1: IT'S ELEMENTARY
familiarise yourself
with the key navigation
features.

provide the navigation for


each particular section.

HINTS

focus your inquiry and provide


questions to help you connect
your ideas.
What do you
already know about
matter and elements?
Click here to go to the
digital resource and open
Activity 1.1 to complete
the Chemistry Revision
Quiz.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

ACTIVITY


1.2

How small is small?

ACTIVITY TYPE

ATOMS MATTER
I propose atoms
look and feel like
the substance they
form.

How would they


combine?

DEMOCRITUS

The main points of


Democritus theory were:
Everything was composed
of "atoms", which
were indivisible and
indestructible.
There were an infinite number
of atoms, and kinds of atoms,
which differed in shape and
size.
The look and texture of
individual atoms reflected the
object. For example, water
was made up of smooth and
slippery atoms.
Atoms attached to each other
with hooks and eyes, balls and
sockets.
Between atoms was empty
space.
Atoms are always in motion and
always would be in motion.
The larger the atom, the heavier
it is.

Hooks and
eyes balls and
sockets?
How else?

Democritus was one of the first to describe atoms.


Was he an artist, scientist, philosopher or all three?
According to Democritus, which of the atoms below
would be air, metal, water or salt?
SOLID
STRONG

li
pp
ERY

RP
SHA

LIG
HT

RL
WHI

M
OO
TH

IN
G

"Halve a piece of paper once,


then twice." How many halves
will you make before you can
make no more? Does it become
impossible at some point?
Who has the smallest piece?
How small is it?
Around 460 BC, Democritus
asked similar questions and
deduced that the smallest and
most basic matter particles
were "atoms", named after
the Greek word "atomos", for
"indivisible".

TIMELINE
Democritus (460 BCE)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

ACTIVITY 1.2 ATOMS MATTER CONTINUED

DALTON

All atoms of
one element are
alike, but differ from
atoms of all other
elements.

The Democritus
atomic model is
worthless! I propose all
matter is made of four
elements - earth, air,
fire and water.

All matter
is composed
of tiny indivisible
particles called
atoms.

ARISTOTLE
Aristotle (384-322 BCE), an
influential Greek philosopher and
mathematician, did not agree with
Democritus.

Compounds
form when atoms
combine in simple
whole number
ratios.

John Dalton (1766-1844) proposed his atomic theory based on


experimental results with chemicals, in which he measured the
amounts of elements that combined to form compounds.
Was Dalton a mathematician, scientist, philosopher or teacher?

spherical Dalton
atom

Dalton calculated the mass of


different atoms and gave them
symbols.
ELEM
ENTS

Why were the theories of


Aristotle and his peers accepted
for so long?

Aristotle (380 BC)

I wonder
what is
inside the
atom?
Why do
electrons
keep
moving?

How did
Dalton's theory differ
from that of Democritus? Can
you think of an experiment or
activity which supports
Dalton?

Click here to go to the


digital resource Activity 1.2 and learn
more before completing the summary
timeline in your Notebook.

Dalton's molecules

...ABOUT 80 years later...

Chemical
reactions occur
when atoms combine,
separate or are
rearranged.

...2000 years later, in 1808


Dalton (1808)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

ACTIVITY

1.3

ACTIVITY TYPE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Atoms are so small,


we cannot see them.
How small are they
and whats inside?

SPLITTING THE ATOM

Teacher demonstration

The smallest atom,


hydrogen, has a diameter of
50 picometres (pm). A larger
atom, such as lead, has a
diameter of about 360 pm.
Thats small!
There are 1,000,000,000,000
atoms in a metre.

1. Describe what you observed


during the demonstration.
2. How does this demonstration
provide evidence for Thomsons
model of the atom?

The accepted model of the atom


is based on the Rutherford/Bohr
model:
The atom consists of a small,
dense nucleus containing
protons and neutrons.
Electrons orbit in energy levels
in the space around the nucleus.
In a neutral atom, the number
equals the number
of
.
of

3. What particles are being removed


from the atoms? What evidence is
there for this?
4. What is left behind and what
charge would it have?
5. What was the main application
of the cathode ray tube that
affected all our lives?

PROTONS
ELECTRONS

NEUTRONS

The number of
varies, but usually equals the
number of protons.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

ACTIVITY 1.3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE CONTINUED


Consider the symbolic representation of the carbon
atom shown below: what do you notice about its
smaller parts and their arrangement?
The "atomic
number" is the
number of protons
in the nucleus.

+ 6 neutrons

proton
neutron

energy levels

What to do:
1. Using the carbon atom as a guide,
use symbolic representation to
show the atomic structure for
nitrogen and oxygen. What did
you notice about the number of
protons, neutrons and electrons?

The "atomic mass"


is the number of
protons plus the
number of neutrons
in the nucleus.

2. Using your periodic table and


the information on this page,
can you name these two mystery
elements?
: one is a metal, and
the other is a non-metal.

HINT

+
+
+

Click here to
go to the digital resource
Activity 1.3 and learn
more about atoms and
their structure.

+ +
+ +
+ +

+
+

+ +
+
+

Carbon atom

electron

6 protons

Scientists use special terms


to describe the structure of
each element:

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

10

ACTIVITY

1.4

WHAT MAKES
CHEMICALS DIFFERENT?


ACTIVITY TYPE

HAVE YOU GOT YOUR LAB COAT AND SAFETY


GOGGLES ON? HAIR TIED BACK AND ENCLOSED
SHOES?

Discuss the safety


rules for your lab.
Which are the
most important?
Why?

What do we
mean by "lab
safety starts
with you?"

WHEN YOU HANDLE CHEMICALS YOU NEED


TO ASSESS RISKS AND TAKE PRECAUTIONS.
REVISE LAB SAFETY WITH YOUR TEACHER AND
FAMILIARISE YOURSELF WITH CHEMICAL SAFETY
WARNINGS. KEEP AN EYE OUT FOR THIS SIGN AS
YOU PROGRESS THROUGH THE UNIT.
REMEMBER LAB SAFETY STARTS WITH YOU!

What to do:
What is a risk assessment? How do
we know which chemicals are safe to
use, and safe to mix?
Discuss with your teacher how
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

to conduct a risk assessment


and identify safety concerns for
individual chemicals.
Write a risk assessment for the
laboratory task"Whats on the
shelf?".
PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

11

ACTIVITY 1.4 WHAT MAKES CHEMICALS DIFFERENT? CONTINUED

How do
neighbouring
elements differ?
Do they look similar?

11

Sodium
22.990

Be

Beryllium
9.012

Rb

38

Rubidium
84.468

Strontium
87.62

55

56

Ca
Calcium
40.078

Sr

Cs Ba

87

Barium
137.327

88

Francium
[223]

Al

14

Aluminum
26.982

21

Sc

Scandium
44.956

39

Ti

Titanium
47.867

40

La

72

Yttrium
88.906

57

Lanthanum
138.905

89

Ra Ac
Radium
[226]

22

Actinium
[227]

Zr

Zirconium
91.224

Hf

Hafnium
178.49

104

Rf

Rutherfordium
[267]

24

25

Vanadium
50.942

Chromium
51.996

Manganese
54.938

41

42

43

44

Technetium
[98]

Ruthenium
101.07

75

76

23

26

Cr Mn Fe

Nb Mo Tc
Niobium
92.906

73

Ta

Molybdenum
95.95

74

Tantalum
180.948

105

Tungsten
183.84

106

Iron
55.845

107

Osmium
190.23

108

Db Sg Bh Hs

Dubnium
[268]

Seaborgium
[269]

Elements exist
in three states at
room temperature.
What are they?
What is required
for them to change
state?

Bohrium
[270]

Co
Cobalt
58.933

45

28

Ni
Nickel
58.693

46

29

30

Hassium
[269]

Rhodium
102.906

77

Ir

Iridium
192.217

109

Mt

Meitnerium
[278]

Palladium
106.42

78

Pt

Platinum
195.084

110

Si

15

31

Silicon
28.085

32

16

Nitrogen
14.007

Phosphorus
30.974

33

Cu Zn Ga Ge As
Copper
63.546

47

Zinc
65.38

48

Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd

Re Os

Rhenium
186.207

27

Carbon
12.011

Magnesium
24.305

37

Cesium
132.905

13

Potassium
39.098

Boron
10.81

12

20

Fr

periodic table
material safety and data sheets
(MSDS)
Science by Doing Notebook
safety glasses.

Silver
107.868

79

Cadmium
112.414

80

Au Hg
Gold
196.967

111

Mercury
200.592

112

Gallium
69.723

Germanium
72.630

49

50

In

Arsenic
74.922

Tin
118.71

81

82

Tl

Pb

Thallium
204.38

Lead
207.2

113

114

Ununtrium
[286]

Flerovium
[289]

Cl

18

Se

Selenium
78.971

Tellurium
127.6

83

84

115

10

35

34

Antimony
121.760

Bi

Fluorine
18.998

Sulfur
32.06

52

Bismuth
208.980

17

51

Sn Sb

Indium
114.818

Oxygen
15.999

Te

Po

Polonium
[209]

116

Chlorine
35.45

Br

Bromine
79.904

53

Neon
20.180

Ar
Argon
39.948

36

Kr

Krypton
83.798

At

86

Iodine
126.904

85

Astatine
[210]

117

Xe
Xenon
131.293

Rn
Radon
[222]

118

Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo

Darmstadtium Roentgenium
[281]
[280]

Can you recall


the descriptive
properties of
metals?
Identify two and
give examples.

Copernicium
[285]

Ununpentium Livermortium Ununseptium


[289]
[293]
[294]

Ununoctium
[294]

Consider the water


compound. What
makes it different
to its element
components?
H+
Describe
Othe element
components of four
other compounds
you are familiar with.

Discussion:

Step 1
Observe the displayed laboratory
chemicals. Look closely at each
substance and the information
provided. Are any two similar?
Do not open the containers.

Ne

54

Step 4
Your teacher will provide a mystery
chemical. Dont remove the lid.
What do you think it is?

What to do:

Helium
4.003

Na Mg

19

Each PAIR will require:

He

Li

Lithium
6.94

Step 3
In pairs, classify and group the
chemicals into smaller groups of
perhaps three to four.

What to use:

Hydrogen
1.008

WHAT'S ON THE SHELF?

Elements contain one type of atom.


How many elements can you recall
from the periodic table? Draw the
atomic configuration for three of them.
Compounds contain two or more
different elements. Write down three
examples and name the individual
elements which form this compound.
Can you find the elements in the
periodic table?

The periodic table


arranges elements
in order of atomic
number.

Step 2
As you observe each chemical,
complete a table similar to the
one shown, recording the name,
formula (and elements present) and
description. Are there any safety
warnings?
Substance
name

Chemical
formula

hydrochloric acid
H+

1. What properties did you use to


group the chemicals?

lead foil
potassium
permanganate

2. Share your results with the class.


Did the approaches used to
group elements and identify the
mystery sample vary?
3. Can you group the chemicals
into elements and compounds?
What is the property difference
between these two groups?

HINT: refer to the. periodic table


and safety sheets

State

Description

Safety

acidic, so can burn


HCl (hydrogen
aqueous clear solution you careful with
and chlorine)
eyes and skin
grey shiny
Pb
solid
toxic if swallowed
flexible sheets
KMnO4
shouldnt contact
(potassium +
purple
solid
skin skin and
manganese +
crystals
eye irritant
oxygen)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

12

ACTIVITY 1.4 WHAT MAKES CHEMICALS DIFFERENT? CONTINUED


1

e
In th able, How was the
t
odic s a
i
periodic table
r
e
p
ti
wha What
formed?
d?
o
i
?
r
pe group
is a

Hydrogen
1.008

Li

Lithium
6.94

11

Be

Beryllium
9.012

12

Na Mg
Sodium
22.990

37

Rb

38

Rubidium
84.468

Strontium
87.62

55

56

Potassium
39.098

Ca
Calcium
40.078

Sr

Cs Ba
Cesium
132.905

87

Fr

Francium
[223]

He

W
sub hat
-ato
m
p
ide article ic
nt
ele ifies a
me
nt? n

Helium
4.003

Barium
137.327

88

Al

14

13

Aluminum
26.982

21

Sc

Scandium
44.956

39

Yttrium
88.906

57

La

Lanthanum
138.905

89

Ra Ac
Radium
[226]

Boron
10.81

Magnesium
24.305

20

19

Actinium
[227]

22

Ti

Titanium
47.867

40

Zr

Zirconium
91.224

72

Hf

Hafnium
178.49

104

Rf

Rutherfordium
[267]

23

24

25

26

Chromium
51.996

41

42

Manganese
54.938

43

Nb Mo Tc
Niobium
92.906

Molybdenum
95.95

Technetium
[98]

73

74

75

Tantalum
180.948

Tungsten
183.84

Rhenium
186.207

105

106

107

Ta

Co

28

44

45

46

Cr Mn Fe

Vanadium
50.942

Iron
55.845

58

Ce
Cerium
140.116

90

Th

Thorium
232.038

Seaborgium
[269]

59

Pr

Praseodymium
140.908

91

Pa

Protactinium
231.036

Cobalt
58.933

Ni
Nickel
58.693

29

30

83

84

Au Hg

81

111

113

114

Ununtrium
[286]

Flerovium
[289]

66

67

108

60

61

109

Mt

Meitnerium
[278]

Pt

110

79

Gold
196.967

Cadmium
112.414

80

Mercury
200.592

112

63

Samarium
150.36

Europium
151.964

93

94

95

Neptunium
[237]

Plutonium
[244]

Americium
[243]

64

65

Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb
U

Indium
114.818

Tl

Thallium
204.38

50

Sn Sb
Tin
118.71

82

Pb
Lead
207.2

Bi

Bismuth
208.980

115

Selenium
78.971

Te

Po

Polonium
[209]

116

Neon
20.180

Ar

Chlorine
35.45

Argon
39.948

36

Br

Kr

Bromine
79.904

53

Krypton
83.798

54

At

86

Xe

Iodine
126.904

Xenon
131.293

85

Rn

Astatine
[210]

Radon
[222]

117

118

Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo

Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium


[281]
[280]
[285]

62

Promethium
[145]

Se

Tellurium
127.6

Silver
107.868

In

Arsenic
74.922

Cl

18

Ne

Fluorine
18.998

35

Antimony
121.760

Germanium
72.630

10

Sulfur
32.06

52

48

Gallium
69.723

78

Platinum
195.084

33

17

51

Zinc
65.38

77

Ir

Phosphorus
30.974

Oxygen
15.999

47

Copper
63.546

76

Iridium
192.217

16

Nitrogen
14.007

Cu Zn Ga Ge As

Palladium
106.42

Osmium
190.23

34

Rhodium
102.906

Hassium
[269]

Uranium
238.029

32

Ruthenium
101.07

Bohrium
[270]

92

Silicon
28.085

49

Re Os

Neodymium
144.242

31

Si

15

Carbon
12.011

Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd

Db Sg Bh Hs

Dubnium
[268]

27

Gadolinium
157.25

96

Terbium
158.925

97

Np Pu Am Cm Bk
Curium
[247]

Berkelium
[247]

Dy Ho

Dysprosium
162.50

98

Cf

Californium
[251]

Holmium
164.930

99

Ununpentium Livermortium Ununseptium


[289]
[293]
[294]

68

69

70

71

Er Tm Yb

Erbium
167.259

100

Thulium
168.934

101

Mermium
[257]

Mendelevium
[258]

Lu

Ytterbium
173.054

Lutetium
174.967

102

Es Fm Md No

Einsteinium
[252]

Ununoctium
[294]

Nobelium
[259]

103

Lr

Lawrencium
[262]

tion of their atomic


of the periodic table and create a model representa
rows
two
first
the
from
ents
elem
three
t
selec
,
pairs
In
element it is?
l representation to the class. Can they determine which
structure using materials provided. Display your mode

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

13

ACTIVITY 1.4 WHAT MAKES CHEMICALS DIFFERENT? CONTINUED


What patterns can we find in the properties of elements in the periodic table?

Consider gold,
An elements group gives clues about its structure.
dic table?
perio
silicon and chlorine; can you find them on the
An elements group
gives clues to its structure.
are usually solids
at room temperature.
The atoms typically form
crystalline structures. Can
you think of any exceptions?
Where would you look
for metals in the periodic
table?

METALS

gold molecules

The only gases found at


room temperature are the
. They
are made up of small
molecules which can move
around freely.
Where are non-metals
found in the periodic
table?

NON-METALS

chlorine molecules

chlorine gas

METALLOIDS

gold crystals

silicon molecules

silicon crystals

are solids
with high melting points.
Their crystals are hard to
break apart.
Where would you find
metalloids in the periodic
table?

Click here to go to the digital resource


Activity 1.4 and learn more about elements.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

14

1.5 ISOTOPES

ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN

Each atom of a particular element


always has the same number of
protons, but what about neutrons and
electrons? Can their numbers differ
between atoms of the same element?

proton

H-2 Deuterium

H-3 Tritium

atomic number

ATOMIC DIAGRAMS

s to help

you here
.

7p
9n

6p
8n

9p
7n

HINT: use cou


nter

7p
7n

8p
7n

8p
8n

A natural sample of lithium contains


about 92.6% Li-7 and 7.4% Li-6, giving an
average RAM of 6.97 on the periodic table.
An elements isotopes differ only by
mass. They behave identically in chemical
reactions.

C C

3 3

Draw atomic models of


these two isotopes.

Li

Li

mass number

Write the symbols for these three isotopes.


How many electrons will neutral atoms of each isotope have?

Isotopes are atoms of the same element


with different numbers of neutrons.

6 7

12 13
element symbol

H-1 Protium

WHAT IS AN ISOTOPE?

Lithium has 2 isotopes with mass


numbers of 6 and 7.

Symbols to indicate different isotopes


can be written like this carbon atom.

electron

An atoms mass is equivalent to the


number of protons and neutrons.
Why, then, are the relative atomic
masses (RAM) shown in the periodic
table not whole numbers?

All the atoms of the same element always


contain the same number of protons,
which gives the element its atomic
number. However, the atoms can contain
different numbers of neutrons, giving
them different mass numbers.

neutron

ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY TYPE

How many elements are shown in these diagrams?


What are they? Are any of the atoms charged particles?
Draw symbols for each one.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Click here to go to the


digital resource Activity 1.5 and
learn more about isotopes.
Use the "Build an atom" interactive
to check your answers and
construct your own isotopes.
PART 1

IT'S ELEMENTARY

15

Activity 2.1
Activity 2.2
Activity 2.3
Activity 2.4
Activity 2.5
Activity 2.6
Activity 2.7
Activity 2.8

What is a chemical reaction?


Conservation of mass
Ionic compounds
Writing chemical formulae
Sharing electrons
It's falling apart
Reactions in solution
Chemicals revised

2
PART

PART 2: R
 EACTIONS HAPPEN

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

16

ACTIVITY

2.1

ACTIVITY TYPE

WHAT IS A CHEMICAL REACTION?


GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

Chemical reactions occur all around


us. Some are fast and explosive, while
others are slow and may take days or
even months.
Can you think of examples? How can
you tell they are chemical changes?

What makes
What observation
makes a good
a good
observation record?
record?
Test
1

Reactants
Copper sulfate
+ ammonium
hydroxide

Observations
Starts blue then goes a
cloudy pale blue when
reagent two added.

CAN YOU RECOGNISE CHEMICAL CHANGES?


What to use:

Each PAIR will require:


dropper bottles of:
dilute sulfuric acid
ammonium hydroxide solution
copper sulfate solution
copper oxide powder
small pieces of clean magnesium
ribbon and granulated zinc
Bunsen burner and heating mat
4 medium test tubes
test-tube holder
test-tube rack
matches
spatula
thermometer.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses and lab coat
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
For each test, follow the instructions
and record your observations in a
table.
Test 1
Add copper sulfate solution to one
tube, to a depth of 10 mm. Add an
equal amount of ammonium hydroxide
solution. Shake gently to mix.
Test 2
Place a piece of granulated zinc
into a test tube and cover with 2 cm
depth of copper sulfate solution.
Test 3
Add dilute sulfuric acid to another
test tube to a depth of 2 cm. Place a
thermometer in the tube and record
the temperature. Add a small piece
of magnesium ribbon.Note the

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Signs of a chemical change


Permanent colour change
Cloudy blue precipitate formed

temperature change as well as other


observations.
Test 4
Place 2 cm depth of sulfuric acid into
a test tube. Use a spatula to add a
pinch (about the size of a rice grain)
of copper oxide. Heat gently until a
change occurs.

Discussion:
What was the most dramatic
change you observed?
Chemical reactions are associated
with energy changes, which are
detected by heat loss or gain.
What evidence is there of energy
changes in Tests 3 and 4?
Can we reverse chemical changes?

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

17

ACTIVITY 2.1 WHAT IS A CHEMICAL REACTION? CONTINUED

REACTANT

1 + REACTANT 2

energy change

NEW SUBSTANCES

A chemical change produces new substances (elements or


compounds). Look carefully for signs of a chemical change:

Can you see bubbles (gas) or a precipitate


(solid) forming?
Has there been a permanent colour change?
Has there been an energy change?
How would you measure this?

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

18

ACTIVITY

2.2 CONSERVATION OF MASS

The French scientist Antoine


Lavoisier proposed the law of
conservation of mass in 1789.
In this experiment we
will test this law.

LAW OF CONSERVATION
OF MASS
In a chemical reaction,
matter is neither created
nor destroyed.

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

What to use:

What do we mean w
hen we refer to the
reactants
and products of a re
action?
Step 6

100 mL conical flask with stopper


small test tube
lead nitrate solution
potassium iodide solution
10 mL measuring cylinder
electronic or beam balance.
Each STUDENT will require:

What to do:
Step 1
Add 10 mL of lead nitrate solution to a
test tube.

 New substances are formed


in a chemical reaction. What
happens to the atoms in the
original substance?

Reweigh the flask. Record the mass.

Each PAIR will require:

safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

Do we lose or
gain mass in a
chemical reaction?
Use a sealed container
to find out what happens
to the mass before and after
a chemical reaction.

ACTIVITY TYPE

Step 2
Add 10 mL of potassium iodide
solution to the flask.
Step 3
Carefully lower the tube into the flask,
without spilling the contents.
Step 4
Stopper the flask and weigh accurately.
Record this mass.
Step 5
Tip the flask upside down so the
contents mix thoroughly, ensuring the
stopper does not come loose.

Discussion:
1. How did the mass of the flask
and contents before and after the
reaction compare?
2. How could you use the results
of other students in the class
to support a more reliable
experiment?

the world
Scientists around
experimental
summarise their
standard
findings using a
format.
included under
What should be
adings:
the following he
m/hypothesis
Introduction/ai
ing risk
Method (includ
assessment)
Results
Discussion
Conclusion?
u place your
Where would yo
rams
experimental diag
and data tables?

3. Did your data support the Law of


Conservation of Mass?
4. Write up your experiment in a
scientific report.

HINT

: Consider what you need


to include under each heading
and label your diagrams.
stopper

conical flask

test tube
lead nitrate
solution

f gas
THINKo: ffIf inbuthbbeleresaoction, would
were

given
d?
e conserve
mass still b

potassium
iodide
solution

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

19

ACTIVITY 2.2 CONSERVATION OF MASS CONTINUED


Chemical changes can be represented by equations. How can we show the numbers of atoms of each element in reactants and products?

WATER

The word equation for the reaction you have just carried out is:
lead nitrate (aq)
lead

nitrate

+
+

potassium iodide (aq)


potassium

iodide

lead iodide (s) + potassium nitrate (aq)


lead iodide

potassium

nitrate

The same particles are present on both sides of the equation.


When writing chemical equations, scientists use abbreviations to denote states of matter:
solid (s)
liquid (l)
gas (g)
dissolved in water/aqueous (aq)
precipitate (ppt)

hydrogen (g) + oxygen (g)

water (l)

18 g

2 g

+ 16 g

This shows that mass is conserved in the reaction.


If we look at the number of atoms of hydrogen (H) and
oxygen (O) involved in the reaction, we can see the
same number of atoms on both sides of the equation.

What to do:

In pairs, use the periodic table and your results from Activity 2.1 to
complete these word equations in your Notebooks:

HINT:

Indicate the state of matter for each reactant and product.


sulfuric acid makes sulfates when it reacts with metals.
copper sulfate + ammonium hydroxide
?
?
zinc + copper sulfate
hydrogen + ?
magnesium + sulfuric acid
water + ?
copper oxide + sulfuric acid
If mass is neither lost or gained, are all the elements accounted for?

H
H

O
H

O
H

A chemical reaction has occurred because the hydrogen and oxygen


elements have combined to form the compound water. However,
we have the same amount and types
of matter (elements) in the
reactants and the products,
confirming the law of
conservation of
matter.

Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 2.2 and find out more about Antoine Lavoisier and conservation of mass.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

20

ACTIVITY

2.3 IONIC COMPOUNDS

STABLE AND SETTLED?

I was a bit
too hot wearing
this massive
shirt...

...I was cold


and needed a
shirt.

ACTIVITY TYPE

Why do
elements form
compounds?

WHY DO ELEMENTS COMBINE


Which elements
form ionic
compounds?
Stable and settled: sometimes it makes more sense to hang out
with others if its a win-win situation. Consider the sodium and
chlorine atoms below. Why do they make good friends? What
other elements of the periodic table would be keen to meet?

Na 2, 8, 1

17p
17n

11p
11n

electron

Cl 2, 8, 7

The outermost shell (energy level) is most stable with its


maximum number of electrons: two electrons for the energy
shell closest to the nucleus and eight for other shells.

During a chemical reaction, atoms


of different elements may lose,
gain or share electrons to become
more stable.

A compounds chemical properties


depend on the outermost
electrons, as these determine what
kind of bonds are formed with
other atoms.

COMPOUNDS
FORM WHEN
ELEMENTS
COMBINE IN
A CHEMICAL
REACTION.
IONIC COMPOUNDS are formed

when atoms lose or gain electrons to


form complete outer shells. Gaining or
losing electrons results in positively or
, hence the
negatively charged
term ionic compounds.

IONS

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

What to use:
coloured disks, buttons or smarties.

What to do:
Step 1
In pairs, place buttons to show the
outer-shell electrons for the following
atoms: sodium, magnesium, chlorine,
oxygen.

HINT: refer to the periodic table for

atomic number and shell configuration.


Step 2
Place two elements together which are
likely to form a stable ionic compound.

Discussion:
What did you notice about your
pairs?
How do you use the periodic table to
distinguish metals from non-metals?
How would you form stable ionic
compounds from other metal/nonmetal combinations above?

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

21

ACTIVITY 2.3 IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTINUED

Chlorine is in Group 7 and so needs 1 more electron


to complete its outer shell, forming a Cl ion.
Elements in Group 6 need two electrons and form 2ions. Elements in Group 5 gain three electrons to form
3- ions.

a full outer shell and form a Na+ ion.

magnesium Mg2+

chlorine

Cl

aluminium

nitrogen

N3

Al3+

O2

17p
17n

oxygen

Li+

lithium

Elements
which form symbol
negative ions
fluorine
F

+e

chlorine atom
Cl 2, 8, 7

chlorine ion

Cl [2, 8, 8]

Click here to go to
the digital resource"Build an
atom" interactive and construct
the atoms and ions of the
elements shown in the table.

Draw the electron structure for magnesium ion. What


charge would it have? Name an element ion that it
would attract.

17p
17n

What to do:

Elements
which form symbol
positive ions
hydrogen
H+

sodium ion
Na+ [2, 8]+

11p
11n

Sodium chloride crystal is


formed from sodium ions and
chlorine ions arranged in a
lattice structure

Cl-

Na+

Cl-

sodium atom
Na 2, 8, 1

-e

11p
11n

Na+

Cl-

Na+

Cl-

Na+

A Group 3 element such as aluminium will form ions


with a 3+ charge.

Cl-

electrons to form a Mg ion.


2+

MAGNESIUM is in Group 2 and so loses two

SODIUM is in Group 1, so loses one electron to leave

Non-metals gain electrons to achieve a full outer shell.

Metals lose their outer-shell electrons, leaving a new


outer shell completely filled. The loss of electrons
results in positive ions. The total charge on the ion
depends on the number of electrons removed from
the outer shell.

HOW DO NEGATIVE IONS FORM

How do the
outer electrons
determine what
kinds of bonds
form with other
atoms?

WHY DO POSITIVE IONS FORM

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

22

ACTIVITY 2.3 IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTINUED


1

RULES

Hydrogen
1.008

19

Potassium
39.098

HOW DO WE NAME COMPOUNDS

20
16

Sulfur
32.066

Ca
Calcium
40.078

53

First we will look at compounds formed by metals.


Metals form ionic compounds with non-metal elements.
Examples are iron oxide, tin sulfide, potassium iodide,
calcium carbide.
The rules for naming ionic compounds are:
the metallic element is named first (iron, tin, sodium,
calcium)
the name of the non-metallic element is last, but the
ending of its name is changed, so that it ends in ide.

OXIDE
IODIDE

Iodine
126.904

SULFIDE
CARBIDE

, sulfur becomes
,
So oxygen becomes
, carbon becomes
.
iodine becomes
What would nitrogen and bromine become?
For example: what is the name of a compound with the
formula CaCl2?
Ca = calcium Cl = chlorine,
so the compound is calcium chloride.
Dont worry about how many atoms of each element in
the compound there are at this stage.
Metals also form ionic compounds with ions made up
of two or more elements to form compounds such as
nitrates, sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. We will
consider the formulae for these in the next activity.

There are millions of chemicals


dide Each chemical has its own unique
m io
u
i
s
s
a
t
made up of one or more of
chemical name and formula so that
po
3
about a hundred elements.
scientists know what elements
15
are present and understand the
How do scientists recognise
Lithium
properties of the substance.
6.941
them all?
Phos
phor
lead nitra
30.97 us
4
te
potassiu
m nitra
te
lead iodide

Li

What to do:
ic
Can you name the following ion
of?
de
ma
y
the
compounds? What are
ge?
What electrons did they exchan
refer to your periodic table
ooks.
and complete in your Noteb
sodium + chlorine
a) NaCl

HINT:

b) MgBr2
c) KF
d) Ag2O

lead iod
ide

Play the

e) ZnS
f) Ca3P2
g) Li3N
h) BaI2
i) SrCl2
j) PbI2

sodium
chloride

sodium c
hloride

MEMORY
CARD GAME
ret
to help interp
formulae.

m
ciu
cal

e
nat
o
b
car

PbI 2
NaCl

What to do:
Make pairs of cards with the
formula on one card and the
corresponding name on the
second card. Complete a
memory card set using all the
formulae on this page, along
with any others you may know
already.
Shuffle and lay them face
down on the table.
Play the game with your
partner.
Who got the most pairs?

iron oxide
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

23

ACTIVITY 2.3 IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTINUED

DISTINGUISHING IONIC SOLUTIONS.

WHY DO SOLUTIONS OF IONIC


COMPOUNDS CONDUCT
ELECTRICITY

What to use:
Your teacher will provide beakers of
five test liquids, labeled A-F.
Your task is to discover which contain
dissolved ionic compounds.
This activity will be set up as a class
experiment, with each group setting
up one station.

Ionic compounds are held


together in the solid state by the
attraction of opposite charges.
Unlike many other crystal forms,
most ionic crystals are soluble in
water. How does this happen?
Water molecules are polar (have a
positive and negative end) and so
can attract the charged particles
in the ionic compound. This breaks
the crystal apart and causes the
salt to dissolve. The ions are then
free to move through the solution
and carry a current.

Each GROUP will require:

ClH+

Na+
H+

H+

Cl-

OH+

H+

Na+

OH+
H+

OH+

H+

H+

Na+

H+

H+

Cl-

2. How were the solutions able to


carry the electric current?

H+

O-

H+

Cl

Na+

Na+
H+

H+

H+

OH+

Na+

electrical circuit
globe (or LED)

Discussion:

safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

Step 2
Check the circuit by briefly closing the
switch and touching the electrodes
together.

O-

Step 4
Repeat Step 3 for the five test
solutions.

Each STUDENT will require:

Step 1
Set up the equipment as shown in the
diagram.

Step 3
Close the switch briefly and note if the
globe glows.Record your result in a
table.

1. Which liquids do you think are


solutions of ionic compounds?
When you have decided, ask your
teacher to identify liquids A-F
and add the names to your table.
You might know the formulae for
some.

transformer(set to 6 V)
electrodes with globe or LED
beaker of one of the liquids, A-F.
tapping key or switch
2 electrical leads.

What to do:

Na+

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

electrodes

solution of compound

3. Why do solutions that contain


molecules e.g. sugar solution, not
conduct electricity?
4. Normal tap water will conduct
electricity to a small extent (not
enough to make the light glow)
but distilled water does not. Why
not?

Click here to go to
the digital resource Activity 2.3
and look at this simulation of salt
dissolving in water.

H+

Cl-

OH

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

24

ACTIVITY
RULES

2.4 WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULAE

Valency is the combining power of an atom or ion.

TO DETERMINE THE FORMULA OF AN IONIC COMPOUND,


YOU MUST KNOW THE VALENCIES OF THE IONS INVOLVED.
Here are some simple rules for calculating valency. Hint: you will
need your periodic table.
The valency of a metal in Groups 1,2 and 3 is the same as the
group number; e.g. metals in Group 1 always have a valency
of 1+.
Metals in Group 4 often have a charge of 4+, but can have a
charge of 2+. Assume the valency is 2+ unless you are told
otherwise.
Transition metals have a variety of charges but most have a
valency of 2+.
you will usually be given the valency of these metals.
If a metal has more than one valency, then the valency for that
compound is shown using Roman numerals. e.g. iron forms
ions with 2+ and 3+ charges. Fe(II) is Fe2+ and Fe(III) is Fe3+.
N
 on-metals in Groups 5-8 have valencies corresponding to
the number of electrons needed for a complete outer shell
of eight electrons. Those in Group 5 have valency 3-, Group
6 have 2- and Group 7 have 1-. Non-metals in Group 4 may
form 4- ions.

NOTE:

What to do:
In a group of 2-4, select two of the above rules and explain
them to the class. Dont forget to use examples and refer to
the periodic table to illustrate.

POLYATOMIC IONS

The cross-over method can help to write


formulae. Here are four easy steps:
Step 1
Work out the symbols for the elements
involved in the correct order from the
name. The example is aluminium oxide.
Al O

Some ions are made up of more


than one element. These are
ions. You
called
should become familiar with their
names and valencies.

POLYATOMIC

formula/valency
polyatomic ion (as used in
compounds)
nitrate
NO3-

Step 2

Place the valency at the top of the


element.
Al3+ O2Step 3
Cross over each valency number as
subscripts.
Al3+ O2-

sulfate

SO42-

carbonate

CO32-

phosphate

PO43-

hydroxide

OH-

ammonium

NH4+

Add each of these polyatomic ions


to your set of cards and play the

2 3

Step 4

PO

Remove the valencies at the top to


write the final formula.
Al2O3

3-

phosphate

Have you got it right? If the formula is correct,


the total charge in the formula should be zero,
as the positive and negative charges balance out.
e.g. sodium chloride 1+ + 1- = 0
formula is NaCl
magnesium chloride 2+ + (2 x 1-) = 0
formula is MgCl2
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

ACTIVITY TYPE

PART 2

MEMORY
CARD GAME
Click
here to go to
the digital
resource Activity
2.4 and practise
writing formulae.

REACTIONS HAPPEN

25

2.5 SHARING ELECTRONS


TAK
E

ACTIVITY

Molecules form when atoms


combine to become more stable.
They share electrons to achieve a full
outer shell. Molecules are all around
us. Can you name a few?

BREATH!
P
E
E
D

ACTIVITY TYPE

YOU HAVE
JUST TAKEN
IN BILLIONS OF
MOLECULES

What did
you breathe
in?

How
many?

Will you
breathe
it all out?

What will
your body
need?

These are mainly nitrogen (about 80 per cent)


and oxygen (about 20 per cent) with smaller
amounts of water vapour, carbon dioxide
and noble gases such as argon and neon.
Depending on your location, there may also be
pollutants. Can you think of some?
C

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

26

ACTIVITY 2.5 SHARING ELECTRONS CONTINUED

RULES

What to do:

NAMING COVALENT COMPOUNDS.

The atoms in a molecule may be of the same element, or different


elements. Most are non-metals. What could be the reason?
O

Can you name the following compounds?

Covalent compounds are formed when two


non-metallic elements combine.
Unlike ionic compounds, the name of
the covalent compound must tell us the
number of atoms of each element present.

CO CO2 SO2 SO3 CCl4


Which one is found naturally in the air and in the ground? Which one would you
consider to be a toxic pollutant?
Use the teacher worksheet to practise writing molecular formulae.

en the atoms that make up a


"Covalent bonds" are formed wh
ns. All then have a full outer
molecule share their outer electro
two atoms.
shell, with some electrons used by

Sometimes
it makes good
sense to share.

The rules are:


1. First name the element closest to the left
of the periodic table.
2. Change the ending of the second
element to -ide as for ionic compounds.
3. If more than one atom of an element is
present, use a prefix before the name, as
shown in the table.

WHO LIKES TO SHARE?

prefix
number of atoms
mono (see note) 1
di

Some molecules consist of more than two atoms, and two or more
elements like methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).

tri

tetra

penta

hexa

HINT: look at the right side of the periodic table to remind you of

WHO DOESN'T NEED TO SHARE?


The NOBLE gases Group 8

element combinations which like to form covalent compounds.

Why are these gases: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radium
less or non-reactive? Draw their electron structure to find out.

Note: The prefix mono is never used for


the first element, but can be used for
the second element. e.g. CO is carbon
monoxide and CO2 is carbon dioxide.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

27

ACTIVITY 2.5 SHARING ELECTRONS CONTINUED

HOW DO MOLECULES FORM

MODELLING MOLECULES

Atoms need a full outer shell of electrons to be stable. If their outer


shell is at the first energy level around the nucleus, only two electrons
are required for stability. Eight are needed for all other shells. Instead
of giving away outer electrons, some atoms prefer to become stable
by sharing.

Models of molecules help us


understand their structure and shape.
H

When a molecule of hydrogen (H2) forms, each atom has one atom in
the first energy shell. Two atoms combine to form an full outer shell of
.
two electrons. This forms a

SINGLE COVALENT BOND

HH

What to use:

Single bond

Each GROUP will require:


A molecule of oxygen (O2) has atoms with six electrons in the outer
shell. If they combine and share two electrons each, then both atoms
forms.
have a full outer shell and a

molecular model kit.

DOUBLE BOND

Double bond

A molecule of nitrogen (N2) has atoms with five electrons in the outer
shell. If they share three each, then both atoms have access to eight
is formed.
electrons in the outer shell and a

TRIPLE BOND

N
Triple bond

Step 3
Draw your model in 3-D.

Step 2
Decide what type of bond is
present by looking at the number of
electrons shared.

Step 1
First draw a diagram of the molecule
to show sharing of electrons (you only
need to draw the outer shell).

Use the kit to construct molecules on


your worksheet.

What to do:

O=O

Worksheet
Science by Doing Notebook.

Each STUDENT will require:

Take a good look at these molecules. What is being shared? Why?

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

28

2.6 IT'S FALLING APART

Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down. One way to distinguish
an element from a compound is to see if it will break down into simpler substances.
.
This type of reaction in compounds is called a

1. What substances are produced


when water decomposes?
2. Where did the energy come from
to split the water molecule?
3. What evidence did you have to
determine what the products
of the decomposition reaction
were?
4. How did the quantities of gas
produced relate to the chemical
formula for water, H2O?
5. Write a word equation for the
chemical reaction that occurred.
Include the states of the reactant
and products as subscripts. You
may like to also write an equation
using chemical formulae.
6. Is it possible to reverse this
reaction? Explain.

Oxygen gas
is produced at
the positive
electrode
(anode)

Hydrogen gas
is produced at
the negative
electrode
(cathode)

H
H

CATHODE -

Discussion:

ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER

Teacher demonstration
Your teacher will use a voltameter to
decompose water. Watch carefully,
then answer the questions.

Electrolysed reduced water

ANODE +

DECOMPOSITION OF WATER
BY ELECTROLYSIS

DECOMPOSITION REACTION

ion exchange membrane

ACTIVITY

ACTIVITY TYPE

O
O

O
O

Electrolysed acidic water

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

29

ACTIVITY 2.6 IT'S FALLING APART CONTINUED


GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

DECOMPOSITION OF COPPER CARBONATE


What to use:
Each GROUP will require:
2 large test tubes
stopper with delivery tube
copper carbonate powder
spatula
test-tube rack
limewater
Bunsen burner and mat
retort stand and clamp
lighter or matches.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:

Step 5
Light the burner and heat the tube
gently, using a blue flame, until you
observe changes to the copper
carbonate and the limewater.
Step 6
Turn off the burner and remove the
delivery tube from the limewater to
prevent liquid sucking back as the
apparatus cools.

position
Chemical reactions, such as decom
reactions, require energy.
electricity.
This can come from heat, light or
retort stand
and clamp
test tube
with copper
carbonate

Discussion:
1. Describe the changes observed
indicating a chemical reaction had
occurred.

delivery tube

bunsen
burner
test tube of
limewater

2. Can you identify the gas


produced? Explain.

Step 1
3. The solid remaining in the tube
Use the spatula to place about 1 tsp of
is copper(II)oxide. Write a word
copper carbonate in a tube.
equation for the decomposition
reaction that occurred.
Step 2
Insert the stopper and delivery tube.
The only reactant is
Step 3
Half fill a second tube with limewater.
Step 4
Set up the equipment as shown in the
diagram, ensuring the delivery tubes
end is below the limewaters surface.

What is copper
carbonate made
of? Is it an ionic
or covalent
compound?

NOTE:

copper carbonate.
4. Write the formulae for the
reactants and products in the
reaction. Are they elements or
compounds?

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

30

ACTIVITY

2.7 REACTIONS IN SOLUTION

ACTIVITY TYPE

When solutions of ionic compounds are mixed they sometimes react to form an insoluble solid or

PRECIPITATION REACTIONS

What to use:
Each PAIR will require:
GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

5 test tubes in a rack or spotting


tile
dropper bottles of the following
solutions:
copper(II)sulfate
sodium hydroxide
cobalt(II)chloride
silver nitrate
sodium carbonate
barium nitrate.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Draw a table in your Notebook with
the following headings: reactants,
ions present, precipitate (/),
name and formula of precipitate.

Step 2
Place three drops of copper sulfate
solution onto your spotting tile.
Step 3
Add three drops of sodium hydroxide
solution and look for a precipitate.
Now complete the first three columns
of your table.
Step 4
Repeat steps 1-3 using the following
combinations of solutions:
silver nitrate and sodium hydroxide
copper(II)sulfate and sodium
carbonate
cobalt(II)chloride and sodium
hydroxide
barium nitrate and copper(II)sulfate
barium nitrate and sodium
hydroxide
Step 5
Rinse the spotting tile carefully under
the tap.

PRECIPITATE.

Discussion:
1. Explain what happens when the
solutions are mixed to form a
precipitate.
2. Use the table of solubility on the
next page to determine each
precipitate and complete the final
column of your table.
3. Write a word equation for each of
the reactions that occurred. Use
subscripts to indicate whether a
solution (aq) or precipitate (ppt)
has formed.
4. Write the formula for
each ionic compound
under its name.
5. Write the formulae
for the reactants and
products in the reaction.
Are they elements or
compounds?

IS THERE A PRECIPITATE

A coloured liquid that is clear does not contain


a precipitate.
Look for a swirl of white or colour in your
mixture to indicate a precipitate has formed.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

31

ACTIVITY 2.7 REACTIONS IN SOLUTION CONTINUED

When ionic compounds dissolve, the positive and negative ions separate and are free to move
around in the solution. e.g. sodium chloride splits up into Na+ and Cl ions.
If a solution of another ionic compound is mixed with the sodium chloride solution, there will be two
positive and two negative ions in the mixture. If there is a very strong attraction between any of the
positive and negative ions, they join to form a solid precipitate.
solution

suspension

supernate

Look at the example in which silver nitrate (AgNO3) is mixed with a sodium chloride solution and a
precipitate of silver chloride is formed. The sodium and nitrate ions are not attracted, so remain free
in the solution. This can be represented by the following equation.

NaCl (aq)

Cl (aq)

AgNO3 (aq)

AgCl (s)

Ag+ (aq)

AgCl (s)

NaNO3 (aq)

+
Cl-

Ag+

ClAg+

Cl-

Ag+

Ag+

Cl-

Ag+

ClAg+

++
Ag
Ag

+ -NO
Ag
NO
33

NO3-

Cl-

Na
Na++

-- +
ClCl
Na

Cl-

Ag+

Ag+

Cl-

Solid
SolidAgCl
AgClSolid AgCl

ClAg+

Cl-

Ag+

precipitate

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

32

ACTIVITY 2.7 REACTIONS IN SOLUTION CONTINUED


You can predict what a precipitate might be with the table of solubility.
negative ion

soluble positive ions

insoluble positive ions (form precipitate)

nitrate

All soluble

chloride

Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Al3+, Cu2+, Co2+

Ag+

sulfate

Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Co2+

Pb2+, Al3+, Ag+, Ba2+

hydroxide

Na+, K+, Mg2+

Cu2+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Co2+, Ag+

carbonate

Na+, K+

Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, Ag+, Al3+, Cu2+, Co2+

MAKING PREDICTIONS

Use the solubility rules table to answer these questions.


1. Which of the following ionic compounds are soluble in water?
a) aluminium chloride, AlCl3
b) iron(II)hydroxide, Fe(OH)2
c) copper(II)nitrate, Cu(NO3)2
d) barium carbonate BaCO3
e) magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2
2. For the following mixtures, write the formulae for the ions present.
Write the formula for any substances that will form precipitates.
a) copper(II)sulfate and lead(II)nitrate
b) potassium chloride and sodium hydroxide
c) potassium hydroxide and silver nitrate
d) sodium nitrate and copper sulfate
e) barium chloride and sodium sulfate.
Click here to go to the digital
resource Activity 2.7 and find out more
about precipitation reactions.

3. The ions that remain in solution are often called spectator ions. Why?
4. You are given three containers A, B and C each containing a clear,
colourless liquid. The substances are sodium carbonate, sodium
chloride and water. How would you identify them? No tasting!

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

33

ACTIVITY

2.8 CHEMICALS REVISED

TER?
MATIN
E
H
T
IS
T
A
H
W
AGA

PLAY

ive
teacher will g
This time your compound or
nt,
you an eleme e how you go!
e
S
ion to guess.

ACTIVITY TYPE

Do
I contain
oxygen?

Am I on the
left side of the
periodic table?

A solid?
Am I
a polyatomic
ion?

Am I
an ionic
compound?

Pretty sure
magnesium is an alkaline
earth metal...

Um... what's the


difference between
covalent and ionic
again...

Am I a
covalent or ionic
compound?
LE
IOD AD
IDE

MEMORY
CARD GAME

YES!

NO!
HINT: Before you start,

consider the questions


you could ask and revise
your CHEMISTRY MEMORY
CARD set.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 2

REACTIONS HAPPEN

34

Activity 3.1
Activity 3.2
Activity 3.3
Activity 3.4
Activity 3.5
Activity 3.6

What is radioactivity?
Researching radioactivity
Detecting radioactivity
How long does it last?
Nuclear energy
The future

3
PART

PART 3: ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

35

ACTIVITY

3.1

ACTIVITY TYPE

WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY?
RADIATION is energy from waves, such as radio waves, or fast-moving

What is the difference between a


chemical reaction and a nuclear
reaction?

particles, such as light from the sun. It is all around us and all living things
rely on some form of radiation to exist.

Millisieverts (mSv)

Medical X-Ray (Chest)


(Also equivalent to
3,300 TSA Full Body Airport Scans)

WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW ABOUT RADIOACTIVITY


What to use:
Each GROUP will require:
butcher paper
marking pen.

What to do:
Step 1
In groups of three to four students,
brainstorm what you know about
radioactivity.
Think about:
What causes radioactivity?
What can we use it for?
Are there problems associated with
its use?
Step 2
On the paper list 10 things your
group knows about radioactivity.
Step 3
Display your list in the classroom and
see what others have written.

3 Mile Island Accident


Natural Radiation All People Receive
Average year

Discussion:

Natural Radiation in Special Locations

Are there common points on the


lists?
Is there anything you are unsure of?
In your Notebooks, write two
questions which your group can't
answer for later. Keep your lists
displayed and ready to add 5 bits
of new information each lesson.

CT Scan (Brain)
CT Scan (Pelvis)

Average Exposure for a Uranium Miner


Airline Crew (New York to Tokyo-Polar Route)

Acute
Annual
Short-term

IS RADIOACTIVITY
NATURAL
Many radioisotopes occur naturally.
They originated when the solar system
formed and by the interaction of cosmic
rays with molecules in the atmosphere.

Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 3.1 and find out more about our exposure to natural radiation.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

36

ACTIVITY

3.2 RESEARCHING RADIOACTIVITY

Radioactivity was discovered accidentally


by the French scientist Henri Becquerel. He
stored a rock containing uranium in a drawer
next to a photographic plate, covered in
black paper. When the plate was developed,
it showed an image of the rock. He won the
Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, together
with Marie and Pierre Curie, for his work.

Becquerel
demonstrated that a
metal cross blocked the
radiation and left an
unexposed image on
the photographic plate.

Henri Becquerel

Radioactive
decay is
measured in
"Becquerels" (Bq).
This is the
number of atoms
that decay per
second.

Can you see the shape


of the cross on the
image?
What do you think
caused it?

ACTIVITY TYPE

Why
do scientists
have two
different ways
of measuring
radiation?

A "Sievert"
(Sv) is the
unit used for
measuring the dose
of radioactivity
absorbed by the
body.

How many
millisieverts
(mSv) are there
in a sievert?
What is a
microsievert (Sv)?

HOW DO WE DETECT RADIOACTIVITY

The GeigerMller counter, also called a Geiger


counter, was invented in 1928. It measures
radioactivity by detecting the ionisation
produced in the decay of an atom, including the
amount of alpha and beta particles and gamma
rays. Although more sophisticated instruments
are now available, the Geiger counter is still
used extensively as it is portable.

Click here to
go to the digital resource
Activity 3.2 and find out
more about radioactivity.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

37

ACTIVITY

3.3 DETECTING RADIOACTIVITY


?

WHAT MAKES AN ATOM RADIOACTIVE

Energy

If the nucleus of an atom is unstable, it is


radioactive. This is usually because the isotope
has more or less protons than neutrons. These
.
unstable isotopes are called

radiation
radioactive
atom

RADIOISOTOPES

Particle

C-12 and C-13 are stable but C-14 is unstable and radioactive.

6p
8n

carbon-13
(6 protons + 7 neutrons)

carbon-14
(6 protons + 8 neutrons)

When carbon-14 decays, nitrogen-14 is formed


and a beta particle is emitted.
How is an atom of C-14 different to that of N-14?
Nitrogen -14

Carbon-14

Each PAIR will require:


access to computer simulation of , and radiation
Science by Doing Notebook.

Beta particle
(electron)

Your task is to design and conduct an experiment to


compare either:
1. the range of , and radiation in air
2. the penetration of , and radiation.

NOTE:

6p
7n

carbon-12
(6 protons + 6 neutrons)

What to use:

Step 1
In your Notebook, plan a fair test for your investigation.
dont forget to consider background radiation.

6p
6n

INVESTIGATING RADIOACTIVITY

What to do:

THE ISOTOPES OF CARBON

ACTIVITY TYPE

Can you draw the symbols of each to find the


number of protons and neutrons they contain?

Step 2
Draw up a table to record your results. How will you
make the results reliable?
Step 3
Carry out your experiment and record the results.
Step 4
Write a practical report on your findings, under the
correct headings, including:
an appropriate graph of your
results
a comparison of the properties
of the three forms of radiation
and their implications for use and
relative safety of radioisotopes.

Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 3.3 and use a computer simulation of radiation.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

38

ACTIVITY 3.3 DETECTING RADIOACTIVITY CONTINUED


In your Notebook draw a table to summarise what you know about the properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation.

WHAT IS
BACKGROUND

Alpha
Beta

Alpha ( ) particles
are made up of two
protons and two
neutrons, so they
have a positive
charge. They
can travel in air
for only a few
centimetres.

Beta ( ) particles
consist of an
electron, so
carry a negative
charge. They
can travel a
few metres
through air.

Gamma

Paper

Aluminium

Lead

Gamma

Gamma rays are not deflected as they


have no charge

Alpha +

Gamma ( ) rays are not particles, but


high-energy rays with no charge. They
are emitted from nuclei with excess
energy and can travel several kilometres
through air.

Beta -

Alpha, beta and gamma radiation can be


separated using a magnetic field.
Alpha and beta particles have opposite
charges, so will be deflected.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

Click here to go to
the digital resource Activity
3.3 and find out more about
your exposure to radiation.

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

39

ACTIVITY

3.4 HOW LONG DOES IT LAST?

ACTIVITY TYPE

RADIOACTIVE DECAY

You are about to simulate radioactive


decay.
We cannot know when a particular
atom will decay, but we know
the probability for a particular
radioisotope if we have many atoms
and know its half-life.

Step 5
Repeat steps 1 and 2 four more times.

Discussion:
1. What length of time does one trial
represent?
2. What do the counters without
dots represent?
3. Draw a line graph of your results
and a line of best fit through your
points (this should be a curve).
4. Does this radioisotope have
a half-life of exactly a year?
Calculate the average half-life.
5. Describe its pattern of decay.
6. Iodine-131 has a half-life of eight
days. Calculate the amount left
from a 20 g sample in:
a) eight days
b) 16 days
c) 32 days
7. Why are large atoms more likely
to be radioactive than smaller
atoms?

What to use:
Each GROUP will require:
100 plastic counters with a dot on
one side
bag to hold counters
large tray.

What to do:
Step 1
Mix the counters in the bag, then
carefully tip them on the tray.
Step 2
Remove counters with an
upward-facing dot.
Step 3
Count the remaining counters.

HALF-LIFE

The
of an isotope is
the time it takes for one half of its
atoms to decay.

Not all radioisotopes


decay at the same
rate. Each has its own
,
characteristic
which can be as short as a
fraction of a second or as
long as millions of years.
What is best, a short or
long half-life?

HALF-LIFE

Each radioisotope has its own


characteristic half-life, which can
vary from a fraction of a second to
millions of years.
What would be problematic or
useful about polonium-215 and
uranium-238?

Step 4
Record your results in a table, as
shown, in your Notebook.
Trial
0
Counters without 100
dots

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

Radioisotope
polonium-215

half-life
0.0018 seconds

bismuth-212

60.5 seconds

sodium-24

15 hours

iodine-131

8.07 days

cobalt-60

5.26 years

radium-226

1600 years

carbon-14

5730 years

uranium-238

4.5 billion years

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

40

ACTIVITY 3.4 HOW LONG DOES IT LAST? CONTINUED


How is half-life information used in radioisotope dating?

CARBON DATING

How is half-life
information
used in
radioisotope
dating?

Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years. Scientists can use this
long half-life to determine the age of organic objects less than 40,000
years old. By determining how much of the carbon-14 has decayed,
they can estimate the age of a substance. Samples from the past 70,000
years made of wood, charcoal, peat, bone, antler, or one of many other
carbonates, may be dated using this technique.

Decay of Carbon-14
100

Isotopes with longer half-lives, such as uranium-238, can be used to date


even older objects.

10g

Carbon-14
remaining (%)

5g

50
2.50g
1.25g

25
12.5
0
0

Number of half-lives
(1half-life=5730 years)

It is important to know the half-life


when determining the suitability of
a radioisotope for a purpose. If the
isotope is to be injected into the body
for medical diagnosis, then it should
have a very short half-life (no more than
a few days) to minimise exposure to
radiation. Isotopes with a very long halflife of thousands of years are useful in
dating ancient artefacts.

THINK

If a sample of carbon-14
decays at the rate of 400
particles per second, what will
the rate be in 5,730 years time?
How long would it take to
reach a rate of 50 particles
per second?

Artefacts such as
the remains of early
hominids and the
Dead Sea Scrolls have
been dated using
carbon-14.

Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 3.4 and find out about the use of radioisotopes in dating.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

41

ACTIVITY

3.5 NUCLEAR ENERGY

FISSION OR FUSION? It is easy to forget that nuclear reactions are essential for life and that

controlled nuclear radiation can have many benefits. What are they? What are the dangers?

NUCLEAR FUSION

NUCLEAR FISSION
Nuclear fission is the splitting of large atoms
into smaller atoms, by bombarding them with
a particle such as a neutron. An enormous
amount of energy is released as heat and
gamma radiation. At the same time, neutrons are
released which can cause more fission reactions.
A major problem is radioactive waste is created
and must be disposed of safely.
In 1945 the first atomic (uranium) bomb was
released in the New Mexico desert. The
explosion was so powerful; it lit up the sky for
hundreds of miles, the noise was deafening and
a huge crater was created. The Japanese cities of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed in this
manner, which marked the end to the second
world war in the Pacific.
We have since learned how to control nuclear
fission reactions to harness the energy for many
productive purposes, such as electric power
stations, nuclear submarines and ships.

Nuclear fusion occurs when two nuclei combine,


releasing a huge amount of energy. In the sun,
two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium,
combine to form helium, releasing a neutron in the
process.
We rely on nuclear energy, generated inside the
sun by fusion, to provide sunlight for plants to
photosynthesise and so provide energy for all
living organisms to survive.
An advantage of this process is that no radioactive
waste is produced and the hydrogen isotopes
needed can be obtained from water. However, we
are unable to control nuclear fusion and harness its
energy safely. Temperatures of millions of degrees
are needed to keep the fusion process going.
helium He 4

tritium H 3

ACTIVITY TYPE

barium

fusion

n
neutro

fission

neutron

deuterium H 2

What to do:

neutron

neutron

uranium

HH

ksheet to
Use the teacher wor
fission.
th
compare fusion wi

tron

krypton

Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 3.5 and


investigate the nuclear energy and the uses of radioisotopes.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

neu

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

42

ACTIVITY

3.6 THE FUTURE

There is great concern that the world is using its non-renewable


energy resources too quickly. In Australia a large percentage of
electricity is generated from coal-fired power stations. Should we
invest in nuclear power as an alternative to fossil fuels?

Can
people use
nuclear
reactors
for harmful
purposes?

Which is
the biggest
killer, nuclear
power or
coal?

ACTIVITY TYPE

NUCLEAR POWER OR COAL POWER?


Like most new and complex
technologies, there is much
controversy and misconception
about nuclear power. From a health
perspective, nuclear power is far safer
than coal, especially with concerns
about global climate change.
The World Health Organization
estimates more than 125,000 people
die each year prematurely from
inhaling the combustion products
of fossil fuels, a large percentage of
which comes from burning coal.

Australia has the worlds biggest


supply of uranium, yet we dont
have any nuclear power stations.
What do we do with it?
Should we consider nuclear
power in the future or would it be
better to utilise solar, geothermal
or wind energy?

While a coal-burning power station


will receive a trainload of coal every
day, a nuclear fission power station
might receive a truckload of nuclear
fuel once a year. A coal-burning
station consumes about 300,000 times
as much fuel to generate the same
amount of power as a nuclear station.

What about
accidents in
reactors?
Can radioactive
materials leak out?

This means the amount of waste


from coal-fired power stations is
much greater and there are concerns
about environmental contamination
with toxic metals and radioactivity.
Many people are killed in coal
mining accidents all over the world,
whereas accidents at nuclear power
stations are infrequent, even though
some have had drastic effects on
people and the environment.
The US armed forces have
successfully operated about 150
nuclear power vessels, one for more
than 40 years. The US has more
than 120 functional nuclear reactors.
France and several other European
nations generate almost all power
from nuclear reactors. France is the
only nation which today produces
less carbon dioxide emissions than it
did 30 years ago.
The track record of nuclear power
is so good, some analysts consider
it the safest form of energy yet
developed.

What about radioactive


wastes?
Will the environment
become contaminated?
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

43

ACTIVITY 3.6 THE FUTURE CONTINUED

CLASS DEBATE RULES:


1. Your teacher will post the debate topic on the board
and assign you to either the affirmative or negative
team.
2. Your team will have one lesson to prepare your
arguments. Make sure everyone has a good opening
and closing point, and scientific facts to support their
arguments.
3. At the beginning of the debate each team member
will be listed on the board. As you are invited to speak
(not in the same order as on the list), your name will
be crossed off.
4. You will speak for 30-90 seconds either rebutting
earlier speakers or defending your teams position
by emphasising previous comments and additional
arguments with examples to illustrate.
5. Marks will be deducted for talking. You can pass
paper notes to team members who are yet to speak
throughout the debate.
6. Each speaker will be scored out of three to reflect the
quality and content of their effort. Students relying on
scientific facts and sound arguments will score higher.
The teacher records individual marks and the team
with the highest cumulative score wins.

Click here to
go to the digital resource
Activity 3.6 and continue
your discussion on future
energy options.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 3

ENERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS

44

PART 4: ENERGY AND CHANGE


Activity 4.1
Activity 4.2
Activity 4.3
Activity 4.4
Activity 4.5

What is energy?
Hot and cold
Combustion
Reactions in nature
Industrial chemistry

PART

4
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

45

ACTIVITY

4.1

ACTIVITY TYPE

WHAT IS ENERGY?

ENERGY MAKES
THINGS HAPPEN!

What forms
of energy are
given off?

Use the images on this page


to help you think of chemical
reactions that release energy.

A change in temperature,
getting hotter or colder, is a
good indicator of a chemical
reaction taking place even
if you cant see anything
happening. Can you think of
any examples?

Your teacher will


demonstrate some
reactions which
show energy
changes.
GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

Chemical reactions that


produce heat are called

EXOTHERMIC
REACTIONS.

Chemical reactions that


take in energy and make
things colder are called

ENDOTHERMIC
REACTIONS.

Click here to go to the


digital resource Activity 4.1 and find
out more about energy changes in
chemical reactions.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

46

ACTIVITY

4.2 HOT AND COLD

ICE PACKS
You have probably used an ice
pack to prevent swelling,
e.g., for a sprained ankle.

ACTIVITY TYPE

Ouch! Cant find ice? Activate a first aid


instant ice pack to quickly cool the site of an
injury. How do they work? What is in them?
GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

What to use:
Each GROUP will require:
instant ice pack
thermometer.

HEAT PACKS
Heat packs are also used for sports
injuries and medicinal purposes.
They rely on an exothermic chemical
reaction.
When would they be useful?
How do they work?
Are different chemicals involved?
Research one commercial heat therapy
pack which relies on a chemical reaction.

What to do:
Carefully cut an ice pack open and
mix the contents in a beaker using a
thermometer.
What is happening to the
temperature?
An ice pack contains chemicals
which, when mixed, carry out an
endothermic reaction to make the
pack cold.
Some packs use ammonium chloride
and water in separate compartments.
The ammonium chloride is released
into the water when you activate the
pack.

Contents:
Magnesium
sulfate
and water

Short-term heat and cold packs are used for other purposes,
such as exporting plants or reptiles in cargo planes.
Can you think of other potential uses?

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

47

ACTIVITY 4.2 HOT AND COLD CONTINUED

TEMPERATURE CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

What to use:
Each GROUP will require:

DOTHERMICns,
N
E
R
O
IC
M
R
E
H
T
O
X
E
ctio

Potential energy (kJ)

ical rea
bserve chem
o
u
o
y
n
e
h
W
nge.
perature cha
m
te
a
r
fo
k
loo
Endothermic reaction

Products
Heat is absorbed

Reaction 2
Add 4 cm depth of water to a test
tube. Add a teaspoon of ammonium
chloride.
Reaction 3
Place 4 cm depth of hydrochloric
acid into a test tube. Add two 1 cm
pieces of magnesium ribbon.

Reactants

Exothermic

Endothermic

Heat

Heat

safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

Exothermic reaction
Reactants
Heat is released

Products

Reaction pathway

What to do:
Step 1
Construct a table in your Notebook
similar to the one shown, making
sure you can record the temperature
before and after each reaction, along
with your observations.
Reaction 1
Add 4 cm depth of water to a test
tube. Measure the temperature of

Reaction 4
Place 4 cm water into a test tube.
Add 1 tsp of sodium thiosulfate.
Reaction 5
Place 4 cm hydrogen peroxide
solution into a test tube. Add tsp
of manganese dioxide.
Reaction 6
Add 4 cm depth of water to a test
tube. Add a teaspoon of sodium
acetate.

Discussion:

Each STUDENT will require:

Reaction pathway

Potential energy (kJ)

calcium chloride solid


sodium acetate solid
ammonium chloride
sodium thiosulfate solid
clean magnesium ribbon
manganese dioxide powder
dropper bottle of hydrochloric
acid
dropper bottle of hydrogen
peroxide
5 large test tubes
test-tube rack
spatula or teaspoon
thermometer or temperature
probe.

the water.Carefully add a teaspoon


of calcium chloride. Stir gently with
the thermometer to dissolve. Record
the highest temperature reached.

HOTTER THAN
SURROUNDINGS

Heat

2. What other signs of a chemical


reaction did you observe? Were
all reactions obvious?

COOLER THAN
SURROUNDINGS

Heat

Heat

1. Complete your table by adding


the temperature rise or fall
and decide if the reaction is
exothermic or endothermic.

Heat

3. Explain in terms of energy


changes why some chemical
reactions are endothermic and
others exothermic?

Initial
Final
Change in Exothermic Other signs
Reactants temperature temperature temperature or
of a chemical
(C)
(C)
(+/-C)
endothermic reaction
Water +
calcium
chloride

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

48

ACTIVITY

4.3 COMBUSTION

ACTIVITY TYPE

WHAT IS COMBUSTION

Combustion is a chemical reaction in which a fuel reacts with


oxygen to release energy in the form of heat and light.
fuel + oxygen

combustion products + energy

you
last time
e
h
t
s
a
w
start
When
? Did you id
h
c
t
a
m
a
lit
n? D
al reactio ce?
a chemic
la
p
ion take
combust

Is combustion
an endothermic
or exothermic
reaction?

WHAT IS THE IGNITION


TEMPERATURE OF A FUEL

What to do:
Carefully prepare and light: a match, a Bunsen burner, a liquidfuel camping stove (e.g., Trangia). How are they different? For
each, discuss the following questions in your group:
What do you observe? What is released? How do you know a
chemical reaction is taking place? How does the reaction start?
How do you stop it? Does combustion take place?
Try writing a combustion word equation for each.

Substances will only start to burn (ignite)


if the temperature is high enough to give
reacting particles the energy they need
to break their chemical bonds. Vapours
and gaseous fuels will ignite more easily
than liquid or solid fuels. Ignition sources
include friction, matches, lighters and
electricity.

Why do we
need to ignite
fuels to release
the energy
stored in them?
How do bushfires start? Click here to go to the digital resource Activity 4.3 and explore bushfires and the control of combustion.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

49

ACTIVITY 4.3 COMBUSTION CONTINUED

OBSERVING COMBUSTION
What to use:
Each PAIR will require:
Bunsen burner and heating mat
metal tongs
candle on stand
clean magnesium ribbon
hydrochloric acid
matches
wooden splint
2 medium test tubes
test-tube rack.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Record your observations in your
Notebook after each step.

TEST 1

Step 1
Close the Bunsen burner air hole and
ignite the flame with a match.
Describe the flame. What evidence
is there that energy is released in
the combustion reaction?
Step 2
Gradually open the air hole.
Describe the differences in the
flame.

Step 3
Hold a 2 cm piece of magnesium
in the hottest part of the flame(see
diagram). Take care not to look
directly at the flame.
What did you observe during and
after combustion?

TEST 2

Step 1
Add 4 cm depth of hydrochloric
acid to a test tube. Have a second
inverted test-tube ready to collect
the gas produced after adding two
small (1 cm) pieces of magnesium
ribbon.
Step 2
When the reaction has stopped, light
a wooden splint and quickly place
it at the top of the second test tube
with the collected gas (now in the
test-tube rack).
What did you observe when you
ignited the gas?
GOGGLES
Do you
GLOVES
LAB COAT
know the name of
SHOES
this gas?

Discussion:

combustion of methane formulae

1. Use the formulae to write a word


equation for the combustion
of methane (natural gas). What
else is produced that indicates a
chemical reaction has taken place?
2. What are you regulating when
you open and close the air hole?
How does this impact on the
amount of heat and light? Which
flame is coolest? Why?
3. Incomplete combustion results
in carbon monoxide and carbon
(soot), which gives the yellow
colour to the flame. When
complete combustion of methane
occurs we cannot see the
products. Why? Write a possible
word equation for incomplete
combustion.
4. Write a word equation for the
reaction of magnesium in Step
3. Include the formulae for each
substance underneath its name.
How do you know this was a
combustion reaction?
5. Write a word equation for
the combustion reaction that
occurred in Test 2. What is the
chemical formula for the product?
6. Write a general word equation to
describe combustion.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

H
H

O
H

O
H

CH4 +

2O2

CO2 +

2H2O

O
H

O
O

O
H

complete combustion
hottest part of the flame

PART 4

unburnt gas

ENERGY AND CHANGE

fuel

50

ACTIVITY

4.4 REACTIONS IN NATURE

Reactions in nature are all around us. Could we stop or reverse them if we tried?
Photosynthesis uses solar energy to convert carbon dioxide into
glucose, which is stored as carbohydrates.
carbon dioxide + water + sunlight energy

glucose + oxygen

6CO2 (g) +

C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g)

6H2O (g)

ACTIVITY TYPE

What natural chemical


reactions are suggested in
these pictures?

All living things release energy from carbohydrates


during respiration.

carbon dioxide + water + energy

glucose + oxygen

C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g)

6CO2 (g)

+ H2O (g)

Lightning causes nitrogen in the air to form nitrates.


nitrogen + oxygen

N2 (g) + 2O2 (g)

nitrogen dioxide
NO2 (g)

Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.


carbon dioxide +

CO2 (g)

water

+ 6H2O (l)

carbonic acid
H2CO3 (aq)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

51

ACTIVITY 4.4 REACTIONS IN NATURE CONTINUED

CONCEPT MAP
size/surface
of particles

pe

p
ha

Different rates
of speeds
depending on

concentration

Chemical
Reactions

at

there

bubbles
form

colour
change

temperature
change

are

New substances form,


old ones disappear.

presence of
catalyst

Synthesis

temperature

In a group, create a
Concept Map to illustrate
reactions in nature.
Dont forget to include
reactions in living things,
as well as reactions in
the atmosphere and
lithosphere. Use a key to
highlight reactions which
are:
beneficial and not-so
beneficial
short and longer term.

reactions
involving light

many types
precipitation
reactions

combustion
reactions
Solid products
e.g.
making cheese

All living things need


energy to function and
grow and this happens
through chemical
reactions. These
reactions also shape the
environment around
us and produce new
chemicals.

Reaction between a fuel and


oxygen to release energy.

neutralisation
reactions

e.g.
hydrogen (g) + oxygen (g)
decomposition

water (I)

Reaction between an
acid and a base.
e.g.

acetic acid (ag) (vinegar) + sodium bicarbonate (s)

sodium acetate (ag) + water (I) + carbon dioxide (g)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

52

ACTIVITY 4.4 REACTIONS IN NATURE CONTINUED


GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

Organisms such as yeast can release energy without using oxygen by


the process of "fermentation".
glucose
carbon dioxide + water + energy
C6H12O6 (aq)

2CO2 (g)

2C2H5OH (g)

In this investigation you will design an experiment to find out more


about fermentation.

What to use:
Each PAIR will require:
4 or 5 small soft drink bottles
sachets of dry yeast (1 g per bottle)
teaspoon
4 or 5 round balloons
250 mL each of a variety of fruit
juices.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Your task is to design and carry out
a fair test to compare the rates of
fermentation in different fruit juices.
Step 1
Decide on an hypothesis and aim for
your experiment.
Step 2
Plan your experiment, making sure it:
answers the aim

is carried out in controlled


conditions
is reliable (dont forget replication).
Step 3
Carry out your experiment,
Notebooking your results as you go.
Step 4
Write a full report on your
experiment under the correct
headings.

Discussion:
In your discussion, make sure that
you:
include a graph and inferences
from the data you have collected
explain any differences in
fermentation rate
discuss whether your hypothesis
was correct
suggest improvements to your
experimental design.
Can you suggest a more reliable way
of confirming your findings?

WRITE A...

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Click here
to go to the digital
resource Activity
4.4 and learn more
about energy changes in
the environment.

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

53

ACTIVITY

4.5 INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

ACTIVITY TYPE

Could we live without


chemical products? Where
do they come from? What
are the implications when
industry and chemistry
combine?

Chemical industries produce an amazing range of products,


from eucalyptus oils to complex petroleum and pharmaceuticals.
In a group, list as many products you can think of which are
found in your bathroom, kitchen, garage or shed.
Share your findings with the class.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

54

ACTIVITY 4.5 INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY CONTINUED


manufactured each year. How is it made?
Globally, 40 million tonnes of ammonia are
nia
ammo
en
g
ro
d
y
h

+
(g)
nitrogen
2NH3

)
(g
H
(g) + 3 2
N2

WHAT IS AMMONIA (NH3)?

Look at the labels on the cleaning


liquids in your laundry cupboard.
Which contain ammonia? Gently
smell the contents of one.

Unused hydrogen and


nitrogen do not condense
and are recycled.

CO2

H2O

Waster gases from


combustion in heating
unit returned to air.

WARNING: DONT BREATHE


IN DEEPLY!

This smell is characteristic of


ammonia, a colourless poison gas
which can cause wheezing and
breathlessness.

HOW DO WE USE
AMMONIA?

Refrigeration
unit to cool gases.

Ammonia is used to
make fertilisers, nylon,
rayon, nitric acid,
cleaning products and
detergents.

Nitrogen
from the air.

Liquid ammonia
collected when
condensed.

Hydrogen
from natural
gas (methane).

Reaction occurs at 450C


and at 200 atmospheres
of pressure.

100

NH 3

90
80
70
60

% of total
ammonia

50

Click here to go to
the digital resource Activity 4.5
and learn more about industrial
chemistry and the Haber process.

40
30
20
10
0

Uses of ammonia

Making
fertilisers

Making other
chemicals
and wood pulp

Making
nylon

Why does ammonia


condense when
cooled under
pressure, but
hydrogen and
nitrogen do not?

THE HABER PROCESS


In 1912 German chemist
Fritz Haber developed a
process to make ammonia
from the readily available
elements, hydrogen
and nitrogen. This had a
significant effect on world
history, providing both
fertilizers and explosives.
Use the diagram and
digital resources to write
a descriptive paragraph
in your Notebook on
the Haber process.
Don't forget to name
the reagents and waste
products.

Making
nitric acid

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 4

ENERGY AND CHANGE

55

Activity 5.1
Activity 5.2
Activity 5.3
Activity 5.4
Activity 5.5
Activity 5.6
Activity 5.7
Activity 5.8

Acid or base?
Indicators
The pH scale
Neutralisation
Acids and metals
Acids and carbonates
Acids and bases everywhere
Are you a chemist?

5
PART

PART 5: ACIDS AND BASES

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

56

ACTIVITY

5.1

ACTIVITY TYPE

ACID OR BASE?

WHAT IS LITMUS?

on
Is this soluti

ase?

an acid or b

Litmus is a natural dye extracted from lichen. Indicator papers


are first soaked in litmus solution, then dried.
Did you have a glass of
orange juice this morning?
What did you use to clean
your teeth and wash your
face? Which one is acidic?

IF BLUE LITMUS PAPER


TURNS RED, THE
SUBSTANCE TESTED IS
AN ACID.

IF RED LITMUS PAPER


TURNS BLUE, THE
SUBSTANCE TESTED IS
A BASE.

If neither red nor blue paper changes colour, the substance is


neutral (neither an acid nor a base).
You probably know orange juice
contains vitamin C (ascorbic acid), but
did you know you were drinking an
acid? Orange juice also contains citric
acid, which gives its sharp taste. Are
all acids dangerous?
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

57

ACTIVITY 5.1 ACID OR BASE? CONTINUED


GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES


Which of the
following
are acidic or
basic?

TESTING COMMON SOLUTIONS


What to use:
The CLASS will require:
beakers of labelled solutions
stationed around the room.
Each PAIR will require:
10 pieces each of red and blue
litmus papers.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Construct a table in your Notebook
with five headings: substance,
formula, colour of red paper, colour
of blue paper, acid/ base/neutral.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Step 2
Dip red and blue litmus papers into
each solution, taking care not to get
the solution on your fingers, as this
will spoil the paper.Dispose of used
paper in the container provided.

Discussion:
1. Group the solutions as acid, base
or neutral. What does each group
have in common?
2. Are there obvious differences
between the groups?
3. Predict two other substances that
will be either acids or bases. We
will check some of these later.

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

58

ACTIVITY

5.2 INDICATORS

Acid-base indicators
are substances that
change colour in
acidic and basic
solutions.
Litmus is one, but can
other plant materials
be used as indicators?

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

What to use:
Each PAIR will require:
a selection of coloured plant
materials provided by your teacher
pestle and mortar
9 test tubes
test-tube rack
chopping board and knife
wash bottle of distilled water
10 mL measuring cylinder
eye dropper
dropper bottle of hydrochloric acid
dropper bottle of sodium
hydroxide
marking pen.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Construct a table in your Notebook
with the headings; plant material,
colour in water, colour in acid, colour
in base.

Step 2
Cut the equivalent of about a 2 cm3
cube of plant material into small
pieces on the chopping board.

Step 3
Place the material into the mortar
with 10 mL water and grind with
the pestle until you have a coloured
solution.

Step 4
Place three test tubes labelled A
(acid), B (base) and N (neutral) in the
rack. Decant the liquid into the test
tubes, dividing it equally between
the three tubes.

ACTIVITY TYPE

Step 7
Repeat Steps 2-6 with two more of
the plant materials available.

Discussion:
Hydrochloric acid is an acid and
sodium hydroxide is a base.
1. Which of the plant extracts do
you think is the best indicator
to distinguish an acid from a
base? Explain the reason for your
choice.
2. Why was distilled water added to
tube N?
3. Which would be the best plant
extract to distinguish a neutral
solution? Explain how you would
do this test.

DID YOUeaKNfloOwWers

hydrang
in soils
change colour
ity?
id
of different ac

Hydrangea grown in acidic soil.

Step 5
Add two drops of hydrochloric acid
to tube A, two drops of sodium
hydroxide to tube B and two drops
of distilled water to tube N.

Step 6
Record the results in your table.

more
a grown in
e
g
n
ra
d
y
H

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

basic soil.

ACIDS AND BASES

59

ACTIVITY 5.2 INDICATORS CONTINUED

WHAT MAKES A SUBSTANCE AN ACID OR BASE


What to use:

Step 4
Record your results in the table.

Each PAIR will require:


An extract of the best plant extract
indicator
6 test tubes
test tube rack
eye dropper
dropper bottles of:
hydrochloric acid
sulfuric acid
nitric acid
sodium hydroxide
potassium hydroxide
ammonium hydroxide.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Construct a suitable table in your
Notebook to record your results.
Step 2
Divide your indicator between 6 test
tubes in a rack.
Step 3
In turn, add two drops of each of the
acids and hydroxides to the tubes
marked 1-6.

Discussion:
1. Write the formula for each acid
and base next to its name in your
table.
Do you see anything common
to all the acids and all the bases
that would make them react
differently with the indicator?
2. Group 1 elements are called the
alkali metals and Group 2 the
alkaline earth metals. Why?
3. Draw diagrams to show the
particles in beakers of dilute and
concentrated hydrochloric acid
and sodium hydroxide.

Teacher demonstration
Your teacher will do some tests to
check your reasoning.
GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

WHAT HAPPENS TO ACIDS AND BASES WHEN THEY


DISSOLVE IN WATER
Acids dissolve in water to
produce hydrogen ions (H+).
Example: HCl dissociates
(splits) into H+ and Cl- ions.

Acid

H+

H+
Water
H+
H+

Water

Bases dissolve in water to


produce hydroxide ions (OH-).
Example: NaOH
into Na+ and OH- ions.

H+

DISSOCIATES

ALKALI

H+

A base dissolved in water is


called an
.

OH- OHBase

OHOHWater
OHOH-

Water

OH-

CONCENTRATED OR DILUTE

OH-

If you add more salt to


water it dissolves and the
solution becomes more
concentrated.
If you add more water
the solution is diluted, as
there are less hydrogen or
hydroxide ions in the same
volume of solution.

H+

H+

Volume of the same liquid

More molecules or
ions in
concentrated
solution compared
to dilute solution
Concentrated Solution

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

Dilute Solution

ACIDS AND BASES

60

ACTIVITY

5.3 THE pH SCALE

ACTIVITY TYPE

pH SCALE

is used to identify how


The
strong an acid or base is. It indicates
the concentration of hydrogen ions in
is
the solution.
widely used to measure pH. It is a mixture
of different indicators and undergoes a
series of colour changes over a range of
pH values, from 0 to 14.

Indicators change colour depending


on the concentration of the acid or
alkaline solution. How would you make
a 14-point pH indicator scale?

UNIVERSAL INDICATOR

pH scale
1

strongly
acidic

weakly
acidic

pH neutral

MAKE A H SCALE

weakly
alkali

10

11

12

13

Each PAIR will require:


0.1 M hydrochloric acid
1.0 M sodium hydroxide
14 test tubes
10 mL measuring cylinder
dropper bottle of universal
indicator
marking pen
long test-tube rack (or 2 small
racks)
dropping pipette
GOGGLES
GLOVES
two mystery
LAB COAT
SHOES
solutions for testing
wash bottle of
distilled water.

safety glasses.

CAN YOU WORK OUenT: each pH

strongly
alkali

What to use:

Each STUDENT will


require:

14

What to do:
Step 1
Label your test tubes 1 to 14.
Step 2
Place 10 mL of 0.1 M hydrochloric
acid in test tube 1.
Step 3
Using the pipette, measure exactly
1 mL of the acid in test tube 1 and
transfer it to test tube 2.
Step 4
Add exactly 9 mL distilled water to
test tube 2 and shake gently to mix.
Step 5
Take 1 mL of solution from test tube
2 and transfer it to test tube 3. Add 9
mL of water to test tube 3 and mix as
in Step 4.

the dilution betwe


between pH 1 and 3
t he difference in concentration
between pH 8 and 11?
the difference in concentration

Step 6
Repeat this process until you reach
tube 6.

Step 7
Place 10 mL of distilled water in test
tube 7.
Step 8
Measure 10 mL of 1.0 M sodium
hydroxide into test tube 14
Step 9
Use the pipette to measure exactly 1
mL of sodium hydroxide from tube 14
into tube 13. Add 9 mL distilled water.
Step 10
Repeat this process until you reach
test tube 8.
Step 11
Add 3 drops of universal indicator to
each test tube.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Discussion:
1. Which test tubes contain the
strongest acid and the strongest
base?
2. Refer to the universal indicator
chart. What is the pH of:
a) the strongest acid
b) the weakest acid
c) the strongest base
d) The weakest base?
3. Which test tube is neutral? What
is its pH?
4. Explain what a neutral solution is.
5. What is the pH of your mystery
solutions?

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

61

ACTIVITY 5.3 THE pH SCALE CONTINUED

Now you understand the pH scale, consider some household chemicals. Can you predict if they are acids or bases? What pH do you think they are?

WHAT COULD IT BE
The term pH was
first used
by the Danish ch
emist
Soren Sorensen
in 1909.
It means power
(p) of
hydrogen (H).

What to use:
Your teacher will distribute containers
of household chemicals about the
room. Your task is to discover the
pH of these substances and what
ingredients make them acidic or basic.
Each PAIR will require:
universal indicator paper and
colour chart.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Construct a table to record the
following information for 10
chemicals: name, chemicals present,
prediction (acid/base/neutral), pH.

Chemical labels of some household substances are missing.


Can you discover what they are?

What to use:
Each PAIR will require:

Mystery
solution
A

Step 2
Choose one chemical, record its
name and information about its
contents.

universal indicator paper and colour chart


dropper bottle of unknown household chemical.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

Mystery
solution
B

Mystery
solution
C

Step 3
Predict if it is acidic, basic or neutral.
Step 4
Dip a small piece of universal
indicator into the chemical. Compare
to the colour chart and record the
pH.

Step 1
Construct a table to record the pH (acid/base/neutral) and
your predictions.
Step 2
Choose one chemical and find its pH using universal
indicator.

Mystery
solution
D

Step 5
Repeat for nine other chemicals.

Discussion:
1. Did you predict accurately? Did
any results surprise?
2. List the chemicals tested from the
strongest acid to the least acidic
(strongest base).

What to do:

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

Step 3
Decide if is an acid, base or neutral substance and predict
what it is.
Step 4
Repeat for the others.

Discussion:
Ask your teacher what the chemicals are. Did you predict
correctly? What were the clues? What other tests or
activities could you do to assist your investigation?
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

62

ACTIVITY 5.3 THE pH SCALE CONTINUED

WEAK OR STRONG

In solutions,

STRONG acids and bases dissociate completely into ions.


Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

The same concentrations


of different acids or
bases can have different
pH values. How?

HCl

H+ + Cl-

Sodium hydroxide is a strong base.


Write an equation for its dissociation in water.

IS VINEGAR A WEAK
OR STRONG ACID

acid

Weak acids and bases


largely remain as molecules
in solutions, so there are
much less hydrogen ions or
hydroxide ions present.
Acids in foods are weak acids
e.g. ethanoic acid (vinegar);
citric acid and ascorbic acid in
fruit; lactic acid in milk.
How could you check vinegar
is a weak acid compared to
hydrochloric acid?
Discuss with your teacher
before testing your idea.
How would you
compare the
concentrations
of two solutions
of the same
acid?

Your teacher
will provide
two vinegar
solutions. Find
out which is the
strongest.

hydrogen ion
negative ion

undissociated
dissociated

Strong acid

Weak acid

Can you explain the difference between strong


and concentrated and dilute and weak acids?
Use diagrams to illustrate your answer.

Click here to go to the digital resource


Activity 5.3 and learn more about the pH scale.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

63

ACTIVITY

5.4 NEUTRALISATION

MAKING SALT BY NEUTRALISATION

Acids and
bases reac
t to indicato
How do th
rs
ey react to
e
ach other? in opposite ways.
Step 2

GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

What to use:

Add 5 mL sodium hydroxide to a


clean test tube with one drop of
litmus solution. Note the colour

Each PAIR will require:


dropper bottle of 2 M hydrochloric
acid
dropper bottle of 2 M sodium
hydroxide
dropper bottle of litmus solution
(indicator)
3 test tubes
test tube rack
wash bottle of distilled water
10 mL measuring cylinder
Bunsen burner and heating mat
evaporating basin
pipe-clay triangle
tripod stand
metal tongs
matches.

Step 3
Add 1 drop of hydrochloric acid
to this test tube. Shake gently and
observe for any colour change.

What happens to the


temperature when you place
an acid and base together?
Is the reaction endothermic
or exothermic?
vapour

Each STUDENT will require:

evaporating
basin

safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

solution

What to do:
Step 1
Put small amounts of hydrochloric
acid, sodium hydroxide and distilled
water into three test tubes. Add one
drop of litmus solution and note the
colour of the liquid in each tube.

ACTIVITY TYPE

tripod

bunsen
burner

heat mat

Step 4
Repeat Step 2, observing the colour
of the solution until the litmus
indicator turns purple. This means
neutralisation has occurred and you
have a neutral solution.
Step 5
Set up the Bunsen burner with the
pipe clay triangle on the tripod stand.
Step 6
Pour the solution into the
evaporating basin and place on the
pipe-clay triangle.
Step 7
Heat gently with a blue flame until
the solution is bubbling slowly.
Step 8
You will need to control the flame
and turn it off before all the water
evaporates. This prevents spitting.
The remaining heat will complete the
evaporation process.

NEUTRALISATION is an exothermic

reaction that always produces water


and a salt. The salt produced
depends on the acid and base used.
The equation shows the reaction
between hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide. The salt produced is
sodium chloride, table salt.

HCl + NaOH

H2O + NaCl

acid base water salt


(H+ donor) (OH- donor)
The temperature difference when
a dilute acid and base are used
is difficult to measure with a
thermometer. Why? In comparison,
reactions between concentrated acids
and bases are very dangerous. Why?

ns on the next page.


Now look at the discussion questio
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

64

ACTIVITY 5.4 NEUTRALISATION CONTINUED


If acids neutralise bases and
vice versa, how can they be
used to solve everyday
problems?

Discussion:
1. What is the solid remaining in
the evaporating basin? Why is it
coloured?
2. What is the other product of the
neutralisation reaction? What has
happened to it?
3. The salts produced by
hydrochloric acid are called
chlorides. What will the salts of
sulfuric acid be called?

THINK LIKE A
CHEMIST

Using your knowledge of


neutralisation and dilution, how
would you solve the following
problems? What chemicals or
approaches would you use?
Choose from:
tomato stains on clothing
relieving a jelly-fish sting
cleaning up an acid spill
improving a garden soil
that is too acidic.

4. Write word equations for the


reactions between:
a) s odium hydroxide and sulfuric
acid
b) p
 otassium hydroxide and
hydrochloric acid
c) calcium hydroxide and nitric
acid.
5. Can you write the formulae for all
the compounds above?

Write a
report on your
investigation under
the headings:
Problem - state it in one
clear sentence.
Chemistry - describe the
problems cause? Is it an acid or
base?
Solution - how would
you solve it? What would
you use? Explain any
chemical reactions
involved.

Click here to go to
the digital resource Activity
5.4 and find more ideas.

6. What kind of bonding occurs in:


a) the salt produced
b) water?
7. Discuss as a class when your
knowledge of neutralisation could
be applied to everyday life.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

65

ACTIVITY

5.5 ACIDS AND METALS

ACTIVITY TYPE

Have you looked under a car


bonnet to find the battery?
Do you remember
adding acid to
magnesium ribbon?
What was produced
in this reaction?

Many metals react in the same way


with acids. The general equation for
the reaction is:

The lead terminals become


corroded when acid leaking from
the battery forms lead sulfate.

acid + metal

How can
you test for
hydrogen
gas?

salt + hydrogen

INVESTIGATING THE REACTION


What to use:
Each PAIR will require:
dropper bottle of 2 M hydrochloric
acid
5 cm strip of clean magnesium
ribbon
3-5 x 1 cm strips of magnesium
dropper bottle of universal
indicator
universal indicator colour chart
2 test tubes
test tube rack
wooden splint
Bunsen burner to light splint
10 mL measuring cylinder.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Place 5 mL of hydrochloric acid in
a test tube and add three drops of
universal indicator.
Note the colour.
Step 2
Add a 5 cm piece of magnesium
ribbon. Invert a second test tube and
hold it on top of the reaction tube.
Observe what happens.
Step 3
Light a wooden splint, then quickly
invert the upturned test tube and
place the lighted splint just into the
top of the tube.
What happens?

Step 4
What colour is the universal
indicator now? Add a 1 cm piece of
magnesium.
Does the colour change?
Step 5
Add more magnesium, 1 cm at a
time, until there is no further colour
change.
What colour is the
indicator now?
GOGGLES
GLOVES
LAB COAT
SHOES

HCL

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Discussion:
1. What does the colour of the
universal indicator at the start and
at the end of the experiment tell
you?
2. What type of substance is causing
this pH reading?
3. What gas is produced in the
reaction? How do you know?
4. Write a word equation for the
reaction. Write the formula for
each substance under its name.
5. Write a word equation for the
reaction you would expect
between zinc and sulfuric acid.

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

66

ACTIVITY

5.6 ACIDS AND CARBONATES

ACTIVITY TYPE

Chemical reactions produce new chemicals. How can we use acids to make carbon dioxide?
A fire extinguishers is just one application of the reaction between
an acid and a carbonate.
The general equation for the reaction is:

acid + metal carbonate

salt + water + carbon dioxide

INVESTIGATING THE REACTION


What to use:

Each PAIR will require:


solid sodium carbonate
dropper bottle of 2 M hydrochloric
acid
test tube with stopper and delivery
tube
test tube half filled with limewater
teaspoon or spatula
10 mL measuring cylinder
test-tube rack.
Each STUDENT will require:
safety glasses
Science by Doing Notebook.

What to do:
Step 1
Put tsp of sodium carbonate in a
test tube.

e?
O C
O
ioxid
d
n
rbo
or ca
f
t
s
u te
n yo
a
c
O
How
O

O
O
C

O
C

Step 2
Add 5 mL hydrochloric acid. Put in
the stopper and delivery tube.
Step 3
Use the delivery tube to bubble the
gas produced into the limewater.

Discussion:
1. State three observations
showing a chemical reaction
has occurred.
2. Explain how you can
identify the
gas produced.
GOGGLES
GLOVES
3. Write a
LAB COAT
SHOES
word equation
for the reaction.
Write the formula
for each substance
under its name.

Now its your turn to design an experiment:


Your task is to design and carry out
an experiment to investigate if the
size of pieces of the reacting solid
affects the rate of reactions.
The experiment is to be written up as a
full practical report.

NOTE:

Complete the practical work


with a partner, but each student
must write an individual report.
You will be provided with:
2 M hydrochloric acid
marble chips (calcium carbonate)
pestle and mortar
test tubes
limewater.

WRITE A...

You may use other laboratory


equipment with your teachers
approval.

What to do:
Step 1
Plan your experiment, considering
how to make it a valid and reliable
test. How will you compare and
measure the speed of each reaction?
Step 2
Complete your experiment,
recording data as you go.
Step 3
Write a full practical report.

Individual Report:
In your report, ensure you:
Include a graph and inferences from collected data.
Explain any differences in reaction rates.
Discuss whether your hypothesis was correct.
Suggest improvements to your experimental
design.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

67

ACTIVITY

5.7 ACIDS AND BASES EVERYWHERE


Are some
foods more
friendly to our
stomach?

HCl

WHAT IS AN ACID

ACTIVITY TYPE

How can we
distinguish acids and
bases?

NaOH

What acid is
produced in your
stomach?

WHAT IS A BASE

The terms "base" and


"alkali" are often used
interchangeably. "Alkali"
is derived from Arabic (al
qal-y) meaning the calcined
ashes, the original source of
alkalines.

The word acid comes from


the latin meaning "sour"
(acidus).
Properties of acids include:
a sour taste
they conduct electricity
in solution
they are very reactive

Properties of bases include:


a bitter taste
they conduct electricity in
solution

a slimy feel

Can you add more?

Can you add more?

What is reflux? Increasing numbers of people suffer from it. Why?


How can we treat it in the short and long terms?
What do antacid tablets contain?
What are the long-term effects?
Explore these questions with someone in your extended family who has
problems with digestion. How do they moderate or control their symptoms?
Discuss your findings with the class.

Click here to go to the


digital resource Activity 5.7 and
explore properties and applications
of acids and bases.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

68

ACTIVITY 5.7 ACIDS AND BASES EVERYWHERE CONTINUED

Are eco
products as
effective?
Are there better
home-made options for
everyday chemicals?
Check labels of
household products.
Many have safety
warnings as they are
poisonous or cause
burns or other injuries.
Could we use lessharmful ingredients
for us and the
environment?

Making non-toxic household chemicals: a home-based project.


Your task is to chose a household
chemical and make a home-made,
non-toxic, substitute. Is it as good as
the commercial alternative?

What to do:
Step 1
Choose a product such as hand
cream, bath salts, lip balm, hair gel,
window cleaner, shoe polish, mould
cleaneror many more.

WRITE A...

Step 2
With parent permission, collect all
ingredients and make the product at
home.
Step 3
Design and carry out a fair test
to determine if your home-made
product works as well as the
commercial brand your family uses.
Step 4
Write a full report under the correct
headings.
Have you checked with your teacher that
your product is safe to make at home?
Explore the Find out more in the
digital resource as a starting point.

HINT:

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

69

ACTIVITY

5.8 ARE YOU A CHEMIST?

Why is it sour? What will make it grow?


What will be stronger?
How can we make it sti
ck?

Is it good for you? How can we test it?


Each day we answer questions which
rely on chemistry knowledge. Can you
think of examples?

ACTIVITY TYPE

ciated the
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Meet Penny Fr
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importance of
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Click here to go to the
digital resource Activity 5.8 and
learn more about Pennys career
and consumer chemistry.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

70

ACTIVITY 5.8 ARE YOU A CHEMIST? CONTINUED


What is
the difference
between a chemist,
an industrial
chemist and
a chemical
engineer?

From hair colourists to veterinary nurses,


scuba divers and dieticians, fireworks, farmers
and foodies; a little chemistry knowledge
goes a long way. In a group, list as many
careers and hobbies you can think of which
benefit from chemical knowledge.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

PART 5

ACIDS AND BASES

71

Glossary
Term

Description

Acid

A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions.

Alkali

A soluble base is called an alkali.

Alpha radiation

Emission of alpha particles (helium nuclei) in a nuclear reaction.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction.

Atomic mass

The total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom.

Atomic model

A representation to show the arrangement of particles in an atom.

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom.

Background radiation

Radiation coming from sources other than that being observed (e.g., cosmic radiation and radiation from unstable isotopes in rocks and soil).

Base

A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions.

Becquerel

The becquerel (Bq) is the unit used to measure the decay rate of radioisotopes. It is the number of atoms that decay per second.

Beta radiation

Emission of beta particles (electrons) in a nuclear reaction.

Carbohydrate

A large molecule containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (e.g., glucose, starch).

Cathode ray tube

A vacuum tube containing an electron emitter and a fluorescent screen to view images produced by the electron beam.

Chemical equation

A summary of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

Chemical reaction

A change that results in new substances being formed.

Classify

To sort objects into groups based on their properties.

Combustion

A chemical reaction in which a fuel reacts with oxygen to release energy.

Compound

A substance made up of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds.

Covalent bond

A force between non-metal atoms due to the sharing of electrons to form molecules.

Covalent compound

A compound that is formed by the sharing of electrons between non-metallic elements.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

GLOSSARY

72

Glossary
Term

Description

Decomposition reaction

A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler substances.

Electron

A sub-atomic particle with a negative charge. Electrons travel in orbitals around the nucleus of an atom.

Electron configuration

The number and arrangement of electrons in shells (energy levels) in an atom.

Element

A substance made up of only one kind of atom.

Endothermic reaction

A chemical reaction which requires energy.

Energy level

The energy level of electron orbitals is related to distance from the nucleus; the further away from the nucleus, the higher the energy level of the
electrons.

Exothermic reaction

A chemical reaction in which energy is released in the form of heat.

Fermentation

A reaction in which energy is produced in the absence of oxygen.

Gamma ray

Electromagnetic radiation of high energy that can be emitted from radioactive substances.

Geiger-Muller counter

An instrument used to measure radioactivity by counting ionisation of particles.

Group

A vertical section of the Periodic Table containing elements with similar outer electron configurations.

Haber process

An industrial process for the production of ammonia from the elements nitrogen and hydrogen.

Half-life

The time taken for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.

Hypothesis

A statement that predicts a possible explanation for observations, that can be tested by experiment.

Incomplete combustion

Incomplete combustion occurs if there is insufficient oxygen, so that less energy is produced. The products of the reaction include carbon monoxide and
carbon (soot).

Ion

A particle that is charged due to the addition or removal of electrons from a neutral atom.

Ionic bond

A force between metallic and non-metallic particles due to attraction between positive and negatively charged ions.

Ionic compound

A compound formed from metal and non-metal ions.

Ionic solution

A solution in which the ions are free to move and conduct electricity.

Isotope

An atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons.

Law

A theory to which no exceptions have been found at the time it is made. Scientific laws explain why things happen.

Litmus

An acid/base indicator obtained from lichens.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

GLOSSARY

73

Glossary
Term

Description

Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass.

Metalloid

An element that displays some properties of both metals and non-metals.

Molecular model

A model representing the arrangement of atoms and shape of a molecule.

Molecule

Two or more atoms chemically combined together in fixed proportions.

Neutral

Neither acidic nor basic. A substance with equal amounts of hydroxide and hydrogen ions and a pH of 7.

Neutralisation

A reaction between an acid and base that produces salt and water.

Neutron

A neutral particle, of equivalent mass to a proton, found in the nucleus of atoms.

Nuclear fission

The process where an unstable nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei accompanied by a large release of energy.

Nuclear fusion

A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at very high speed and join to form a different element, releasing a huge amount of energy.

Nuclear power station

A power station in which nuclear energy (fission) is used to produce electricity.

Nucleus

The small, dense centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons.

Observation

The act of noting, recording and possibly measuring something, often by using an instrument.

Particle

An individual piece of matter. Particles include atoms and molecules as well as a variety of even smaller sub atomic entities.

Penetration

The ability of radiation to pass through barriers (e.g., paper, aluminium, lead).

Period

A horizontal section (row) of the Periodic Table containing elements with the same number of electron shells.

PH scale

A scale indicating the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. It ranges from 0 (strong acid) to 14 (strong base). A pH of 7 is neutral.

Philosopher

A person who offers views or theories on profound questions in ethics, abstract concepts, logic and other related fields.

Photosynthesis

A series of chemical reactions which occur in the chloroplasts of green plants. Carbon dioxide and water combine in the presence of light and chlorophyll
to produce sugars and oxygen.

Polar

A polar molecule has positive and negatively charged ends.

Polyatomic ion

A charged particle made up of two or more elements that are covalently bonded together and act as one unit (e.g., hydroxide (OH-)).

Precipitate

A solid produced in a chemical reaction.

Products

The substances produced in a chemical reaction.

Property

A feature of a substance that can be used to classify or identify it.

Proton

Positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Each element has a different specific number of protons in its nucleus.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

GLOSSARY

74

Glossary
Term

Description

Radiation

The process in which energy is transmitted as particles or waves (e.g., gamma rays, beta particles).

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus leading to the emission of radiation.

Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (or carbon dating) is a dating technique that uses the decay of carbon-14 to measure the age of materials originating from living
things (e.g., wood, leather, bones) up to about 60,000 years old.

Radioisotope

An atom with an unstable nucleus that decays to form a more stable nucleus of a different element.

Range

The distance over which something (e.g., radiation) can be detected or sampled.

Reactants

The substances present before a chemical change takes place.

Reagent

A substance (reactant) added to make a chemical reaction occur.

Reliability

The reliability of an experiment is a measure of its consistency; if repeated the same results are obtained.

Respiration

The chemical reactions in which cells obtain energy. Glucose combines with oxygen in a complex series of reactions to produce energy, carbon dioxide
and water.

Salt

A substance produced in a neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base.

Sievert

A sievert (Sv) is the unit used to measure the radiation dose absorbed by the body.

Spectator ions

Ions that remain in solution after a precipitate has formed.

Strong acids/bases

Strong acid and bases dissociate completely into ions when they are in solution.

Theory

An hypothesis that has been supported by repeated scientific testing.

Universal indicator

A mixture of different indicators and undergoes a series of colour changes over a range of pH values from 0 to 14.

Valency

The combining power of an atom determined by the number of outer shell electrons.

Validity

The validity of an experiment is determined by how well the design enables the aims to be achieved. A controlled experiment is valid if all variables that
may affect the experiment are controlled and only one factor (the independent variable) is changed.

Weak acids/bases

Weak acids and bases largely remain as molecules in solution and so there are fewer hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions present.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

GLOSSARY

75

Acknowledgements
People
Penny Frost (Chemical Engineer), friends and family
Louise Bennetts, Trinity Catholic College, Goulburn

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www.sciencebydoing.edu.au

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