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Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering

REVIEW OF WARM MIX ASPHALT RESEARCHES


--Manuscript Draft-Manuscript Number:

MTENG-2972

Full Title:

REVIEW OF WARM MIX ASPHALT RESEARCHES

Manuscript Region of Origin:

COLOMBIA

Article Type:

Technical Paper

Section/Category:

Section B: Bituminous/Flexible pavements

Abstract:

Based on a literature review, this article summarizes the most important aspects
concerning warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology. The technical, economic and
environmental advantages and disadvantages in using this recent technology, the
additives and techniques for the manufacturing of binders for WMA and the general
recommendations for its design are reported here. In general terms, this technology
presents a wide potential to be successfully used in road works construction projects.
However, there is still concern regarding the durability and behavior of the WMA
mixtures in the long term, which needs to be addressed. At the end of the document,
the authors include some recommendations as support to continue strengthening the
development of the WMA technology.

Corresponding Author:

Hugo Alexander Rondon Quintana


Universidad Distrital
Bogota Colombia, COLOMBIA

Corresponding Author E-Mail:

harondonq@udistrital.edu.co

Order of Authors:

Hugo Alexander Rondon Quintana


Jesus Alfredo Hernandez Noguera, Ph. D.
Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano, Ph. D.

Suggested Reviewers:

Gerardo Flintsch, Ph.D.


Professor, Virgia Tech
GFlintsch@vtti.vt.edu
Experience in warm mix in USA
Luis Guillermo Loria Salazar, Ph.D.
Director, University of Costa Rica
luis.loriasalazar@ucr.ac.cr
Experience in Warm Mix in Latin America

Opposed Reviewers:
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Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering ASCE


Date: 13/05/2014
I am enclosing herewith a manuscript entitled REVIEW OF WARM MIX ASPHALT RESEARCHES for
publication in Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering for possible evaluation. The Corresponding
author of this manuscript is Hugo Alexander Rondn Quintana and contribution of the authors as
mentioned below with their responsibility in the research.
1. Hugo Alexander Rndon Quintana
2. Jess Alfredo Hernndez Noguera
3. Fredy Alberto reyes Lizcano
With the submission of this manuscript I would like to undertake that:

All authors of this research paper have directly participated in the planning, execution, or
analysis of this study;
All authors of this paper have read and approved the final version submitted;
The contents of this manuscript have not been copyrighted or published previously;
The contents of this manuscript are not now under consideration for publication
elsewhere;
The contents of this manuscript will not be copyrighted, submitted, or published
elsewhere, while acceptance by the Journal is under consideration;
There are no directly related manuscripts or abstracts, published or unpublished, by any
authors of this paper;
My Universidad Distrital Francisco Jos de Caldas, Bogot D.C representative is fully
aware of this submission.

Submitted manuscript is a Research Article

Date: 13/05/2014
Bogota, Colombia
Hugo Alexander Rndon Quintana.

Manuscript
Click here to download Manuscript: WMA Review - ASCE 130514.docx

REVIEW OF WARM MIX ASPHALT RESEARCHES

Hugo Alexander Rondn Quintana, Jess A. Hernndez Noguera, and Fredy Alberto Reyes
Lizcano

Doctor of Engineering, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Universidad Distrital

Francisco Jos de Caldas, Bogot D.C., Colombia, harondonq@udistrital.edu.co

b Doctor of Engineering, Instituto de Ingeniera, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico,


Ciudad Universitaria, CoyoacAvenida Universidad 3006233600 ext. 8522ional Autonoma de
Mn 04510 Mxico, D.F., JHernandezN@iingen.unam.mx
c

Doctor of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Pontificia

Universidad Javeriana, Bogot D.C., Colombia, fredy.reyes@javeriana.edu.co

*Corresponding author: Hugo Alexander Rondn Quintana; Phone number: 057 1 3540643;
Mailing address: Carrera 8a 153-51, torre 3, 1202; email address: harondonq@udistrital.edu.co

ABSTRACT
Based on a literature review, this article summarizes the most important aspects concerning
warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology. The technical, economic and environmental advantages
and disadvantages in using this recent technology, the additives and techniques for the
manufacturing of binders for WMA and the general recommendations for its design are reported
here. In general terms, this technology presents a wide potential to be successfully used in road
works construction projects. However, there is still concern regarding the durability and behavior
of the WMA mixtures in the long term, which needs to be addressed. At the end of the
document, the authors include some recommendations as support to continue strengthening the
development of the WMA technology.

Keywords: warm mix asphalt, WMA, manufacturing, design, additives

Highlights

The main advantage of using WMA mixtures reported is environmental

WMA technologies have some drawbacks yet

Behavior exhibited by the WMA mixtures is still not completely understood, especially
to long term

The benefit-cost relationship of working with this technology from the technical,
economic and environmental points of view is still not completely clear

The WMA technology provide a great opportunity to use it for the manufacturing of other
types of friendly asphalt mixtures with the environment

1. INTRODUCTION
Based on the temperature used to manufacture asphalt mixtures in specialized asphalt plants, the
mixtures are given the following four denominations: cold mix asphalt CMA (temperature
lower than 60C), half warm mix asphalt HWMA (temperature between 60C and 100C),
warm mix asphalt WMA (temperature between 100C and 140C) and hot mix asphalt - HMA
(temperature between 140C and 190C). WMA is the mixture that, by the use of different
techniques, can reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures of an HMA without
significantly altering its mechanical properties. According to Bonaquist (2011) and Sterling
(2012), the minimum decrease in the mixture manufacturing temperature in the asphalt plant has
to be 28C to be called a WMA mixture. The reduction of the mixing and compaction
temperatures is accompanied by a decrease in the energy required for the production of the
mixture and a decrease in the emissions to the atmosphere (Romier et al. 2006; Kristjansdottir et
al. 2007; Wasiuddin et al. 2007; Chowdhury and Button 2008; Biro et al. 2009; Tao et al. 2009;
Bonaquist, 2011). According to Gandhi and Amirkhanian (2008) and Hearon and Diefenderfer
(2008), the mixing and compaction temperatures of the WMA are between 90C and 130C and
between 100C and 135C, respectively. Researchers such as Goh and You (2008), Yan et al.
(2010) and Mogawer et al. (2013) mention that the manufacturing temperature of WMA
mixtures ranges from 17C to 56C and from 30C to 50C, lower than that required to
manufacture HMA mixtures. A similar observation is reported by Silva et al. (2010), who
mention that this decrease reaches 40C. According to APAO (2003), Chowdhury and Button
(2008) and You and Goh (2008), WMA mixtures generate less polluting emissions during their
manufacturing and construction process in comparison to HMA mixtures, and the energy savings
are approximately 30%. Blankendaal et al. (2014), using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) model,

reported that using WMA mixtures instead of HMA decreases the negative environmental impact
of the latter ones by 33%.

Through a literature review on this subject, the present article summarizes the main aspects
regarding the warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology that the pavement engineer has to know. For
this purpose, the article starts by presenting the advantages and disadvantages reported in the
literature regarding WMA and then presents the way in which these mixtures are produced and
designed in the world. At the end of the article, the conclusions reported by the authors are
presented based on the literature review that was performed.

2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


2.1 Environmental
The main advantage reported in the different consulted documents and studies is an
environmental one. As mentioned in the introduction of this article, the fuel consumption and the
emissions in a plant are reduced when using the WMA technology (Goh and You 2008; You and
Goh 2008). This allows for the mixture production plants to be located closer to cities.
According to Robjent and Dosh (2009), the reduction in fuel is between 20% and 35%, but in
some occasions, this reduction could be above 50%. Estakhri et al. (2009) mention that the
reduction of CO2, SO2, volatile organic compounds, CO, NOx and ashes is 30%-40%, 35%,
50%, 10%-30%, 60%-70% and 20%-25%, respectively, in comparison to HMA mixtures. In
addition, they report a fuel cost saving above 40%, and this saving increases the more expensive
the fuel is in the country where this technology is developed. This reduction in the manufacturing
temperatures and in the energy consumption depends on the method used for the manufacturing

of the WMA mixture. Using the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability model
(BEES 4.0), Hassan (2010) reported that the WMA mixtures generate, in comparison to the
HMA mixtures, a reduction of 24%, 18% and 15% in air contamination, fossil fuel consumption
and total negative environmental impacts, respectively. Despite the above, although there are
extensive reports on the decrease in the environmental impact when using this technology, few
studies have measured the possible impacts generated by the manufacturing and use of organic,
chemical and synthetic additives during the production of WMA mixtures.

2.2 Resistance and durability


From the aging point of view, a lower oxidation in the short term of the asphalt binders is
generally reported due to the lower temperatures used during the manufacturing, extension and
compaction processes of the WMA mixture, which can result in an increase in the resistance to
fatigue and low temperature top-down cracking (TDC) and oxidation (Gandhi and Amirkhanian
2008; Hearon and Diefenderfer 2008; Estakhri et al. 2009; Robjent and Dosh 2009; Gandhi et al.
2009, 2009a. 2010; Ran et al. 2010; Zhao et al. 2012; Goh et al. 2013; Hossain and Zaman 2013;
Vidal et al. 2013). The lower aging rate of the asphalt used to manufacture WMA mixtures is
presented as an advantage because an aged asphalt produces a decrease in the adhesion between
the stone aggregate and the binder (increasing the increment probability of the stripping
phenomenon) and a change in the behavior of the binder and the asphalt mixture from ductile to
brittle (due to an excessive increase in the stiffness and viscosity). The excessive hardening of
the asphalt cement is undesirable because it often leads to problems associated with the
brittleness and cracking of the asphalt layer in the pavement, especially at low service
temperatures. In general, studies report a lower stiffening of the WMA asphalt and greater values

of m (variation of stiffness with time) in creep tests. Some researchers have reported that this
lower stiffening during the manufacturing process of the WMA mixtures can result in a decrease
in the rutting resistance (Su et al. 2009; Kavussi and Hashemian 2012; Zhao et al. 2012).

The road segments that have been built are relatively recent (mainly in Europe and the United
States of America), making it difficult to observe and evaluate the long-term mechanical
properties of the pavements that use WMA (Vaitkus et al. 2009; Rubio et al. 2012). There are
different studies, in situ and in the laboratory, that show that the WMA mixtures can exhibit
properties comparable and even superior to those of HMA (Barthel et al. 2004; Prowell et al.
2007; Su et al. 2009; Wielinski et al. 2009; Yan et al. 2010; Kvasnak et al. 2010; Kim et al.
2012; Tan et al. 2012; Zhao et al. 2012; Behl et al. 2013; Topal et al. 2014). Prowell et al. (2007)
reported the results of a test at real scale where approximately 515,333 equivalent single axle
loads (ESALs) were applied for 43 days on a track built with an asphalt layer of HMA and
WMA mixtures. In this study, both mixtures exhibited a good resistance to permanent
deformation. Kvasnak et al. (2010), in a different study performed on a rural road, rehabilitated
and divided into 4 segments (one with an HMA mixture and the other three with WMA), with an
average circulation traffic of 2150 vehicles per day, reported that the properties of the WMA
mixtures depend on the type of additive used or on the manufacturing method. A similar
conclusion was reported by Arega et al. (2011), Nazzal et al. (2011) and Sargand et al. (2012). In
addition, Nazzal et al. (2011) and Sargand et al. (2012) reported that although the WMA
mixtures were compacted at a lower temperature, they reached a higher density in the field than
the HMA mixtures and a lower aging. Behl et al. (2013) described the results of measurements
performed on two road projects in India constructed with HMA and WMA mixtures. Based on

deflection measurements with Benkelman beams and tests of Marshall stability, static creep and
resilient modulus on cores extracted in situ, they concluded that the road segments constructed
with WMA mixtures exhibit a similar and even superior behavior to those constructed with
HMA mixtures. This is mainly attributed by the researchers to the greater compacting densities
reached in situ by the WMA mixtures and to the lower aging of the binder due to the lower
manufacturing and compaction temperatures. Based on studies performed with X-ray computed
tomography, Estakhri et al. (2009) reported that the distribution of air voids versus depth in the
asphalt layer is better.

In some cases, the physical and mechanical properties of the WMA mixtures are lower in
comparison to those of the HMA mixtures (Vaitkus et al. 2009), mainly in the rutting resistance
and the moisture damage (Diefenderfer et al. 2007; Kvasnak et al. 2009; West, 2009; Arega et al.
2011; Punith et al. 2011; Kavussi and Hashemian 2012; Ali et al. 2013a; Doyle and Howard
2013; Kim et al. 2014). According to Tarefder et al. (2003), water generates a loss of resistance
in the interface between the asphalt binder and the stone aggregate, increasing the accumulation
rate of permanent deformation due to the loss of cohesion of the mixture by moisture. This
phenomenon was identified in the 1930s (Caro et al. 2008), and the reference literature calls it
stripping (Caro et al. 2008; Kringos et al. 2008, 2008a; Kassem et al. 2009). The causes that
generate this phenomenon are complex because they involve physical, chemical, mechanical and
thermodynamic aspects. An updated state of knowledge on the subject can be found in Mehrara
and Khodaii (2013). The rutting phenomenon is one of the main damage mechanisms of asphalt
layers in flexible and semi-rigid pavement structures. This phenomenon can be defined as the
permanent vertical deformation that accumulates in the pavement due to the repetitive passing of

vehicles, which generates the formation of thin longitudinal depressions along the trajectory of
the wheels. Information regarding the rutting and fatigue phenomena on asphalt mixtures can be
found in Rondn and Reyes (2011) and Rondn et al. (2012). The lower manufacturing
temperatures can make the drying of the stone aggregate in the asphalt plants insufficient,
producing the loss of adhesion between the stone aggregate and the asphalt binder in the mixture
(Vaitkus et al. 2009; Xiao et al. 2010; Mallick et al. 2011; Mogawer et al. 2011a; Kanitpong et
al. 2012; Ali et al. 2013; Sengz et al. 2013; Xiao et al. 2011, 2013, 2013a) and generating
mixtures susceptible to moisture damage. In the laboratory design of mixtures, this phenomenon
is not apparent because, in general, the stone aggregate is dried in ovens before being mixed with
the binder. To increase the resistance to moisture damage, some researchers have opted to add
hydrated lime (conventional and in nanoparticles) to the stone aggregate or anti-stripping
additives, such as amines, diamines, liquid polymers, Portland cement, fly ash and combustion
powder (e.g., Buddhala et al. 2011; Kavussi and Hashemian 2011, 2012; Cheng et al. 2011;
Arabani et al. 2012; Hossain et al. 2012; Shivaprasad et al. 2011a, 2012; Xiao et al. 2010, 2012;
Diab et al. 2013; Xiao et al. 2013; Kavussi et al. 2014). Some researchers, such as Kanitpong et
al. (2012) and Sangsefidi et al. (2014), mention that the deficiencies found in WMA can be
addressed by the use of good stone aggregates and an optimum grading curve, which generates
high adhesion properties with the asphalt and cohesion. The above is based on the fact that the
stone aggregate in an asphalt mixture makes up, in general, between 80% and 90% of the total
volume, and the response of the asphalt mixtures in service is strongly dependent on the type of
stone aggregate, the grading curve used, the maximum particle size, the content of fines and the
way in which the granular skeleton is distributed and compacted. Conversely, there are studies
that report that the resistance of WMA mixtures to moisture damage is superior to that exhibited

by HMA mixtures. Al-Rawashdeh and Sargand (2013), based on measurements with an atomic
force microscope and using the surface free energy concept, reported that the adhesion and
cohesion of two binders used in the manufacturing of WMA mixtures is similar, and in some
cases superior, to those used for the manufacturing of an HMA. Other studies that mention
successful results of WMA mixtures regarding moisture damage can be found in Wasiuddin et
al. (2011) and Ghabchi et al. (2013). On this subject, diverse researchers mention that in some
occasions, the conclusions of the high degree of potential moisture damage of WMA mixtures
reported are based on measurements obtained by the TSR (Tensile Strength Ratio) test, which is
not representative enough to evaluate this damage mechanism. According to these authors, a
method that reports a better mechanistic comprehension of the moisture damage of asphalt
mixtures in service is the surface free energy (SFE) (Cheng et al. 2002; Bhasin and Little 2007;
Arabani et al. 2012; Ghabchi et al. 2013, 2013a). Using this method, the mechanisms of adhesion
and cohesion of asphalt mixtures subjected to moisture damage are better described.
A bad determination of the mixing temperature can result in a bad coating of the aggregate,
making it more vulnerable to moisture damage. Likewise, a bad determination of the compaction
temperature of the WMA mixtures has an effect on its density and, therefore, on its behavior
during its service time. This temperature depends on the type of stone aggregate and additive,
additive percentage, type of asphalt binder and compaction equipment, among others. When
performing the characterization of the WMA mixtures in the laboratory, it is important to take
into account the effect developed by the type of compaction on these types of mixtures (Sanchez
et al. 2012) and the compaction temperature (Lee et al. 2012).

In addition, one of the main limitations reported with the WMA technology is that there is no
standardized mixture design procedure (Bonaquist, 2011).

2.3 Opportunity of use


Another widely mentioned advantage of WMA technology is the opportunity for manufacturing
asphalt mixtures modified with recycled rubber from tires or other polymers, for which there is
the need to decrease the manufacturing and compaction temperatures (Akisetty et al. 2008, 2009,
2010; Kim et al. 2011; Shivaprasad et al. 2011; Liu et al. 2010; Morea et al. 2012; Wu and Zeng
2012; Fakhri et al. 2013; Rossi et al. 2013; Hajj et al. 2014; Yu et al. 2014). The use of this
technology in mixtures modified with recycled rubber from tires decreases the compaction
temperature by between 20C and 30C without significantly affecting the engineering properties
(Hurley and Prowell 2005; Wang 2011; Yu et al. 2013, 2014). In addition, this technology can be
used for the manufacturing of open or porous mixtures (Koenders et al. 2000; Goh y You et al.
2012; Wurst and Putman 2013) and recycled mixtures (recycled or reclaimed asphalt pavement,
RAP) (Soto and Blanco 2004a, b; Estakhri et al. 2009; Tao and Mallick 2009; Nazzal et al. 2011;
Wu et al. 2011; Oliveira et al. 2012; Rubio et al. 2012; Vargas and Timm 2012; Doyle and
Howard 2013, 2013a; Hill et al. 2013; Howard et al. 2013; Vidal et al. 2013; Kheradmand et al.
2014; Nejad et al. 2014), the latter ones being the product of the milling of deteriorated or aged
asphalt layers. In the mixture modified with rubber and the RAPs, the aim for the use of the
WMA technology is to improve the workability during their manufacturing and compaction
processes, rejuvenate and soften the aged asphalt binder of the RAP and create new construction
methods with high environmental and economic benefits (Zhao et al. 2013). Despite the above,
most researchers report that high contents of RAP produce mixtures that are so stiff that

structural failure can occur in the field, mainly fatigue cracking (Bonaquist 2005; McDaniel et al.
2007; Behnia et al. 2011; Doyle and Howard 2013; Mogawer et al. 2013). This is mainly due to
the increase in stiffness that is a product of the asphalt aging in the RAP. However, other
researchers, such as Hill et al. (2013), dispute this claim, reporting that the WMA mixtures
manufactured with four different additives exhibit a greater cracking resistance at low service
temperatures. The reference literature reports successful cases of asphalt mixtures designed with
WMA asphalts, recycled tire rubber granules and a maximum of 25% RAP (Mogawer et al.
2011, 2013). Doyle and Howard (2013) reported that a high content of RAP (25% and 50%) +
WMA generates resistance to permanent deformation and moisture damage, similar to the
traditional hot mixtures manufactured with low RAP content (less than 25%). Based on
Marshall, dynamic creep and indirect tensile strength tests, Nejad et al. (2014) reported an
optimum RAP content of 50% in a WMA asphalt mixture using an organic additive. Few studies
have been performed on WMA mixtures with high RAP contents (above 50%) compared with
those performed on WMA mixtures with RAP contents between 20% and 50% (Howard et al.
2013). Some researchers, such as Ameri et al. (2013), mention the opportunity of using this
technology to manufacture WMA mixtures with properties comparable or even superior to those
of HMA when the natural stone aggregate is substituted by blast furnace steel slags.

2.4 Constructive
In the constructive area, it is constantly mentioned that the viscosity of the asphalt binder used to
manufacture WMA mixtures is lower than that of the binder used for HMA mixtures (Goh and
You 2008; You and Goh 2008), which results in an earlier opening of the paved road and
improvement of the workability (Goh and You 2008; You and Goh 2008; Estakhri et al. 2009;

Robjent and Dosh 2009; Vasconcelos et al. 2010; Yan et al. 2010; Capito et al. 2012; Morea et
al. 2012; Wang et al. 2013). Some researchers report that instead of reducing the viscosity, some
additives improve the workability of the mixture due to a better lubrication between the asphalt
binder and the stone aggregate at a microscopic level. This reduces the internal friction generated
in the mixtures due to the high shear stress values to which they are subjected during the
manufacturing and compaction processes (Anderson et al. 2008; Goh et al. 2013). The reduction
of the mixing and compaction temperatures enhances the use of these mixtures for the
manufacturing of thin asphalt layers (Tao et al. 2009; Yan et al. 2010). In addition, the additives
allow a greater transport distance of the mixture prior to the extension and compaction (Robjent
and Dosh 2009) and allow the extension and compaction in colder environments (Goh and You
2008; You and Goh 2008; Hearon and Diefenderfer 2008; Tao et al. 2009; Ran et al. 2010). This
has led to the use of this technology in the manufacturing of emergency roads in regions
subjected to natural disasters (Howard et al. 2014).

2.5 Economic
From the economic point of view, diverse studies report that the WMA technology reduces the
wear of the asphalt plants where the WMAs are produced due to the lower manufacturing
temperatures, which result in a decrease in the maintenance costs and extension of their service
life (Hurley and Prowell 2006 a,b; Biro et al. 2009; Gandhi and Amirkhanian 2008). In addition,
in countries where the energetic cost is high, the WMA mixtures can offer economic advantages
in the short term (Rubio et al. 2012; Mokhtari and Nejad 2013). Likewise, in countries where the
environmental laws are more demanding, the economic benefits would be more representative
because, when using WMA on a large scale, the cost could decrease. However, in some cases,

the savings of fuels and energy do not compensate for the extra cost generated by the production
of the binder and additives required to manufacture the WMA mixture (Gandhi and Amirkhanian
2008; Biro et al. 2009; Vaitkus et al. 2009; Capito et al. 2012). In some manufacturing
processes of the WMA mixture, in particular foamed additives and asphalts, it is required to
make changes to the asphalt plants, increasing the initial cost of such mixture. In general terms,
the initial cost of producing WMA mixtures is higher than that of HMA (Rubio et al. 2012), and
it varies depending on the type of technology and the additives used. In the consulted documents,
very few studies have been carried out to correlate and evaluate the costs of the short- and longterm use of WMA mixtures. Furthermore, few studies have been performed to evaluate the
benefit-cost relationship from the technical, economic, social and environmental points of view.

The contracting entity has to choose the most adequate manufacturing process of WMA mixtures
and technology based on the following criteria: a) the available performance data, b) cost of
additives, c) expected temperatures of production and compaction, d) expected production rates,
e) mixture production capacity of the plant and f) required modifications to successfully use the
WMA process with the available laboratory and field equipment.

3. MANUFACTURING OF WMA MIXTURES


There are three general manufacturing methodologies for WMA type mixtures: modify the
asphalt with organic and chemical additives and foam the asphalt.

3.1 Modification of the asphalt or asphalt mixture with additives

The modification can be performed by a wet (incorporating the additive into the asphalt) or dry
(incorporating the additive into the stone aggregate) process. In general, the most used
modification method is the wet process. Chemical additives include Cecabase, RTEvotherm,
HyperTherm, Rediset WMX, Qualitherm and SonneWarmix, and organic additives
include Sasobit, Thiopave, TLA-X, REVIXTM and Asphaltan-B. In general, these additives
are mixed with the asphalt prior to entering the mixing drum in the asphalt plant (wet process).
One of the most used organic additives worldwide is Sasobit. This product, developed by Sasol
Wax, is a synthetic wax made in the coal gasification process (Chowdhury and Button 2008;
Ghandi et al. 2010) and is generally added in a 3% to 4% proportion with respect to the total
asphalt weight. This additive, when introduced to the asphalt, chemically changes the
temperature-viscosity curve, generating a reduction in the manufacturing temperature of between
approximately 18C and 54C and a 20% reduction in the energy consumption of the asphalt
plant (Kheradmand et al. 2014). According to Nazzal et al. (2011), when WMA mixtures are
manufactured with Sasobit, the polluting emissions to the atmosphere decrease by at least 50%
for volatile organic compounds, 60% for carbon monoxide, 20% for nitrogen oxides and 83% for
sulfur dioxide in comparison to HMA type mixtures. When decreasing the temperature, the
additive can crystallize inside the asphalt, increasing its stiffness. Therefore, some researchers
have reported an increase in the resistance to permanent deformation of WMA mixtures
manufactured with asphalt modified with Sasobit (Biro et al. 2009; Goh and You 2009; Silva et
al. 2010; Hossain et al. 2011; Liu et al. 2011; Capito et al. 2012; Wu and Zeng 2012; Xiao et al.
2012a; Jamshidi et al. 2013, 2013a). For example, Hossain et al. (2011) reported an increase in
the maximum service temperature performance grading (PG) of 6C (from PG 64C to 70C)
when the base asphalt cement was modified with 2% Sasobit with respect to the binder total

mass. A similar conclusion was reported by Prowell and Hurley (2005) and Zelelew et al. (2013).
This increase in the resistance to permanent deformation can produce a significant decrease in
the cracking resistance at low service temperature and fatigue (Hossain et al. 2011; Medeiros et
al. 2012). The evaluation and modeling of the rheological properties of asphalt binders modified
with Sasobit can be found in Hamzah et al. (2012), Jamshidi et al. (2013, 2013a) and Qin et al.
(2014). The morphological and thermal characterization of this additive can be found in Qin et
al. (2014). Information on the use of this additive for the manufacturing of WMA mixtures can
be found in Jamshidi et al. (2013). Another recently developed organic wax is Licomont BS 100,
which is added in an amount of 3% and 4% with respect to the asphalt mass. At these
percentages, a significant reduction of the asphalt binder is obtained, increasing its resistance to
permanent deformations and hardness (Rodrguez et al. 2013). Other organic waxes, along with
their description, can be found in Rubio et al. (2012).

Similar to Sasobit, chemical additives such as Rediset and Cecabase reduce the binder
viscosity, decreasing the manufacturing and compaction temperatures of the asphalt mixture
when added at 1.5% and 3% with respect to the asphalt weight, respectively. In the reference
literature, these chemical additives are mentioned as products formed by anti-stripping surfactant
agents. By using these two additives, the manufacturing temperature of asphalt mixtures is
decreased by approximately 15C to 30C. A detailed description of theses additives can be
found in Kheradmand et al. (2014). Leng et al. (2014) reported that the stone matrix asphalt
(SMA) type hot mix asphalts present a comparable behavior in terms of resistance to permanent
deformation, complex modulus and tensile strength compared with the same mixture
manufactured with asphalt modified with Rediset. Based on the permanent deformation tests

under cyclic load, Ouni et al. (2014) reported that WMA mixtures manufactured with Cecabase
generated resistances comparable to dense type and hot mixtures. An issue widely identified in
the reference literature is that the manufacturers of these additives do not provide specific
information, composition and characteristics (Bonaquist 2011; Sterling 2012).

Another of the most used additives is Evotherm ET (developed by MeadWestvaco Asphalt


Innovations and used at 0.3% with respect to the mass of asphalt binder). According to
Chowdhury and Button (2008), the product reduces the mixing temperatures by approximately
38C, generating energy savings of 55% in the asphalt plant and resulting in a 45% reduction in
the levels of CO2 and SO2 emitted to the atmosphere. This type of additive is used in the form of
an asphalt emulsion. In general, these emulsions are used for the manufacturing of HWMA
mixtures (Rubio et al. 2012, 2013). The development of this additive and the way in which the
WMA mixtures are manufactured can be found in Bonaquist (2011). According to Hill et al.
(2013), liquid chemical additives generally act as emulsifying agents and contain amine groups
that could improve the cracking resistance at low service temperatures and the resistance to
moisture damage.

According to Bonaquist (2011), the waxes are added to the asphalt to reduce its viscosity and
improve lubrication. According to Hanz et al. (2010), lubrication instead of viscosity reduction
can be the main mechanism by which many WMA manufacturing processes improve the
workability and compactness at lower temperatures. In general, the waxes have melting points
below the normal production temperatures of hot mix asphalts. At temperatures above the
melting point, these materials reduce the asphalt viscosity, and below the melting point, they

tend to increase the asphalt stiffness. It is important to highlight that even though some waxes
stiffen the asphalt when crystallizing, some of the natural waxes can affect the asphalt properties
and reduce the rutting resistance of the WMA mixture; therefore, studies on the subject are being
performed to overcome this deficiency.

As mentioned, some additives used for the manufacturing of WMA mixtures may increase the
asphalt stiffness and the rutting resistance after crystallization occurs (Sanchez et al. 2011). In
this sense, the additive has to be selected so that when it stiffens, it does not lower the fatigue
cracking resistance at low or intermediate service temperatures.

Studying the behavior exhibited by the modified binder of the WMA mixture is complex because
it mainly depends on the crude type of the base asphalt, the initial chemical composition of that
asphalt, which then changes due to oxidation during the manufacturing processes and during the
service life of the asphalt mixture, and the type of modifying additive used. The above has led to
the implementation of techniques such as spectroscopy to attempt to understand how the physical
and rheological properties of the modified asphalts change when the chemical properties of the
modified binder are varied (Hossain et al. 2013).

3.2 Foamed asphalts


This technique has been used for more than 50 years to produce cold mix asphalts. Some
methodologies use synthetic zeolites or chemical materials that are introduced to the stone
aggregate to foam the asphalt, decrease its viscosity and improve the coating of the stone
aggregates and the workability of the mixture during the manufacturing process. Some natural

zeolites are stones that, when heated, produce a great amount of water vapor (called boiling
stone by some researchers). This water vapor release, when in contact with the asphalt, foams it.
According to Bonaquist (2011), zeolites are minerals that have approximately 20% water in
weight trapped in their porous structure. By heating to approximately 85C, the water is released,
and when this occurs in the presence of hot asphalt, the asphalt foams. Two commonly used
zeolites around the world are Aspha-Min and Advera (developed by Hubbard Group & PQ
Corporation). According to Chowdhury and Button (2008) and Gandhi et al. (2010), AsphaMin is a zeolite manufactured from sodium aluminosilicate, which is in general added in a
0.3% proportion with respect to the total weight of the asphalt mixture. According to the
producers of Aspha-Min, it can produce a reduction of the mixing temperature greater than
10C and save 30% of the energy consumption in the asphalt plant. Nazzal et al. (2011) and
Sargand et al. (2012) reported that the emissions of organic compounds, carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are reduced by at least 50%, 60%, 20% and 83%,
respectively, when the WMA mixtures are manufactured with Aspha-Min and Sasobit in
comparison to an HMA mixture. Advera is a synthetic zeolite (thin powder of hydrated sodium
aluminosilicate) that is hydrothermally crystallized. Water represents between 18% and 22% of
its mass, and it is added to the asphalt in a 0.25% proportion with respect to the mass of the
WMA mixture (Hossain et al. 2012). According to Topal et al. (2014), the WMA mixtures
manufactured with synthetic zeolites exhibit better properties under cyclic load (resistance to
rutting and fatigue) in comparison to those manufactured with natural zeolites. Other additives
used to foam asphalts are AccuShear, Aquablack foam, AquaFoam, Double Barrel Green/Green
Pac, ECOFOAM-II, Low Emission Asphalt (LEA), Meeker Warm Mix foam, Terex foam, TriMix foam, Ultrafoam GX, WAM-Foam and LT Asphalt. Middleton and Forfylow (2009)

suggested that the foamed asphalts used to manufacture WMA generate reductions of 10% in
CO, CO2 and NOx and a reduction of 24% in the energy consumption, maintaining similar
moisture damage in comparison to the HMA mixtures.

Another technique to foam asphalt consists of combining the hot asphalt binder with pressurized
water jets (also called cellular asphalts). This technology is mainly used for the stabilization of
non-treated granular materials or for the manufacturing of cold and recycled mixtures. It consists
of adding cold water (1% to 2% of the asphalt weight) and pressurized air in an expansion
chamber to an asphalt cement at high temperature (160C180C) to foam it, rapidly increase its
volume (approximately 15 times), reduce the binder viscosity and increase the adhesion between
the asphalt and the stone aggregate. This method was developed in 1956 by Dr. Ladis H. Csanyi,
a professor of the Iowa State University Engineering Experimental Station (USA). When
foaming the asphalt, its viscosity is considerably reduced and its adhesion and workability
properties increase (Ali et al. 2013) in the short term, making it suitable to be mixed with cold
and wet aggregates. Despite the above, this technology has the main disadvantage that often, the
foamed binder exhibits a low resistance to moisture damage, and in this case, there is the need to
use adhesion and anti-stripping improvers.

Another asphalt foaming technique consists of introducing wet stone aggregates to the mixture.
This technique is called Low-Energy Asphalt (LEA), and it was developed by Fairco de
Zozay, Francia (Romier et al. 2004, 2006). The process consists of mixing the asphalt cement (in
general modified) (between 135C and 180C) with coarse hot stone aggregates (145C) and
then incorporating part of the fine wet stone aggregates at room temperature. The moisture in the

fine aggregates (between 3% and 4%), in combination with the heat, foams the asphalt. To use
this technique, it is necessary to make diverse modifications to the conventional asphalt plants.

The WAM-Foam technique, developed by Shell International Petroleum Company Ltd and
Kolo-Veidekke (Chowdhury and Button 2008), consists of a two component binding system, a
soft asphalt cement with a stiff foamed one. The soft asphalt is mixed with the aggregate in the
first production stage of the mixture between 100C and 120C. In the second stage, a stiff
asphalt cement is foamed at high temperature by the addition of cold water (between 1% and
5%), and this foam is added to the mixture obtained in the first stage. The compaction of the
mixture is performed between 80C and 110C. The soft asphalt cement represents between 20%
and 30% of the total asphalt in mass.

The two main concerns of the foamed asphalts to be addressed are the moisture damage (Ali et
al. 2013a) and the time they require for the moisture in the asphalt to dissipate. The dissipation
rate of this moisture depends on the asphalt type that is foamed and on its performance grade.
Kutay and Ozturk (2012) mentioned that the moisture dissipation rate is lower in stiffer asphalts
and in those with greater performance grade; therefore, they are more susceptible to moisture
damage when foamed than the softer binders. During the foam dissipation process, if the
temperature decreases rapidly, the moisture could remain trapped in the mixture during the
compaction process, generating failures during the service life as loss of adhesion between the
binder and the stone aggregate and stripping (Khodaii et al. 2012). Despite the above, Huang et
al. (2013) reported, based on Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements of foamed
asphalts, that the amount of water trapped in the asphalt is very small (a film less than 0.1 m

thick). According to Yu et al. (2013a), very few studies have been performed to evaluate the
significant effect of the water content when foaming the asphalts. There is an optimum water
content at which the foam is enough to improve the workability of the mixture without the water
being retained in the asphalt, which would generate problems associated with moisture damage,
a decrease in the rutting resistance and loss of adhesion between the binder and the stone
aggregate. Another aspect that has been shown with the foamed asphalt technology is that this
asphalt adheres more to the fine fraction of the stone aggregate than to the coarse one (Van de
Ven et al. 2007). This generates the need to add to the asphalt adhesion improver additives or
coating promoting additives of aggregates so that the coarse fraction does not remain uncovered
by asphalt, which would lead to the development of problems associated with moisture damage
and stripping in the mixture.

4. DESIGN OF THE WMA MIXTURE


Currently, two of the last technical documents on the design of WMA type mixtures are No. 691
and 714 of the NCHRP, reported by Bonaquist (2011) and Sterling (2012), respectively. In these
reports, the conclusions obtained from the NCHRP 09-43 project are summarized, whose goal
was to develop design and analysis criteria for WMA mixtures. According to Bonaquist (2011),
one of the critical subjects confronted by the WMA mixtures is the lack of a formal design
procedure. In most of the WMA projects built in the United States, these mixtures have been
designed under the same criteria as the concrete asphalt mixtures HMA, without any
modifications in the working process. One of the main conclusions reported by the NCHRP 0943 Project was the differences found between the design of HMA and WMA mixtures:

1. Selection of materials. Regarding the asphalt, it is potentially aged less in the WMA mixtures
due to the lower production temperatures used. It is advised to age the mixture in the short
term for two hours, but under the expected compaction work temperature. It is recommended
to use the same PG of the asphalt cement in WMA and HMA mixtures. In addition, it is
mentioned that the general recommendation for WMA mixtures is to use asphalt cements of
low penetration and greater PG at high service temperatures to improve the rutting resistance.
Regarding the aggregates, no differences were found. With respect to the additives, it is
mentioned that the effects of additives, such as anti-stripping or adhesion improvers, have to
be taken into account. The lower production temperatures can also limit the efficiency of
some adhesion improver additives, and these additives can even react chemically, diminishing
the properties of the original binder. In addition, the additive has to be dosed based on the
recommendation made by the provider. However, in most cases, the asphalts used to
manufacture WMA mixtures are commercialized already modified and dosed.

2. Design of the aggregate structure and determination of the laboratory manufacturing and
compaction temperatures. Regarding the maximum particle size and gradations, no
differences are reported. However, the need for a specific process of storage and mixing of the
stone aggregate in a plant with the asphalt is mentioned. Given that the goal of WMA is to
produce mixtures with resistance and performance characteristics similar to those of HMA,
the volumetric criteria used in the design of WMA do not have to differ from those used for
HMA. The procedures used for the manufacturing of samples in the laboratory require
modifications. Most of the developers of WMA processes have reported laboratory
procedures for the manufacturing of the samples, but these procedures have not been

standardized. In addition, it is mentioned that the criteria such as coating facility, workability
and compactness have to be taken into account with greater priority instead of using the
traditional criterion of equiviscosity to establish the mixing and compaction temperatures in
the laboratory. This is mainly because there is growing evidence that the reductions in
temperature associated with many WMA processes are not related to the change in viscosity
of the modified binder (Baumgardner 2008; Hanz et al. 2011). As of now, there is no formal
procedure to determine the manufacturing and compaction temperatures in the laboratory. The
traditional way of establishing the manufacturing and compaction temperatures in the
laboratory is to use the equiviscous method (ASTM D6925). The viscosity required to obtain
the manufacturing and compaction temperatures of dense type asphalt mixtures using this
method is 8515 SSF = 170 cp and 14015 SSF = 280 cp, respectively. For the case of
modified asphalts, this method is not reliable, mainly due to the behavior of these materials
being strongly dependent on the cutting speed (non-Newtonian fluid), and the temperatures
reported in many occasions are very high and not realistic; at such temperatures, the original
properties of the binder are degraded, and the binder is oxidized and aged. In addition, these
temperatures generate problems of releasing polluting emissions to the atmosphere. Therefore,
the Asphalt Institute recommended reducing the compaction temperatures of modified asphalt
mixtures when the equiviscous method is used by between 14C and 25C. However,
according to the National Highway Institute (1997), Hensley and Parmer (1998) and Bahia et
al. (2006), this recommendation does not have a scientific basis but is the product of
experience. A new methodology used around the world to attempt to determine the
manufacturing and compaction temperatures of hot and modified asphalt mixtures is the use
of the Zero Shear Viscosity (ZSV). This concept is mainly used on modified asphalts that

exhibit high viscosity and stiffness. In general terms, ZSV is a measurement of the viscosity
of materials when the shear stress that acts on it is evaluated at very small speeds (tending to
zero) (Zoorob et al. 2012). Some researchers have changed the designation ZSV to Low Shear
Viscosity (LSV) because it is physically impossible to determine the viscosity of binders with
a shear rate equal to zero. Both concepts have been mainly used as indicators of the resistance
to permanent deformation of hot modified asphalt mixtures (Oscarsson and Said 2012;
Zoorob et al. 2012). The mixing and compaction temperatures are obtained using this concept
when the viscosity of the binder reaches magnitudes of 30.3 Pa-s and 30.6 Pa-s,
respectively, with a shear rate of 0.001 Hz. These viscosities can be determined through tests
such as creep and oscillation tests or using equipment such as the dynamic shear rheometer
(DSR) and rotational viscometers. Despite the above, the reference literature reports the
following as the main limitations of using the ZSV concept (Biro et al. 2009a; West et al.
2010): this concept may not represent the pseudoplastic behavior (decrease in the viscosity
and shear stress with deformation rate, called Shear-Thinning) of modified asphalt binders
with precision; at low stress rates, the extrapolation of the results is required; for some
binders, the low manufacturing and compaction temperatures obtained using these concept are
not realistic; depending on the test performed or the equipment used to measure the ZSV, the
results can differ significantly; the results obtained are strongly dependent on the preparation
conditions of the tested samples; in some cases, the repeatability of the tests is low; and there
is a strong dependence of the results on the modifying additive and its content. West et al.
(2010), carrying out a comparison of different methods used to determine the manufacturing
and compaction temperatures of modified asphalt mixtures, concluded that the so-called
Phase Angle (The Phase Angle Method) is the best. According to West et al. (2010), the

phase angle method is capable of capturing the asphalt viscoelastic nature. According to
these authors, by using a parameter such as the phase angle, when the asphalt behaves as a
viscoelastic or purely viscous material can be identified, and they mention that this behavior
change is generated when is between 85 and 90. For the determination of manufacturing
and compaction temperatures, the DSR method is used. In general terms, the method consists
of obtaining phase angle evolution master curves by applying different temperatures (between
50C and 80C) and frequencies (between 0.001 and 100 rad/s) on the tested asphalt (not
aged). Once the master curve is obtained, the angular frequency () is calculated for a test
temperature of 80C and = 86. During the test, the deformation is maintained at 12%. The
temperature of 80C is chosen because it allows clear observation of the variation of in
modified asphalts. = 86 was chosen by West et al. (2010) as an adequate reference point to
perform the method. With the value of (in rad/s) obtained, the manufacturing and
compaction temperatures are calculated through two equations established for this purpose,
which were developed by West et al. (2010) through regressions. It is important to highlight,
as a final observation on this subject, that in general terms, the reference literature reports that
all the methods used to determine the manufacturing and compaction temperatures of hot mix
asphalt have as a main limitation the fact that they do not take into account the asphalt - stone
aggregate interaction. Wang et al. (2013) developed a method called equi-torque temperature
to establish the compaction temperatures of WMA mixtures.

It is necessary to use mechanical mixers with a wire whisk, a capacity of at least 5 gallons and a
mixing spoon to manufacture the mixtures in the laboratory. Another piece of equipment that can
be used is the low shear mechanical shaker to homogeneously mix the additive with the asphalt.

For the case of foamed asphalts, there is a piece of equipment at the laboratory scale capable of
producing foamed asphalt in the laboratory for samples of approximately 10 kg to 20 kg.

It is recommended to heat the stone aggregate to 15C above the temperature planned for the
manufacturing of the mixture, while the asphalt has to be heated to the manufacturing
temperature. According to Sterling (2012), the stone aggregate, as well as the asphalt, has to be
heated to 15C above the temperature planned for the manufacturing of the mixture.

3. Selection of the asphalt content. The specimen preparation is different (mixing and
compaction temperatures and manufacturing method, among others). Regarding the
volumetric analysis, no differences are reported because it is always mentioned that an
important step of the WMA mixtures would be to produce them with characteristics and
properties comparable to those of HMA. In addition, the main conclusions extracted from the
research performed in the NCHRP - Project 09-43 were that the volumetric properties of the
design of WMA and HMA mixtures are very similar. For HMA mixtures with a loss of
asphalt mass of 1% in an aging test in the short term, the volumetric properties of the WMA
designed with procedures developed in NCHRP - Project 09-43 were essentially the same as
those obtained from an HMA design. Despite the above, it is reported that it is essential to
develop a conditioning process for samples in the short term that is applicable to both WMA
and HMA mixtures.

4. Evaluation of the moisture susceptibility (AASHTO T 283). The specimen preparation is


different, as previously mentioned. Regarding the way in which the test has to be performed,

no differences are reported. It is widely reported that the WMA mixtures exhibit a greater
susceptibility to moisture than the HMA mixtures (Hurley and Prowell 2005, 2006c, d).
However, the need to design WMA mixtures with properties and characteristics similar to
those of HMA mixtures is highlighted.

5. Analysis of performance. The specimen preparation is different, as previously mentioned.


Regarding the dynamic characterization tests, the need to perform the same tests that are
performed on HMA mixtures is highlighted again because, in the future, the goal is to produce
WMA mixtures with similar or better properties. However, for the case of the resistance to
permanent damage, it is recommended to perform the test to determine the Flow Number
(AASHTO TP 79-09).

The traditional way of manufacturing WMA mixtures is to use as an optimum asphalt content the
one obtained for HMA mixtures (Hamzah et al. 2013). The optimum content of modified asphalt
for WMA could be established according to the procedure recommended in Section 10 of the
AASHTO R 35 for HMA mixtures. Once the samples are manufactured with this optimum
content, it is recommended to perform the following tests:

1. Determination of the degree of particles coated by asphalt (AASHTO T-195). The


recommended criterion of coating is at least 95% of the thick aggregate particles.

2. Compaction degree. The recommended criterion of compaction degree is that in which the
gyration ratio (see Eq. 1) is less than or equal to 1.25.

N92 T 30
N92 T

(1)

(N92)T-30 is the relative density gyration at 92% obtained at 30C below the compaction
temperature planned in the work (Tc), and (N92)T is the relative density gyration at 92% obtained
at the temperature Tc. According to Bonaquist (2011), this criterion has to be considered as
provisional and subject to changes because it was based on scarce and limited research on the
subject.

3. Moisture sensitivity (AASHTO T 283). The specimens have to be compacted with an air void
percentage of 7 0.5% following the guidelines of AASHTO T 312 (preparation and
determination of the HMA mixture density by the gyratory compactor). The resistance to
indirect traction of the wet samples in the AASHTO T 283 test has to be at least 80% with
respect to the condition of briquettes in the dry state.

4. Determination of the Flow Number for HMA mixtures using the AMPT (Asphalt Mixture
Performance Tester) - AASHTO TP 79-09. This test is used to evaluate the resistance of
asphalt mixtures to permanent deformation. The specimens have to be compacted with an air
void percentage of 7 1.0%. The test is performed at a design temperature for 50%
reliability, determined using LTPP BIND version 3.1. The temperature is calculated to
generate 2 cm of displacement on the asphalt mixtures that will comprise layers of road, an
asphalt base or intermediate bases. The test is performed under a cyclic deviatoric stress of

600 kPa and a contact deviatoric stress of 30 kPa. Table 1 shows the minimum Flow Number
required depending on the level of traffic.

5. CONCLUSIONS
Based on the literature review performed, it is concluded that the main advantage of using WMA
mixtures is an environmental one. It is widely reported that reduction in the mixing and
compaction temperatures when using this technique, in comparison to HMA mixtures, is
accompanied by a decrease in the energy required for its production and in the release of
polluting emissions to the atmosphere. Despite the above, few studies have been performed to
measure the possible impact generated by the manufacturing and use of organic, chemical and
synthetic additives during the production of WMA mixtures.

From the point of view of aspects such as the durability and resistance of WMA mixtures
measured in the laboratory and in situ, the reference literature is contradictory. For example, it is
generally reported that the WMA mixtures experience a lower aging and oxidation in the short
term of the asphalt binder, mainly due to the lower temperatures during the manufacturing,
extension and compaction processes. This lower aging in the short term can result in a mixture
that is less fragile and more resistant to phenomena such as cracking by thermal fatigue and other
types of TDC. However, this advantage of the WMA mixtures can reduce its resistance to
permanent deformation and to the fatigue in thick asphalt layers. In addition, in the consulted
literature, very few studies have been performed to measure and evaluate the aging in the long
term. In this sense, it is not clear if the advantage reported in a lower aging of WMA mixtures in
the short term is significant in comparison to the aging they could experience during the service

life in the pavement. While some researchers report that the WMA mixtures are potentially
susceptible to experiencing greater moisture damage and lower resistance to permanent
deformations, others conclude the opposite. Despite the great number of studies that have been
performed on the subject, the behavior exhibited by the WMA mixtures is still not completely
understood, in particular regarding the durability and resistance in the long term. In this same
sense, the benefit-cost relationship of working with this technology from the technical, economic
and environmental points of view is still not completely clear. The above takes into account that
many of the studies on the subject have been performed by companies producing this
technology, which can lead to subjective conclusions. In general terms, the initial cost of
producing WMA mixtures is higher than that of HMA, and this cost varies depending on the type
of technology and additives used. Studying the behavior exhibited by the modified binders of
WMA mixtures is complex because it depends on diverse variables, such as the crude type from
which the base asphalt was obtained; the initial chemical composition of the asphalt, which in
turns changes due to oxidation during the manufacturing processes and the service life of the
asphalt mixture; and the type and quality of the modifying additive used. This complexity
increases, taking into account that the binder is adhered to a granular skeleton composed of
different types, shapes and sizes of particles, etc.

The two main concerns when using foamed asphalts to manufacture WMA mixtures are the
moisture damage and the need for a reasonable time for the moisture in the asphalt to dissipate.
This leads to this technique generally using special additives to improve the coating and the
adhesion between the foamed binder and the stone aggregate, increasing the initial cost of the
WMA mixture.

The WMA technology could be successfully used for the manufacturing of other types of
mixtures that use recyclable and environmentally friendly materials, such as the RAP type
mixtures and those modified with waste materials. In addition, they provide a great opportunity
for substituting part of their granulometric composition by stone aggregates, such as steel slags,
fly ashes and rubble, among others. This technology offers some constructive advantages: a) the
mixtures can be transported a greater distance prior to their extension and compaction; b) it
allows the extension and compaction in colder environments; and c) the asphalt could be used in
the construction of emergency roads in regions subjected to natural disasters.

As future needs to develop this technology and enhance its use increase, it becomes necessary to
a) standardize formal processes of the manufacturing and design of WMA mixtures in the
laboratory for each production technique; b) carry out studies (economic, technical and
environmental) involving the total life cycle of the mixture, considering all its stages: plant
production, extension and compaction in work, service life, maintenance, rehabilitation and
reconstruction (in summary, to evaluate its behavior in the short and long term); c) establish the
potential use of the different technologies depending on the weather and load conditions to which
they materials will be subjected; d) evaluate more clearly the effect of the stone aggregates
(grading curve, aggregate type, shape and maximum particle size, surface texture and hardness,
among others) on the durability of the WMA mixtures; and e) establish a formal procedure to
determine the laboratory manufacturing and compaction temperatures.

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Table 1. Specified minimum Flow Number.


Equivalent axis [106] of 8.2 tons
<3
3 to < 10
10 to < 30
30

Minimum flow
Not applicable
30
105
415

Sizing worksheet (.xls)


Click here to download Sizing worksheet (.xls): MSizingWebExcel-WMA.xls

Journals Sizing Worksheet


***Please complete this form for all new manuscripts***
May 13, 2014
This worksheet will automatically calculate the total number of printed pages your article
will occupy in the journal.
Please fill in all fields in green below. If you do not know your Manuscript Number,
you may leave that field blank.

Technical Paper/Case Study = 8 pgs.


Technical Note = 3 pgs.

Length Limits:
Forum = 4 pgs.
Discussion/Closure = 2 pgs.

Manuscript number:
Journal name: Materials in Civil engineering
Corresponding author name: Hugo Alexander Rondon Quintana
Email address: harondonq@udistrital.edu.co

Information on the maximum allowed length for each article type can be found online at:
http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=29559

Number of pages in your manuscript:

43

Number of figure pages:

- Please include figure captions when


indicating the size of your manuscript.

Number of table pages:

- Manuscripts should use 12 pt. font,


double spaced, with 1 inch margins.

Estimated article pages:

11

Note: The total displayed above is only an estimate. Final page count will depend on
a number of factors, including the size of your figures and tables, and the number of
display equations in your manuscript.

Additional author resources can be found online using the ASCE Author Guide located at:
http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=18107

= total ms pages
= # of figs
= # of tables
11
10
10

0
10

11
0
0
11

10
0
0.35
10

10
0
0.35
10

1
10

0
0

1
1
1
0
0

1
0
0