11 views

Uploaded by Arif Rahman

This document explain about paramagnetism and elasticty in physics

- Quaternions Theory and Applications - Griffin, Sandra
- BMT Equation
- Inorganic Lab Report
- Thermo Chap VI
- 1-s2.0-0304885383900732-main
- (Chapman & Hall_CRC Applied Mathematics & Nonlinear Science) Chen, Yi-Tung_ Li, Jichun-Computational Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB-CRC Press (2008)
- Spintronics [EDocFind.com]
- Lecture29_30
- 47765926-gyrascope
- 03_timeoper
- Quantum Computers
- Pi-Space Skunk Works "Brady Carousel" Lift Idea
- 059 - Pr 02c - Particle and Wave Regimes of Hubbard Model
- Chapter 2 - Energy Concepts
- First year ch#11
- Mechanical Syllabus
- Large Systems
- 2nd Yr. Thermodynamics
- Gibb's Paradox
- Ujian Termonidanima (Dan Jawaban)

You are on page 1of 13

Applications of statistical methods

Aims:

Spin paramagnetism:

Paramagnetic salts

Curies Law.

Entangled polymers

Role of entropy in rubber elasticity.

February 07

Lecture 6

Paramagnetism

Spin systems

Some atoms in salts have a permanent

magnetic moment.

Example: Gd2(SO4) 3.8H2O, where the Gd3+

ions have a spin moment, S=7/2.

General case:

Angular-momentum, quantum number, J, gives

paramagnetic moment

g B [J ( J + 1)]

12

1<Land

1<Land factor<2

factor<2

Bohr

Bohr magneton

magneton ==e

2me

= m J g B ,

J mJ J

J=3

-3 -2

February 07

-1 m +1 +2

J

H

Lecture 6

+3

Spin paramagnetism

Simplest system: a spin-paramagnet.

In this case there is no orbital, angular

momentum so J=S. Since S=, there are only 2

values of mJ.

Only two energy levels to consider, with energy

+/-B.

B

mJ = -1/2

+1/2

from the weighting given by the Boltzmann

Distribution,

i exp( U B kT )

=

i

February 07

exp( U B kT )

i

Lecture 6

Curies Law

Spin paramagnetism

There are 2 states and, hence, 2 terms in each

summation.

Average moment, at temperature, T.

= {e ( B kT ) e ( B kT ) } {e ( B kT ) + e ( B kT ) }

= tanh (B kT )

tanh(B/kT)

low field

2 B kT

B << kT

-2

-1

2

B/kT

high-T,

low-B limit

B = o ( H + M )

== nn <<>>

= o ( 1 + )H

2 kT

February 07

Curies

Curies Law

Law

Lecture 6

Paramagnetic salts

Experiment

Curves at different temperatures and fields

scale to lie on the curve given by Curies Law.

3+,, S=7/2

Gd

Gd3+

S=7/2

3+,, S=5/2

Fe

Fe3+

S=5/2

<>/

<>/BB

3+,, S=3/2

Cr

Cr3+

S=3/2

B/T

B/T (Tesla

(Tesla KK-1-1))

Waldram Theory of Thermodynamics Ch 15, p187

February 07

Lecture 6

Pierre Curie

and Magnetism

Curies Law

The subject of Pierre Curies doctoral thesis,

1895, the same year as his marriage to Marie.

Paramagnetism in salts ~ 1/T (Curies Law)

Diamagnetism is temperature independent.

February 07

Lecture 6

Thermal properties of a 2-state system

Thermal Energy

Z = exp(B ) + exp( B )

ln(Z ) = B + ln (1 + exp( 2 B ))

= ln Z

= B tanh( B / kT )

Heat Capacity

B

C=

=k

sech 2 (B kT )

T

kT

An exception to the rule that systems tend to

the classical, equipartition limit at high T

February 07

Lecture 6

Entropic contribution to

elasticity

Classical treatment:

Any stretched string (metal or rubber)

Tension, f, and other thermodynamic quantities

depend on l and T.

dU =

dU =

dQ

T dS

+

+

dW

f dl

AA

S

S

=T

dT + T

+ f dl

T l

l T

U

dT

T l

February 07

Lecture 6

U

dl

l T

8

Maxwell relation

Classical analysis continued

Need to relate entropy and tension.

From previous results, differentiating gives

U

S

=T

T l

T l

U

S

=T

+f

l T

l T

2U

2S

=T

lT

lT

2 x

2x

=

yz zy

2U

2 S S

f

=T

+

+

Tl

Tl l T T

2S

2 S S

f

T

=T

+

+

lT

Tl l T T l

We have derived a Maxwell relation, which

connects the entropy to measurable quantites.

f

S

=

T l

l T

February 07

Lecture 6

BB

and metal wire

What determines the tension?

f may be a function of l and T. Eq. A gives

f (l , T ) =

U

S

T

l T

l T

Direct

Direct contribution

contribution to

to

internal

internal energy.

energy.

For

For example

example through

through

the

the stretching

stretching of

of

intermolecular

intermolecular bonds.

bonds.

Entropic

Entropic contribution.

contribution.

For

For example

example through

through

the

the ordering

ordering of

of

intermolecular

intermolecular bonds

bonds

Using B we get

U

f

f (l , T ) =

+T

T l

l T

Metal wire:

Elastic modulus: (T) = o(1+(T-To)).

Unstretched length: lo(T) = loo(1+(T-To)).

and are ~10-5.

T f

<< 1

f T l

unimportant.

February 07

Lecture 6

10

Rubber elasticity

Rubber:

Generally have large elastic strain.

In simple cases

f (l , T ) AT (l lo )

f

f

T

From which,

T l

constants

constants

U

f

f (l , T ) =

+T

l T

T l

f

S

T

T

T l

l T

d Q = dU f d l

T d S = Cl d T AT (l lo ) d l

T

1

S = Cl ln

A(l lo )2

To

2

Band heats on sudden stretching (constant S)

Entropy decreases on stretching (molecules

unfold).

February 07

Lecture 6

11

Rubber elasticity

1-D statistical model

Take molecules to have 2N links, of length, a.

Each link points right or left.

Length of the stretched molecule, l = 2ra.

Entropy (from k ln g)

(2 N )!

S (r ) = k ln

( N + r )!( N r )!

= k (2n ln(2 N ) ( N + r ) ln( N + r ) ( N r ) ln( N r ) )

We know TdS = dU - fdl and UU(l).

dS

1 dS

= T

dl

2a d r

kT

r

r

=

ln 1 +

ln 1

2a

N

N

kTr 2kT l

=

Na

a lmax

f = T

Expand

Expand lns

lns for

for small

small r/N

r/N

Note:

Note: TT and

and ll dependence

dependence

February 07

Lecture 6

12

Elasticity in rubber

Molecular model

Without strain

With strain

Experiment

X-ray diffraction from un-strained and strained

samples of rubber.

order in the strained sample.

February 07

Lecture 6

13

- Quaternions Theory and Applications - Griffin, SandraUploaded byJesús Avalos Rodríguez
- BMT EquationUploaded byaakaash00710
- Inorganic Lab ReportUploaded bymiabil
- Thermo Chap VIUploaded byAmmar Naveed Bajwa
- 1-s2.0-0304885383900732-mainUploaded byBhabani Sankar Swain
- (Chapman & Hall_CRC Applied Mathematics & Nonlinear Science) Chen, Yi-Tung_ Li, Jichun-Computational Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB-CRC Press (2008)Uploaded bySantiago Del Rio Oliveira
- Spintronics [EDocFind.com]Uploaded byChiranjeevi Karthik
- Lecture29_30Uploaded byShootingStarPhotons
- 47765926-gyrascopeUploaded byAniket Sankpal
- 03_timeoperUploaded byChrista Lorraine Dela Salle
- Quantum ComputersUploaded byAchintyaParadkar
- Pi-Space Skunk Works "Brady Carousel" Lift IdeaUploaded bymartin_brady_1
- 059 - Pr 02c - Particle and Wave Regimes of Hubbard ModelUploaded byBradley Nartowt
- Chapter 2 - Energy ConceptsUploaded byaliabualiabu
- First year ch#11Uploaded byluqman
- Mechanical SyllabusUploaded byChaitanya Reddy
- Large SystemsUploaded byfiserada
- 2nd Yr. ThermodynamicsUploaded bySayantan Sen
- Gibb's ParadoxUploaded byJaydeep Singh
- Ujian Termonidanima (Dan Jawaban)Uploaded byDeriandra Muhyiddin
- M. Héritier, G. Montambaux and P. Lederer- Solidons and rotons in liquid heliumUploaded byLomewcx
- EntropyUploaded bySMC
- ThermodynamicsUploaded bySachin Kumar
- Singleton-Self-Similarity, Conservation of EntropyBits and the Black Hole Information PuzzleUploaded byfware28
- 4.4 How Far - EntropyUploaded byMehreenSaeed

- Puisi Romantis Kahlil GibranUploaded byArif Rahman
- Kumpulan Puisi Chairil Anwar Halaman 1Uploaded byArif Rahman
- Kumpulan Puisi Sapardi Djoko DamonoUploaded byArif Rahman
- python_tutorial(1).pdfUploaded byVinod Nalawade
- Belajar HTML dan CSS - Tutorial Fundamental dalam mempelajari HTML dan CSS.pdfUploaded byAri Prayoga
- 09-struktur_3Uploaded byAmat Mokoginta
- geologistruktur.rtfUploaded by-Agoez Xp-

- Rubber elasticity.pdfUploaded byMinhao Zhou
- j of solid stateUploaded byeid elsayed
- ￼lectures in polymer physicsUploaded byTrevor J. Hutley
- Treloar theory of network elasticityUploaded bymikehenrysam
- Refinements to Rubber ElasticityUploaded bychiuchan888
- Rubber Elasticity - Continuum TheoriesUploaded bychiuchan888
- Rubber Elast 1Uploaded byapi-3702623
- Flory Rehner EquationUploaded bychiuchan888
- Gelatin Like PolymerUploaded bychiuchan888
- Mechanics of Pneumatic TiresUploaded byrgmz93
- Flexible Pavement Mechanistic Models _ Pavement InteractiveUploaded byHariKhadarusno
- BowerUploaded byCandydelapaz
- Polymer physicsUploaded byPurushothaman
- Carnot Cycle for ElastomersUploaded bychiuchan888
- GEEUploaded byapi-3733260
- Crystallization and Melting Process in Vulcanized RubbersUploaded byaseptman1
- mcleish_review.pdfUploaded byraguerre
- Mustapha Hamdi, Antoine Ferreira and Constantinos Mavroidis- Molecular Nanosprings for Protein-Based NanoroboticsUploaded byYopghm698
- Rubber Elast 2Uploaded byapi-3702623
- Visco ElasticityUploaded byivam_2004
- P9.pdfUploaded byBrian Barella A
- Statistical Thermodynamics of Rubber ElasticityUploaded bychiuchan888
- Rubber Elasticity.pptUploaded byMohd Bashree Abu Bakar
- James E. Mark, Burak Erman Rubberlike Elasticity a Molecular PrimerUploaded byBruna Guedes Alvarenga
- Treloar,LRGUploaded byMiguelMoreno
- Thermodynamics Equation of StateUploaded bychiuchan888