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SZE-FOO CHIEN

3,468,158

DRILLING FLUIDS OR THE LIKE

T1 1

p}

3,468,158

Patented Sept. 23, 1969

3,468,158

constants for power law ?uids by means of the relation

ships expressed by the formulas as derived below. These

ING RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF NON-NEW

TONIAN FLUIDS SUCH AS DRILLING FLUIDS

OR THE LIKE

ham type ?uids and consequently the present method

therefor. This is not a serious limitation in actual practice.

Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 481,195,

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

Aug. 20, 1965. This application Mar. 26, 1968, Ser.

No. 716,202

The

principles of the method and the apparatus of

10

Int. Cl. Gtlln 11/04

this

invention

will be described more in detail herein

US. CI. 73-55

19 Claims

New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware

wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an embodiment of

stress and plastic viscosity of a non-Newtonian ?uid

which consists of pumping the ?uid through a tube of

known diameter at a known ?ow rate and measuring the

repeated for a different set of conditions and the yield

stress and plastic viscosity are calculated from formulas

for laminar ?ow. Similar measurements are used to ob

pump is employed;

FIG. 1a is a partial schematic view of another embodi

ment of the apparatus of FIG. 1, showing the two tubes

of different diameters leaving in parallel from a com

mon source, involving two pumps of equal capacity;

FIG. 1b is another partial schematic view of another

embodiment showing two tubes of the same diameter

leaving from a common source, involving pumps having

25 different capacities;

properties of power law ?uids.

CROSS REFERENCE

This is a continuation-in-part application of my appli

?ow is controlled by a variable pump; and

FIG. 2 is a schematic view of another modi?cation of

my apparatus, wherein two tubes of different diameters

are connected in parallel into a common source, and

through each of the tubes.

1965 now abandoned.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

EMBODIMENTS

35

The present invention relates to a method and appa

The

formulas

which

relate the known and the meas

ratus for determining both the yield stress and the plastic

slurries, greases, and other plastic ?uids, such as tomato

sauce, mayonnaise, catsup, toothpaste, ice cream, and

batters for cookies and cakes, as well as for determining

the two constants characterizing the rheological proper

ties of power law ?uids such as suspensions of paper

pulp or pigments and starch or mica suspensions in water.

of Bingham type ?uids are derived as follows.

Theory

In general, a non-Newtonian ?uid has the character

istic that, in laminar ?ow, the rate of shear (dv/dr) is a

function <1) of the shear stress 1', Le.

measuring the yield stress and the plastic viscosity of 45

nor foolproof when the plastic ?uid contains minute par

ticles of material other than the initial suspended minute

v=velocity

r=radical distance

particles. For example, in drilling muds, lost circulation 50 In the case of the Bingham type ?uids, the function

at becomes

material and chips from rock formations interfere with

(2)

ice cream and in batters pose problems. Moreover, the

known instruments do not permit these properties to be

measured continuously during an operation such as the 55

where:

drilling of an oil well.

In accordance with the present invention, there are

stress and plastic viscosity of Bingham type ?uids, which

=0

1; is the coe?icient of rigidity,

a-y is the yield stress of the ?uid.

Considering ?ow in a circular pipe, a balance of forces

glves

involves pumping the plastic ?uid to be tested through a

(3)

tube of known diameter at a known ?ow rate, measuring

where:

the pressure drop, dP1, along a known length of the tube,

L1, and determining the pressure drop per unit of length, 65 r is the radial distance,

D is the diameter of the pipe,

dP1/L1, repeating the pressure drop measurement at a

7w is the shear stress at the pipe wall.

different set of conditions involving either the tube diam

L2 over which the pressure drop, a'P2, is measured, and

the volume ?ow rate, Q, can be obtained by integration.

determining the pressure drop per unit of length, dP2/L2, 70

and determining from the known dimensions and quan

tities and the measured pressure drops, the yield stress

3,468,158

the yield stress is small compared with wall shear, Equa

tion 4 is approximated by:

(5)

one can use one pipe and make these two observations, at

?uid is homogeneous and its characteristics do not vary

with time. In this method, Equations 7 and 8 reduce to

=1 D390 D $1113 4

32

17

,4.

[4 L a TY

pipe. Equation 5 contains the two unknowns, 17 and TY.

Consequently, in order to determine the value of these un

knowns, it is necessary to have two independent equa

tions. This can be done by making observations at two

different sets of working conditions, substituting values in

If proper electric analog circuitries are devised for

Equation 5, and then solving for the two unknowns.

Equations 7 and 8, n and 'ry could be registered with elec

We thus obtain:

15 tric signals of dPl and dP2.

In contrast to a Bingham type ?uid, characterized by

between the shear stress and rate of shear deformation is

20

Equations

and the rate of shear deformation on log-log plotting.

A power low ?uid is a class of ?uid whose ?ow be

havior can be described (by formula) as

25

where :

30 r=shear stress

letting the same ?ow, Q1'=Q2=Q, occur in both pipes; e.g.

the pipes might be connected in series, as in FIG. 1, or

dv/dr=rate of shear

with:

v=velocity and

Constant Flow Equations:

r: radial distance

For ?uid flow in a pipe, 2. balance of force results, so

that

(10)

Equations 7a and 8a are simpli?ed greatly when the

values for D1, D2, Q, L1 and L2 are constants, which make

it possible to calculate values by substitution in the equa

_r A12

_2 AL

is a radial distance.

tions as follows:

formation becomes:

50

11

( )

@__(L

dr_

2K Q

AL 5

r=D/2, v=0 (i.e. the velocity at the wall of the pipe is

55 zero), the velocity distribution can be obtained.

(12)

_1

v:

n+1

n+1

_L_A_p)n(

n >[(_D_)n___

2K AL

n+1

2

rT

By integration of the velocity distribution across the

pipe cross-sectional area, the volume ?ow rate Q is ob

tained, viz.,

13

( )

70

volves keeping the pipe sizes the same in both sets of ob

servations. This can be accomplished by pumping at dif

3n+1

Q: .L?)(

n )(2>T

2K AL

3n+l

2

apparatus under either constant or variable ?ow condi

tions for a power law ?uid. Fluid is pumped at a con

eters, the pipes being either in series or in parallel as in

diameter, D, as in FIG. 1b and observing the correspond 75 FIGS. 1 and 1a.

3,468,158

From Equation 13, the ?ow in the pipe with diameter

D1 may be written as

1

Q 1*"

_ <Q>T

2

) (.Lfi

2K AL1 i

3n+1

1:)

8n+1

2)

3n+1 weer

2K AL,

Q-P ewe

the Constant Flow Equation.

<14)

95h

L32

AP1_ Jayne

D2

AL)

mud enters through a line 11 into a pump 12 contain

ing a piston 13 actuated in a manner to pump ?uid through

15

Q=A1h

D2 ALg

and thus the Equation 14 could be further simpli?ed

<15)

and then in series through a second length of tube, 19,

of relatively smaller diameter D2. The pump 12 is so

designed and operated as to cause the plastic ?uid to ?ow

20 laminar ?ow.

reversed so that the ?uid ?rst passes through .a tube of

m:

21)

A111 D2

or

and Apz are the pressure drops corresponding to ?ow

rates Q1 and Q2.

Thus, the two rheological characteristic constants of

power law ?uids can be determined readily from the pres

sure drop data for variable ?ows.

Again, it proper electric analog circuitries are devised

for Equations 14 and 17, n and K could be registered

with electric signals of p1 and p2. Alternatively, nomo

10 graphs could be used, also to solve for the yield stress

eter. Also, other types of constant ?ow pumps may be

25 used, e.g. a screw type pump.

A112: An

measured by pressure differential transducers 25, 27 hav

ing gauges 21 and 23, and from the observed values, the

Apl

D2

&>3

L1=selected length of large tube 17-feet

?uid.

35 D2=diameter of small tube 19-feet

Once the n has been determined, the value of the other

L2=selected length of small tube 19-feet

characteristic parameter K can be readily determined from

dP1=pressure drop across length L1-lbs. force/ft?

either one of the Equations 13a or 13b.

dP2=pressure drop across length L2lbs. force/ft.2

Take, for example, Equation 13b, and rearranging

Q=volume ?ow rate-cubic feet/ second

40 go: gravitational conversion factor

to indicate the characteristic parameter n of a power law

(16)

lb. force sec.2

or

(16a)K=BAp2

45

In the embodiments disclosed in the remaining ?gures

of

the drawings, the plastic ?uid, such as drilling mud, is

Equation 16 shows that once It has been determined, the 50

provided from a common source, such as mud tank or

value of B and hence the value of K also can be deter

conduit 55. In FIG. 1a, pipes of different diameters, D1

mined.

Thus, the two rheological characteristics n and K of

the power law ?uid can be determined readily from the

and D2, lead off from such a common source, with pumps

two pressure drop readings.

55 This embodiment is the parallel set up of the series set

up in FIG. 1.

Fluid may be pumped through pipes of diameter D at

In FIG. 1b, pipes of equal diameters, D, lead off from

different ?ow rates. It can be achieved by either using two

the common source, 55, the pipes having respective

pumps at different ?ow rates, as in FIG. lb or one pump

pumps with different flow rates indicated at P1 and P2;

capable of delivering different ?ow rates as in FIG. 10.

The operating principle involved is similar to that pre 60 while in FIG. 10, a single pipe of a constant diameter,

D, leads off from the common source, 55, with a variable

viously disclosed. The value of n can be obtained for var

drive pump, indicated as PVD, interposed therebetween,

iable ?ow conditions from

to provide a variable ?ow rate. In these three ?gures, the

tap-oils for measurement of the differential pressures are

L2:

65 shown partially.

Once n is determined, the value of K can be obtained

plastic ?uid are taken off from a conduit 55, via a ?rst

70 in parallel therewith.

Pumps 61 and 63 are operated to pump plastic ?uid

through the conduits 57 and 59 with laminar ?ow, and

the pressure drops across lengths L1 and L2 of the tubes

are measured by differential pressure measuring trans

75 ducers 65 and 67.

3,468,158

8

I claim:

1. A method for determining the coe?icient of rigidity

of a non-Newtonian plastic ?uid comprising:

(a) passing said ?uid in laminar ?ow through a tube

said ?rst and second tubes are connected in series with

one another, and wherein said pumping means is a single

successively.

said ?rst and second tubes are arranged in parallel and

dPl/Ll,

?uid; and

1O

(d) and determining said coef?cient of rigidity in ac

cordance with the equation that

for pumping said plastic ?uid through said ?rst and

second tubes.

14. A method for determining the yield stress of a

15

of known diameter at a known volumetric ?ow rate,

(b) measuring the pressure drop across a known

length of said tube and determining the pressure

when :

(c) repeating measuring of the pressure drop under

gc=gravitational conversion factor

D2=pipe diameter for the second test conditions

L1=length of pipe for the ?rst test conditions

L2=length of pipe for the second test conditions

dP1= pressure drop for the ?rst test conditions

dP2=pressure drop for the second test conditions

Q1=volume ?ow rate for the ?rst test conditions

Q2=volume ?ow rate for the second test conditions

2. The method in accordance with claim 1 wherein the

(d) determining said yield stress in accordance with

the equation that

wherein :

volume ?ow rate.

steps (b) and (c) are made in ?rst and second tubes

arranged in series, and a single pump passes said plastic 35

4. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein said

plastic ?uid is located in a common source, and

D3=pipe diameter for the second test conditions

L1=1ength of pipe for the ?rst test conditions

L2=length of pipe for the second test conditions

dP1=pressure drop for the ?rst test conditions

dP2=pressure drop for the second test conditions

Q1=volume ?ow rate for the ?rst test conditions

Q2=volume ?ow rate for the second test conditions

15. A method for determining the characteristic pa

wherein steps (b) and (c) are taken in ?rst and sec

ond tubes separately connected to said common 40 rameter n of a power law non-Newtonian ?uid com

source in parallel with one another, and

prising:

5. The method in accordance with claim 4 wherein

the same volume ?ow rate.

tube diameters and known lengths across which pressure

drop is measured are constant for both pressure drop

measurements.

volume ?ow rate are all maintained constant.

?rst and second tubes have different diameters, and

wherein said plastic ?uid is pumped at the same ?ow rate

50

length (AL1) of said tube in a ?rst test section;

(c) repeating measuring of the pressure drop across

another known length (AL2) of said tube in a sec

ond test section; under conditions developing a dif

(d) and determining said parameter I: in accordance

the equatiOn

1) ( AL]. )

AP1_ D2

Wheie:

L1=tube length at the ?rst test section

L2=tube length at the second test section

P1=pressure drop at the ?rst test section

P2=pressure drop at the second test section

said ?rst and second tubes have the same diameter, and

wherein said plastic ?uid is pumped at di?erent ?ow rates 60

D1=tube diameter at the ?rst test section

in said tubes.

D2=tube diameter at the second test section

10. The method in accordance with claim 1 wherein

16. The method in accordance with claim 15 wherein

said measurements are made in a single tube, said plastic

steps (b) and (c) are made in ?rst and second tubes ar

?uid being passed through said tube in two runs at di?er

65 ranged in series, and a single pump passes said ?uid

ent ?ow rates.

through both of said tubes.

11. Apparatus for determining both plastic viscosity

-17. A method in accordance with claim 15 wherein

and yielding stress of a plastic ?uid comprising:

said ?uid is located in a common source, and

a ?rst tube of relatively large diameter;

wherein steps (b) and (c) are taken in ?rst and second

a second tube of relatively smaller diameter;

tubes separately connected to said common source

means for pumping plastic ?uid through both of said

in parallel with one another, and

tubes at the same volume ?ow rate;

wherein said ?uid is pumped through said separate

means for measuring pressure drop across a length of

means for measuring simultaneously the pressure drop

across a length of said second tube. .

18. A method in accordance with claim 15 wherein

75 the ratio of said lengths L1 and L2 to each other is equal

3,468,158

19. A method for determining the characteric parame

ter K of a power law non-Newtonian ?uid comprising:

(a) passing said ?uid through a test section of a tube

of known diameter at a known volumetric ?ow rate, 5

of said tube, and

(c) determining said parameter K in accordance with

the equation

1

where:

D=tube diameter of test section

10

AL=tube length of test section

Q=\volume ?ow rate at test section

References Cited

UNITED STATES PATENTS

2,700,891 2/ 1955 Shafer _____________ __

2,934,944 5/1960 Eolkin _____________ __

3,024,643 3/1962 Jones ______________ __.

3,116,630 1/ 1964 Piros ______________ __

3,302,451 2/1967 Martin _____________ __

15 I. W. ROSKOS, Assistant Examiner

73-55

73-55

7355

7355

73-55

mg?

CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION

Patent No.

3,1468: 158

Dated

Inventor(s)

Sze-FOO Chien

and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

'-

-for Bingham type and power law fluids--; line 118, "radical"

should be --radial--; line 71, the portion of equation (11)

reading

1;

l7

should

1(7

3

--

read

Column 3, line 55, in the equation for K1, the numerator readin

D1 1

II" L1

should read

D1(l

II I31

values of K1 and K2, the parenthetical multiplier which reads,

in each instance in the denominator

(.1;D2 3 _ 2:?

D1

should read

D2 " D1

values of K3 and K, the parenthetical multiplier which reads

D2 D1

should read

D2 D1

"7y"

|_

should read

srcmzn m0

swan

--7-.

JUL 141979

$EAL)

Atteat:

Edward M. Fletcher, Ir.

inciting Officer

"III-LIAM E- SQHUYLm

JR

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