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\ ..,.::..

SIERRA

SSN

A GAME OF NUCLEAR SUBMARINE COMBAT

By

STURGEON

SSN

R. PRESCOTI' and A. AMOS

0.0
0.0.1

0.0.2
0.0.3

PROBSUB is a set of rules which simulates modern combat between nuclear


submarines, and also includes anti-submarine aircraft and helicopters.
All aspects of anti-submarine warfare are covered, except the use of surface
vessels. However, i t is hoped that there will be an update to PROBSUB in the
near future which will cover the use of surface vessels in the anti-submarine
role as well as targets.
It is possible to play PROSUB without any models at all, by plotting all the
action on a chart (see map), but this does lose some visual apeal.
The use of an umpire does make the game more realistic, but it is quite
possible to play the game without one.
April 1990

- -_- ...-.-. -- -

R. Pescott and A.Amos


2 Glenfield Road,
Dover
Kent
CT16 2AL

- .::..:. .--. . ..--

-:- :.

-~

,- .

-_ . - . -

-",...-

-.

--

.-

..-"

---

VICTOR

~ Copyright R.Pescott, A.Amos arid Tabletop Games


Illustrations by Sarah Amos
1

1/11 SSN.

April 1990.

CONTENTS
REF

SECTION

PAGE No

REF

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7

Introduction
Background Notes
ACI'IVE SONAR
PASSIVE SONAR
Towed Arrays
Thermal Layers
Noise
EXPLANATION OF TERMS

1
3
3
4
4
5
5
6

7.0

1.1
1.2
1.3

SCALES
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
UMPIRES

7
7

2.0

SEQUENCE OF PLAY

3.0

COMMAND PHASE

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

MOVEMENT PHASE
Lateral Movement
Speed Changes
Turning
Williamson Turn
Depth Changes
Hydroplanes
Ballast
4.6
Maximum Safe Depth
4.7
Mine Activation Subphase
AERIAL OPERATIONS =
4.8
4.9
Collision
4.10 M.H.D. PROPULSION
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
S.4
5.S
5.6
S.7

COMMUNICATIONS PHASE
E.S.M. Subphase
Radar Subphase
Visual Subphase
E.L.F. Subphase
V.L.F. Subphase
LF/HF/VHF/UHF Subphase
U.T Subphase

6.0
SONAR PHASE
6.1
Passive Sonar Efficiency
6.2
Sonar Detection
6.3
Acoustic Masking
6.4
Notes on Towed Arrays
6.5
Towed Array Sub phase
6.6
In-Hull Passive Sub phase
6.7
Active Sonar Subphase
6.8
Passive Dunking Subphase
6.9
Active Dunking Subphase
6.10 Passive Sonobouy Sub phase
6.11 . Active Sonobouy Subphase
6.12 Surveillance Subphase
6.13 M.A.D. Subphase
6.14 Sonar Detection Example

9
9
9
10
12
12
12
14
15
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
20
20
21
22
23
25
26
26
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
28
29

SECTION
T.M.A. PHASE

8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

PAGE No
30

WEAPONS PHASE
Wire Guidance
Torpedo Sonar
Torpedo Loading
Pre-Launch Program
Subphase
8.5 Tube Cap Subphase
8.6
Standoff Weapons Subphase
8.7
Torpedo Launch Subphase
Counter-Fire Torpedoes
8.8
Sensor Deployment Subphase
8.9
Post-Launch Program Subphase
8.10 Decoy Program Subphase

33
34
34
35
35
35
35

9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

ATTACK RESOLUTION PHASE


Hit Probability
Aquisition Percentage
Decoy Launch Subphase
Decoy Resolution Subphase
Noisemaker Subphase
Impact Resolution Subphase
Damage Resolution Subphase
Nuclear Weapons

36
36
36
37
37
38
38
38
40

10.0
10.1

RECORD PHASE
SUBMARINE STATUS SHEET

42
43

11.0
11.1
11.2
11.3

OPERATIONAL FORMAT
Movement on Charts
Movement on Table
Starting the Game on Table

44
44
44
44

12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3

ARCTIC OPERATIONS
Ice
Sonar in the Arctic
Ice Extent Chart

45
45
45
46

13.0

AIRCRAFT DATA SECTION

47

14.0
14.2
14.3
14.4

TORPEDO DATA SECTION


Standoff Weapons
Anti-Ship Missiles
Cruise Missiles

49
49
SO
SO

lS.0

SUBMARINE DATA SECTION

51

16.0
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4

CHARTS
Turning Scale
Depth Change Charts
Submarine Speed/Noise Chart
Torpedo Speed/Noise Chart

54
54
55
56
57

17.0

ABBREVIATIONS, PHRASES &


TERMS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
DEPLOYMENT EXAMPLES

58

18.0
19.0
2

32
32
32
33
33

S9
60

0.1

BACKGROUND

NOTES

In the following notes, the term 'vessel', means any submarine or surface
ship.
0.1.1
A submarines greatest asset is stealth, in its basic meaning. A submarine is
capable of destroying just about any adversary, with the large cho~ce of very
high-tech weapons available to it; but this task is much easier if the
attacker can remain undetected. Therefore, submarine combat is a complex game
of hide-and-seek; with each submarine trying to detect his opponent, whilst at
the same time attempting to remain undetected himself.
0.1.2
Thus a submarine will do everything it can to remain undetected, and
conversely, will do nothing which will give away its own position, except 1n
dire emergency.
0.1.3
Although nuclear submarines have virtually no need to surface while operating,
they do have to raise a periscope or antenna in order to detect aircraft and
helicopters; or to monitor radio and radar transmissions. These periscopes and
antennas must protrude above the surface, and so are detectable by surface and
airborne units:a) If the submarine is moving at more than 5 knots, then a wake will be
formed by the periscope or antenna. This is often more easily seen than
the . actual periscope or antenna itself. In any case, at speeds over 16 knots,
the periscope or antenna will suffer damage.
b) Modern surface search radars are now so sensitive, that even the tip of a
periscope or antenna will probably be detected, if someone is looking, and
they are closa enough.
c) If the submarine transmits, with either radio or radar, then there is a
chance that these emissions will be detected by listening enemies, and this
can give away a submarines' pOSition.
0.1.4
As can be seen, radar is only capable of detecting surface or airborne
, targets, and is a~most certain to give away the submarines' position. As such,
it is very rarely used.
0.1.5
The Ocean is a dark place. Light, the basis of vision, does not penetrate more
than about 30m below the surface, at best, so any visual means of detecting
another, submerged submarine is out of the question. A raised periscope may
allow the detection of surface or airborne units, but risks the submarines
detection.
0.1.6
The best medium a vessel can use to detect submerged targets and threats, is
sound, and the apparatus which uses sound for detection purposes, is called

SONAR.
,

0.1. 7

Sound travels through water better than it does through air, and in the right
conditions it is possible to detect sounds coming from hundreds of kilometers
away.

0.2
0.2.1
0.2.2

0.2.3

0.2.4
0.2.~

0.2.6

There are two types of sonar, and they use the sound waves in different ways:a) ACtIVE SONAR
An active sonar set produces high frequency sound waves, and actually
transmits them out into the water, in a more or less directionall beam.
The sound waves bounce back from an object, and these returning waves are
received by the sonar apparatus. Computer analysis of this return echo can
give the range, bearing, speed and depth of the object, according to the
strength of the return Signal.
The problem with active sonar is that the radiating soundwaves can be detected
by anyone listening, and at a range greater than their own detection range.
Thus, use of active sonar is rather like shouting out your position, while
anyone listening will only reply in a whisper.
Only search for your opponent with active sonar if he already has your
pOSition, and you are desperate.
Active sonar may be used for mapping the terrain of the sea bed, or of
overhead ice, or for detecting mines. In these cases, its maximum effective
range is 2 kilometers.
Active sonar in its search mode has a maximum range of 60 kilometers. It may
not be used at speeds of over 25 knots.
3

0.2.7

Active sonar in vessels cannot detect torpedoes. However, torpedoes which have
approached a target uSing passive sonar, will normally 'go active', or switch
to active sonar in order to aquire the target.
Active sonar is .aunted in the bow of a
ne, and so can only cover an
arc of 30 degrees either side of the ships' head. This does not apply to
sonobouys or to dunking sonars from helicopters.

0.2.8

0.3
0.3.1

b) PASSIVBSONAR

A passive sonar set does not radiate sound waves in the way that active sonar
does. It is purely a listening device. As a vessel moves, it will generate
noise; from its engines, from its propellers, and from the turbulence in the
vater that its passage ukes.
An 'in-hull' passiye sonar (ie. one .cunted inside the vessel), may be able to
detect these noises at a range of up to 120 kilometers. The noises a vessel
generates are often unique to that vessel, and so by consulting an on-board
library, the detecting vessel may be able to positively identify its target.
As passive sonar does not radiate any energy, there is no way that a target
will know that he has been detected; and there is no chance that the detecting
vessel will give away its position.
Passive sonar is greatly affected by the detecting vessels' speed. Sonar
efficiency begins to falloff above 12 knots, and is useless above 22 knots.
Noise from the detecting vessels' engines snd propellers will produce a 'blind
zone' directly aft of the vessel, eyen if the engines are stopped. This means
that sonar is completely inneffective in a 60 degree are, centred directly
astern. It also means that any torpedo approaching from within this arc will
be undetectable to in-hull sonar.

0.3.2

0.3.3
0.3.4

0.4
0.4.1

0.4.2

0.4.3
0.5

a spec
kind of passive sonar set, called a TOWED ARRAY. This is a
string of passive sonar detectors, which is streamed along behind the vessel,
and may be in the order of 560m long
By virtue of the fact that the towed array . is distanced from the towing
vessel, it is unaffected by any noise that vessel is making. It is therefore
much more sensitive than an in-hull passive sonar, and lilly detect targets up
to 280 kilometers away.
will impose restrictions on the vessels'
HaYing a towed array st
lity.
'mERHAI. LAYERS

0.5.1

0.5.2

0.5.3

As will be seen from the previous section, noise (sound waves) is both a
friend and a enemy. These waves of sound can be affected by the varying
conditions of the water through which it passes. The waters of the Ocean are
far from unifora and are not static. Currents produce bands of water which
have different density, temperature and salinity and these differences co.bine
to produce a 'IlIERMAL LAYER.
A body of water at depths between either the surface and a thermal layer,
between two thermal layers or between a thermal layer and the sea bed is known
as a DUCT.
A thermal layer is able to reflect sound waves which come down to it at an
angle, so sending them back up. Similarly, sound wayes coa1ng up to a theraal
layer will be reflected back down. Thus a Bub-arine in one duct, may reasin
undetected, even though without the layer, it would be easily detected.
Exaaple of thermal layer and its effect.

...

.."

--

Searching
Submarine

SURFACE

Transitter

searching submarine

__THERMAL
LAYER

0.5.4

To make matters more complex, sound waves approaching the thermal layer at
certain angles, will be allowed to pass through the thermal layer unaffected.
This tends to be very unpredictable.
CONVERGENCE ZONES

0.5.5

0.5.6

Another curious effect the water can produce, is the formation of Convergence
Zones. When sound waves radiate downwards into very deep water, (over 2000m),
a combination of the water pressure and the thermal layers bend the beam more
and more, until it is directed up towards the surface again. This beam manages
to pass through all thermal layers.
When the now bent beam reaches the surface, it is reflected back down again,
to repeat the effect, though now with reduced power. The following diagram
shows this effect.

0.5.7
normal
detection limit
SURFACE

I
I
I
I

THERMAL
LAYER

areas where detection


is possible
0.5.8
0.5.9
,
0.5.10

The result of this phenomenon is to produce ring shaped areas around the
vessel, between which sonar detection is not possible.
To combine all these effects into a usable format, thermal layers are
represented as broken lines on the Sonar Detection Chart (see 6.2.3).
It will be obvious therefore that vessels will have to constantly update their
knowledge of the thermal layers and ducts around them.

0.6

0.6.1
0.6.2

As noise is a fundemental component of submarine combat, it is important to


understand how the game represents it.
For game purposes, the magnitude of any noise is represented as a percentage.
0% thus represents total silence.
100% thus represents .a maximum loudness.
All noise percentages are cumulative.
Thus a submarine doing a speed which produces 30% noise, with one tube cap
open (5%), and retrieving a towed array at high speed (20%), will be actually
radiating 55% noise.

_-'''-_~~---c.....-

... ...

CQ

ALFA
5

SSN

0.7

EXPLANATION OF TERMS

0.7.1

SSN - Sub Surface vessel, Nuclear


This refers to a nuclear powered attack submarine, whose primary task is to
hunt, and kill, other submarines.
In Russia, it is k~own as a PLA - Podvodnaya Lodka Atomnaya.
SSBN - Sub Surface vessel, Ballistic, Nuclear.
This refers to a nuclear powered Ballistic Missile submarine; one designed to
launch ballistic missiles; ie. strategic weapons. The task of these submarines
is to remain hidden until needed.
In Russia, it is known as a PLARB - Podvodnaya Lodka Atomnaya Raketnaya
Ballisticheskaya.
SSGN - Sub Surface vessel, Guided, Nuclear.
This. refers to a nuclear powered guided missile submarine. These are only
operated by the Soviet Navy, and they seem to be angled against US aircraft
carrier battle groups. They can launch salvoes of nuclear or conventionally
armed cruise missiles from a submerged position.
In Russian it is known as a PLARK - Podvodnaya Lodka Atomnaya Krylataya.
SCRAM - This is the term given to the process where a nuclear reactor begins
to overheat, and shuts itself down, in order to prevent a catastrophic meltdown.
BATTLE-SHORT - This is the emergency over-ride a submarine '. commander has, in
order to stop the reactor scramming. It is a dangerous step to take, as the
reactor is moving to a critical state. As such, it would only be used if the
tactical situation meant that it would be even more dangerous to suffer a loss
of power at that moment.

0.7.2

0.7.3

0.7.4
0.7.5

0.7.6
0.7.7
0.7.8
0.7.9
0.7.10
0.7.11
0.7.12
0.7.13
0.7.14

PROBSUB - Sonar contact is probably a submarine.


CERTSUB - Sonar contact is certainly a submarine.
MISSION IILL - Severe damage, resulting in the submarine being unable to
continue its patrol.
TRANSIENT - A man made noise. TRANSITTER - A submarine passing through another submarines' patrol area.
MUTUAL INTERFERENCE - Your last target was a friendly.
SOSUS - Sonar surveillance system (laid on the sea bed).
GIUI - Greenland-Iceland-United Kingdom Gap. An area of sea which acts as a
bottle-neck for Soviet submarines entering the Atlantic from northern ports
like Murmansk.
TARGET RICH ENVIRONMENT - Overwhelming enemy forces.

LYNX HAS.)

1.1
1.1.1

rules operate using the following game scales and assumptions:1 Nautical Mile = 2000 yards = 2 Kilometers
1 Nautical Mile = 3 inches: 1 Kilometer = 1.5 inches.
1 Nautical Mile per Hour = 1 Knot
1 inch of lateral movement - 10, knots
1 Game Turn = 2 minutes of real time
1 Model or counter = 1 submarine, aircraft, helicopter or 1 sonar contact.

1.1.2
1.1.3
1.2

All ranges on . the table are measured from the centre of the counter or the
model submarines' fin.
1 Nautical Mile actually equals 6076ft!2025. 3yds!L8525Km.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
An Imperial tape measure (inches).
A number of counters (differing colours) for sonar contacts and torpedoes.
A number of submarine models, preferably in 3000th scale or similar.
A number of 3000th aircraft and helicopter models.
1 Protractor
2 10 sided dice. Sometimes these are used individually; but where a percentage
dice is called for (to generate numbers between 1 and 100), roll the two
together. For this case, it is preferable that the dice are of different
colours, so that one may represent tens arid the other the units.
1 20 sided die
1 6 sided die

Photocopies of the Sonar Detection Chart, and the Submarine Status Sheet.
Permission is given to copy these charts for personal use only.
1.3
1. 3.1
1. 3.2
,

1. 3.3
1.3.4

UMPIRES
If an umpire is available, then the game can be made more realistic, as
contacts will only be announced by the umpire as they occur.
With an umpire, each player will not move a submarine model, but will simply
write his movement orders, calculate the noise levels generated and note the
submarines' new position on his and the umpires' chart.
.
During this phase, each player must supply the umpire with the following
information:a) Submarines' position.
b) Submarines' depth.
c) Overall noise percentage, as well as a breakdown of the
components of that overall level.
d) Submarines' speed.
e) Submarines' type.
f) Torpedoes position, depth and speed.
g) Whether torpedoes are wire guided; runn1ng what type of pattern;
or are counter fire.
h) Whether torpedoes are using active or passive sonar.
The umpire will then consult the Sonar Detection Chart for each possible
contact.
When contact occurs, he will notify the respective player(s), the information
in 7.1.1 or 7.2.1. However, the noise information can be presented in one of
two ways:a) The contacts total noise level can be given to the detecting player.
b) The percentages of all the component transients (noise level modifiers),
which make up the total noise can be given.
In this case, the detecting player can build up a picture of what the
target is doing, in order to try to predict his actions. It is also possible
for the target play.e r to produce a noise level which is the same magnitude
as one of the noise level modifiers; ie. a certain turn may sound like a
torpedo launch, etc. in order to fool his opponent.
7

2.0

yers must pe
rm all game functions according to the Sequence of Play.
This regulates the order of all actions into several phases. Thus players
carry out these actions in turn, as phases come up. Any actions not carried
out in the previous phase must wait until the next game turn.
2. 1

aJ1I1AND PHASE (SEE 3.0)

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3

MOVEMENT PHASE (SEE 4.0)


Mine Activation Subphase (see 4.7)
Aircraft and Helicopter Sonobouy Deployment Subphase (see 4.8.9)
Collision Subphase (see 4.9)

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7

COfoI1UNICATION PHASE (SEE 5.0)


E.S.M. Subphase (see 5.1)
Radar Subphase (see 5.2)
Visual Subphase (see 5.3)
E.L.F. Subphase (see 5.4)
V.L.F. Subphase (see 5.5)
L.F/H.F/V.H.F/U.H.F. Subphase (see 5.6)
Underwater Telephone Subphase (see 5.7)

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
2.4.9

SONAR PHASE (SEE 6.0)


Towed Array, Passive Sonar Subphase (see 6.5)
In-Hull, Passive Sonar Subphase (see 6.6)
Active Sonar Subphase (see 6.7)
Passive Dunking Sonar Subphase (see 6.8)
Active Dunking Sonar Subphase (see 6.9)
Passive Sonobouy Subphase (see 6.10)
Active Sonobouy Subphase (see 6.11)
Fixed Surveillance System Subphase (see 6.12)
Magnetic Anomaly Detector Sub phase (see 6.13)

2.5

TARGET MOTION ANALYSIS PHASE (SEE 7 .0)

2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7

WEAPONS PHASE (SEE 8.0) Pre-Launch Weapons Program Subphase (see 8.4)
Tube Cap Subphase (see 8.5)
Standoff Weapons Launch Subphase (see 8.6)
Torpedo Launch Subphase (see 8.7)
Sensor Deployment Subphase (see 8.8)
Post-Launch Weapons Program Sub phase (see 8.9)
Mobile Decoy Program Subphase (see 8.10)

2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5

ATTACK RESOLUTION PHASE (SEE 9.0)


Mobile Decoy Launch Subphase (see 9.3)
Mobile Decoy Resolution Subphase (see 9.4)
Noisemaker Subphase (see 9.5)
Impact Resolution Subphase (see 9.6)
Damage Resolution Subphase (see 9.7)

2.8

RECORD PHASE (SEE 10.0)


Lockheed 5-3 VIKING

3.0

3.1

3.2

COMMAND PHASE
In this phase, each player must determine exactly what maneouvres he requlres
his unit(s) to perform in the NEXT Movement Phase.
This system allows players to move simultaneously, and means that a players
actions are based solely On information received last turn.
Such orders will inlcude:a) Acceleration
b) Deceleration
c) Turning
d) Depth changes, due to ballast
e) Depth changes, due to hydroplanes
f) Whether .to switch on sensors, such as M.A.D. or radar
g) Surfacing
h) Diving
i) Preparing to launch ballistic missiles
These orders should be comprhensive and specific .

4.0

4.1
4.4.1

4.1. 2

4.2

4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3

MOVEMENT PHASE

In this phase, units are moved in accordance with the Movement Orders issued
in the Command Phase (3.0); up to the physical limits of those orders as
shown. Units include submarines, aircraft, helicopters, torpedoes, standoff
weapons and mobile decoys.
LATERAL MOVEMENT
A unit's current speed is said to be that at which it was travelling at at the
end of the previous Movement Phase.
.
Lateral movement is determined by dividing the current speed by 10. The result
is the number of inches the unit may be moved this turn. All lateral movement
of vessels will create noise, the level of which will rise as the current
speed rises. A slow vessel is normally a quiet one. See Sonar Phase 6.0.
SPEED CHANGES
Aircraft and helicopters are c'o nsidered to be able to change speed at will,
and without penalty. However, aircraft must travel above a minimum speed to
stay airborne, and this can be taken as half of the Patrol Speed, though they
may make 1 inch diameter circles. Due to range restrictions, assume that
aircraft and helicopters may not exceed their Patrol Speed.
For submarines, the maximum change in speed possible (acceleration and
decceleration), will depend on its type, and its top speed.
The following table gives the maximum acceleration and decceleration as a
percentage of the submarines' top speed, or current speed.

ACCEJ.ERATION
or

4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6

4.2.7

top

current

The top speed of each class of submarine is glven ln the Submarine


Specification Charts (see 15.0).
Note that the new speed is attained at the end of the current Movement Phase.
All actions up to the end of this Movement Phase are considered to have
. occured at the speed attained by the end of the LAST MOVEMENT PHASE.
A submarine may continue to accelerate as per 4.2.3, until it reaches its top
speed.
It may deccelerate as per 4.2.3, until its present speed is below 5 knots,
when it may stop at any time.
Crash Stop
This will reduce the present speed by up to 30knots, but will produce 90%
noise level in doing -so.

4.3

4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3

4.3.4

TURNING

Turning a vessel, will reduce the amount of lateral movement it can travel; it
will also generate a certain amount of noise.
The maximum amount of turn that a submarine can make will depend on its
current speed. This is because the rudders need a flow of water over them, in
order to produce a turning effect.
A turn will result in:- a) A reduction in lateral movement.
b) An increase in radiated noise.
The table following shows:a) The minimum required speed for any angle of turn.
b) The loss of lateral movement caused by any angle of turn.
c) The amount of noise generated by any angle of turn.

~o: ~imum
Turn
10

20
30
40
50
60
90
100
llO
120
130
140
150
1
170
180
190

200
210
220
230
240

~
270

300
310
320
330

~
360
ihJ

0c

670
700
710
720
4.3.5

rent SPE
Required in Knots
2
2
2

2
3
3
3
3
3
3

!d uc t ion of La ra.l
Movement in T. L0.2
0.2
0.2
0,
o.
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

<

fib,

!lltage Noise

6
8
,

17
20

22
25
28
31
34

<

4
4
4
5
5

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5

42
45
47
50
53

0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.4
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

58
61
64
67
70

u,

6
7
.

8
9
10
II

12
1
14
16
17
19
21
24
30
)

45

.-

60+

6.0

73

75
78

84
89
92
95

98
100

100

#0

,,OJ)

The above table gives general values, which will be accurate enough for most
games. If more accuracy is required, refer to the Turning Scale (see 16.1).

10

4.3.6
ote
' current speed.
b) Note the amount of turn called for in the Command Phase.
c) Refer to the 'MINIMUM CURRENT SPEED REQUIRED' column of the Turning Table.
d) Find the NEXT LOWEST speed than the current speed, ie. a current speed of
5.1 knots would be plotted on the 5 knot line.
e) Refer along to the 'DEGREES OF TURN' column, in order to check that the
current speed is sufficient to push the submarine through the turn which
has been ordered.
ie. On the 5 knot line, the maximum turn possible in this 2 minute game
turn is 190 degrees.
This means that any turn up to 190 degrees is possible this game turn.
If, say a turn ot 200 degrees was ordered in the last Command Phase, then
190 degrees could be turned this game turn, and another 10 degrees would
have to wait till the next game turn.
f) A submarine turns by pivoting about its bow.
g) Place a protractor at the submarines' bow, and turn the model through the
required angle.
h) Refer to the 'DEGREES OF TURN'column and find the number of degrees the
submarine actually turned, always rounding numbers down.
i) Cross reference this figure onto the 'REDUCTION OF LATERAL MOVEMENT' column,
and this figure gives the number of inches to be deducted from the
submarines' lateral movement.
j) The submarine model may now be moved a number of inches equal to 1/10th.
of its current speed, minus the Reduction in Lateral Movement figure.
k) By cross referencing between the number of degrees turned, and the
'PERCENTAGE NOISE PRODUCED' column, the noise increase for the turn can be
noted, as this will be needed in the Sonar Phase.
TURNING EXAMPLE
A submarine is ordered to make an 89 degree alteration of course to starboard
(right). Its current speed is 5.1 knots.
a) 5.1 knots will equate to 5 knots on the MINIMUM CURRENT SPEED REQUIRED
column.
.
b) 5 knots will allow any turn up to 190 degrees.
c) The submarine is therefore quite capable of turning 89 degrees.
d) The model is now turned through 89 degrees as indicated below.

4.3.7

22% ..bo....

e) On the DEGREES OF TURN column, a turn of 89 degrees will equate to 80


degrees (rounding down).
f) A turn of 80 degrees will, according to the REDUCTION OF LATERAL MOVEMENT
column, use up 0.2 inches of movement.
g) The submarines' current speed is still 5.1 knots.
h) A current speed of 5.1 knots would have moved the submarine 0.51 inches, if
the turn had not occured.
i) The turn used up 0.2 inches.
j) The model can now be moved off in its new direction 0.51 - 0.2 - 0.31
inches (effectively 0.3 inches).
k) A turn of 80 degrees, cross referenced to the % NOISE PRODUCED column,
makes a noise of 22%. This is noted for the Sonar Phase.
4.3.8

Any turn greater than 360 degrees represents the submarine performing its
tightest turning circle, and it is represented by the model performing a 0.5
inch diameter circle.
Note that this maneouvre will sever all externally deployed equipment.
11

4.4.1

WILLIAMSON TURN
There is a special maneouvre which -is designed to bring the submarine back
onto a reciprocal course, ie. make it pass down its own wake, travelling in
the opposite direction.
This maneouvre is known as the WILLIAMSON TURN and is accomplished in the
following manner:a) Make a 60 degree turn to port (left).
b) Immediately make a 240 degree turn to starboard (right). The submarine will
now be travelling a reciprocal 'course.

4.4.2

Example of a Williamson Turn

4.4

4.4.3

Note that this maneouvre requires a total turn through 300 degrees.
This means that the submarine would need a current speed of at least 14 knots;
it may have no further lateral movement; and would produce 84% noise.
It would also lose all externally deployed equipment.

4.5

DEPTH CHANGING

There are two ways in wh~h a submarine can alter its depth in the water:a) Using main propulsion in conjunction with HYDROPLANES.
b) By ganing or losing BALAST.
4.5.1

4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5

Depth Alteration by Hydroplanes


Hydroplanes are flat, horizontal control surfaces, placed at either end of the
submarine. If these planes are angled while the submarine has forward speed,
the result will be to drive the submarine up or down, just like an aircraft,
as well as continuing its forward progress.
To put it another way, the use of hydroplanes in conjunction with main
propulsion, will result in vertical movement, as well as lateral movement.
Just as the use of rudders produces noise as well as the turning effect, so
use of hydroplanes 'will produce noise as well as change in depth.
Just as the use of rudders reduces overall lateral movement, so use of
hydroplanes will also reduce overall lateral movement.
The Depth Alteration By Hydroplanes Table determines how much lateral movement
is lost, and also how much noise is generated.

DELTA II/IV

12

SSBN

4.5.6

DEPTH ALTERATION BY HYDROPLANES TABLE


Current '1:! ee II
Change in
25
30
Depth (m)
15
20
5
10
50

0.3

100

0.3
8
0.4
12
0.4
16

150
200
250

350

400

450

550
600
650
700
Depth
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

4.5.8

300

500

4.5.7

0.6
8
0.7
12
0.7
16
0.7
20
0.7
24
0.8
28
0.8
32
0.8
36
0.8
40
0.9
44

0.9
12
1.0
16
1.0
20
1.1
24
1.1
28
1.1
32
1.2
36
1.2
40
1.2
44
1.3
48
1.2
52
1.3
56
1.4
60

1.2
16
1.3
20
1.3
24
1.4
28
1.4
32
1.5
36
1.5
40
1.6
44
1.6
48
1.7
52
1.7
56
1.8
60
1.8
64
1.9
68

1.5
20
1.6
24
1.6
28
1.7
32
1.7
36
1.8
40
1.9
44
2.0
48
2.0
52
2.1
56
2.1
60
2.2
64
2.3
68
2.4
72

1.7
24
1.8
28
1.9
32
2.0
36
2.1
40
2.2
44
2.2
48
2.3
52
2.4
56
2.5
60
2.6
64
2.7
68
2.8
72

2.9
76

35

40

45

50

1.9
28
2.1
32
2.2
36
2.3
40
2.4
44
2.5
48
2.6
52
2.7
56
2.8
60
2.9
64
3.0
68
3.1

2.1
32
2.3
36
2.4
40
2.5
44
2.6
48
2.8
52
2.9
56
3.0
60
3.1
64
3.3
68
3.4

2.2
36
2.4
40
2.5
44
2.7
48
2.8
52
3.0
56
3.1
60
3.3
64
3.4
68
3.6

2.3
40
2.5
44
2.6
48
2.8
52
3.0
56
3.2
60
3.4
64
3.6
68
3.7

72

3.2
76
3.3
80

72

3.5
76
3.6
80
3.8
84

72

72

3.7
76
3.9
80
4.0
84
4.2
88

3.9
76
4. 1
80
4.3
84
4.5
88
4.7
100

Alteration with Hydroplanes Procedure


Note the current speed.
Note the change in depth ordered in the Command Phase.
Referring to the CHANGE IN DEPTH column, find the depth change which is
next highest to the ordered change in depth.
ie. If change in depth of 20m is ordered, use the 50m line.
Round current speed up, to find the correct column on the CURRENT SPEED
line; ie. a submarine with a current speed of 21 knots, would use the
25 knot line.
Note that hydroplanes are ineffective below 5 knots.
Note that 700m is the maximum change in depth that hydroplanes can
produce in one game turn, and a minimum of 20 knots will be required.
By cross referencing depth change with current speed, a box will be
found containing two numbers.
The upper of these is the amount of lateral movement lost due to the
change in depth, in inches.
The lower number is the amount of noise that this maneouvre will
produce, which must be noted for the Sonar Phase.

Example of Depth Alteration using Hydroplanes


A submarine with a current speed of 22 knots, wishes to increase its depth
from 100m to 320m, using hydroplanes.
Current speed = 22 knots (Use the 25 knot line)
Change in depth = 320 - 100 = 220m (Use the 250m line)
Cross referencing, we get a box containing :- 1.7 and 36
This means that the submarine is now at a depth of 320m (should be noted); it
has lost 1.7 inches of lateral movement, so at 22 knots, it can move 2.2 - 1.7
= 0.5 inches; and it has radiated an extra 36% noise.
13

4.5.9
4.5.10

4.5.11
4.5.12
4.5.13

DEPTH ALTERATION BY USE OF BALLAST


Ballast is sea water which the submarine can receive or release, in order to
decrease or increase its bouyancy.
If the submarine takes in water, its bouyancy decreases, (it gets heavier),
and it will sink down through the water; so increasing its depth.
If the submarine removes water, its bouyancy increases, (it gets lighter), and
it rises; so reducing its depth.
Hydroplanes need not be used for this kind of depth change, although the two
methods may be used together, for rapid changes in depth.
A submarine can hold a total of 4 minutes worth of ballast. For simplicity,
instead of giving so many units of ballast, we will just speak of so many
minutes worth of ballast.
Ballast can be taken in or removed by two different methods:a) Using pumps.
b) Blowing out or Flooding in.

4.5.14

Using Pumps
This is a quiet way of moving ballast, but it is relatively slow.
Up to 2 minutes worth of ballast may be moved in or out of the submarine ~n
anyone game turn, but the actual change in depth will not occur until the

NEXT GAME TURN.


4.5.15

4.5.16

4.5.17

ie. If a submarine pumped out 2 minutes worth of ballast on turn 8, it would


not gain its new depth until the start of move 9.
Assuming that the submarine had had 4 minutes worth of ballast on board on
turn 7, then another 2 minutes worth could be pumped out on turn 9, for
another depth change on turn 10.
The submarine would then be empty, and could not pump out any more ballast.
Blowing Out and Flooding In
This is a noisy way of moving ballast, but it is the quickest. Once again only
2 minutes worth of ballast may be moved using this method but this time the
change in depth occurs immediately.
Thus, if a submarine blows out 2 minutes worth of ballast during the Movement
Phase of turn 8, it will- be at its new depth at the end of the same Movement
Phase. It will however, have made considerable noise.

4.5.18

A set amount of ballast moved will create a set amount of depth change.
If the submarine is stationary, and then moves ballast, it can, if it wishes,
gain a certain amount of lateral movement by effectively 'gliding' through the
water. It may decide however, not to use this possible movement if it so
wishes.

4.5.19

DEPTH ALTERATION BY USE OF BAllAST


TABLE
'Minutes Worth of
Depth Change
Possible Lateral
Ballast Moved
Produced
Movement
0.25
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0

4.5.20

0.1
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0

50m
100m
150m
200m
250m
300m
350m
400m

inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches
inches

Unlike changing depth using hydroplanes, the only additional noise produced
for the actual moving of the ballast. These no~se levels are:Pumping ballast in or out
Flooding ballast in
Blowing ballast out

2%
25%
35%
14

~s

4. 5 . 21

BALLASTING PROCEDURE
a) Note the depth change ordered in the Command Phase.
b) Check from the submarine status notes, how much ballast is on board.
c) For simplicity, depth changes are only available in SOm/0.2S minute units.
d) Find the required depth change on the Depth Alteration by Use of Ballast
Table (4.5.19).
e) Look along the line to find the correct amount of ballast to be moved.
f) The amount of possible lateral movement produced by the depth change can
also be found on this same line. Note, this type of movement can only be
used if the submarine was stationary.

4.5.22

EXAMPLE OF BALLASTING
A submarine with .a present sReed of 11 knots, wishes to decend from 100m to
200m by pumping ' ballast. There are 1.25 minutes worth of ballast on board.
a) Depth change ordered is 100m.
b) There are 1.25 minutes worth of ballast on board.
c) Finding 100m on the Depth Change Produced column, we look along the line to
find that 0.5 minutes worth of ballast must be pumped in.
d) The submarine will now have 1.75 minutes worth of ballast on board.
e) As the .. ballast was pumped in, and not flooded in, the submarine will remaln
at its present-.depth (lOOm) until the beginning of the next Movement Phase.
f) The submarine was not stationary at the beginning of this procedure, as it
was travelling at 11 knots. Therefore it cannot use the 0.1 inches of
possible 'gliding' movement; which is only available when stationary.

4.5.23

COMBINATION DEPTH CHANGES


.
It is possible, with a combination of rudder and hydroplane effects, to make
the submarine spiral up and down, in the same manner as an aircraft.
Indeed the hydroplane operators and other key personnel in an attack submarine
are often strapped in, thus allowing extreme maneouvres.
Depth changes by ballasting and hydroplanes are added together if
simultaneous.
The only limits to this form of maneouvring are:a) Current speed.
b) Amount of ballast on baord.
c) The necessity to keep noise to a minimum.

4.5.24
4.5.25

4.6
4.6.1

4.6.2
4.7

4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4

SAFE DIVING
maximum
in the submarine data notes (see 15.0), is the
greatest depth that the submarine may attain in safety.
In an emergency, the maximum safe depth can be exceeded by a factor of 1.3.
Roll percentage dice every Movement Phase that the submarine is below its safe
depth. There is a 5% chance of a hull failure which will destroy the
submarine.
If the submarine should exceed its safe depth by a factor of 1.4, then it has
reached its crush depth and 1S destroyed.
MINE ACTIVATION SUBPHASE
There are a vast number of types of sea mine in service, but for simplicity
only two types will be considered both of. which are similar to the U.S. Mk 60
mod 1 Captor Mine. And it is assumed that only U.S and Soviet ships can be
equipped with them. A submarine may have 2 mines in place of 1 torpedo.
This mine is a bottom laying mine, and can be laid to a maximum depth of 600m.
It has a passive sonar detection range of 1 kilometer, and will be activated
whenever it detects a submarine.
On detection, the mine releases a Mk46 mod 6 torpedo (Type 40 if Soviet) which
has only an active sonar seeker head, but will otherwise act just like any
other torpedo, and is treated in the same way.
The mine will not attack surface targets but it will attack ANY submarine
(friend or foe) which activates it.
The mine has a lifespan of 8 months, and so may be laid before the game
starts. It is capable of being laid by any means, and it may lay dormant until
a set date and time is reached.
15

4.8
Anti-submarine aircraft and helicopters are now a major component in the
submarine war, and so must be considered here.
4.8.1
Although anti-submarine surface vessels do playa significant part, (if only
to launch helicopters), there are sufficient rules on the market not to cover
then here. It is hoped, however, to release an update to PROBSUB, covering
surface vessels in the anti-submarine role.
4.8.2
Aircraft and helicopters move in the Movement Phase, in a similar manner as
for vessels. They are subject to movement orders written in the Command Phase,
just as for vessels.
For simplicity, there are no restrictions on turning aircraft or helicopters.
4.8.3
They may change their speed at will, although aircraft may not travel at less
than half of their patrol speed, or they will stall and be destroyed.
Aircraft may, however, circle over a given spot; in this case they may be
considered as performing a 1 inch di~meter circle.
Helicopters may hover.
4.8.4
Aircraft are assumed to operate at a 'low' altitude, in the order of 200m
Helicopters are assumed to operate at 'very low' altitudes, in the order of 30m.
See the aircraft and helicopter data section (13.0) for patrol speeds.
4.8.5
Aircraft and helicopters will deploy sonobouys in the Aircraft and Helicopter
Sonobouy Deployment Sub phase (2.2.2) and a maximum of 4 sonobouys may be
deployed in one game turn.
4.8.6
Aerial torpedoes are launched in the Torpedo Launch Subphase (2.6.4).
4.8.7
The endurance of an aircraft or helicopter is listed in the aircraft data
section, and the time taken to fly to/from its base should be taken into
account when calculating the loiter time for the machine.
The loiter time is the time available to the machine actually over its patrol
area; ie. a helicopter with an endurance of 3 hours, if it spends 1 hour
reaching its patrol area and 1 hour flying back to its base, will have a
loiter time of 1 hour.
4.8.8
Submerged submarines, with lowered periscopes/E. S.M. masts, will not be able
to detect aircraft or helicop.ters, unless they manage to hear snobouys,
torpedoes or dunking sonar entering the water.
4.8.9
Assume that there is RO anti-aircraft fire possible from submarines.
4.8.10 There are relatively few anti-submarine aircraft available, searching very
large areas of ocean. For this reason, their use and numbers in a game should
be very limited, unless the scenario demands them.
4.8.11 Helicopters will only operate from warships and coastal areas. This should be
taken into account when employing them in the game .

..--....
-... . ..

'"':

NIMROD HR.2

16

:'

4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3

re is a posssibility of collision whenever two submarines come within 1


inch distance, and 400m depth of each other.
,
If this happens then both players roll 1D10. If either player rolls a 4 or
less, then a collision has occured.
To determine the damage caused by a collision, both players roll 1D10 per
10knots of their submarines' current speed. The results of these dice
throws refers to potential damage on the DAMAGE TABLE (see 9.7.13).
Any damage suffered takes effect immediately. However, a submarine cannot
suffer the same damage more than once, at one instant. If the dice indicates
that this would occur then roll again.

4.10

HAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPULSION (HHD)


Magnetohydrodynamic engines, while not proven to be in service, are, however,
known to have been studied by the Soviet Navy.
4.10.1 The idea of the MHD propulsion, seems simple. The apparatus consists of a
tube; the inside of which is lined with a magnetic liquid, held behind a
rubber skin. A pulsating electric current is put into the fluid, which in turn
causes a pulsating magnetic field to pass down the tube. When the field is
strong it will constrict the tube, and these constrictions will move from one
end of the tube to the other.
Thus water tends to be drawn in at one end of the tube and expelled from the
other, so producing thrust.
4.10.2 Since there are no moving parts, the system is extremely quiet.
4.10.3 It is possible that this system is already fitted in the large tail pod seen
on Victor III, Sierra and Akula class. Soviet attack submarines. If this IS
really is the case,' then Soviet underwater technology is very advanced.
4.10.4 Optional
An optional rule, assuming that this tail pod is really an MHD dirve, would be
to allow these classes of submarine to be considered CLASS A noise level
producers at speeds Qf up to 10 knots.

..
/'

17

VICTOR II I

SSN

5.0
is concerned with the use of Electronic Support Measures, as well
as
passage of messages.
There are several forms of E.S.M. and communications equipment:5.0.1

WARNER
This is device which scans the frequencies that the radars of anti-submarine
aircraft and helicopters use.
It may be mounted on the search periscope or on a separate mast.
When it detects a radar being used, it will sound an alarm to alert the
submarine before the signal is strong enough for the aircraft to detect the
submarine; it also works with surface vessel search radars.
It will give the bearing from which the radar is approaching.

5.0.2

SEARCHER

This is a device which gives all round coverage, giving bearings, strengths
and types of all L.F/H.F/V.H.F/U.H.F and radar frequencies currently being
transmitted in the area.
All data is recorded and analysed for comparison with a stored Electronic
Intelligence (EUNT) Library. This means that the submarine can tell which
type of radar or radio is transmitting, and often which vessel it is aboard.
5.0.3

NAVIGATION
Submarines generally keep track of their position by use of their Ships
Inertial Navigation System (SINS).
This must be periodically updated by reference to an external source, such as
a satellite or star sight, and will require the submarine to come up to
periscope depth.

5.0.4

RADAR
This is rarely used by submarines on patrol, as it may well reveal the
submarines' position.

5.0.5

PERISCOPES
Periscopes have more uses than visual search.
Submarines have two periscopes; one search periscope, with a large head; and
one attack periscope, . with a smaller head.
Both have night vision devices fitted, allowing them to operate in all
weathers, day and night. The images from either of these periscopes can be
recorded for TV/Video display and both transmit range and bearing information
to the fire control system.
,
A sextant may be connected, and coupled to the SINS. This allows a star sight
to be taken in seconds, and the SINS to be updated accordingly.
Assume periscope depth to b!'!. 29m , .measured from the keel.
Periscopes or masts cannot be raised' when the submarine is travelling at over
16 knots. At any speed over 5 knots, raised periscopes or masts will create a
wake which will add 20% to the chance of a visual sighting.

5.0.6

5.1
is carried out in the following manner.
5.1.1
5.1. 2

5.1. 3

Warner/Searcher
These devices may be used if the submarine is at periscope depth.
Since the E.S.M. mast will not be raised for more than one quarter of the two
minute game turn, it is by no means certain that the submarine will pick up
all electronic transmissions. Assume that there is a 50% chance that any
transmission of L.F, H.F. V.H.F. U.H.F or Radar. within the electronic
horizon. will be pick~d up '.
The distance to the Electronic Horizon will depend on the relative heights of
the detecting unit and the target. The following table gives these distances.

18

5.1.4

ELECI~ONIC

HORIZON TABLE
A.S.W.

1ft
A.S.W. Aircraft
160
100
A.S.W. Helicopter
100
Surfaced Submarine
80
Periscope/Bouy

A.S.W.
Helicooter
100
50
40
30

5.1.6

5.1. 7
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2

5.2.3

Per-iscope/
Bouy
80
30
20
4

5.1. 5

Surfaced
Submarine
100
40
40
20

By cross referencing the scanning unit with the transmitting unit, find the
distance (in kilometers) to the electronic horizon.
If the transmitting unit transmits any H.F, V.H.F, U.H.F or Radar, during this
phase, . within the electronic horizon', then there is a 50% chance that the
detecting unit will pick this up. (Decide- this by a dice roll).
The detecting unit will then be given the bearing from which the transmission
carne, and also the type of equipment, ie. Snoop P late; U.H.F. etc.
As L.F. transmissions are not limited to Line of Sight, use, they may be
detected at a distance 50% greate r than the electronic hori zon .
RADAR SUBPHASE
During this sub phase , units may attempt to detect others by the use of radar.
These transmissions may be, 1n turn, detected by any ,unit using E. S.M., and
wi thin range.
,
Radars can only detect targets on or above the surface and cannot detect any
targets that are over the electronic horizon, even if that radar is listed as
having a range greater than the distance to the electronic hori zo n.
A particular class of radar may n'o t detect' targets 'beyond it s maximum
detection range.
'
If a unit uses radar:a) Check the potential target is within the electronic horizon.
b) Check the potential target is within that class of radars' detection range.

5.2.4
to

100
70
30
20

C
D

5.2.5

Maximum Range to

50
30
15
10

Km
Km
Km
Km

Km
Km
Km
Km

SUBMARINE MOUNTED RADARS CAPABILITY TABLE


Class of ,Maximum Range to ,Detect Surfaced
MaximumRange to Detect
Periscope
Radar
Submarine; OR Aircraft/Helicopter
20 Km
A
40 Km
20 Km
10 Km
B
C
13 Km
6Km
4 Km
D
8Km
- .
All radars have a 70% chance of detect1on. For each search, roll percentage
dice. A result of 70 or less means a successful search. More than 70 means the
attempt has failed, although anyone with E.S.M., may have picked up your

em1SS1ons.
VISUAL SUBPHASE
During this Sub phase , units mat attempt to see each other, uS1ng the Mk 1
eyeball.
E.S.M. cannot detect a visual sighting.
Units are only visible on or abov'e .the su.rface. The Visual Sighting Table
following gives the distances at which units may be seen in kilometers.
,

5.2.6

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3

Sighting Unit

r1ne

ASW
t ,'

ASW Helicopter
Surfaced Sub.

90 Km
80 Km
60 Km

40 Km
20 Km
lOKm

50 Km
30 Km
20 Km
19

30 Km
lOKm
2 Km

5.3.4

5.3.5

5.3.6

5.4
5.4.1

5.4.2
5.5

5.5.1

5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2

5.6.3

5.7

5.7.1
5.7.2

5.7.3

The Mk 1 eyeball has a 50% 'chance of detecting what it sees, this can be
decided by a dice roll.
There are some visual sighting modifiersA periscope at above 5 knots leaves a wake; Add 20% to chance of sighting.
At night, or in poor visibility, halve all ranges.
During good visibility, if the range is less than 25% of the maximum sighting
distance, make the sighting chance 90%.
To attempt a visual sighting :a) Check the potential target is within the visual sighting range.
b) On a percentage dice roll, a number equal to or less than the sighting
chance will be required to make a successful sighting.
Note:- Every game turn that the potential target remains within possible
sighting distance, and a sighting attempt has been made, add 5% to the
detection chance.
E.L.F SUBPHASE
Submarines may receive Extremely Low Frequency transmissions, if at the
correct depth. Submarines cannot however, transmit on E.L.F.
The reception for E.L.F. transmissions varies with depth.
At depths less than 100m reception is assured.
100 to 200m will require 3 or more to be rolled on a D6, to rece1ve the signal.
201 to 300m requires 5 or more on a D6.
301 to 400m will require a 6 to be thrown.
E.L.F. can only carry short messages, like codes of 3 or 4 letters and it is
not affected by the Electromagnetic Pulse (E.M.P.) from a nuclear explosion.
V.L.F. SUBPHASE
Submarines may receive Very Low Frequency transmissions if they are at
periscope depth or if a V.. L. F. bouy is streamed. Submarines cannot however,
transmit on V.L.F.
If the submarine has its E.S.M. mast raised, it may receive V.L.F. messages or
if it has streamed a wire antenna or bouy it may receive these messages at a
greater depth: The bouy cable length is 450m.
L.F/H.F/V.H.F/U.H.F SUBPHASE
Submarines may transmit, as well as receive Low Frequency, High Frequency,
Very High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency messages.
The submarine will either have to come to periscope depth or else release a
bouy. The bouy will have an assumed cable length of 450m.
Some bouys are expendable, and so can be released from as deep as 550m
transmitting their message on reaching the surface.
Assume a submarine carr1es 5 expendable bouys in addition to any retreivable
bouys listed.
L.F. transmissions may go over the electronic horizon, but are liable to be
picked up by E.S.M. V.H.F and U.H.F transmissions are limited to the
electronic horizon, but may be beamed to satellites.
U. T. SUBPHASE
Submarines may communicate with each other by the use of the Underwater
Telephone. Note that any enemy submarine within range will deteCt this
exchange.
This is a form of active sonar, which can be made to convey speech. The
maximum range of the Soviet Underwater Telephone is 200 kilometers and that of
the Western forces is 20 kilometers.
As this device uses active sonar, it can be detected by passive sonar at twice
the range to which it is being transmitted. The power of the telephone can be
varied, so that it only travels the required distance, up to the maximum.
It is possible for two submarines to gain rapid Target Motion Analysis, by
independently acquiring a targets' bearing, and then communicating, in order
to triangulate for range component.
20

6.0

SONAR PHASE
During this phase, both players will attempt to locate each other by the use
of Sonar.
Note that virtually any movement or action will create some level of noise.
The amount of noise that a submarine makes in travelling through the water,
will depend on its current speed, and also the class type, (modern submarines
are considerebly quieter than their forebears).,
For convenience, submarines of similar levels of quietness have been grouped
together into classes; quietest is A; noisest is H.
The following submarine noise table shows the amount of noise created by each
class, at each speed.
When using the table always round speed uo, ie. 21 knots would use the 25 knot
line.
/'

6.0.1

6.0.2

25

10

17

22

29

55

99

100

100

100

10
1

9
14
23
43

15
25
60

100

100

10

72
34
69
35
60
79
88
92
94
40
27
60
85
93
96
97
98
_45~_ _ 44:i-+-;;86-+....;96r iI---;-;98<---f----;-; :<-l----;-;99~--,,-;.99;...+---,-,; ;;....t

6.0.3

6.0.4
6.0.5
6.0.6

100

100

By cross referencing the submarines' class (see 15.0), with its current speed.
the resulting figure is the noise level produced by it passing through the
water.
Note that this noise level is its basic noise level. If the submarine performs
any other actions, such as turning, diving, ballasting etc. then an additional
noise level will be added for that action.
If greater accuracy is required then refer to the Submarine Noise Chart (see
16.3).
Torpedo Detection
During this phase, players will also attempt to detect torpedoes which
have been launched against them. The noise made by a torpedo will depend on
its current speed, and its class. The following table shows the noise levels
made by each class at varying speeds.
Always round speeds up, ie. 62 knots would use the 65 knot line.

6.0.7
5

2334455

r-~10~~--~+---~5-+~~6~~77~+_~8~--~9~~710~
18

19

20

t--=-==,----- --~+_____=_:_+_...; .=.-+----=2::-,4'---1f--.=.2.:,..6-+----=2:..;,7-4__.:;.28,.....-1


13
21
26
28
30
32
*-+---;~-+_ :-7-1f-~__+----=~-+---::;.37~1_....4~0_l
45
_:c50:--_ -----==-+__....:;3:.:;:.3-4__4;.;1-4__4;,;;8,-t_5-,;4_1-.;,.59;,...-+-....;6...,3;-...f

=--__

--.:;: ' - - - r---7 :-+_~ -1-- ~-+-_ ~-+---:78-1__~8l;-~...;:8::=3_

86

94
80

100

100

95

97

100

100
21

98
100

98
100

6.0.8
6.0.9
6.0.10

6.0.11
6.0.12

If greater accuracy is required, refer to the Torpedo Noise Chart (see 16.4).
By cross referencing the torpedos' class (see 14.0), with its current speed,
the resulting figure is the noise produced by its passage through the water.
Torpedoes are subject to the same loss of lateral movement when turning or
changing depth as submarines are, (see 4.3.4 and 4.5.6), but they will not
make the same amount of noise for these maneouvres as a submarine. All noise
produced by torpedoes turning or changing depth should be ONE QUARTER of that
indicated on the 'Turning Table and Depth Alteration by Hydroplanes Table.
Torpedoes cannot ballast.
NOISE LEVElS
In addition to noise produced by lateral movement, turning or hydroplanes,
there are many other actions which make noise. However, most of these radiated
noise levels are the same whatever the current speed.
Remember that noise levels are used against you, so keep it to a minimum if
you can.

6.0.13

The

tu

cap.

or

F':;':=':::::; ....:~To;H~~~i--;;uTeirtsp:ee;d(;;e-;:22krj:Ci'ti;--y'
array, at current
over 22 '<.1.uts
at
array at
or out

__---i<-12%_ _-;

35%
sur ace
load re-en

15%

l.ce

thick

____________________

34%;--_

on di water

74%~__~

ice~~~

I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~v~e;s~s~e~l~~~
or sono
enter
the water

Crash
6.0.14
6.0.15

6.1
6.1.1

6.1. 2
6.1. 3

The higher the noise level produced by the vessel, the easier it is to detect
with passive sona
Each type of submarine or torpedo has its own sound signature. By comparing a
detected sound with an on-board computer library, then the type of submarine
or torpedo can be determined.
PASSIVE SONAR EFFICIENCY
Sonars will only have a chance of detecting a target at maximum range if it is
working at 100% efficiency.
Passive sonar efficiency is dependent on the vessels' current speed. Below 12
knots, all passive sonars are 100% efficient, ie. they will work out to
maximum range. Between 12 and 22 knots, a passive sonars efficiency tails off.
This reduces its effective detection range, ie. a sonar at 50% efficiency has
its range halved.
Above 22 knots, all passive sonars are ineffective.
Note that the speed concerned, is the speed of the sonar itself; not the speed
of its target.
To find the passive sonars' effectiveness at a speed between 12 and 22 knots
refer to the following table:Note; round all speeds up, ie. 15.4 knots would use the 16 knot column.

22

SPEED

6.1.4
6.1.5

Note that a submarine will be able to detect an active sonar no matter what
its current speed.
The following table is a quick reference table showing the ranges of different
sonars at different efficiencies.

6.1.6

Cross reference the type of sonar in use, with the current sonar efficiency;
the result is the best detection range possible at that efficiency, and
therefore, that speed. Ranges are in kilometers.

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2

SONAR DETECTION

6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5

6.2.6
6.2.7

6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10

To decide whether detection is possible, use the Sonar Detect ion Chart.
Having acertained that detection is possible, roll percentage dice. The result
must be equal to or less than the. effective radiated noise from the target, i n
order for the detection to be successful. Note: there is one dice roll for
each sonar in use, no matter how many possble contacts there are.
Representing Thermal Layers
The presence of thermal layers will greatly influence submarine combat. They
provide submarines with 'cover', allowing greater stealth.
Thermal layers are represented on the Sonar Detection Chart as horizontal
broken lines.
Choose, at random, 1, 2 or 3 depths. Plot these depths on the Depth Scale on
the left hand side of the Sonar Detection Chart and draw lines right across
the chart. Make the dashes and gaps all of irregular length.
These lines now represent the Thermal Layers (see 6.14 for example).
Gaps in the lines represent weak areas in the layer. which occur randomly.
thus the players can make the 1ayer(s) weaker or stronger, as required.
It is recommended that initially, the game is played without layers, which
only occur in deep water anyway, in order to simplify their first games.
Later, when the game mechanics have been mastered. then one. and later several
layers may be introduced.
If there are no layers then ignore the 'Ambient noise in the surface Duct',
noise level modifier.
If the game is played in coastal waters, the sea bed should be marked on the
Sonar Detection Chart.
Determining Thermal Layer Positions
The following is a suggestion for determining the depth of thermal layers and
where the gaps in it are positioned (useful if there is no umpire).
Depth
.
Throw the percentage dice and add the score to 300 to give the layers depth in
metres. If further layers are required then throw again this time adding the
score to 400, 500 or 600 as required.
Gaps in the Layer
Throw 1 D10 and the score is the number of gaps in the layer (minimum of 3).
Throw the Dl0 again and the score is the number of kilometers from 0 that the
layer begins. Now throw the percentage dice and the score indicates the number
of kilometers the layer extends to the first gap. Throw again to determine the
length of the gap. Continue throwing the percentage dice until the required
number of gaps has been pOSitioned. At the end of the last gap the layer will
extend to the left hand edge of the chart.
23

6 . 2 . 11

SONAR DETECTION CHART

f
~

DEPTH (m)
"-

()
0

()

-i>o.

()

,
~

""
o
o

3
20

1-40

ttl
en

'<l>"

;:>j

'"
1'l

1-,"0

;- ,

I-

-'"'"
--""
~
~

1-80
I-

/00

120

l-14-0

'-

I-/1.O

1-/80

I1-1.00

r.

l,-2,

24

>

6.3

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.3.5

6.3.6

6.3.7

6.3.8

6.3.9

6.3.10

ACOUSITIC MASKING
It is possible for a submarine to 'hide' from passive sonar detection in an
area of high ambient noise; so long as any noise it produces is less than the
surrounding ambient noise level.
If a submarine is stationary in an area of high ambient noise, such as under
the Marginal Ice Zone, with lowered towed array so that it gets best detection
range, it will be able to detect and attack any target transitting its patrol
area, without any fear of being detected itself (unless the target uses active
sonar) .
If a submarine tries to hide up against the ice in this way, there is a chance
of coll-ision with the ice, the procedure for which is as for case i) below.
The risk of collision may be negated by the use of active sonar mapping, but
then there is the risk of detection.
Another way to hide acoustically is to hold a position so close to another
vessel that their combined sound signature appears as one to another, tracking
vessel,(ie. one not in close proximity). This third vessel will hear the SUM
TOTAL of the noise coming from both the other two vessels.
The problem with this method is that the two vessels must come within half a
kilometer and 400m of depth of each other; this is a potential collision
distance. They must also be in the same duct.
Because the approach of the two vessels is deliberate, the risk of collision
will be lower than normal.
There are two circumstances where vessels will merge their sound emmissions:i)
A submarine trying to merge with a vessel, without that vessels'
knowledge.
ii) Two submarines determined to merge.
In case i) above, the procedure for the maneouvre is as follows:a) Only the submarine making the approach will accept the risk of damage if
it goes wrong.
b) Allow the submarine to make the approach; assuming it is not detected.
c) The approaching player rolls a D20.
d) On a result of 4 or less, a collision has occured.
e) Treat this as for normal collision rules (4.9), except that the damage
only applies to the approaching submarine, and not the other vessel.
f) The other vessel will know that a collision has taken place.
In case ii) above, the procedure is as follows:a) Allow the submarines to approach,
b) Both submarines' operators throw a D20.

c) A result of 1 or 2 on either side results 1n


a collision .
d) Both submarines will suffer damage as per collision rules (4.9).
Once a submarine is acoustically hidden, it may be fairly easy for a searching
passive sonar to detect the combined sound signature, but very difficult to
seperate the two, or even tell that there are in fact, two targets.
In order for a passive sonar to be able to seperate the sound signatures it
must be able to detect a noise level equal to the DIFFERENCE in noise levels
generated by the two vessels.
The procedure for passive sonar attempting to seperate two merged vessels is
as follows:a) Subtract the noise level -generated by one of the vessels from that
generated by the other.
b) Assuming that the combined signature is within range, then the difference
in noise levels, or less, must be rolled on percentage dice, in order for
the searching passive sonar to tell that there are, in fact two vessels.
c) If the roll is unsuccessful, then only an overall noise level will be
detected, and no identification of submarine type will be possible.
Active sonar will always be able to distinguish the two vessels.

OSCAR 1/11
25

SSGN

.1
.2
.3

.4
.5
.6
.7

.8

NOTES ON TOWED ARRAYS


A towed array passive sonar is streamed astern on a cable which is in the
order of s60m long .
A streamed towed array puts restrictions on the submarines' maneouvrability,
and a minimum current speed of 4 knots is required to keep it streamed at the
same depth as the submarine .
At a current speed of 22 knots or more, the streamed towed array will produce
20% noise .
During a Movement Phase involving a turn of more than 10 degrees, or a change
in depth of more than sOm; AND for the 2 minutes (1 turn), after the
maneouvre; the Towed Array will be inoperable, as it will need to settle down.
If the submarine performs a minimum turning circle then the towed array is lost .
It takes 14 minutes to deploy or retrieve a towed array at slow winch speed,
this only adds 1% noise. If it is retrieved at a high winch speed then this
only takes 2 minutes but produces a 20% noise level .
A submarine may jettison a towed array at any time .
Some submarines only have a 'clip-on' towed array. This must be attached
externally, with outside assistance, (from the dockyard). It cannot be
retreived once deployed but may be jettisoned
A stationary submarine may lower its towed array down, to listen in ducts
below its present depth., or below its maximum safe diving depth.
In this way a submarine will have the benefit of maximum range on its in-hull
passive sonar in its own duct, as well as maximum range on its towed array in
a lower duct.
Assume that all towed arrays are s60m long. At a deployment rate of 40m/min,
the time taken to reach a depth below the submarine can be calculated.
The sensing element of the tow is 60m long. After lowering, the now vertical
towed array will still require 2 minutes to settle down.
TOWED ARRAY! PASSIVE SONAR SUBPHASE

.1

Vessels with an operable, deployed towed array, passive sonar will attempt to
detect targets as fol10ws:a) Check the present depth of the searching sonar.

b) Find the sonar's efficiency at the current speed (see 6.1).


c) Plot the searching sonars' depth on the left hand edge of the Sonar
Detection Chart (6.2.11).
d) Check the range and depth of the potential target.
e) Plot the potential target, using the range and depth scales.
f) Check to see if the potential target is within the detection range of the
sonar in use, at its present efficiency.
g) If the potential target is in the same duct as the searching sonar; or if
there are no thermal layers; and if the potential target is in range; then
there is a possibility of detection.
h) If the potential target is in a different duct, then there is only a
possibility of detection if a straight line can be traced, on the Sonar
Detection Chart (6.2.6), from the searching sonar to the potential target,
without touching one of the solid lines representing the thermal layer.
i) In other words, the line from the searching sonar to the potential target
must go through one of the gaps in the thermal layer, in order for there to
be a possibility of detection.
j) If such a line can be traced, sum up all the noise percentage factors that
the potential target has produced since the Sonar Phase of the last game
turn.
k) These factors will include:Noise produced by any weapon launches last game turn.
Noise produced by the targets' current speed.
Noise produced by any maneouvring or ballasting by the target.
Noise produced by any other noise factors.
1) The searching player now rolls the percentage dice. A roll equal to the sum
of these factors, or less, means the searching sonar has detected, and is
tracking the target. The first piece of the T.M.A. is obtained, and there
will now be an Effective Noise Modifier for subsequent acquisition attempts
(see 7.0).
26

6.6
6.6.1

IN-HULL, PASSIVE SONAR SUBPHASE


Vessels and torpedoes with operable in-hull, passive sonar will attempt to
detect vessels.
This subphase is carried out in the same manner as the Towed Array, Passive
Sonar Subphase previous. The only difference is that the detection ranges will
be reduced. Remember that sonars do not operate behind the searching vessel
(see 0.3.5).

6.7
oes with an operable active sonar may, if ordered, attempt
6.7.1

67.2
6.7.3
6.7.4

6.7.5

6.7.6

6.7.7
6.7.8

6.7.9
6.7.10

to
targets.
Active sonar is capable of penetrating thernial layers to s ome extent. The beam
loses one third of its power (ie. range), eac h time it passes through a lay e r.
That is, after passing through a layer, one third of the REMAINING range i s
lost. If there is sufficient range to carry it to another layer, then after
passing through this one, one third of the then remaining range will be lost.
Active sonar may pass through gaps in the thermal layers without loss.
A submarine cannot use active sonar if its present current speed is abov e 25
knots.
Active sonar will be detected at twice the range to which it is being beame d;
whatever the speed of the detec ting unit. It is possible to vary the power of
the beam, so that it only travels a required distance, up to the maximum of 60
kilometers.
ANECHOIC TILES
Some submarines are coated with Anechoic Tiles. These are made of rubber, and
absorb active sonar transmissions, reducing the return echo of an acti ve s onar
transmission by 50%.
This means that a submarine using its active sonar . at 100% power, would
radiate sound waves a full 60 kilometers; these would strike a tile-coate d
submarine at that 60 kilometer range but the tiles would absorb half of the
sound waves, so the return echo would only travel 30 kilometers back towards
the searching submarine. This means the target submarine would remain
undetected, although it would detect the presence of a searching submarine,
and would gain a x3 Noise Multiplier, and bearing.
Effectively, anechoic tiles halve the activ e sonar detection range, whil e
doubling the distance at which i t can be heard.
Active sonar cannot be used to det ect torpedoes.
Active sonar may be used to map the sea bed, or overhead i ce. It may also be
used to detect mines. In both cases, its effective range is 2 kilometers.
It is possible to avoid detection by active sonar, by 'hiding' i n the s ona r
'shadow' cast by the sea bed features (such as underwater hills etc.), and
also the 'shadows' cast by downward protrusions from overhead ice.

6.7.11

Active Sonar Search Procedure


a) Check the present depth of the searching sonar.
b) Plot the searching sonars' depth on the left hand edge of the Sonar
Detection Chart.
c) Plot the range and depth of the potential target.
d) Check that the potential target is within active sonar range , taking into
account any layers passed through.
e) If the potential target is within range, then it will automatically be
detected, whatever noise level it is producing.
f) On the chart, plot out twice the prevailing detection range to see if any
other unit has heard the radiating active sonar waves.

6.8

PASSIVE DUNKING SONAR SUPHASE


Helicopters with an operable, deployed, dunking sonar may attempt to detect
targets, using the passive mode.
Anti-submarine helicopters are normally fitted with a dunking sonar which can
be used in either a passive or active mode.
The helicopter hovers above the surface and lowers the sonar down to the
required depth. This is done in the Sensor Deployment Subphase (2.6.5).

6.8.1
6.8.2

27

6.8.3

The sonar works in the passive mode just as for an in-hull sonar or towed
array (see 6.5). The maximum detection range in this mode is 8 kilometers.

6.9

ACTIVE DUNKING SONAR SUBPHASE


Helicopters with an operable, deployed dunking sonar may attempt to detect
targets in the active mode.
The operation of the sonar is as for 6.8, and the procedure for detection is
as for in-hull active sonar (see 6.7). The maximum range is 3 kilometers.

6.9.1
6.10
6.10.1
6.10.2
6.10.3

6.11
6.11.1
6. 12
6.12.1

6.12.2
6.12.3

PASSIVE SONOBOUY SUBPHASE


Passive sonobouys will attempt to detect targets.
Sonobouys are carried by aircraft and helicopters. For the amount carried, see
Aircraft Data Section 13.0. They are dropped in the Movement Phase (see 4.8).
Passive sonobouys work in the same manner as a passive in-hull or towed array
sonar (see 6.5).
.
Sonobouys have a passive detection range up to 20 kilometers. The bouy stays
on the surface, with an aerial, and lowers a sensor to its preset depth
(maximum 150m). This depth must be set during the Command Phase. The sonar then
works as in 6.5.
ACTIVE SONOBOUY SUBPHASE
The sonobouy is deployed as in 6.10 above, and acts in the same manner as 1nhull active sonars (see 6.7).
Active sonobouys have a maximum detection range of 2 kilometers.
FIXED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM SUBPHASE
Fixed surveillance systems will now attempt to detect targets.
In certain areas, where it is probable that submarines may be funnelled, the
U.S and the U.S.S.R have laid fixed, passive sonars on the sea bed.
One such system is the SOSUS line in the GIUK gap.
These sYstems may be placed no more than 500 kilometers from a continental
shelf or on a continental shelf.

They may act the same as for in-hull, passive sonars, but are not so accurate
as they can only place a submarine within a 100 kilometer circle and it is not
capable of identifying the submarine type.
The information is passed in 'real time' (ie. immediately), via a cable to a
ground station.

MAGNETIC ANOMALY DETECTION SUBPHASE


Aircraft and helicopters with an operable M.A.D. device will attempt to detect
targets.
6.13.1 Although a Magnetic Anomaly Detector (M.A.D.) device is not a sonar, it can
detect submerged submarines, and so it has been fitted in here for simplicity.
6.13.2 M.A.D. devices are carried by Anti-Submarine Warfare (A.S.W.) aircraft and
helicopters, usually in a boom at the tail. Most submarines are made of
steel, which is a potentially magnetic substance, and therefore such a large
steel object .will distort the lines of the Earths' magnetic field.
6.13.3 A N.A.D device is able to detect minute variations in the Earths' magnetic
field, and so is able to detect the presence of a submarine down to a depth of
300m.
6.13.4 The aircraft or helicopter must be within 1 kilometer (1.5 inches), of the
submarine, and at a height of no more than 200m. If it has been ordered to
switch on its M.A.D. during the Command Phase, then contact will be made if
the machines' path crosses that made by the submarine this game turn, it need
not end up over the submarine.
6.13.5 The information gained by a M.A.D. contact will be the point at which the
paths of the machine and the submarine crossed. No depth or type information
is possible.
6.13.6 Some submarines have hulls made of titanium, which is non-magnetic. The M.A.D.
device may only detect these submarines down to a depth of 150m.

6. 13

28

6.14

SONAR DETECTION EXAMPLE

A Western submarine, at a depth of 260m, is conducting a sonar search. There


is a thermal layer at 320m.
It has 6 potential contacts;1) RANGE is 262 Kin, DEPTII is 80m.
The target is in the searching submarines' duct. Western towed arrays have
a maximum range of 280 Km, so this target has a possibility of detection by
towed array; it is too distant for in-hull sonar.
2) RANGE is 204 Kin, DEPTH is 340m.
This target is in a different duct, but there is a direct line through the
layer to the target (check with a rule). This means the target could be
detected by towed array, but is too distant for in-hull sonar.
3) RANGE is 200 Kin, DEPIH is 600m.
This target is impossible to detect at the moment. There is no direct line
through the layer, and it is too far for active sonar. It would be possible
for the towed array to be lowered below the layer; the target would then be
detectable.
4) RANGE is 98 Km, DEPTH is 340m.
This target is detectable to both towed array and in-hull passive sonars,
as there is a break in the layer.
5)

s target is not
tecta e as there is no break in the layer.
6) RANGE is SO Km, DEPTH is 60m.
This target will be detectable to towed array, in hull passive, and, if the
searching submarine chooses, active sonar.
Remember, for each chance of detection, percentage dice are rolled. A result
equal to or less than the radiated noise from the target, results in detection .

II.

__--------------------~~NDJ
/...

'(It,

29

7.0
7.0.1

7.0.2
7.0.3

7.0.4

. with information gained in the Communications


updates its
and
Phases.
It is not normally possible for a vessel to launch a weapon at a target, as
soon as it is first detected. The attacking vessel must gradually build up an
overall picture of what the target is dOing, and may be about to do. This
picture is called the Target Motion Analysis (T.M.A.).
In order to build up the T.M.A., the attacking vessel must detect the target
and keep it 'detected', for a number of consecutive game turns.
Once a sonar has detected a sound source, then it will be easier to 'redetect' it in the next game turn. In fact, the longer the source is tracked,
then the easier it is to retain. This is because the sonar operator is now
'looking' for a particular sound in a particular direction.
In order to simulate this phenomenon, the game artificially amplifies the
noise coming from the target. The longer the target is tracked successfully,
the more the noise is effectively amplified, thus making it easier to reta i n.
In order to initially acquire the target, then only the actual noise level
coming from the target is used.
~
Thus, EFFECTIVE NOISE GENERATED (EN%) = ACTUAL NOISE X 1
ie. there is an effective Noise Modifier (ENM) of xl.
If the first turns search was successful, then on the second turn of attempted
contact, there is an ENM of x 3.
If the second turns search was successful, then on the third turn of attempted
contact, there is an ENM of x 6.
If the third turns search was successful, then on the fourth turn of attempted
contact. there is an ENM of x 9.
If f or any reason contact is lost, then the Effective Noise Multiplier is
reduced by one level; ie. from 9 to 6; or from 6 to 3, for each turn of failed
contact. If the ENM was x 3, then this is reduced to x 1.5, for one game turn.

Aft e r this the ENM is x 1, until contact is regained.

7.1

Building Up the T.M.A.


The information to build up the T.M.A. comes in the following order:-

7.1.1

1st Turn of Contact - Bearing from which noise is coming from.


Overall percentage noise being generated.
Whether target is probably a submarine (PROBSUB), or a
torpedo.
2nd Turn of Contact - Bearing from which noise is now coming.
Overall noise percentage now being generated.
Whether target is certainly a submari ne (CERTSUB).
Current speed of target.
3rd Turn of Contact - Bearing from which noise is now com1ng.
Overall noise percentage being generated.
Whether the target is certainly a submarine.
Current speed of target.
Current range to target.
4th Turn of Contact - Bearing from which noise is now coming.
Overall noise percentage now being generated.

Type of submarine or torpedo.


Current speed of target.
Current range to target.
Current depth of target.
This is now a full Target Motion Analysis.

7.1. 2

If, for any reason, the attacking vessel loses contact with the target
30

7.1.3
7.1.4

7.2

(usually by not throwing the required percentage), then the T.M.A. is


degraded.
If contact is lost after 1,2 or 3 consecutive turns of successful contact,
then the whole T.M.A. is lost. This means that when contact is regained, the
T.M.A. will be at level 1.
If the contact is lost after having had all 4 levels of the T.M.A. built up,
then 2 levels will be lost for each game turn out of contact, providing the
target has not turned or changed depth in any way (this will normally only
occur if the target is unaware it is being tracked).
Two Vessel or Sonobouy Attack:
if two vessels are in direct communication with each other, and both are
independently tracking the same target, then it is possible to build up the
T.M.A. faster. This is because the two vessels can trangulate to obtain the
range component, without having to wait for sonar to do it.

7.2.1

1st. Turn of Contact - Bearing


Overall
Whether
2nd. Turn of Contact - Bearing
Overall
Whether
Current
Current
3rd. Turn of Contact - Bearing
Overall
Type of
Current
Current
Current

7.2.2

In this case, the whole T.M.A. will be lost only if both attacking submarines
lose contact with the target, then treat as for 7.1.3 or 7.1.4.
The above sequence of building up the T.M.A. is always the case when more than
one sonobouy is tracking the target.

7.2.3
7.3

from which noise is coming.


noise percentage being generated.
Prosub or torpedo.
from which noise is now coming.
noise percentage now being generated.
Certsub.
speed of target.
range to target.
from which noise is now coming.
noise percentage now being generated.
submarine or torpedo.
speed of target.
range to target.
depth of target.

Number of T.M.A. Targets


A unit is capable of keeping a T.M.A. on up to 6_ targets at one time. Thus it
can be seen that it may take up to 4 consecutive game turns of successful
contact, in order to be able to launch a weapon.

RUBIS

31

SSN

8.0

8.0.1
8.0.2
8.0.3

8.0.4
8.1

8.1.1

8.1. 2

8.1.3
8.1.4

8.1. 5
8.1. 6
8.1. 7

8.1.8

8.1. 9

8.2
13 . 2 .1

8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4

8.2.5

WEAPONS PHASE
Here, both sides may launch or release weapons and sensors in order to:a) Conduct an attack.
b) Defend against incoming weapons.
c) Bring new sensors into play, for better detection.
The major weapon in submarine warfare is the torpedo. Modern torpedos are a
far cry from the relatively primitive, free running torpedoes of the Second
World War.
.
Todays torpedoes are, in fact highly sophisticated guided missiles, capable of
being steered by the parent vessel, or of conducting their own search and
attack.
Torpedoes have no towed array.
Note that submarines sitting on the sea bed, or are 1n or against ice, cannot
launch torpedoes.

WIRE GUIDANCE
Torpedoes launched by vessels may be guided by the parent vessel for at least
part of their run, via a wire between the torpedo and the vessel. The wire
will carryall information from the torpedo as well as instructions from the
controlling vessel.
Controlling a torpedo puts certain restrictions on the maneouvresthat the
submarine may perform:a) The current speed is restricted to a maximum of 25 knots.
b) Acceleration and decceleration are limited to 15% of the current speed.
c) The maximum amount of turn in a Movement Phase is 45 degrees.
d) The maximum depth change in a Movement Phase is 100m.
If any of these maneouvres are exceeded while guiding a torpedo, then the
con to 1 wire will be severed.
If the torpedo has not been programmed when the wire is cut, then it will shut
down, and may be removed from play.
Wire guidance may be used up to the maximum distance, as listed for that type
of torpedo (see 14.0).
While under wire guidance, a torpedo may make as many attempts to acquire a
target, as it is brought into possible detection range, before losing power
after covering its maximum distance at that speed setting.
A maximum of two torpedoes can be wire guided Simultaneously and a maximum of
two targets can be attacked at the same time.
Once a wire guided torpedo comes into detection range of the target, it may be
let loose to attack the target on its own. This is known as an autonomous
attack.
In maneouvring, the torpedo will act largely as a submarine. For turning and
changing depth refer to the Turning Table (4.3.4) and the Depth Change By Use
of Hydroplanes Table (4.5.6). The lateral movement lost will be exactly as for
submarines, but reduce all noise levels produced, by 75%.
Torpedoes cannot be launched at below 350m depth.
TORPEDO SONAR
Torpedo mounted passive sonar has a maximum detection range of 3 kilometers,
i n the duct that the torpedo is in. Its passive sonar may only be used while
it is travelling at LOW SPEED.
Torpedo mounted passive sonar has no penetration of thermal layers, and not
even the gaps on the Sonar Detection Chart.
Torpedo mounted active sonar has a detection range of 3 kilometers in its own
duct, and also in the ducts immediately above and below it. The active sonar
will be heard at a range of 6 kilometers in ALL ducts.
A torpedo may use its active sonar at any speed.
When a vessel is detected by the passive sonar of a torpedo, the torpedo will
automatically switch to active sonar in order to acquire the target, unless it
has been instructed not to do so.

32

8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.4

8.4.1
8.4.2

8.4.3
8.4.4
8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7

8.4.8

TORPEDO LOADING
It requires 8 minutes (4 game turns) to re-load a torpedo tube. It would also
take this long to empty a torpedo tube. Due to space restricL iOlls, on I y Olll'
torpedo tube may be re-loaded per submarine at anyone time.
Submarines listed as capable of 'rapid re-load', will only require 4 minllt"s
(2 game turns) to re-10ad a tube.
A tube may not be re-loaded whilst the last torpedo launched from i l is sl i I I
being wire guided.
PRE-LAUNCH WEAPONS PROGRAM SUBPIIASE
Any weapon which is not wire guided, must be programmed before launch. Wt'lIpons
which are wire guided may be progralllliled at any time during t he lorpl'dol's !"LIIl,
usually when it is near its target.
There are two types of torpedo search pattern:a) Slow speed; passive.
b) Hi gh speed; active.
When a torpedo is run at slow speed (see 14.0) :It will use passive sonar.
The detection area will be a circle of 7 kilomete rs diamcLcr.(Lh(,re IS 110
need to move the torpedo around its circle, just move i L forward al i Is
slow speed; the detection are.a will be a ci rcl e 7 ki I.ometers a round i I ).
The total running time is 4 minutes. This may be 4 minutes at a sing/(' depth
or 2 minutes at each of 2 different depths.
When a torpedo is run at high speed (see 14.0) :It will use its active sonar.
The detection area this time wi ll be a circle of 10 ki lome t e rs d jam!" PT .
The total running time will be 2 minutes, all at th e same depth.
The active sonar waves will be heard 3 kilometers outside the search areil, 1('.
13 ki lometers from the torpedo.

The information needed to be programmed into the torpedo is :a) Distance and bearing to run straight out before start ing Lhl' s ('arc h
pattern.
b) Runout speed.
c) Type of search pattern.
d) Depth at which to start the search pattern.
e) Whether to change depth during the search (if sJow/passjve), and if so
what is the new depth.
f) Whether to use sonar on the runout, and if s o, when to start, >lnd what
type.
Remember, if the guidance wires are cut before the torpedo is programme d, then
the torpedo will shut down.

8.4.9

PROGRAMMING STANDOFF WEAPONS


The informatioon needed to be programmed into a standoff weapon 1S:a) Distance and bearing to fly out.
b) If the payload is a torpedo: Type of search pattern.
Depth at which to start search p>lttcrn.
Whether to change depth, if so new depth.

c) If payload is a nuclear depth bomb, at what depth it is to explode .


8.4.10 If the standoff weapon is a ballistic missile, then the launching submarine
must remain stationary for 10 minutes (5 game turns), whilst the missil e (s)
is/are being programmed. Normal weapons may be programmed in seconds.

8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
B.S.3

TIIBE CAP SUBPHASE

Both sides may open or close any hull openings to allow the passage of weapons
or sensors.
Weapons being launched from submarines will need to emerge from weapon tubes.
These tubes are covered by tube caps, which allow the tube to be re-10adcd
without flooding the submarine.
Tube caps must be opened before the weapon can be fired, however, opening the
caps will make noise (see 6.0.13).
If caps are left open, they continue to create noise and prevent re-loading.
33

8.6
8.6.1

8.6.2

8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6
8.6.7

WEAPONS LAUNCH

wea:pons.
In the context of submarine combat, a standoff weapon is one which travels
through the air during part -of its D1Qvement to the target. This means they
have a relatively long range, allowing the launching unit to 'standoff' from
the target.
Anti-submarine standoff weapons launched by submarines are usually launched
from torpedo tubes. They then ' rise to the surface, where a rocket motor
ignites, propelling the weapon towards the target. When near the target, the
payload will separate from the rocket', anft falls into the water, perhaps on a
parachute.
The payload may be a torpedo; which will, begin a search pattern in the normal
way (programmed before launch); or may be a nuclear depth bomb. ,
The launch, surface ignition and re-entry into the water, will all make noise
(see 6.0.13).
Launch is by positive discharge only. The minimum launch depth for all
standoff weapons is 20m. The ' maximum launch depth for SUBROC and SS-N~15 1S
250m. Maximum launch depth for SEALANCE and SS-N-16 is 350m.
The submarine must be stationary in order to launch any standoff weapon and
it is assumed that the missile ignites over the launching submarines'
position.
The flight time to the targets' position can be calculated by dividing the
range to the target, by the missile 'speed (in Km/min). Round up the flight
time to the nearest half minute. This gives the time when the payload enters
the water.

8.6.8

There is always the po'ssibility that the standoff we1:lpon will not land in
exactly the right place. This is especially so in the case of submarine
launched standoff weapons. In order to simulate this, the launching player
rolls a 020, at the Movement Phase when his missile is due to re-enter the
water. Use the score on the Standoff Weapon Deviation Table (1) ' following.

8.6.9

STANDOFF WEAPON DEVIATION TABLE (1)

DICE SCORE
1-8 1 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 J .14 1 15 1 16 I 17 I 18
19
o 1 1 1 21 4 1 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I 10 1 11

Deviation (Km)

20
T21

8.6.10

In order to find the direction of the deviation, roll another D20, and consult
Table (2).

8.6.11

~~~:......!!W~EAPON

rection
8.6.12

DEVIATION
NE

SE

If the payload is a torpedo, on entering . the water, i t will begin the search

pattern 'it has been programmed for, as per normal torpedo rules.
If the payload is ,a nuclear depth bomb. it will sink to its pre-selected depth
and explode . "
8. 7

8.7.1

8.7.2

8.7.3
8.7.4

TORPEDO LAUNCHSUBPHASE

Both sides may launch tor-pedoes.


There are two ways of launching torpedoes from submarines.a) Positive Discharge.
b) Swim out.
Positive Discharge
This method can be used to launch tQrpedoes while the submarine has a present
speed of up to 22 knots. It is very noisy. because the torpedo is blown out
of its tube by compressed air.
The torpedo may be se,t to run at its high or low speed.
This is the only way in which standoff weapons may be l.a unched and also,
Soviet Players only. the only way that counter-fire torpedoes may be launched.
34

.'

8.7.5

8.7.6
8.7.7
8.7.8

8.7.9
8.7.10

8.7.11
8.7.12

Swim Out
This method may only be used for torpedoes set to run at their slow speed, as
the torpedo swims out under its own power and is not ejected. The only noise
produced by this method is the torpedoes own propulsion system.
The current speed of the submarine must be lower than the slow running speed
of the torpedo.
COUNTER-FIRE TORPEDOES
This is a tactic only used by the Soviets.
If a Soviet submarine detects a torpedo attacking it, it may elect to fire a
counter-fire torpedo. The idea is to fire a torpedo down the track of the
incoming torpedo, in order to hit the attacking submarine, or at least to make
it maneouvre enough to lose control of its torpedoes).
Counter-fire torpedoes are not wire gUided, so they must be programmed before
launch. They are launched by positive discharge only and may only run at high
speed.
Before launch the torpedo must be programmed with:a) Search depth.
b) Bearing and distance to run before conducting an active sonar search
pattern.
The torpedo must use an active sonar search pattern, because it will be
launched on a bearing-only T.M.A., and will need active sonar to provide the
range component.
Counter-fire torpedoes must be listed as such at the start of the game, and
cannot be used for any other purpose. A Soviet submarine can only carry a
maximum of two such torpedoes.

8.8
subphase, units may deploy or retrieve sensors and communications
8.8.1
8.8.2

8.8.3

systems.
Submarines may begin to trail out their towed array sonars, if not already
deployed (see 6.4 for restrictions caused by towed arrays). They may also begin
to retrieve towed arrays in this phase. These may be jettisoned at any time.
Helicopters may deploy or retrieve dunking sonars. It is assumed that these
are limited to a maximum depth of 200m. The sonar can be winched at a rate
of 100m per minute, so the time taken to get it to the required depth can be
calculated, and rounded up to the nearest half minute.
Helicopters must remain stationary while its sonar is in the water.
Submarines may release communication bouys, expendable or not. They may also
trail floating aerials or retrieve them. Rules are as for towed arrays (see
6.4).

8.9
8.9.1

POST-LAUHCH WEAPONS PROGRAM SUBPIIASE


Both sides may, if they wish, program any wire guided torpedoes which are
still being controlled. Rules are as for Pre-Launch Weapons Program Subphase
(see 8.4).

8.10
8.10.1

MOBILE DECOY PROGRAM SUBPHASE


Mobile decoys may now be programmed, ready for launch. They have a maximum
running time of 18 minutes, although they may be programmed for less.
They move just like submarines, and will appear just like it to passive sonar.

8.10.2

TYPHOON

35

SSBN

9.0
9.0.1

9.0.2

9.1
9.1.1

9.1. 2
9.1. 3

9.1.4

n
,t
success or failure of all attacks by weapons capable of
impacting this turn, is resolved.
During an attack:a) The attacking player will try to raise the Hit Pobability of his
torpedo(s) to as near to 100% as possible.
b) The target player will try to lower the Acquisition Percentage of the
torpedo(s) as far as he can.
A submarine that is unaware of an incoming torpedo is less likely to be
missed. A submarine that is tracking an incoming torpedo, can improve its
chances of being missed by:a) Launching countermeasures, which will attempt to attract the torpedo
into attacking them instead of the submarine.
b) Maneouvring to avoid the torpedo, and also break contact with the
attacking submarines' sonar.
Hit Probability Percentage (HP%), is a figure given to each model of
torpedo, based on its level of sophistication, and represents its likelihood
of being able to conduct a successful attack. It is listed for each type of
torpedo in section 14.0.
If two torpedoes are launched and used together to conduct a simultaneous
attack, then a combined Hit Probability Percentage can be obtained. The attack
will then be prosecuted as if there were only one torpedo, but with a new HP%.
If the attack is successful, and the two torpedoes acquire the target, then
they are treated as two torpedoes again. Only two torpedoes may combine their
HP% in this way.
C<J1BINED HIT PROBABILITf PERCENTAGE TABLE

HP% of a Sin Ie Torpedo


Combined HP% of 2 Torpedoes

70
91

75
93

80
96

85
y8

87
99

90 92
99 99

94
99

95
99

96
99

97
99

Note that only similar torpedoes may combine their HP%


9.1.5

Ex_pIe
Two Tigerfish Mk24 are used to attack together. Each has an HP% of 80%.
Their combined HP% (from the above table) is 96%.

9.1.6

Another way to use two torpedoes, is not to conduct a simultaneous attack, but
to give them different search areas, in order to increase the total search
area. If they are both still wire guided when one detects the target, the
other can be steered towards the target until it, too detects the target.
In this way, if the first torpedo misses, the second can be brought into play.
In this case, the HP% remains as for single torpedoes.

9.1. 7
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4

(AI)

ne
ts an incoming torpedo, it may decide to launch a
noismaker (see 9.5). This will attempt to lure the torpedo away from the
submarine.
The noismaker(s), will have a Total Noismaker Percentage (TN%).
The Acquisition Percentage (A%) = Hit Probability% - Total Noismaker%.
ie. assuming a torpdeo has an HP% of 80%, and the noisemaker has a TN% of 8%
then A% = 80 - 8 = 72%.
To reflect the difficult sonar conditions under ice, and the chance of hitting
an ice keel: A% is reduced by 80% if the target is within 80m of any ice. The
exception to this is the Mk48 ADCAP and Spearfish, these are only reduced by
45%.
to

...

LOS ANGELES
36

SSN

9.3
9.3.1

, 9.3.2

9.3.3

9.3.4
9.3.5

9.3.6

9.3.7

DECOY LAUNCH SUBPHASE


There are two types of decoy that a submarine may launch in order to lure
incoming torpedoes away, and make them attack the decoy.
a) Mobile decoys.
b) Noisemakers.

Mobile Decoys
These are sophisticated devices which are designed to simulate the parent
submarines' actual sound signature. They are capable of their own movement,
and thus must be programmed before launch.
Only the Soviet and U.S. navies posess mobile decoys and the U.S. navy only
places these devices on high value targets such as SSBN's. The Soviet navy
however, appears to use them on any class of submarine.
The number of mobile decoys and on which submarine, must be decided before the
game starts. It should be noted that one decoy takes the place of one torpedo
so in practice few are carried.
Mobile decoys may not be launched if the incoming torpedo has sufficient
lateral movement to impact in the same game turn that it is detected by the
target submarine. Noisemakers will still be able to be used, however.
The chance that a mobile deco y will have in luring a torpedo away, will depend
on:a) The type of sonar the torpedo is using.
b) Whether the attacking submarine is in contact with the target, with
what sonar, and if the torpedo is still wire guided.
The following table listS these c ircumstances, and gives the percentage chance
the decoy has of luring the torpedo from the target.

9.3.8
pedo
Control
omous
re Guided
Guided
ided
Guicled

9.3.9
9.3.10

9.4
9.4. I
9.4.2

9.4.3
9.4.4

Torpedo Contact
with Target

Attacking Submarin es '


Contact with Target

Mobi IL' Decoys' Chance


of Su

]0%

ve
Passive

In contact
n contact

Not .tn contact


ve
ve
tn contact
ACtl ve

SSt

vc

Ive

27%

17%

20%

10%
8%

Activl'
ve

Refl ecti ng the supericlrity of the Americ"I' software, their m()bi Ie rlec()ys have
been given a better chance of success.
Note that even jf the torpedo has not detected the lilq~pt; so long as thl'
attacking submarine has contact with the target, and the torpl'do is still Wlr l'
guided; the torpedo can be steered towards tht' targpt hy Lhl' attack i ng
submari ne.
DECOY RESOLUTION SUBPHASE
Consult the' Mobile Decoy Successs Tablt-, for thl' pre vai I ing circumstances of
the torpedo attack. This table wi II provid(' the percl'nlagc' chance that thp
decoy will lure the torpedo.
The target player must roll' that percentage, or less, in ord('r for lhl' d('coy
to be successful.
If the decoy does work, the torpedo allacks it, and both may h" remov('d from
piay.
If the decoy does not work, both it and the torpl'do will carryon their
respective tracks.
Repeat the above procedure eac h lime a dl'COY comes into thl' detect ion ranHe of
a torpedo. There is no limi t to the amount of torpedoe:-; a cll'COY can at tract ,
unti l i t runs out of power, or .ts dest toyed ..

37

9.5
9.5.1
9.5.2

9.5.3
9.5.4
9.5.5
9.5.6
9.5.7
9.6
9.6.1

9.6.2
9.6.3

9.6.4
9.6.5

NOISEMAIER SUBPHASE
These are 'last ditch' devices which attempt to lure torpedoes away from their
targets.
These are not as sophisticated as mobile decoys, in that they cannot move on
their own, nor do they simulate a particular submarines' signature. They
simply make a loud noise, which should sound attractive to the torpedo.
Up to 2 noisemakers may be released in anyone game turn. and they are
launched from seperate tubes to the submarines normal weapons; thus they do
not replace weapons, and so a submarine may carry many.
Assume that the typical submarine will carry 12.
Two minutes are required to load 2 noisemakers. They are in seperate tubes, so
I minute will not load 1 noisemaker.
A noisemaker has an effectiveness varying from 1 to 101.
The defending player throws a D10 for each noisemaker released (two
noisemakers may be used against one torpedo, or one against each of two
torpedoes). This is the Noisemaker Percentage.
Two noisemakers against one torpedo will combine their Noisemaker Percentage
in order to produce the Total Noisemaker Percentage (TNI).
The TN%, against each torpedo, is subtracted from the torpedoes' HP% and this
gives the torpedo its Acquisition Percentage (AI). Thus, HPI - TN% = AI.
IMPACT RESOllmOI SUBPHASE
Torpedo hits or near misses are decided in this subphase.
In order for the torpedo to acquire the target, and complete its final run-in,
the attacking player rolls the percentage dice.
If the score is equal to, or less than the Acquisition Percentage (A%), then
the torpedo attacks the target submarine. If the score is greater than the AI,
the torpedo has missed. It may, however, attempt to acquire again.
If the torpedo is still under wire guidance, it may make as many acquisition
attempts as it can until it runs out of power, when it is removed from play.
If the torpedo is under autonomous control by this time, it may attempt one
more acquistion only. The ~ceptions to this are the Mk48, Mk48(ADCAP) and the
Spearfish. These torpedoes may make a further two acquistion attempts.
Direct r.pact or Proxi.ity detonation
Once it has been determined that the torpedo has acquired the target, it is
now necessary to determine whether the attack results in a Direct Impact, or a
Proximity Explosion. For this the Acquisition Percentage (AI) is used again.
The attacking player again rolls the percentage dice. A score equal to, or less
than the AI, results in a Direct Impact on the targets hull. A score greatel
than the Al, results in a Proximity Explosion.

9.7
9.7.1

9.7.2
9.7.3

9.7.4

is now
and takes effect.
If the attack results in a Direct Impact, the outcome will depend on:a) The size of the warhead.
b) Whether the warhead has a shaped charge.
c) Whether the target submarine has a twin hull.
Different torpedoes have warheads of differing weights. The bigger the
warhead, the greater the explosion.
Some submarines are twin-hulled. This means that the inner pressure hull is
surrounded by an outer pressure hull, the result is that a breach in the outer
hull need not damage the inner one, allowing the submarine to survive. It also
means that there is more reserve bouyancy, giving the damaged submarine a
greater chance of reaching the surface to abandon, if necessary. The damage
would, even if the submarine was not abandoned, put an end to its patrol.
This is often known as a 'mission kill'.
In order to fight ba.c k against submarine designers using twin hulls, the
torpedo designers have put 'shaped charge' warheads on some of their
torpedoes. Also known as 'directed energy' warheads, these are a spin-off from
anti-tank technology. Instead of the force of the explosion being radiated in
all directions, these weapons focus the explosive force forwards. This has a
much more devastating directional effect and so has a greater chance of
penetrating both hulls of a twin-hull submarines.
38

9.7.5
9.7.6
9.7.7

If a direct impact occurs, consult the Kill Table (9.7.8), and then, if the
submarine is not 'killed', go on to the Damage Table (9.7.15).
If a proximity explosion occurs, go directly to the Damage Table (9.7.15).
The following procedure is for conventional weapons only; in the case of
nuclear weapons, go on to the Nuclear Weapons (see 9.8).

9.7.8
Die roll to kill Single

roll to kill Twin


or

to
to
to 4DDKg

to
1 to 5

1 to

9.7.14

If a twin-hulled submarine suffers a second direct impact, this will kill the
submarine on a roll of 1 to 5, whatever the warhead size.
If a torpedo with a shaped charge/directional energy warhead impacts on a
twin-hulled submarine, take 4 away from the dice score.
ie. there is a -4 die roll modifier for shaped charge warheads impacting on
twin-hulled submarines.
If the dice score result on the Kill Table indicates that the target submarine
has been 'killed', then the submarine is destroyed, and may be removed from
play.
If the score indicates that the submarine has not been killed, then it suffers
some form of damage, but is not destroyed.
In order to determine the nature of this damage, the attacking player rolls
another DID, and consults the Damage Table (9.7.15).
The number in the left hand column is the score of this die roll.

9.7.15

DAMAGE TABLE

9.7.9
9.7.10

9.7.11
9.7.12
9.7.13

Speed is restricted, and there is an overall increase in noise level.


Roll the percentage dice; this perc=ntage of the submarines maximum speed
is permanently removed from the submarines' maximum speed (round down to
the nearest knot).
Roll the percentage
dice again and the score is permanently added to the
,
Maximum safe depth is restricted, and there is an overall increase in
noise. Roll the percentage dice and the score is permanently removed from
the submarines safe depth (this will not effect its crush depth, but it
may not voluntarily go beyond its safe depth).
Roll the percentage dice again and the score is permanently added to the
oduced at all
unless the submarine is stationar .
Active sonar is destroyed. If deployed, the towed array is lost.
In-hull passive sonar is damaged. Roll the percentage dice and the score
is the reduction in sonar eff
each time it is used from now on.
4

Roll a DID three times, and consult this table; the resulting damage is
all sustained. Note that each form of damage can only be used once by
each submarine; if neccessary roll again.
The submarine must disengage from any action and head for a safe port
immediately, and may not attempt to engage targets, unless it is
attacked first.
The pressure hull is badly damaged and 43% is permanently added to the
overall noise produced, unless the submarine is stationary.
Maximum safe depth is reduced; roll the percentage sice and the score is
removed from the safe operating depth (This WILL affect the crush depth).
If the submarine suffers another direct impact or proximity explosion then
it will be destroyed. Any torpedo control wires will be cut.
39

BLACKOUT
The submarine is totally without power, as the reactor 'scrams' and the
'battle-short' fails to operate. RollI D20; the result is the number of
minutes the submarine is dead in the water. During this time, the
A fire breaks out in the submarine and it must surface immediately.
If unable to surface within 4 minutes, then the entire crew will die of
oxygen starvation, and the submarine will be lost.
If it reaches the surface within the 4 minutes, roll a 010 and a score
of 1 to 6 means the submarine may return to active service, with no
further penalty. A result of 7 to 10 means a Mission [ill, and is treated
4
towed
or
will be cut ..
The submarine heads uncontrollably towards the surface. To determine the
amount of depth lost roll 1 020 and the score is multiplied by 15 to give
the number of metres.
If the submarine breaks surface, treat as for Mission [ill; Damge N04.
If the submarine collides with overhead ice, it will be destroyed.
or
wires
cut
The submarine heads uncontrollably towards the sea bed. Multiply the
submarines present depth by 1.7 and the result is the number of metres it
reaches before contol is regained. If this depth exceeds the crush depth
then the submarine is lost (see 4.6). The submarine will also be
destroyed if it collides with the sea bed.
Roll a 020 and the score is the number of minutes that the submarine is
unable to take offensive actions.
If the submarine is an SSN, then the torpedo tube caps are damaged, and
only one torpedo tube remains operable.
If the submarine is an .SSBN or SSGN, then the damage could be to the
missile tube or the torpedo tube caps. Roll a 010:1 to 4 means only one missile tube remains operable.
5 to 8 means only one torpedo tube remains operable.
9 mean no missile tubes a only one torpedo tube remains operable.
10 means no torpedo tubes and only one missile tube is operable.
Whatever the type of submarine, roll the percentage dice, the result is
permanently added to the generated noise level, unless the submarine
remains stationary.
Any torpedo contol wires will be lost.

9.8
9.8.1
9.8.2
9.8.3
9.8.4

NUCLEAR WEAPONS

The decision to use nuclear weapons may only be made by polititians.


Under no circumstances may a submarines' captain 'go nuclear' without clear
instructions from its HQ.
The nuclear threshold must therefore be agreed upon as part of the game set-up

or scenar10.
SUBROC, SEALANCE(NUC) and SS-N-15 are all standoff weapons which have a
nuclear depth bomb with a 1.0 kiloton yield warhead as their payload.
Assume that all nuclear weapons have a yield of 1.0 kilotons.
The damage caused by nuclear weapons, at a given range, is shown on the
Nuclear Weapons Damage Table following.

9.8.5
1.0

9.8.6

[T.

10Km

7Im

The weapon must detonate inside this radius in order to inflict that damage on
the submarine. In the case of a mission kill, treat as a dice score of 4 on
the Damage Table.

40

9.S.7

9.S.S
9.9

Aircraft and helicopters will be destroyed if they are within 1 Km of the


explosion.
Aircraft, helicopters and surfaced submarines within 30Km of the detonation
will have their E.S.M., communications, radars and sonobouys destroyed by the
Electro-Magnetic Pulse caused by the explosion.
Although the Soviet Type 65 torpedo may have a 0.01 kiloton warhead, it may
only attack surface targets, so is not considered at the moment.

TIMING OF DAMAGE
All damage suffered in the Damage Resolution Subphase becomes effective at the
end of that subphase.

9.10

EXAMPLE OF TORPEDO ATfACK (Under wire guidance)


A Victor III has been tracking a fast moving Swiftsure class SSN for some
time, and has a full Stage 4 Target Motion Analysis on it. The Swiftsure is
moving so fast that it cannot detect the Victor.
The TMA is as follows:-

'

Bearing
Overall Noise from Target
Submarine class
Target Speed
Current range to target
Target Depth

090 degrees
29%
Swiftsure.
26 knots.
10Km.
150m

The Victor is stationary at 150m depth and plans a 'head-on' shoot.


The Victor opens one tube cap, in the Tube Cap Subphase (see S.5).
He now launches one Type 53 torpedo using a 'swim out' launch (see S.7.5).
The torpedo is under wire guidance, as the target is within wire guidance
range of the Type 53 (lSKm), and its parent submarine itself is tracking the
target.
During the next . Movement Phase, the torpedo swims towards the target at its
low speed (12 knots), as swim out launches demand low speed.
During the next Sonar Phase, the Victor will continue to track the target, but
the Swiftsure will not be able to detect anything, and will not know it is
being attacked.
Each turn, the torpedo will approach the target, until it 1S within the
torpedo's passive detection range (3Km).
The torpedo will now attempt to acquire the target:Acquistion Percentage (A%) = Hit Probability %(HP%) - Total Noisemaker % (TN%)
However, the target cannot launch noismakers or Mobile Decoys, as it does not
know it is under attack.

Hit Probability of Type 53 torpedoes is SO% and therefore the A% 18:SO - 0 = SO%
The attacker now rolls the percentage dice and scores (say) 22%.
This is less than the A% of SO% so the torpedo has acquired the target, and
will attack.
The attacker rolls again and gets (say) 64%.
This is again less than the A% and therefore results in a Direct Impact hit.

The Type 53 torpedo has a 300Kg warhead and is not of the shaped charge type.
The attacker rolls a D10 and scores (say) a 2. He now consults the Kill Table,
and as the target is single hulled it is killed and sunk.
If a 10 had been scored, then the dice is rolled again, and the Damage Table
will be consulted.

41

10.0

game

now be updated with the passage of another 2 minutes.

Players should make notes as to their submarines' status, concerning:a) Current speed.
b) Current depth.
c) Sensor deployment.
d) Weapons readiness.
e) Ballast on board.
f) Noise modifiers.
g) Weapons remaining.
h) Decoys remaining.
i) Progress of weapons already running.

-.. ...
.

~.

.. .. -- .............

CHARLIE 1/11

STURGEON

.,

se _

...

SSN

....
.
CWo

SIERRA

42

SSN

SSGN

10.1

SUBMARINE STAWS SHEET

CLASS

TYPE

SPEED

SAFE DEPTH

CRUSH DEPTH

NOISE CLASS
TILES?

HULL TYPE
TORPEDO
TUBES

LOAD

PROGRAM

LAUNCHED

,1

2
3

5
6

RELOADS

DECOY TUBES
DECOY RELOADS
DETAILS

DAMAGE

WIRE

LOADING

11.0
are some notes on planning and running the game.
Write out a scenario, stating the political/_ilitary Situation, within which
the
ines will have to work. This is useful, as it viII provide
guidelines for any nuclear decisions.
viII need a Su~rine Status Sheet. This asy be copied fra.
11.0.2 Each
the blank one provided (see 10.1).
All the submarines details need to be filled in before the game starts, with
numbers and types of weapon carried, warheads and decoys etc.
11.0.3 The Status Sheet is also used to keep a track on weapon usage and any damage
suffered.
11.0.4 The torpedo
section shows the state of readineaa of each tube:a) Weapon loaded.
b) If it has been progr...ed.
c) The time it vas launched.
d) If the last weapon fired from it is still under wire guidance.
e) The type of weapon being loaded, and the time that loading started.

11.0.1

11.0.5 Below this section keep an up to date list of the available re-loads.
11.0.6 The 'Details' section is useful for any other infolMation about the sub.arine
or its weapons.
11.1
the game without using submarine models, but simply by
plotting the movement on a nautical chart or map.
11.1.1 This can be done whether there is an umpire or not, but if not, then players
must be careful to base their actions on previous orders, or on the
infol-mation their
has actually recieved (Not neccessarily what they
can see with their own eyes).
11.1.2 If starting the game by maneouvring on charts, you may find that the tvo
minute game turn is too short a period of 'time for the long distances
involved. It may therefore be neccessary to introduce a one hour game turn,
either for a set period, or until the umpire decides that combat is imminent.
The game log should be continually updated, so that any
, speed,
position and type of sonar vatch can be ca.pared with any posaible contacts.
11.1.3 It is a good idea to launch and control veapons while still on the chart. and
only DOve onto the game table after a failed attack. This allows for Mutual
Interference.
11.2

movement
on the chart, then it is a good idea to move onto the
table after a torpedo has failed to acquire the target on "its first attempt.
11.2.1 The target sub.arine and the attacking torpedoes are then placed on the table.
but the attacking
viII not be until its poSition is known by the
target submarine.
,
11.2.2 If the target survives the attack, it will remain on the table for as long as
the attacking 8ubmari-ne maintains .contact with it
11.2.3 Torpedoes will move onto the table when the target submarine detects them.
11.3

11.3.1
11.3.~

up t
on
table, using counters to represent them.
Remember that there may be no contact between them as yet, and that an attack
may only be made when the T.M.A. has been built up sufficiently.
Once there is contact, then that counter can be replaced with one of a
different colour, to represent this. When the type of submarine is revealed
then this coloured counter can be replaced by a model.
The above set-up does not require an umpire.

44

12.0
an important area for submarine combat, as it is a good
place for SSBN's to hide, and still attack the U.S and U.S.S.R. Here are some
notes about the area and the effect on the game.
12.1
12.1.1

12.1. 2
12.1.3

12.1.4
12.1.5
12.1.6
12.1. 7

12.1.8

12.1.9
12.1.10

12.1.11

ICE
The thickness of the ice making up the Polar Cap, varies with the seasons. It
is at its maximum in April/May and at its minimum in September/October.
Variations of between a few centimetres and up to 50 metres are common. The
average thickness over the whole area is about 4 metres.
The ice edge limits are also seasonal (see 12.3 for their extent). They reach
their greatest extent in March/April and their least in August/September.
The Marginal Ice Zone (M.I.Z), is an area at the ice edge, and is made up of
broken ice. As this broken ice moves about, it causes a high ambient noise
level, which reaches down to a depth of 200m.
The width of the M.I.Z, between the solid ice and the open water varies, so
use 15 Km as an average.
The movement of large pieces of ice in the M.I.Z. makes surfacing within it
very dangerous.
'Pack Ice' is a te'rm used to denote any a,r ea of sea, ice. 'Ridged Ice' is 1ce
where one piece has piled over an"o ther.
An 'Ice Keel' is a downward projecting ridge on the underside of the ice. It
may extend down as much"' as 50m belo\"l the sea level;
A 'Polynya' is any irregular shaped ' opening encloselr 'by thick ice. Usually the
polynya is of ,open water, or ice less than 1m thick. A Polynya is normally
located by using active sonar in the ice-mapping mode, with an effective range
of 2 Km.
A submarine may have to perform a Williamson Turn (see 4.4) 1n order to come
back under the polynya, to check how thick the ice is using the periscope and
TV camera. The amount of light passing through the ice gives a good indication
of how thick the ice is.
A submarine can break through a maximum of 1.5m thickness of ice when
surfacing.
Icebergs are normally found off the East/West coasts of Greenland, and the
East coast of Canada. They may project more than 400m below the seas surface.
Some of the routes used by submarines entering under the Arctic Ice Cap such
as the Davis Strait and the McLure Strait (both in Canada), can be dangerous
due to shallow water and thick ice. A submarine going this way would need to
use active sonar in order to find a way through; this however, would broadcast
its approach to any waiting submarine or mine.
There are other routes to the ArctiC, such as the Greenland Sea, and the
~orwegian Sea. These' are much easier, but are also well known and patrolled.

12.2
12.2.1

are no thermal layers under the ice.


If a submarine is either:a) within 80m of the M.I.Z.
OR
b) Resting up against the underside of the ice with
positive bouyancy.
OR
c) Surfaced in a po1ynya.
Then it becomes very difficult to detect as most noise coming to passive
sonars will have been reflected randomly.

12.2.2

Active sonar will suffer from reverberations off the overhead ice, therefore,
in such conditions a submarine cannot be located by active sonar unless it is
first found by passive sonar; and that will only be possible if it is
generating more noise than the ambient noise level.
"

45

12.3

-.

ICE EXTENT CHART

12.3

ICE EXTENT CHART.

- - -- ...,

.... ,

"
,

-_

--

II'

,,

--'
/'

. '.-"

' - - ..

- ..
, -'"
.

"
I
I,.,

-,.,

,.x

,.,z ,.,

><
-<

I
I

><
-<

><
-<

.... ,.,z ,.,z

.., .... ....


.., ..,
n
,., n n
'",., ,., ,.,
0

If.9

"

--0

'"

'"'"

.-->'

46

"

AIRCRAFT DATA SECTION

13 0

"T

Name &
Type

~arrier Pat. ' Endur-

Fapa hl " Speed

ance

SS Radar M.A.D E.S.M


Class

Dunking
Sonar

lIIV

Passive

Act

iPaSs'

.Jlli

pOrion
~a/c
" Viking

~S~'"

Seasprite

~lo

SH-3 Sea King

l&
~S

Seahawk

No

240kn

l6hrs

Yes

Yes

No

70

16

Yes

300Kn

9hrs

Yes

Yes

No

50

10

Ship

92kn

2.5hrs

none

Yes

Yes

No

12

Ship

95kn

4.5hrs

Yes

Yes

Yes

none

none

lShip

3.5hrs

Yes

Yes

No

?()

--s

Ship

80kn

3.5hrs

none

No

No

Yes

20

170kn

18hrs

Yes

Yes

No

80

20

fSOi(j)

1.5hrs

No

No

No

14

4hrs

No

No

Yes

none

none

12hrs

In
Oc"" lawk

~10~

D-B Atlantique

No

~/C
1.ze

Yes

IU'IP a/c
ISuper I'rel0n

QEi

,n

~SHE~lO~
Nimron MR2
IL
c
itAS.) Wessex
~ .In
~ynx

No

400kn

Ship

80kil

.?hrs

Ship

75kn

3.75hrs

96ki1 Thrs

Ship

~Helo ~
P-2J Neptune
LRMP a/c
S-M PSI
}lRMP a.'c
u. . S.
142 Bear F

~a/c
-11l

May

~c>!ail
MRMP a/c

Mi-ll&

H"7".p

Yes
No

Yes
(es

No

100

26

Yes

J3

none

none

No

No

Yes-

Yes

Yes

No

No

200kn

llhrs

No

No

No

SO

16

No**

175kn

6.5hrs

No

Yes

No

40

10

No

350kn

28hrs

Yes

Yes

No

85

15

NO

170kn

Yes

Yes

No

70

10

N"

195"n

lOhrs

Yes

No

No

44

Yes

No

Yes

20

Yes

Yes

Yes

17

V.

NO

Yes

14

2.S s

td

-4-S~ln

Ka-36 Helix
-4-S In
Ka-25 Harmone A

~Heln

Ship

90kn

2hrs

Ship

70kn

1.75hrs

** Indicates that the aircraft 1.S amphibious.


Abbreviations Used
LRMP alc
MRMP a/c
AS Helo
Ship
Land

Long Range Maritime Patrol aircraft.


Medium Rang Maritime Patrol aircraft.
Anti-Submarine helicopter.
Helicopter is shipborne.
Helicopet is landbased.

47

Name

DB

1.on
Viking
2 Seasprite
Sea King
SH-60B Seahawk

Atlantique
Alize
Nimrod
HAS.5 Sea King
HAS.3 Wessex
.3

Mk
Mk
Mk
Mk
Mk

46
46
46
46
46

Mk
Mk 46

Mk 50
Mk 50
Mk 50

2
2
2

none
none
none

none
none

none

none
none

2
2

none
none
none
none

none
none

6
4
2
2
2

none
none
none
none
none
none

4
2
2
2
2

- 42
Il- 38 May
Be-12 Mail
Mi-14 Haze
Ka-36 Helix
Ka-25 Harmone A

Mk 46
2
Mk 4=6~__~~4~__~~n~o~n~e~__~__________-L__-__~____~__~

Stingray
Mk 46
Sti

tune
PSI

none
none
none
none
none
none

Mk 46

pe
Type
Type
Type
Type
Type

40
40
40
40
40

none
l)one
none
none
none
none

4
2
2
1
1

Tu-142 BEAR F

48

~4.0

WEAPONS DATA SECTION


TORPEDO DATA

~14.1

II"

AntiSurface

AntiSub

Range
1m

Maxillum
Depth

Wire
aped Guided

840m

111b.l(g

no

(g

no

Noise
Glass

S~~Hit
Low
%

.2Km

no

(;

no

20

75

15

60

97

12

44

no

40

17

05

,~
l~mod2

yes

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

SO

yes

yes

50

no

yes

25

Mk50 ALWT

no

yes

30

~3

no

yes

yes

yes

ray

I~

80

45 94

.)

ish
Mk 48

~
Plc46 mod6

I(Li

1000m

v;oIg

yes

3OO(g

yes

267Kg

no

18Im

no

no

i4SIg

yes

no

no

Il~

no

no

lJ

no

35

18

11SOKg

no

7Im

10

300Ig

no

18Im

12

44

80

T6i)Kg

no

no

no

4U

f)

no

no

J.~

600m

It)

~~

fU

illod 2

~ TORPEII()ES
'J

y_

Type 40
(1i:Jh
~ype

r1

yes

yes

50

no

yes

20

yes

no

11

760m

Om

(see .)

* The

Type 65 above can only be launched from 650mm torpedo tubes and is a surface
only, wake homing weapon. It lIay also be equiped with a 0.01 Kiloton nuclear wearhead.
14.2

STANDOFF WEAPONS (Anti-Submarine)


Name

Flight Speed
(Im/Hin)

Payload

Maximum Range
(ICilOileters)

Nuclear depth bomb


SEALANCE

31
A.

44
SS-N-16*

24

Nuclear depth
Type 40 torpedo

108

Can only be launched from a 650mm torpedo tube.

CHURCHILL SSN
49

l4.3

ANTI-SHIP MISSIlES (Submarine Launched)


Name

Flight Speed

SS-N-7

Maximum Range
Kilometers

Warhead Weight

Carrier Vessel

20

SS-N-9

500Kg

120

20

CHARUE II

14.4
or
(Km/Min)
TOMAHAWK

17

"'-1'.-19
SS-N-21

50
17

(Kilimoeters)
2500

500Kg HE or Nuclear

2000

or
HE or Nuclear

14.5

Poseidon
Polaris

4600 KID
4000 Km

M2 & M20
M4S

3000 Km
4500 Km

SS-N-18
SS-NX-23
SS-N-20

7000 Km
8000 Km (approx)
8300 Km

<I>~~::::===:. :::::
.::.=:.:::'.::\.~====~:-.
AKULA

SSN

. .

RESOLUTION
.

LAFAYETTE

SSBN
50

SSBN

15.0 .

AKULA
ALFA
SIERRA
VICTOR I
~~=ocrwt1~ ~ ~==+=,,;SFi'S;;;,N=4=~SSFN~4==="iSiR'SN~===f.====oSSN
Hull type
Hull Material
Anechoic Tiles
Noise Class
Safe Depth
Crush Depth
WEAPON TYPE 1
2

3
4
5

Reloads
No
- 533mm
of
- 650mm
tubes - 761mm
Hull Sonar
Towed Sonar
Comms Bouys
Comms; UHF
VHF
HF

LF
VLF

ELF
Class
U.s

Twin
Steel
Yes

Single
Titanium
No

MIKE

III
SSN

SSN
Twin
Titanium
Yes

Twin
Steel
Yes

Twin
Steel
No

Twin
Steel
Yes

Twin
Steel
Yes

450m
630m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16
SS-N-21
14

900m
1260m
Type 53
SS-N-15

450m
630m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16
SS-N-21
14
2

600m
840m
Type 5:3.
SS-N-15

600m
840m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16

600m
840m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16

12

12

700m
980m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16
SS-N-21
14

6
6

A &P
P

8
6

&P

A& P

P, Clip-on

&P

&P

A &P

P ,Cli n-,,, P, Clin-,,,


1
1

No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No

No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No

No
Yes

A&P
No

No
Yes
No

No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No

No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No

No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No

N'J

:r~'AlRP-~CHOOA:RRIL.I[EE:rIlCiiIARiARL::rn.TF:IDITIDDIErr:L:r:TAUI~rrDiEELr:TrAA:-liIIIInRT'T'A III

1AME

~~

~~~M

=~=~SS~GFN~=p~~~SB~N===+~S~SB~N~~~S~S~B~N==~

=~

Hull type
Hull Material
Anechoic Tiles
Noise Class
Safe Depth
Crush Depth
WEAPON TYPE 1
2

3
4
5

Twin
Steel
. Yes

Z4

Z4

Twin
Steel
No

Twin
Steel
No

Twin
Steel
Yes

Twin
Steel
Yes

Twin
Steel
Yes

400m
400m
560m
560m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-7 x8
SS-N-16
SS-N-19 x24
18
6
2

L.~

400m
300m
300m
300m
560m
420m
420m
420m
Type 53
Type 53
Type 53
Type 53
SS-N-15 ~S~N-8 x12 SS-N-8 x16 SS-N-18 x16
SS-N-9 x8
6
6

12

12

12

A &P

51

DELTA IV

NAME

TYPHOON

--

s
Speed :
Hull type
Hull Material
Anechoic Tiles
Noise Class
Safe Depth
Crush Depth
WEAPON TYPE 1
2
3
4
5
Reloads
- S33mm
No
- 6S0mm
of
tubes - 761mm
Hull- Sonar
Towed Sonar
Comms Bouys
Comms; UHF
VHF
HF

LF
VLF
ELF
SS Radar Class

Twin
Steel
Yes
F
300m
420m
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16
SS-NX-23 xl
12
4
2

A &P
P,Clip-on

Twin
Steel
Yes
D
300m
420ID
Type 65
Type 53
SS-N-15
SS-N-16
SS-NX-20
16
2
4

Single , Single
Steel
Steel
No
No
D
H
300m
450m
420m
630m
F . 17mod2 F.17mod2
L.5mod3 L.5mod3
SM.39
SM.39
10
4

Single
Steel
No
G

250m
350m
F.17mod2
L.5mod3
M2 & H2O
14
4

10
4

A &P

Single
Steel
No
'D

450m
630m
F.17mod2
SM~39

M4S x16
12
6

A &P

A &P
P

A &P
P

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
C

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
B

Yes
Yes
No
' No
Yes
No
C

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
B

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
D

A &P
P,Clip-on
2
Yes,
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
B

Single
Steel
No

Single ,
Steel
_ No

Single
Steel
Yes

Single
Steel
No

Single
Steel
No

Single
Steel
No

'.

p .

NAME
Hull. type
Hull Material
Anechoic Tiles
Noise Class
Safe Depth
Crush Depth
WEAPON TYPE 1

2.

450m
630m
Mk 48
c4tl(ADCAP)

3
4
5

Reloads
No
- 533mm
of
- 650mm
tubes - 761mm
Hull Sonar
Towed Sonar
Comms Bouys
Comms; UHF

VHF
HF

LF

VLF
ELF

SUBROC
22
4

4SOm
630m
Mk 48
, ADCAP)
Harpoon '
Tomahawk

s-oOm

400m
300m
300m
560m
420m
420m
'
100m
Mk 48
Mk 48
Mk 48
c4lj(ADCAP)
S'e alance
Mk48(ADCAP) Mk48(ADCAP) Mk48(ADCAP)
Harpoon
Trident x24 Poseidon x16
Harpoon
Tomahawk
Tomahawk

SUBROC

SUBROC
42

18

18
14
18
444

A &P

A &P

P
1

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes

A
A

&P
&P

&P
P

- ..
A &P
P

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
B

A &P
p.,

No
. Yes
No
No
Yes
No
C

or

1n

the T;>mahawks, :instead of using torpedo tubes.


2)
Seawolf can track 15 targets and' cimtol 6 torpedoes. It is also silent up
to 20 knots. Not yet in service.
3) Benjamin Franklin (sub-class) have 16 x C4 Tridebt ballistic missiles.

52

NAME

Hull type
Hull Material
Anechoic Tiles
Noise Class
Safe Depth
Crush Depth
WEAPON TYPE I
2
3
4
5
Reloads
No
- 533mm
of
- 650mm
tubes - 761mm
Hull Sonar
Towed Sonar
Comms Bouys
Comms; UHF
VHF
HF
LF
VLF
ELF
SS Radar Class

Single
Steel
Yes
C
300m
420m
Tigerfish
Spearfish
Harpoon
Trident x16

Single
Steel
Yes
F
260m
364m
Tigerfish
Polaris x 16

Single
Steel
Yes
D
350m
490m
Tigerfish
Harpoon

Single
Steel
Yes
C
400m
560m
Tigerfish
Spearfish
Harpoon

Single
Steel
Yes
E
300m
420m
Tigerfish
Harpoon

15
5

15
5

20
6

20
4

12
6

A &P
P

A &P
P

A &P
P

A &P
P

A &P
P

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
A

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
A

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
C

YeS
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
C

No

Yes
Yes
A

Vanguard class no yet in service

GENERAL NOTE:All submarines are equipped with Towed Antenna and E. S.M .

=.--

..- ........
VICTOR II I

SSN

-YANKEE 1/11

SSBN

00_

===-::=::.:=':::::==:

cQ::::::::::::r./:=:--=::=-:=--===:-

YANKE E SSN
.

53

16.0
16.1

TURNING SCALE

10

.,

/I
6

~.P~""

~'?

.::..~

o{6

I ~

C-

)"
~

I0

(:.,~

t7

./f'

20

40

"'~tt;o

Ii;;

-";0

DEGREES OF TURN

Example

A 20 knot submarine may turn through a max. of 336 degrees, making 80% noise.
A 15 knot submarine may turn through a max. of 308 degrees, making 60% noise.
A 5 knot submarine may turn through a max. Of 188 degrees, making 20% noise.
54

--s:/D~

I
I

....

,
2 MINUTES WORTH OF
BALLAST USED

(J\

Z qo

100

'

3 Dl>

:
I

..-':

~ 10

REQUIRED DEPTH CHANGE

0.16

..<lo~

,;po ~ ~

~.~~

~oo

' DEPTH CHANGE


REQUIRED

\.

\..
I
<'~ ~'" C "{' .6 I
:;-"0 0 "1",
I
~~~~
I
0", ~ "1c
0.7!S

\
\
\

~
til

~1t>

~~

/'0

eo

\
\
UI
UI

4DO

EXAMPLE -

70

/,0

I t minute;) worth of ballast shifted will


giver- depth change of 300m, and may,
:~ the engines are not operating, give a
lateral movement of up to 0.7 inches.

!3c
:.::
Ci

10

p..,

!Zl

E-<

'4D

\
\

p::
p::

3D

()

\
LO

EXAMPLE - - A submarine doing 20Knts, making a


change in depth of 100m due to hydroplanes,
will lose 0.7 inches of lateral movement.

fa..

\
\
I

2.

.3

LATERAL MOVEMENT LOST WHEN CHANGING DEPTH USING HYDROPLANES (inches)

EXAMPLE - - A class C submarine at 25Kts will make 22% noise

IO-+J-Q
~
~

il-t
<J:J

E-<

'i

1/

Il::",
Il::

",

8(;&

~
~

,p

IIt"'RI

e ('

J\r

",

:C"'88

'"
'"

""
8

$0

10

.2.0

;30

4-0

% NOISE PRODUCED
(V")

-a

......

.....

'"

EX
A

->edo at -40Knts will make 3596 noise.

~
p",

(J)

f-<

10

en

~
~

1\

;:>

C.>

20

.:30

,v

,,-

......

-;;;

</()
/

g)

/'
.

./

,/

50

/'

,,-

./

/'

,
,,G

,,-

1\\l

00'

/'

,/

70 -

11

1)

i:

CLASS

'"

10

2.0

::so

4!:>

5'0

'0

96 NOISE PRODUCED

70

BO

.,

10'0

17.0

ABBREVIATIONS, PHRASES AND TERMS USED


Acquisition Percentage
A%
Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (American built)
A.L.W.T
Anti-Submarine Warfare
A.S.W.
SCRAM override
BA'I1'LE SHORT
Loss of all electrical supply
BLACKOlIT
Sonar contact is certainly a submarine
CERTSUB
The depth at which water pressure crushes the submarine
CRUSH DEPTH
A six sided dice numbered 1 to 6
D6
A ten sided dice numbered 1 to 10
DlO
D20
A twenty sided dice numbered 1 to 20
E.L.F.
Extremely Low Frequency (for radio communications)
ELINT
Electronic Intelligence
E.S.M.
Electronic Support Measures
EXOCET
French built anti-ship missile
F .17P
French built torpedo
ft
Feet
GIUK
Greenland, Iceland, United Kingdom Gap
HARPOON
American built anti-ship missile
HE
High Explosive
HELO
Helicopter
H.F,
High Frequency (for radio communications)
HP%
Hit Probability Percentage

ICE KEEL
A downward projection from overhead sea ice.
Kg
Kilograms
Km
Kilometers
Kts or Kn
Knots (nautical mile/hour)
L5
French built torpedo
L.F.
Low Frequency (for radio communications)
m
Metres
M2, M4S or M20
French built ballistic missiles
M.A.D.
Magnetic Anomaly Detec"tor
max.
Maximum
MISSION KILL
Sufficient damage to prevent the continuation of a mission
M. 1. Z,
Marginal Ice Zone
Mk 46
American built lightweight torpedo
Mk 48
American built torpedo
Mk48 (ADCAP)
American built torpedo
MOBILE DECOY
Device designed to simulate a submarine
MlITUAL INTERFERENCE Your last target was friendly
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NOISEMAKER
Device designed to lure a torpedo
PACK ICE
Any area of sea ice
POLARIS
American built nuclear ballistic missile
POLYNYA
An area of open water surrounded by sea ice
POSEIDON
American bUilt nuclear ballistic missile
PROBSUB
Sonar contact is probably a submarine
RIDGED ICE
Ice piled one piece over another
SAfE DEPTH
The greatest depth a submarine can attain in sefety
SCRAM
An emergency shut-down of a nuclear reactor
SEALANCE
American built standoff weapon
S.1.N.S.
Ship's Inertial Navigation System
EXOCET missile
SM.39
S.O.S. U.S.
Sound Surveillance System
SPEARFISH
British built torpedo
SSBN
Sub-Surface vessel, Ballistic, Nuclear
Sub-Surface vessel, Guided, Nuclear
SSGN
SSN
Sub-Surface vessel, Nuclear
SS-N-7
Soviet built anti-ship missile
SS-N-8
Soviet built nuclear ballistic missile
SS-N-9
Soviet built anti-ship missjle
SS-N-15 or 16
Soviet built standoff weapon
SS-N-18
Soviet built nuclear ballistic missile
~

58

Soviet built cruise missile


Soviet built nuclear ballistic missile
Soviet built cruise missile
Soviet built nuclear ballistic missile
Weapon designed to attack targets at range longer than
that of a torpedo
The sealing arrangement where the propeller shaft leaves
the hull
American built stgnqof weapon
Overwhelming enemy forces

SS-N-19
SS-N-20
SS-N-21
SS-NX-23
STANDOFF WEAPON
STERN GLAND
SUBROC
TARGET-RICH
ENVIRQMENT
TIGERFISH
T.M.A.
TN%
TOMAHAWK
TRANSIENT
TRANSI'I"fER
TRIDENT
TV
TYPE 40
TYPE 53
U.H.F.
UK
USA
USSR
U.T.
V.H.F.
V.L.F.
yds
18.0

British built torpedo


Target Motion Analysis
Total Noisemaker Percentage
American built cruise missile
A man-made noise
A vessel passing through another vessel's patrol area
American built nuclear ballistic missile
Television
Soviet built lightweight torpedo
Soviet built torpedo
Ultra High Frequency (for radio communications)
United Kingdom
United States of America
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Underwater telephone
Very High Frequency (for radio communications)
Very Low Frequency (for radio communications)
Yards

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
How to Make War
The Soviet Submarine Fleet
Combat Fleets of the World
Submarine Warfare Today &
Tomorrow
Modern Aircraft Armament
Modern Air Weapons
Modern Naval Combat
Modern Submarine Warfare
Submarine Versus Submarine
Harpoon Rules
Battles of the Third World War .
Warship Commander Rules
MAGAZINES
Naval Forces
Jane's Defence Weekly
Armed Forces
International Combat Arms

J.F.Dunnigan
J.Berg
J.L.Couhat &.B Prezelin
Capt. J.E.Moore &
Cdr. R.Compton-Hall
C.Chant
C.Chant
D.Miller & C.Miller
D.Miller & J.Jordan
R.Compton-Hall
L.Bond .
L.Bond
K. Smigelski
Navy International
Military Technology
Born in Battle

SIERRA SSN
59

Quill
Jane's
Conways
Micheal Joseph
P.L.S.
P.L.S.
Salamander
Salamander
David & Charles
G.D.W.
G.D.W.
Navwar

19.0

DEPLOYMENT EXAMPLES

Sonobouy with Sensor


deployed below layer "

)))))))

Helicopter with
Dunking Sonar

Communications Bouy

SURFACE

l.-v->...-/''"'''''""---.A~_______~

THERMAL
LAYER

THERMAL ____________~~----LAYER
Wire Guided
Torpedo

Towed Array Sonar


Deployed below Thermal Layer

Submarine Trailing
VLF Aerial

~--'.-

sosus~~____-----~--------~s::::f,-[>.~:::...D__

--~

- - - - - -:.;:..-.:--

/'

20.0

Examples of Sonar Detection Gharts


These examples show the various thermal layers and ducts .

~
,Q..

1---

1) Fairly shallow, medium


strength layer

"

2) Fairly strong, deep layer

3) Weak, shallow layer and

solid, deep layer

4) Under Ice - NO LAYERS

GO