You are on page 1of 16

Bicol University

College of Business, Economics, and Management


Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Guideline for Standardized Format for Research Paper


Implemeting Office
Office of the Research Coordinator
Office of the Instruction Coordinator

Elmer A. Lorenzana
Rey Joseph M. Redoblado

Introduction and Objectives


As the challenges comes in the aspiration of the university to become a world class university,
the function of research is given of much highlight. Enable to contribute to the attainment of the
aforementioned vision, the college have sought the need for synchronized design for college
researches. Likewise, research and instruction functions can be harmonized to produce quality
research work of the students and faculty members that can be published to refereed journals.
Hence, the college has the following objectives for the proposed synchronized research format
for thesis and feasibility studies, to wit:
1. Align the research work of students to international refereed journals;
2. Increase the number of research works that can be published to refereed journals; and
3. Contribute in the attainment of the target of the University for the Publishable Research
Works.
Scope
Reseach paper includes
1. research study authored by faculty member and/or student
2. thesis authored by bachelor and master degree student
3. disertation authored by doctoral student, and
4. feasibility study.
This guideline only covers research papers authored by faculty and/or student of College of
Business, Economics, and Managemt.
General Principles and Concepts
A. Research is systematic, objective, and comprehensive investigation of certain phenomenon
which involves accurate gathering and recording, and critical analyses, and interpretation of
all facts about the phenomenon for theoretical or practical ends (Ardales, 2001). It is defined
as all projects and investigations involving the creation of new knowledge of a theoretical or
practical nature (Carnegie, 1988).
B. Feasibility Study is an analysis and evaluation of a proposed project to determine if it (1) is
technically feasible, (2) is feasible within the estimated cost, and (3) will be profitable
(Business Dictionary 2015). It is an investigation that examines whether a planned business
activity or project is likely to be successful (Cambridge Dictionary 2015).
C. Thesis is a dissertation embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a
specific view; especially: one written by a candidate for an academic degree (Webster
Dictionary). It is a proposition: it advances an idea, a hypothesis or a recommendation
(Websters New Collegiate 2015).
D. Research work emphasis is on analysis, evaluation, and synthesis. It is highly thorough of
concept of the problem of research, methods to be used, and the conceptual framework
designed. It measures the level of complexity of the relationships between and among
variables and indicators as employed in the study. It is should be depth over breadth,
consistency over conformity, and substance over form. Consistency of arguments and
thoughts are highlighted and not on the conformity on normativity and traditional paradigms.
Page 1 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

E. Synchronized Research Format is the standardized format for all student researchers whether
thesis or feasibility study. It shall be adapted by all the programs in the college.
Guidelines for the Format
The following parts must be present, at least, in a research paper:
1. Abstract
The abstract shall present the overview of the research study. The highlights of the every
aspect of the study shall be showcased. This area shall not exceed more than 500 words.
2. Introduction
The introduction shall state the rationale for undertaking the study. Situation analysis
shall also be given emphasis to present the gaps in which will be addressed by the
proposed study. This area shall not exceed more than 500 words.
3. Objective of the Study (or Research Problem)
The objective/s of the study shall not be more than 150 words. This shall present the
area/s in which the study will be answering through research.
4. Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework shall include the theoretical underpinnings and synthesis of
the art of the study. This shall emphasized the flow of the undertakings of the study. It
shall be expressed not more than 1,000 words.
5. Method
The methodology of the research shall be at least 350 words. This shall encompass the
discussions of research design, data gathering technique, data analysis: qualitative - tools;
qualitative approaches.
6. Discussion and Analysis
The discussion and analysis will include literature and studies relevant to the analysis of
the results and findings of the study. This should also give emphasis on tools/ approaches
of the study. Furthermore, this shall be written from 1,000 words and up.
7. Conclusions
The research conclusions of the study shall present conclusion per objective of the
study.It shall be presented from 300-500 words.
8. References
The minimum number of references of the study shall be 10 references whether literature
or studies. The references can be from international, national and local researches.
Formal Structure
A thesis consists of different parts which are listed below and which should be put in the
following order:
1. Title page
2. Declaration of Authorship
3. Certification on Non-Commission of Plagiarism
4. Recommendation for Oral Examination (by the Adviser)
5. Result of Oral Examination
6. Acknowledegment
7. Editors Certification
8. Abstract
Page 2 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

9. Table of Contents
10. List of Figures
11. List of Tables
12. List of Symbols and Abbreviations
13. Main Content (Chapter I to V for thesis)
14. Reference
15. Appendix
16. Curriculum Vitae
For a feasibility study, the following are the minimum contents of the main content:
1. Executive Summary (equivalent to an Abstract of a thesis)
2. Management Study (Chapter 1)
3. Market Study (Chapter 2)
4. Technical Study (Chapter 3)
5. Legal and Taxation Study (Chapter 4)
6. Financing Study (Chapter 5)
7. Financial Study (Chapter 6)
8. Socio-economic Study (Chapter 7)
In a bound thesis or feasibility study, all segments (summary and each new chapter) have to start
on a new page on the right hand side. The segments should be organised in a logical way,
showing a clear thread of thought throughout the whole work. Subdivisions of chapters must
only be made if there is more than one subchapter and the sub-structure should not exceed the
levels. The author should take care to ensure that subsections have an appropriate length. They
should not consist of single sentences, i.e. they should not take the form of listings, nor should
they deal with too broad a range of topics.
Formatting the Study
The text is to be written with 1.5 line spacing and margin of 1.5 left and 1 on the other sides in
order to allow for corrections. Use justified text and 12 point Times New Roman. The
manuscript shall be printed on a letter-sized paper (8.5x 11). There shall be no hanging page
except the last page of a chapter.
Cover and Title Page
An example for the cover and the title page is given in the appendix of this document. The title
page design information like the title of the study, author, university, institute, date of completion
has to be included.
Figures and Tables
Each figure is to be numbered and captioned. In the text, all figures should be referenced to their
respective numbers; there should be no figures to which no reference is made. The numeration of
figures is based on the chapter: The first digit represents the chapter and the second one is given
by consecutive enumeration (e.g. Figure 3.1). A uniform style should be used for all figures
(shading, frames, line width, font size etc.).

Figure 3.1: Bicol University Logo (Bicol University, 2014)

Page 3 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Table 3.1: Number of students enrolled as BUCBEM 2013 (BU CBEM Registrar, 2013)
Course
Number of Students
AB Economics
258
BS Accountancy
276
BS Management
234
BS Entreprenuership
243
Table numbers are built up in the same way, but separately from the figures (see Table 3.1). The
sources of all figures and tables have to be cited in the reference section - or they have to be
labelled as the authors own presentations.
Abbreviations and Symbols
Abbreviations have to be used consistently throughout the whole document. When using an
abbreviation for the first time, it has to be defined in the text. If a large number of abbreviations
is used, an abbreviation list in alphabetical order is required. Only generally accepted or known
abbreviations like "USA" do not have to be defined.
Symbols also need to be defined. A definition should be given in the according chapter before
the symbol is used for the first time, and all symbols should also be presented in an
alphabetically ordered list of symbols at the beginning of the document. It is of particular
importance to use variables and parameters consistently, also throughout different chapters.
Furthermore, every symbol has to be given a unique meaning (no double usage of the same
symbol for different things, but also not two different symbols for the same thing), and hence
should be used only for one specific content.
Headlines
Every page, except the first page of each chapter gets a headline. The font format of the header
should be 10 points Times New Roman. Pages are to be numbered at the right starting on the
first page of the main text of the thesis (the first page of the introduction). Apart from the page
number, the header contain running title on the odd page and last name of the author on the even
page, which is to be formatted left-aligned.
Footnotes
Footnotes are to be numbered continuously throughout the document. The same font style
(Times New Roman) like in the text should be used, and the footnote font size should be a little
smaller (most likely the size suggested by the document editor program Microsoft Word).
Formula
In general, all formulas, except of short or insignificant ones which are included directly in the
text, should be numbered in the same style as used for numbering the figures and tables (e.g.
Formula 3.1).
lim 1 +

(3.1)

Each formula, except for generally accepted and well-known formulas, either has to be
mathematically derived, to be explained, or a literature source has to be provided. This applies
especially to complex models, where each constraint should be described and explained.
Appendix
Appendices may be used for source code, complex derivations or large tables, which do not have
to be included in the main body of the text, but contain useful additional information. It is
important that the content of the work remains understandable also without the appendices. Each
Page 4 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

appendix should be given a title and, if there are several appendices, they are to be numbered
alphabetically. Furthermore, they should be listed in the table of contents. The appendices get
consecutive page numbers.
Content and Style of the Thesis
A literature research helps to develop a review of the current state of the art which should be the
basis and starting-point of each scientific work. An overview on the relevant work in the field
should be given, but reproduction and pure compilation is to be avoided. Rather, the publications
and results should be grouped and classified according to the relevant aspects and perspectives.
Depending the arrangements made with the supervisor, a review of relevant literature may
include works conducted within five years for a seminar work or a bachelor thesis. For master
thesis and disertation, usually the year of relevant works may extend beyond five years.
The number of pages required can be limited; however, detailed arrangements should be made
with the supervisor. A rule of thumb says that the work should be "as short possible, but as
extensive as necessary".
The writing style should be accessible also to readers without specific detailed knowledge of the
subject area. The usage of the pronouns "I" or "we" should be avoided. In addition, the style of
the thesis should be factual, and not narrative.
The structure of the thesis has to be consistent and logical. A clear thread should lead through the
paper which reveals in which way individual ideas and concepts are deduced from each other.
Each single paragraph should usually develop one idea, and hence the sentences within a
paragraph should be linked coherently and logically.
Citations and Citation Style
The citation shall follows the American Pschological Association (or APA) style. Quotations
always have to be indicated. Direct quotations should only be used if the wording is essential, for
example in comparison to other authors. Otherwise, an indirect citation which does not use the
original wording, but involves the reformulation of the ideas that are presented in the original
text is preferable. "Direct citations should be placed within quotation marks and should be
italicized." Indirect quotes are written without quotation marks. The following examples
illustrate the citation style, i.e. the way in which the sources for any quotations should be given:
One author: Name, year of publication. E.g.: (Brusset, 2009), if the source follows a section
or Brusset (2009), if the reference is placed inside the text.
Two authors: Names of both authors, year of publication. E.g.: (Gopen and Swan, 1990) or
Gopen and Swan (1990).
More than two authors: Add "et al." E.g.: (Frizzell et al., 2003) or Frizzell et al. (2003). (Note
that all authors have to be listed in the bibliography.)
For different publications by the same author in the same year, use small Arabian letters in
addition to the year. E.g.: (Meier, 1990a), (Meier, 1990b) or Meier (1990a), Meier (1990b).
When using a book as a source for quotation, the page number should be included (if a
section is based on more than one page, add "f", for more than two pages add "ff").
Independent of the type of source (journal, book etc.), direct quotes should always include a
page number. E.g.: (Meier, 1999, pp. 30f) or Meier (1999, pp. 30f).
The sources of direct and indirect quotes are cited to the reference section. Footnoting as citation
is discouraged and can be used for additional notes of the author.
Extensive transcription or direct translation of literature sources leads to a non-passing mark for
academic-required researh paper. In particular, the direct transcription of texts from online
sources is not allowed (i.e. Copy & Paste).
Page 5 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Reference
All literature that has been cited or used when writing the thesis has to be listed in the
bibliography and all the literature sources that appear in the bibliography should be cited at least
once. It is recommendable to use a literature data base in order to generate the bibliography
automatically. This way mistakes in creating the bibliography can be avoided. The bibliography
always has to be put in alphabetical order, according to authors last names. If no author is given
the source is to be marked with a "n.n." (e.g. n.n. (2004)), if the year of the source is missing a
"n.d." is included instead. In case of a missing authors name, the organisation can be used to cite
the source (e.g. World Health Organization (2008)). Online sources have to be listed separately
from printed sources.
The following information should be given for all sources: Names of authors, title of the
publication, location of the publication (e.g. for books the city of the publisher, for papers the
journal with volume and pages, for online sources the website and the date of the download), and
the year of publication. Some examples for the structure of references relating to different media
are stated below.
Book: (Alley 1996) Alley, Michael: The Craft of Scientific Writing. 3rd edition. Springer
Berlin Heidelberg, 1996.
Journal: (Gopen and Swan 1990) Gopen, George D. and Swan, Judith A.: "The Science of
Scientific Writing". In: The American Scientist 78 (1990), pp. 550-558.
Online source: (Alley 1997) alley, Michael: Writing Guidelines for Engineering and
Science Students. online. 1997. url: http://writing.engr.psu.edu/ (visited on Sept. 14, 2010).
Further examples can be found in the websites of universities adopting APA or the APA
website itself. Online sources of dubious quality should be avoided like Wikipedia. For online
sources, also the date of the download has to be specified in the bibliography.
Submission
At least one copy of the academic paper should be submitted in printed form (hardbound) along
with an electronic copy in PDF document. Depending to the program requirement, more than one
copy may be submitted.
Author
Depending on the supervisor or program requirement, a Bachelor thesis should be authored by at
least one student or a maximum of three student per study. In a Master thesis and disertation, one
author is allowed for one study.
Effectivity
This guidelines are effective on second semester of academic year 2015 2016. Early adoption
is encouraged.

Page 6 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Components of Thesis (for Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral degrees) at Minimum


I.
The Problem and Its Setting
a. Introduction
b. Statement of the Problem
c. Hypothesis (if applicable
d. Scope and Limitation of the Study
e. Significance of the Study
II.
Theoretical Background
a. Related Literature and Studies
b. Synthesis of the Art
c. Gap Bridged by the Study
d. Theoretical Framework
e. Conceptual Framework
f. Analytical Framework (for Master Thesis and Dissertation only)
g. Definition of Terms
III.
Research Design and Methodology
a. Research Method
b. Sources of Data
c. Population and Samples of the Study
d. Research Instrument
e. Data Gathering Procedure
IV. Discussion and Analysis (Title of the Study)
a. Presentation of Data
b. Analysis of Data
c. Implication of Data
V. Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations
a. Summary of Findings and Results Obtained
b. Conclusions
c. Recommendations

Page 7 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Components of Feasibility Studies in General.


Shown below are the components of the seven basic and terminal parts of a feasibility study. The
components can be made applicable to almost all projects in almost all industries.
A. Management, proponents, personnel, and organization
1) Management complement and supporting professional firms
a. During the pre-operating period (project management)
b. During the operating period
2) Proponents
a. Owners
b. Project originators, promoters, and founders
3) Personnel or work force
a. During pre-operating period
b. During operating period
4) Organization (for the operating period)
a. Form of business organization
b. Internal organization structure
5) Project implementation timetable
B. Marketing
1) Demand (customers)
2) Supply (competition)
3) Pricing
4) Marketing program
a. Distribution channels and sales
b. Promotions
5) Projected sales quantity
C. Production facilities and product
1) Product specification
2) Production process
3) Productive capacity and production schedule
4) Physical facilities
5) Production inputs
D. Taxation and legal
1) Taxation
a. Tax provisions affecting the industry
b. Tax exemptions
c. Tax schemes (to be adopted by the project in order to legally reduce tax
liabilities)
2) Legal aspects affecting the project/industry
E. Financing

Page 8 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

F. Financial estimates and analyses


1) Financial estimates
a. Projected statement of comprehensive income
b. Projected statement of financial position
c. Projected statement of cash flows
d. Assumptions, schedules, and computations supporting the above
2) Financial analyses
a. Financial ratios
b. Sales volume and sales price sensitivity tests
G. Social desirability
1) Specific project contributions to the Philippine economy or society
a. Contribution to government revenues
b. Contribution to foreign exchange reserves
c. Contribution to the growth of related industries (supplier-and-consumerindustries)
d. Contribution to the Philippine households (ultimate consumers)
e. Contribution to the Philippine work force (as technical skills
development and monetary compensation)
2) Social rate of return
The production facilities study varies greatly from industry to industry.

Page 9 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Cover Page for Feasibility Study, Bachelors and Masters Thesis, and Disertation

TITLE OF THE STUDY (14)

John M. Dela Cruz, MBA


John M. Dela Cruz, MBA
John M. Dela Cruz, MBA

College of Business, Economics and Manegement


Bicol University
Daraga, Albay

Date Year

Page 10 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Title Page for Bachelors and Masters Thesis and Disertation


Title of the Thesis (12 size)

A Thesis Presented
To the Faculty of the
College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Management

First Name Middle Initial Last Name


First Name Middle Initial Last Name
First Name Middle Initial Last Name

Prof. Mark Francis G. Ng, CPA, MBA


Adviser

Date Year

Page 11 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Title Page for Feasibility Study


Title of the Thesis (12 size)

A Feasibility Study Presented


To the Faculty of the
College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Management

First Name Middle Initial Last Name


First Name Middle Initial Last Name
First Name Middle Initial Last Name

Prof. Mark Francis G. Ng, CPA, MBA


Adviser

Date Year

Page 12 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Declaration of Authorship
College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay
Declaraion of Authorship

Last name, First name MI


Last name, First name MI
Last name, First name MI

I declare that the work presented here is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, original and the
result of my own investigations, except as acknowledged, and has not been submitted, either in
part or whole, for a degree at this or any other University.
Formulations and ideas taken from other sources are cited as such. This work has not been
published.

Signature
Date
Location

Signature
Date
Location

Page 13 of 16

Signature
Date
Location

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Certification of Non-Commission of Plagiarism


College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay
Certification of Non-Commission of Plagiarism

This is to certify that the contents of this paper, in whole or in part, are not works that have been
plagiarized from other or previous papers.

Signature
FIRST NAME MI. LAST NAME

Signature
FIRST NAME MI. LAST NAME

Signature
FIRST NAME MI. LAST NAME

Page 14 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Recommendation for oral examination


College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay
Recommendation for Oral Examination

This is to certify that this thesis, Title of the Paper, prepared and submitted by Name of the
Author in partial fulfillemnt of the requirement for the degree in Course is hereby
recommended for oral examination.

Signature
First Name MI Last Name
Adviser

Page 15 of 16

Bicol University
College of Business, Economics, and Management
Daraga, Albay 4501

OFFICE of the
RESEARCH COORDINATOR and
INSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Editors Certification
College of Business, Economics and Management
Bicol University
Daraga, Albay
Editors Certification

This is to certify that this thesis titled, Title of the Study, prepared and submitted by Name of
the Author in partial fulfillemnt of the requirement for the degree in Course has been edited by
the undersigned.
Issued this 26th day of May 2015, for the Comission on Higher Educations (CHED) official
purposes, at Bicol University, Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay.

Signature
First Name MI Last Name
Editor

Page 16 of 16