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Rery Indra Kusuma

Wiluyo Karyanto

Human Relations
The study of the behavior of individuals
and groups in organizational settings.

The Nature of HR
Motivation : The inner drive that directs a persons behavior
toward goals.
Morale : An employees attitude toward his or her job, employer,
and colleagues.

intrinsic rewards : the personal satisfaction and enjoyment felt


after attaining a goal
extrinsic rewards : benefits and/or recognition received from
someone else

The Motivation Process


Need
More money for
unexpected medical expenses
Goal-directed behavior
Ask for a raise
Work harder to gain a promotion
Look for a higher-paying job
Steal
Need Satisfaction
More money

Historical Perspectives on Employee


Motivation
Classical Theory of Motivation (Frederick W. Taylor) : theory
suggesting that money is the sole motivator for workers
The Hawthorne Studies (Elton Mayo)

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

SelfActualization
Needs
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Security Needs
Physiological Needs

Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene Factors

Company policies
Supervision
Working conditions
Salary
Security

Motivational Factors

Achievement
Recognition
The work itself
Responsibility
Advancement

McGregors Theory X and Theory Y


- Theory X : Management view that assumes workers
generally dislike work and must be forced to do their
jobs.
- Theory Y : Management view that assumes workers
like to work and under proper conditions, employees
will seek responsibility to satisfy social, esteem, and
self-actualization needs.

Theory Z

A management philosophy that


stresses employee participation in all
aspects of company decision making.

Comparison of American, Japanese, and


Theory Z Management Styles
American

Japanese

Theory Z

Duration of
employment

Relatively short
term; workers
subject to layoffs
when business
slows

Lifelong; no
layoffs

Long term; layoffs


rare

Rate of
promotion

Rapid

Slow

Slow

Considerable;
Amount of
specialization worker develops
expertise in one
area only

Minimal; worker
Moderate; worker
develops expertise learns all aspects
in all aspects of the of the organization
organization

Comparison of American, Japanese, and


Theory Z Management Styles
Decision
making

American

Japanese

Individual

Consensual; input Consensual; emphasis


from all concerned on quality
parties is
considered

Responsibility Assigned to the

Theory Z

individual

Shared by the
group

Assigned to the
individual

Control

Explicit and
formal

Less explicit and


less formal

Informal but with


explicit performance
measures

Concern for
workers

Focus is on work
only

Focus extends to
Focus includes worker's
worker's whole life life and family

Other Motivational Theories

What I
put in

What I
get back

Equity Theory

Can I get it?


Do I want it?

Expectancy Theory

Strategies for Motivating Employees

Behavior Modification : changing behavior and


encouraging appropriate actions by relating the
consequences of behavior to the behavior itself

Job Design

Job Design Strategies


Job Rotation : Exposes employees to a variety of
tasks as they move from one job to another.
Job Enlargement : Teaches employees new tasks in
their present job.
Job Enrichment : Gives employees more control and
authority in their present job, along with additional
tasks.

Flexible Scheduling Strategies


Flextime : a program that allows employees to choose their starting
and ending times, provided that they are at work during a specified
core period
Compressed Work Week : a four-day (or shorter) period during
which an employee works 40 hours
Job Sharing : performance of one full-time job by two people on part
time hours

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