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INST 240 (Pressure and Level Measurement), section 1

Lab
Pressure measurement loop: Questions 91 and 92, completed objectives due by the end of day 4,
section 2
Bulleted questions following lab objectives to be reviewed orally during lab time on day 4, section 2
Feedback questions
Questions 81 through 90, due at the end of day 4
Exam
Day 5 of next section only a simple calculator may be used!
Question 93 previews the mastery exam circuit-building activity
Recommended daily schedule
Day 1
Theory session topic: Concepts of pressure and pressure unit conversions
Questions 1 through 20; answer questions 1-10 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice)
Day 2
Theory session topic: Pressure measurement technologies
Questions 21 through 40; answer questions 21-28 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice)
Day 3
Theory session topic: Instrument calibration
Questions 41 through 60; answer questions 41-50 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice)
Day 4
Theory session topic: Electronic pressure measurement
Questions 61 through 80; answer questions 61-70 in preparation for discussion (remainder for practice)
Feedback questions (81 through 90) due at the end of the day

INST 240 (Pressure and Level Measurement)

Credits/hours: 6 credits = 108 clock hours


Prerequisite or corequisite: INST 200 (Introduction to Instrumentation)
Course description: In this course you will learn how to precisely measure both fluid pressure and
fluid/solids level in a variety of applications, as well as accurately calibrate and efficiently troubleshoot
pressure and level measurement systems.
Program outcomes addressed:
(1) Communication; Communicates and expresses thoughts across a variety of mediums (verbal, written,
visually) to effectively persuade, inform, and clarify ideas with colleagues.
(2) Time management; Arrives on time and prepared to work; budgets time and meets deadlines when
performing technical tasks and projects.
(3) Safety; Complies with national, state, and local safety regulations when repairing, calibrating, and
installing instruments.
(4) Diagnose and repair existing instruments; Assesses, diagnoses, and repairs faulty instruments in
measurement and control systems using logical procedures and appropriate test equipment.
(5) Install and configure new instruments; Builds, configures and installs new instrument systems
according to plans, applying industry construction standards, and ensuring correct system operation
when complete.
(7) Calibrate instruments; Assesses instrument accuracy and corrects inaccuracies using appropriate
calibration procedures and test equipment.
(8) Document instrument systems; Interprets and creates technical documents (electronic schematics,
loop diagrams, and P&IDs) according to industry (EIA, ISA) standards.
(9) Self-directed learning; Selects and researches relevant information sources to learn new
instrumentation principles, technologies, and techniques.
Instructor contact information:
Tony Kuphaldt
Desmond P. McArdle Center
Bellingham Technical College
3028 Lindbergh Avenue
Bellingham, WA 98225-1599
(360)-752-8477 [office phone]
(360)-752-7277 [fax]
tkuphald@btc.ctc.edu
Required materials:
Socratic worksheets: INST240 sec1.pdf, INST240 sec2.pdf, INST240 sec3.pdf, INST240 sec4.pdf
Download at: http://openbookproject.net/books/socratic/sinst
Lessons in Industrial Instrumentation, By Tony R. Kuphaldt. Useful for all quarters of instruction.
Download at: http://openbookproject.net/books/socratic/sinst/book/liii.pdf
Spiral-bound notebook for reading annotation, homework documentation, and note-taking. A separate
notebook for each course is recommended.
Instrumentation reference CD-ROM (free, from instructor). This disk contains many tutorials and
datasheets in PDF format to supplement your textbook(s).
Tool kit (see detailed list)
Simple scientific calculator (non-programmable, non-graphing, no unit conversions, no numeration
system conversions), TI-30Xa or TI-30XIIS recommended
2

Supplemental materials: (recommended, not required)


BTCInstrumentation channel on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/BTCInstrumentation), hosts
a variety of short video tutorials and demonstrations on instrumentation.
Instrumentation, by Franklyn W. Kirk, published by American Technical Publishers. ISBN-10:
0826934234 ; ISBN-13: 978-0826934239. This text is light on detail and math, but does a good job
introducing all the major principles and technologies in simple language. Excellent photographs and
illustrations, too. Useful for all three quarters of instruction.
Instrument Engineers Handbook, Volume 1: Process Measurement and Analysis, edited by Bela Lipt
ak,
published by CRC Press. 4th edition ISBN-10: 0849310830 ; ISBN-13: 978-0849310836.
Purdys Instrument Handbook, by Ralph Dewey. ISBN-10: 1-880215-26-8. A pocket-sized field reference
on basic measurement and control.
Cad Standard (CadStd) or similar AutoCAD-like drafting software (useful for sketching loop and
wiring diagrams). Cad Standard is a simplified clone of AutoCAD, and is freely available at:
http://www.cadstd.com
Any good introductory physics textbook (Applied Physics by Tippens, or Conceptual Physics by Hewitt)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
Student performance objectives:
Assessment legend: [P] = Preparation, [L] = Lab, [F] = Feedback questions, [X] = Exam

Mastery (must eventually be demonstrated without error)


[L] Proper use of deadweight tester as a calibration standard
[L] Proper use of U-tube manometer as a calibration standard
[L] Calibration of an electronic pressure transmitter to specified range and accuracy
[L] Calibration of a pneumatic liquid level transmitter to specified range and accuracy
[L] Create accurate as-built loop diagrams
[L] Correctly identify common pipe and instrument tube fittings
[L] Troubleshoot a problem within an electronic (4-20 mA loop) pressure measurement system, given a
specified time to logically identify the location and nature of the problem
[L] Troubleshoot a problem within a pneumatic (3-15 PSI loop) level measurement system, given a
specified time to logically identify the location and nature of the problem
[L] Work safely and constructively within a team
[X1] Build a circuit to energize an electromechanical relay
[X1] Convert between gauge and absolute pressure measurements
[X1] Convert between different pressure units only a simple calculator may be used!
[X1] Calculate force, pressure, or area given the other two variables
[X1] Identify proper use of P instrument for pressure/vacuum measurement
[X1] Calculate instrument calibration points given ranges
[X1] INST250 Review: identify globe valve components
[X1] INST260 Review: count sequentially in binary
[X2] Build a circuit to sense pressure or vacuum using a differential pressure transmitter
[X2] Calculate weight, density, or volume given the other two variables
[X2] Calculate ranges for hydrostatic level-measuring instruments (P)
[X2] Calculate calibration tensions for displacer-style level transmitters
[X2] Identify suitability of basic level-measuring instruments to different processes
[X2] Calculate instrument calibration points given ranges
[X2] INST250 Review: match different control valve names with their P&ID symbols
[X2] INST260 Review: explain basic network arbitration methods (e.g. CSMA/CD. master/slave. token
passing, etc.)

Proportional (graded on a percentage scale according to quality/quantity of fulfillment)


[P] Identify and use appropriate sources of information for independent learning
[L] Explain how to diagnose a hypothetical problem in a pressure measurement system
[L] Explain how to diagnose a hypothetical problem in a level measurement system
[L] Explain or demonstrate a principle relevant to a pressure measurement system
[L] Explain or demonstrate a principle relevant to a level measurement system
[L] Perform a basic math calculation relevant to a pressure measurmement system
[L] Perform a basic math calculation relevant to a level measurmement system
[L] Explain or demonstrate safety procedure or tool usage
[F] Convert between different pressure units
[F] Qualitative analysis of a deadweight tester
[F] Explain operation of manometer
[F] Explain operation of different pressure gauge types
[F] Determine response of Twin-T differential capacitance circuit to applied pressure
[F] Perform algebraic manipulation of the Ideal Gas Law equation
[F] Calculate voltages and currents in a series-parallel DC circuit
[F] Determine the consequence of a component fault in an opamp circuit
[F] Analyze a series-parallel DC circuit, both faulted and unfaulted
[F] Determine likelihood of different faults in a simple circuit
[F] Convert between different pressure units
[F] Analyze calibration adjustments in a force-balance pneumatic P transmitter
[F] Determine pressures in a three-valve manifold during maintenance
[F] Calculate instrument inputs and outputs for various conditions
[F] Analyze simple strain gauge circuit
[F] Perform algebraic manipulation of a fractional equation
[F] Perform simple trigonometric calculations
[F] Calculate voltages between different sets of points among several sources
[F] Sketch a circuit diagram for a simple 4-20 mA instrument loop
[F] Diagnose a problem in a multi-element electric heater circuit
[F] Qualitatively determine gas pressure inside heated vessels
[F] Determine likelihood of potential faults in a DP level measurement system
[F] Calculate voltage drops in a loop-powered level transmitter circuit
[F] Calculate ranges for instruments with remote seals
[F] Explain operation of a dip-tube densitometer
[F] Perform algebraic manipulation of a non-linear equation (satellite orbit velocity)
[F] Identify proper oscilloscope control functions
[F] Analyze a simple one-transistor amplifier circuit
[F] Sketch a circuit diagram for a simple relay circuit
[F] Diagnose a problem in a time-delay motor control circuit
[F] Calculate parameters associated with a guided-wave radar instrument
[F] Determine effects of process vapors on a capacitive level probe
[F] Describe different methods for measuring liquid interfaces
[F] Describe the purpose of a stilling well
[F] Analyze a strain-gauge bridge circuit
[F] Perform algebraic manipulation of a the Hall effect equation
[F] Perform algebraic manipulation of a fractional equation
[F] Calculate voltages between different sets of points among several sources
[F] Sketch a circuit diagram for a simple 4-20 mA instrument loop
[F] Diagnose a problem in a time-delay motor control circuit
[X1] Identify how to calibrate mechanical pressure gauges (link and lever mechanisms)
[X1] Identify different types of pressure switches and their operation
[X1] Identify and explain force- and motion-balance pressure-measuring instruments
[X1] Calculate complex pressure transmitter ranges
4

[X1]
[X2]
[X2]
[X2]
[X2]
[X2]

Calculate electronic circuit parameters related to pressure measurement


Identify different types of level switches and their operation
Calculate liquid interface level transmitter ranges
Calculate complex buoyancy problems
Identify suitability of various level-measuring instruments to different processes
Calculate electronic circuit parameters related to level measurement

file INST240syllabus
5

Sequence of second-year Instrumentation courses

Core Electronics -- 1 year


(or equivalent)
1st quarter
INST 200 -- 1 wk
Intro. to Instrumentation

INST 205 -- 1 wk
Job Prep I

INST 242 -- 3 wks


Analytical
Measurement

INST 260 -- 3 wks


Data Acquisition
Systems
Spring quarter

INST 251 -- 4 wks


PID Controllers
and Tuning

3rd quarter
INST 206 -- 1 wk
Job Prep II

INST 250 -- 4 wks


Final Control
Elements
Winter quarter

Fall quarter

INST 240 -- 4 wks


Pressure and Level
Measurement

INST 241 -- 4 wks


Temperature and Flow
Measurement

2nd quarter

INST 252 -- 3 wks


Process Optimization
and Control Strategies

INST 261 -- 4 wks


Programmable Logic
Controllers

INST 262 -- 4 wks


DCS and Fieldbus

continuing students
(after completing all three quarters)

GRADUATION !

file sequence
6

General student expectations


(Punctuality) You are expected to arrive at school on time (by 8:00 AM) every day. One late arrival
is permitted during the timespan of each sequential course (e.g. INST240, INST241, etc.) with no grade
deduction. The grade deduction rate for late arrivals is 1% per incident.
(Attendance) You are expected to attend all day, every day. Each student has 12 sick hours per quarter
applicable to absences not verifiably employment-related, school-related, or weather-related. The grade
deduction rate is 1% per hour of absence in any course. Each student must confer with the instructor to
apply sick hours to any missed time this is not done automatically for the student. Students may donate
unused sick hours to whomever they specifically choose. You should contact your instructor and team
members immediately if you know you will be late or absent. Absence on an exam day will result in a failing
grade for that exam, unless due to a documented emergency. Exams may be taken in advance for full credit.
(Participation) You are expected to participate fully in all aspects of the learning process including
independent study, lab project completion, and classroom activities. It is solely your responsibility to catch
up on all information missed due to absence. Furthermore, you shall not interfere with the participation of
others in the learning process.
(Teamwork) You will work in instructor-assigned teams to complete lab assignments. Team membership
is determined by accumulated attendance and punctuality scores: students with similar participatory trends
are teamed together. Any student compromising team performance through frequent absence, habitual
tardiness, or other disruptive behavior(s) will be expelled from their team and required to complete all
labwork independently for the remainder of the quarter.
(Preparation for theory sessions) You must dedicate at least 2 hours each day for reading assignments
and homework questions to prepare yourself for theory sessions, where you will actively contribute your new
knowledge. Graded quizzes and/or work inspections during each theory session will gauge your independent
learning. If absent, you may receive credit by having your preparatory work thoroughly reviewed prior to
the absence, or passing a comparable quiz after the absence.
(Feedback questions) You must complete and submit feedback questions for each section by the specified
deadline. These are graded for accuracy and recorded as a feedback score. Plagiarism (presenting anyone
elses work as you own) in your answers will result in a zero score. It is okay to help one another learn the
material, and to learn from outside sources, but your explanations must be phrased in your own words and
with your own work shown.
(Disciplinary action and instructor authority) The Student Code of Conduct (Washington
Administrative Codes WAC 495B-120) explicitly authorizes disciplinary action against the following types
of misconduct: academic dishonesty (e.g. cheating, plagiarism), dangerous or lewd behavior, harassment,
intoxication, destruction of property, and/or disruption of the learning environment. Furthermore, the Code
states Instructors have the authority to take whatever summary actions may be necessary to maintain order
and proper conduct in the classroom and to maintain the effective cooperation of the class in fulfilling the
objectives of the course. Distractive or disruptive behavior such as (but not limited to) unauthorized
telephone or computer use, disrespectful comments, sleeping, and conversation that either impede your
participation or the participation of others may result in temporary dismissal from class with attendance
hours deducted.

file expectations
7

General grading and evaluation standards


Assessment criteria
Mastery (all must be mastered constitutes first 50% of course grade)
Mastery section of each lab exercise (unlimited attempts)
Mastery section of each exam including the hands-on circuit building or troubleshooting activity (up to
two attempts per sitting; up to three sittings); or mastery capstone assessment (unlimited attempts)
Proportional (grades based on quality of fulfillment, counts toward last 50% of course grade)
Labwork, consisting of questions answered in an oral and demonstrative format (10% of grade)
Proportional section of all exams (20% of grade)
Feedback questions for all sections (20% of grade)
Daily quizzes demonstrating preparation for theory sessions (-1% per failed quiz)
Daily punctuality (-1% per incident of tardiness)
Attendance (-1% per hour past allotted sick time)
Destroyed items (-10% per incident) or purchase and replacement of the damaged item This regards
avoidable incidents due to personal carelessness. When in doubt, ask the instructor how to properly
use a tool or piece of equipment!
Repaired instruments (+5% per item) Instrument identified in need of repair by the instructor

Negative weighting represent objectives where 100% passing is a basic expectation (passing every quiz,
punctuality every day, no accidents, etc.). Perfectly meeting these expectations does not count toward your
grade, but failing to meet these basic expectations will result in grade loss.
Grading scale
All grades are criterion-referenced (i.e. no grading on a curve)

100% A 95%
90% > B+ 86%
80% > C+ 76%
70% > D+ 66%

95% > A- 90%


86% > B 83%
76% > C 73%
66% > D 63%

83% > B- 80%


73% > C- 70% (minimum passing course grade)
63% > D- 60%
60% > F

The proportional section of an exam may be taken only after taking the mastery section. Failing the
mastery exam will result in a 50% deduction from the proportional exam score, and you get a maximum of
two re-takes to pass the mastery which must occur within three school days of the first attempt. Failure to
pass the mastery within three sittings will result in a failing grade for the course. Absence on a scheduled
exam day will result in a 0% score for the proportional exam unless you provide documented evidence of an
unavoidable emergency. You may receive half-credit on missed proportional exam questions after grading by
explaining your original mistake(s) and providing completely corrected responses on the first attempt.
If any other mastery objectives are not completed by their specified deadlines, your overall grade
for the course will be capped at 70% (C- grade), and you will have one more course day to complete the
unfinished objectives. Failure to complete those mastery objectives by the end of that extra day (except in
the case of documented, unavoidable emergencies) will result in a failing grade (F) for the course.
Answers to feedback questions are due at the end of each course section. Full credit is given for
each question correctly and thoroughly answered, half credit for each question either not fully answered
or containing minor errors, and zero credit for major conceptual errors. Late submissions will receive zero
credit, unless due to a documented emergency.
Lab questions are assessed in a group format where students take turns answering questions from the
list at the instructors prompting. Grading follows the same rubric as for feedback questions: full credit
for thorough, correct answers; half credit for partially correct answers, and zero credit for major conceptual
errors. If you are absent during this assessment, you must submit written answers to all of the lab questions,
which will be graded by the instructor.
file grading
8

General tool and supply list


Wrenches
Combination (box- and open-end) wrench set, 1/4 to 3/4 the most important wrench sizes are 7/16,
1/2, 9/16, and 5/8; get these immediately!
Miniature combination wrench set, 3/32 to 1/4
Adjustable wrench, 6 handle
Hex wrench (Allen wrench) set, fractional 1/16 to 3/8
Note: when turning a bolt, nut, or tube fitting with a hexagonal body, the preferred ranking of hand
tools to use (from first to last) is box-end wrench or socket, open-end wrench, and finally adjustable wrench.
Pliers should never be used to turn the head of a fitting or fastener unless it is absolutely unavoidable!
Pliers
Needle-nose pliers
Slip-joint pliers
Diagonal wire cutters
Screwdrivers
Slotted, 1/8 and 1/4 shaft
Phillips, #1 and #2
Jewelers screwdriver set
Measurement tools
Tape measure. 12 feet minimum
Vernier calipers, plastic okay
Electrical
Multimeter, Fluke model 87-IV or better
Wire strippers/terminal crimpers with a range including 10 AWG to 18 AWG wire
Soldering iron, 10 to 25 watt
Rosin-core solder
Package of compression-style fork terminals (e.g. Thomas & Betts Sta-Kon part number 14RB-10F,
14 to 18 AWG wire size, #10 stud size)
Safety
Safety glasses or goggles (available at BTC bookstore)
Earplugs (available at BTC bookstore)
Miscellaneous
Teflon pipe tape
Utility knife
You are recommended to engrave your name or place some other form of identifying mark on your tools,
as you will be doing a lot of your work in teams, and it is easy to get tools mixed up. Also, lost tools get
returned to their owners much faster when they are marked!
An inexpensive source of high-quality tools is your local pawn shop. Look for name-brand tools with
unlimited lifetime guarantees (e.g. Sears Craftsman brand, Snap-On, etc.).

file tools
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Methods of instruction
This course develops self-instructional and diagnostic skills by placing students in situations where they
are required to research and think independently. In all portions of the curriculum, the goal is to avoid a
passive learning environment, favoring instead active engagement of the learner through reading, reflection,
problem-solving, and experimental activities. The curriculum may be roughly divided into two portions:
theory and practical.

Theory
In the theory portion of each course, students independently research subjects prior to entering the
classroom for discussion. At the start of the classroom session, the instructor will check each students
preparation using one of several methods (direct inspection of work, a pop quiz, targeted questions, etc.).
Students then spend some class time working in small groups coordinating their presentations. The rest of
the class time is spent interacting Socratically with the instructor in a large-group dialogue. The instructor
calls students (or student groups) to present what they found in their research, questions that arose during
their study, their solutions to problems, and any problem-solving techniques applied. The instructors role
is to help students take the information gleaned from their research and convert this into understanding.

Lab
In the lab portion of each course, students work in teams to install, configure, document, calibrate, and
troubleshoot working instrument loop systems. Each lab exercise focuses on a different type of instrument,
with a eight-day period typically allotted for completion. An ordinary lab session might look like this:
(1) Start of practical (lab) session: announcements and planning
(a) Instructor makes general announcements to all students
(b) Instructor works with team to plan that days goals, making sure each team member has a clear
idea of what they should accomplish
(2) Teams work on lab unit completion according to recommended schedule:
(First day) Select and bench-test instrument(s)
(One day) Connect instrument(s) into a complete loop
(One day) Each team member drafts their own loop documentation, inspection done as a team (with
instructor)
(One or two days) Each team member calibrates/configures the instrument(s)
(Remaining days, up to last) Each team member troubleshoots the instrument loop
(Last day) All teams answer lab questions, one team at a time, with the instructor
(3) End of practical (lab) session: debriefing where each team reports on their work to the whole class

file instructional
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Distance delivery methods


Sometimes the demands of life prevent students from attending college 6 hours per day. In such cases,
there exist alternatives to the normal 8:00 AM to 3:00 PM class/lab schedule, allowing students to complete
coursework in non-traditional ways, at a distance from the college campus proper.
For such distance students, the same worksheets, lab activities, exams, and academic standards still
apply. Instead of working in small groups and in teams to complete theory and lab sections, though, students
participating in an alternative fashion must do all the work themselves. Participation via teleconferencing,
video- or audio-recorded small-group sessions, and such is encouraged and supported.
There is no recording of hours attended or tardiness for students participating in this manner. The pace
of the course is likewise determined by the distance student. Experience has shown that it is a benefit for
distance students to maintain the same pace as their on-campus classmates whenever possible.
In lieu of small-group activities and class discussions, comprehension of the theory portion of each course
will be ensured by completing and submitting detailed answers for all worksheet questions, not just passing
daily quizzes as is the standard for conventional students. The instructor will discuss any incomplete and/or
incorrect worksheet answers with the student, and ask that those questions be re-answered by the student
to correct any misunderstandings before moving on.
Labwork is perhaps the most difficult portion of the curriculum for a distance student to complete,
since the equipment used in Instrumentation is typically too large and expensive to leave the school lab
facility. Distance students must find a way to complete the required lab activities, either by arranging
time in the school lab facility and/or completing activities on equivalent equipment outside of school (e.g.
at their place of employment, if applicable). Labwork completed outside of school must be validated by a
supervisor and/or documented via photograph or videorecording.
Conventional students may opt to switch to distance mode at any time. This has proven to be a
benefit to students whose lives are disrupted by catastrophic events. Likewise, distance students may
switch back to conventional mode if and when their schedules permit. Although the existence of alternative
modes of student participation is a great benefit for students with challenging schedules, it requires a greater
investment of time and a greater level of self-discipline than the traditional mode where the student attends
school for 6 hours every day. No student should consider the distance mode of learning a way to have
more free time to themselves, because they will actually spend more time engaged in the coursework than
if they attend school on a regular schedule. It exists merely for the sake of those who cannot attend during
regular school hours, as an alternative to course withdrawal.

file distance
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General advice for successful learning


Reserve a time and a place for study
Schedule a block of time every day for study and make it a priority!
Create or join a study group, and help each other commit to regular study time.
Keep the environment of your study place ideal: whatever music (or no music) helps you concentrate,
whatever time allows for the least number of distractions, etc.
Plan to arrive at school at least a half-hour early and use the time to study as opposed to studying late
at night. This also helps guard against tardiness in the event of unexpected delays, and ensures you a
better parking space!
Who to study with
Classmates with similar schedules.
Classmates who are serious about their education.
Note that the intelligence of your study partners is not a significant criterion!
How to make time for study
Rid yourself of unnecessary, time-wasting gadgets: televisions, video games, mobile phones, etc. I am
not kidding!
Avoid recreational use of the internet.
Bring a meal to school every day and use your one-hour lunch break for study instead of eating out.
Carefully plan your lab sessions with your teammates to reserve a portion of each days lab time for
study.
Cut off all unhealthy personal relationships.
Make efficient use of the time you have
Do not procrastinate, waiting until the last minute to do something.
Dont let small chunks of time at home or at school go to waste. Work a little bit on assignments during
these times.
Identify menial chores you can do simultaneously (e.g. house cleaning and laundry), and plan your
chore time accordingly to free up more time at home.
Take responsibility for your learning and your life
Obtain all the required books, and any supplementary study materials available to you. If the books
cost too much, look on the internet for used texts (www.amazon.com, www.half.com, etc.) and use the
money from the sale of your television and video games to buy them!
Make an honest attempt to solve problems before asking someone else to help you. Being able to
problem-solve is a skill that will improve only if you continue to do work at it.
If you detect trouble understanding a basic concept, seek clarification on it immediately. Never ignore
an area of confusion, believing you will pick up on it later. Later may be too late!
Do not wait for others to do things for you. No one is going to make extra effort purely on your behalf.
Seek help for any addictions. Addictions wont just destroy your chance at an education they can
destroy your whole life!
. . . And the number one tip for success . . .
Realize that there are no shortcuts to learning. Every time you seek a shortcut, you are actually cheating
yourself out of a learning opportunity!!

file studytips
12

Creative Commons License


This worksheet is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view
a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/ or send a letter to Creative
Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. The terms and conditions of this
license allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of all licensed works by the general public.

Simple explanation of Attribution License:


The licensor (Tony Kuphaldt) permits others to copy, distribute, display, and otherwise use this
work. In return, licensees must give the original author(s) credit. For the full license text, please visit
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/ on the internet.

More detailed explanation of Attribution License:


Under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License, you may make freely
use, make copies, and even modify these worksheets (and the individual source files comprising them)
without having to ask me (the author and licensor) for permission. The one thing you must do is properly
credit my original authorship. Basically, this protects my efforts against plagiarism without hindering the
end-user as would normally be the case under full copyright protection. This gives educators a great deal
of freedom in how they might adapt my learning materials to their unique needs, removing all financial and
legal barriers which would normally hinder if not prevent creative use.
Nothing in the License prohibits the sale of original or adapted materials by others. You are free to
copy what I have created, modify them if you please (or not), and then sell them at any price. Once again,
the only catch is that you must give proper credit to myself as the original author and licensor. Given that
these worksheets will be continually made available on the internet for free download, though, few people
will pay for what you are selling unless you have somehow added value.
Nothing in the License prohibits the application of a more restrictive license (or no license at all) to
derivative works. This means you can add your own content to that which I have made, and then exercise
full copyright restriction over the new (derivative) work, choosing not to release your additions under the
same free and open terms. An example of where you might wish to do this is if you are a teacher who desires
to add a detailed answer key for your own benefit but not to make this answer key available to anyone
else (e.g. students).

Note: the text on this page is not a license. It is simply a handy reference for understanding the Legal
Code (the full license) - it is a human-readable expression of some of its key terms. Think of it as the
user-friendly interface to the Legal Code beneath. This simple explanation itself has no legal value, and its
contents do not appear in the actual license.

file license
13

Metric prefixes and conversion constants

Metric prefixes
Yotta = 1024 Symbol: Y
Zeta = 1021 Symbol: Z
Exa = 1018 Symbol: E
Peta = 1015 Symbol: P
Tera = 1012 Symbol: T
Giga = 109 Symbol: G
Mega = 106 Symbol: M
Kilo = 103 Symbol: k
Hecto = 102 Symbol: h
Deca = 101 Symbol: da
Deci = 101 Symbol: d
Centi = 102 Symbol: c
Milli = 103 Symbol: m
Micro = 106 Symbol:
Nano = 109 Symbol: n
Pico = 1012 Symbol: p
Femto = 1015 Symbol: f
Atto = 1018 Symbol: a
Zepto = 1021 Symbol: z
Yocto = 1024 Symbol: y
METRIC PREFIX SCALE
T
tera
1012

G
M
giga mega
109
106

k
kilo
103

(none)
100

milli micro
10-3 10-6

102 101 10-1 10-2


hecto deca deci centi
h
da
d
c

Conversion formulae for temperature


o
F = (o C)(9/5) + 32
o
C = (o F - 32)(5/9)
o
R = o F + 459.67
K = o C + 273.15
Conversion equivalencies for distance
1 inch (in) = 2.540000 centimeter (cm)
1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in)
1 yard (yd) = 3 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi) = 5280 feet (ft)

14

n
nano
10-9

p
pico
10-12

Conversion equivalencies for volume


1 gallon (gal) = 231.0 cubic inches (in3 ) = 4 quarts (qt) = 8 pints (pt) = 128 fluid ounces (fl. oz.)
= 3.7854 liters (l)
1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3 )

Conversion equivalencies for velocity


1 mile per hour (mi/h) = 88 feet per minute (ft/m) = 1.46667 feet per second (ft/s) = 1.60934
kilometer per hour (km/h) = 0.44704 meter per second (m/s) = 0.868976 knot (knot international)

Conversion equivalencies for mass


1 pound (lbm) = 0.45359 kilogram (kg) = 0.031081 slugs

Conversion equivalencies for force


1 pound-force (lbf) = 4.44822 newton (N)

Conversion equivalencies for area


1 acre = 43560 square feet (ft2 ) = 4840 square yards (yd2 ) = 4046.86 square meters (m2 )

Conversion equivalencies for common pressure units (either all gauge or all absolute)
1 pound per square inch (PSI) = 2.03602 inches of mercury (in. Hg) = 27.6799 inches of water (in.
W.C.) = 6.894757 kilo-pascals (kPa) = 0.06894757 bar
1 bar = 100 kilo-pascals (kPa)

Conversion equivalencies for absolute pressure units (only)


1 atmosphere (Atm) = 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (PSIA) = 101.325 kilo-pascals absolute
(kPaA) = 1.01325 bar (bar) = 760 millimeters of mercury absolute (mmHgA) = 760 torr (torr)

Conversion equivalencies for energy or work


1 british thermal unit (Btu International Table) = 251.996 calories (cal International Table)
= 1055.06 joules (J) = 1055.06 watt-seconds (W-s) = 0.293071 watt-hour (W-hr) = 1.05506 x 1010
ergs (erg) = 778.169 foot-pound-force (ft-lbf)

Conversion equivalencies for power


1 horsepower (hp 550 ft-lbf/s) = 745.7 watts (W) = 2544.43 british thermal units per hour
(Btu/hr) = 0.0760181 boiler horsepower (hp boiler)

Acceleration of gravity (free fall), Earth standard


9.806650 meters per second per second (m/s2 ) = 32.1740 feet per second per second (ft/s2 )

15

Physical constants
Speed of light in a vacuum (c) = 2.9979 108 meters per second (m/s) = 186,281 miles per second
(mi/s)
Avogadros number (NA ) = 6.022 1023 per mole (mol1 )
Electronic charge (e) = 1.602 1019 Coulomb (C)
Boltzmanns constant (k) = 1.38 1023 Joules per Kelvin (J/K)
Stefan-Boltzmann constant () = 5.67 108 Watts per square meter-Kelvin4 (W/m2 K4 )
Molar gas constant (R) = 8.314 Joules per mole-Kelvin (J/mol-K)
Properties of Water
Freezing point at sea level = 32o F = 0o C
Boiling point at sea level = 212o F = 100o C
Density of water at 4o C = 1000 kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 = 1 kg/liter = 62.428 lb/ft3 = 1.94 slugs/ft3
Specific heat of water at 14o C = 1.00002 calories/go C = 1 BTU/lbo F = 4.1869 Joules/go C
Specific heat of ice 0.5 calories/go C
Specific heat of steam 0.48 calories/go C
Absolute viscosity of water at 20o C = 1.0019 centipoise (cp) = 0.0010019 Pascal-seconds (Pas)
Surface tension of water (in contact with air) at 18o C = 73.05 dynes/cm
pH of pure water at 25o C = 7.0 (pH scale = 0 to 14)
Properties of Dry Air at sea level
Density of dry air at 20o C and 760 torr = 1.204 mg/cm3 = 1.204 kg/m3 = 0.075 lb/ft3 = 0.00235
slugs/ft3
Absolute viscosity of dry air at 20o C and 760 torr = 0.018 centipoise (cp) = 1.8 105 Pascalseconds (Pas)

file conversion constants


16

Question 0
How to read actively:
Make notes in a notebook while reading if youre not reading with a pencil, youre not actively
reading! Shorthand notation, diagrams, and other notes jotted in a notebook are more effective at
prompting active reading than underlining, highlighting, or otherwise marking up the original text.
Mentally summarize each new concept or application you encounter in your own words before moving
on to the next. If you cannot do this, you know you need to re-read the relevant sections until you can!
Try to link new concepts to previously-learned concepts, and imagine how new concepts might apply to
applications not mentioned in the text. Make notes on these points so you may raise them as questions
during class time.
Note page numbers where important concepts, equations, images, tables, and problem-solving techniques
are introduced This will help you locate these important references during class time when you will
contribute in the dicsussion (On page 572 it shows . . .).
Note page numbers of any sections in the reading that confound you, so you may call attention to it at
the start of class time to get help from classmates and/or the instructor.
If the text demonstrates a mathematical calculation, such as how to apply a new equation to solving a
problem, pick up your calculator and work through the example as you read! Applications of math are
an ideal opportunity to actively read a technical book, actually engaging in the material rather than
passively observing what it says.
Reserve the front pages of your notebook (or keep a separate notebook) for all mathematical formulae
you come across in your reading. Briefly explain in your own words what each formula does and what
its terms mean.

Problem-solving techniques
Clearly identify all given information, and also what the question is asking you to determine or solve.
Sketch a diagram or graph to organize all the given information and show where the answer will fit.
Performing thought experiments to visualize the effects of different conditions.
Working backward from a hypothetical solution to a new set of given conditions.
Changing the problem to make it simpler, and then solving the simplified problem (e.g. changing
quantitative to qualitative, or visa-versa; substituting different numerical values to make them easier
to work with; eliminating confusing details; adding details to eliminate unknowns; considering limiting
cases that are easier to grasp).
Identify any first principles of science, electronics, and/or instrumentation (e.g. Conservation laws,
Feedback, Zero and Span, Ohms Law, etc.) that might apply to the question.
Specifically identify which portion(s) of the question you find most confusing and need help with. The
more specific you are able to be, the better.

file question0
17

Questions
Question 1
A group of mechanics are trying to figure out a solution to a problem. They are trying to remove the
lid from a large metal vessel, but the lid is stuck and will not come off. Several of the mechanics try to use
pry-bars to lift the lid, but to no avail. Others try to heat the lid with oxygen-acetylene torches and then
pry while its hot, but this does not budge the lid either.
Finally, one of the mechanics decides to plug all the pipe holes exiting this vessel except for one, then
connect a water supply hose to that last pipe hole and use water pressure to force the lid off. After doing
this, the lid comes off quite easily.
Explain why the last mechanics solution worked, addressing the following points in your explanation:
What is pressure?
How much force will a fluid such as water exert on a surface, given a certain fluid pressure?
Why was it prudent for the mechanic to use pressurized water and not compressed air to force the lid
off?
file i00018
Question 2
Read and outline the Pressure subsection of the Fluid Mechanics section of the Physics chapter in
your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03894
Question 3
Read and outline the Pascals Principle and hydrostatic pressure subsection of the Fluid Mechanics
section of the Physics chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page
numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found.
Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in
this reading.
file i03895

18

Question 4
In this hydraulic system, a force of 25 pounds is applied to the small piston (area = 10 in2 ). How much
force will be generated at the large piston (area = 40 in2 )? Also, calculate the fluids pressure.

Force = ???

25 lb

10 in2

40 in2

Fluid

Finally, explain how Pascals Principle relates to this scenario.


file i00150

19

Question 5
A pressure calibration device called a deadweight tester generates very precise pressures by means of
calibrated weights placed on top of a hydraulic piston:

Deadweight tester

Gauge to be
calibrated

weight

Primary piston

oil

Secondary piston
The secondary piston is moved in and out by turning a handle on a threaded rod. Its sole purpose
is to displace enough oil to force the primary piston to rise from its resting position, so that it is entirely
suspended by oil pressure. In that condition, the gauge will be subject to whatever pressure is proportional
to the weights placed on top of the primary piston, and the area of the primary piston.
What will happen to the gauges indication if the secondary piston is pushed in further? What will
happen to the gauges indication if the secondary piston is pulled out, but not so far that the primary piston
comes down to its resting position? In other words, what effect does the secondary piston position have on
pressure applied to the gauge?

Primary piston
moves up

Primary piston
moves down

weight

???

???

oil

weight

oil

Secondary piston
moved in

Secondary piston
moved out

In each condition, what happens to the gauges indication?


Does the applied pressure increase, decrease, or stay the same?
file i00153
Question 6
Read and outline the Manometers subsection of the Fluid Mechanics section of the Physics
chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important
illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully
discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03896

20

Question 7
Read and outline the Systems of Pressure Measurement subsection of the Fluid Mechanics section
of the Physics chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers
where important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare
to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this
reading.
file i03897
Question 8
Read the Systems of Pressure Measurement subsection of the Fluid Mechanics section of the
Physics chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook, particularly how to use fractions
for cancellation of units, and how to manage conversions between units of pressure measurement that do not
share the same zero point. Then, use that same mathematical technique to convert between the following
units of pressure:
25 PSI = ??? kPa
40 W.C. = ??? PSI
5.60 bar (gauge) = ??? PSI
3 atm = ??? PSIA
1,200 Hg = ??? W.C.
12 feet W.C. = ??? PSI
4 PSI vacuum = ??? PSIA
110 kPa = ??? W.C.
982 mm Hg = ??? Hg
50 Pa = ??? PSI
21 atm = ??? Hg absolute
270 PSIG = ??? atm
file i00146

21

Question 9
Calculate the amount of force generated by this hydraulic ram for the given pressures, assuming a
circular piston with a diameter of 5 inches:

rod

(vented)
piston
5"

Fluid pressure
P = 260 PSI
P = 1100 PSI
P = 461 kPa
P = 399 W.C.
P = 2.77 bar

F =
F =
F =
F =
F =

file i04179
Question 10
Read selected portions of the National Transportation Safety Boards Pipeline Accident Report, Pipeline
Rupture and Subsequent Fire in Bellingham, Washington, June 10, 1999 (Document NTSB/PAR-02/02 ;
PB2002-916502).
Page 6 of the report shows a graphical trend of pipeline pressure before, during, and after the rupture.
How high did the pressure spike, in units of PSI? Do you suppose this was PSIG or PSIA? Convert this
measurement into units of kilopascals (kPa).
Based on what you see on the trend graph, was this pipeline carrying a gas or a liquid? How can you
tell, from the shape of the trend alone?
Examine the photographs of the ruptured pipeline on page 41 of the report. Based on what you know
about fluid pressure, determine where along the pipelines interior the force of the pressure was exerted.
Page 57 of the report discusses how the pipeline had been hydrostatically tested after its original
installation. This means it was pressure-tested with non-moving (static) water. Why was this detail
important to the investigation?
file i03898

22

Question 11
A force of 50 pounds is applied longitudinally through a flat-ended steel rod 1/4 inch in diameter, pressing
against a flat surface. An equal amount of force is applied longitudinally through a pointed center-punch
tool, against the same flat surface.

50 lb

50 lb

centerpunch

rod

flat surface

pressure

pressure

The two forces are equal. Are the two pressures equal as well? Explain.
file i00141
Question 12
If force is exerted on the piston of this hydraulic cylinder, in what direction(s) will this force be
transmitted to the cylinder walls? In other words, how does a fluid under pressure push against its
surrounding container?

Force

Rod
Piston

Fluid
Steel cylinder
wall

Steel cylinder
wall
Hydraulic cylinder

file i00142

23

Question 13
Suppose a small rubber ball is floating inside the fluid of a hydraulic cylinder as shown below. What
will happen to the ball when a pushing force is exerted on the cylinders rod? What will happen to the ball
when a pulling force is exerted on the rod?

Rubber ball

file i00143
Question 14
Identify and distinguish between absolute pressure, gauge pressure, and differential pressure. Give at
least one example of each kind of pressure.
file i00144
Question 15
A scuba divers air tank contains 2,000 PSI of air, as measured by a pressure gauge before descending
into the water. The diver descends 50 feet into the water, where the surrounding water pressure caused by
the waters weight (called hydrostatic pressure) is approximately 22 PSI. Assuming that the diver consumes
an inconsequential amount of air from the tank during the 50 foot descent, express the air pressure inside
the tank in terms of absolute pressure, gauge pressure, and differential pressure (the differential pressure
between the tank and the surrounding hydrostatic pressure of the water).
file i00145

24

Question 16
A surface-mounted water pump pulls water out of a well by creating a vacuum, though it might be more
technically accurate to say that the pump works by reducing pressure in the inlet pipe to a level less than
atmospheric pressure, allowing atmospheric pressure to then push water from the well up the pumps inlet
pipe:

Pump

Atmospheric
pressure

Water

Based on this description of pump operation, what is the theoretical maximum height that any pump
can lift water out of a well? Hint: how much is the pressure of Earths atmosphere at sea level?
Domestic water wells may be hundreds of feet deep. How can water be pumped out of wells this deep,
given the height limitation of vacuum pumping?
file i00147

25

Question 17
Water pressure available at a fire hydrant is 80 PSI. If a fire hose is connected to the hydrant and the
hydrant valve opened, how high can the end of the hose be raised and still have water flow out the end?

How high???

80 PSI

Now, suppose that a spray nozzle attached to the end of the hose requires at least 30 PSI of pressure
at the coupling in order to function properly. How high can the hose be raised then, and still have enough
water pressure at the nozzle to allow for the fighting of a fire?

At least 30 PSI
required here

How high???

80 PSI

file i00148

26

Question 18
Calculate the amount of force exerted by the fluid pressure in each of these scenarios:
Scenario #1
A cube-shaped box, measuring 4 inches on a side, contains a gas at a pressure of 3 PSIG. How much
force does this pressure direct on each wall of the box?
Scenario #2
An hydraulic cylinder has a 2 inch diameter piston. If the fluid pressure inside the cylinder is 1500 PSI,
how much force will be generated at the piston?
Scenario #3
A 10-inch diameter piston is located at the bottom of a water column 4 feet high. How much force will
the hydrostatic pressure of the water create on the piston?

Water

4 feet

10"
piston

Force = ???
file i00149
Question 19
Complete the following table of equivalent pressures:
PSIG
18

PSIA

inches Hg (G)

inches W.C. (G)

400
33
60
452
12
1
-5
file i02938

27

Question 20
Question 21
Lightly read the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial
Instrumentation textbook to identify several different mechanical technologies for measuring pressure, then
briefly describe the operating principle of each one:
Manometers (identify some of the different types!)
Bellows
Diaphragm
Bourdon tube (identify some of the different types!)
file i03899
Question 22
Lightly read the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial
Instrumentation textbook to identify different electronic technologies for measuring pressure, then briefly
describe the operating principle of each one:
Strain gauge (electronic sensing)
Capacitance sensors (electronic sensing)
Resonant sensors (electronic sensing)
file i03902
Question 23
Read and outline the DP Transmitter Construction and Behavior subsection of the Differential
Pressure Transmitters section of the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In
Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations, photographs,
equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor
and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03900
Question 24
Read and outline the DP Transmitter Applications subsection of the Differential Pressure
Transmitters section of the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial
Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations,
tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and
classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03901

28

Question 25
How much pressure, in inches of water column, is being applied to this inclined water manometer
to create a total displacement of 14 inches along the length of the tubes, inclined at angles of 20o from
horizontal?

Applied
pressure
(vented)

14"
20o

Next, convert this pressure into units of kPa.


file i00168
Question 26
Convert between the following units of pressure. Remember that any pressure unit not explicitly specified
as either absolute (A) or differential (D) is to be considered gauge. Also, remember those units which always
represent absolute pressure, and have no need for a letter A suffix!
25 PSIA = ??? atm
340 W.C. = ??? PSIA
0.73 bar (gauge) = ??? Hg
5.5 atm = ??? torr
2,300 cm Hg = ??? W.C.A
500 m torr = ??? PSIA
91.2 cm W.C. = ??? kPa
110 kPa = ??? W.C.
620 mm HgA = ??? torr
77 Pa = ??? PSIA
1 atm = ??? W.C.A
270 PSIA = ??? atm
file i00157

29

Question 27
Read the Systems of Pressure Measurement subsection of the Fluid Mechanics section of the
Physics chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook, particularly how to use fractions
for cancellation of units, and how to manage conversions between units of pressure measurement that do not
share the same zero point. Then, use that same mathematical technique to convert between the following
units of pressure:
5 PSI vacuum = ??? PSIA
25 Hg vacuum = ??? PSIA
2,800 torr = ??? PaA
-59 W.C. = ??? torr
4,630 PaA = ??? PSI
0.05 atm = ??? W.C.
-3 kPa = ??? atm
10 feet W.C. vacuum = ??? HgA
300 cm Hg = ??? atm
-2 mm W.C. = ??? bar (absolute)
4 atm = ??? W.C.A
file i00158
Question 28
Explain what is wrong with this attempt to convert a gauge pressure of 65 PSI into units of atmospheres
(atm):



65 PSI
1 atm
= 4.422 atm
1
14.7 PSI
file i02940

30

Question 29
You are asked to install a pressure transmitter to measure the pressure on a process vessel. Plant
operations wants a transmitter to give an increasing signal in direct proportion to an increasing fluid pressure
in the vessel. The vessels pressure ranges anywhere from atmospheric (0 PSI gauge) to 200 PSIG. Because
differential pressure transmitters (DP cells) are so commonplace in industry, and so versatile, you choose
to use one in this application.

Process vessel

???

0 to 200 PSIG

However, the transmitter, being a differential pressure unit, has two pressure ports: one marked high
and one marked low. The pressure vessel only has one tube connection on it for you to connect the
transmitter. Which port of the transmitter do you choose to connect to the vessel? What do you do with
the other port on the transmitter?
Now, suppose this process vessel contained a vacuum instead of a pressure greater than atmosphere,
and operations personnel wanted the transmitters output signal to increase as the vacuum grows stronger.
file i00213

31

Question 30
A large water filter occasionally plugs with debris, and operations wants to have a gauge indication
of this plugging. Since plugging of the filter will result in greater differential pressure drop across it for
any given amount of water flow through it, measuring pressure drop with a differential pressure gauge will
provide a simple indication of filter plugging.
Draw the connecting tubes between the differential pressure gauge and the filter (the two taps shown
on the pipes are ready to connect to instrument tubing) so that the gauge registers more pressure as the
filter becomes more plugged:

Differential pressure
gauge

Tap

Water
out

Water filter

Tap
Water
in
file i00215

32

Question 31
2.036 inches of mercury (Hg) is an equivalent pressure to 27.68 inches of water (W.C. or H2 O). This
fact allows us to create a unity fraction from these two quantities for use in converting pressure units from
inches mercury to inches water or visa-versa. Two examples are shown here:



27.68 W.C.
310 Hg
= 4215 W.C.
1
2.036 Hg



2.036 Hg
45 W.C.
= 3.31 Hg
1
27.68 W.C.
But what if we are performing a unit conversion where the initial pressure is given in inches of mercury
or inches of water absolute? Can we properly make a unity fraction with the quantities 2.036 HgA and
27.68 W.C.A as in the following examples?



310 HgA
27.68 W.C.A
= 4215 W.C.A
1
2.036 HgA



2.036 HgA
45 W.C.A
= 3.31 HgA
1
27.68 W.C.A
Explain why or why not.
file i02942
Question 32
How much pressure, in inches of water column, is being applied to this inclined water manometer to
displace water 5 inches along the length of the tube, inclined at an angle of 30o from horizontal? Assume a
negligible change in liquid level inside the well throughout the measurement range of the instrument:

(vented)

Applied
pressure
5"
30o

Well

water
file i00167

33

Question 33
A simple way to make a micromanometer (an extremely sensitive manometer) is to connect two largediameter vertical tubes by a small-diameter, transparent tube with an air bubble in it. The air bubble
becomes the marker for reading pressure along a scale:

A simple micromanometer

air
bubble
Water

Scale
If both of the large vertical tubes are 2.5 inches in diameter, and the transparent, horizontal tube is
0.25 inches in diameter, how much differential pressure will be indicated by 1 inch of horizontal bubble
displacement? Assume the use of water for the manometer liquid.
file i00169

34

Question 34
A manometer may be used to measure differential pressure across a restriction placed within a pipe.
Pressure will be dropped as a result of flow through the pipe, making the manometer capable of (indirectly)
measuring flow:

Restriction

Pipe

Flow
Higher
pressure

Lower
pressure

Mercury manometer
In the example shown above, the fluid moving through the pipe is air, and the manometer uses mercury
as the indicating liquid. If we try to measure the flow rate of a liquid such as water using the same technique,
though, we will find that the manometer does not register quite the way we might expect:

Restriction

Pipe

Flow
Higher
pressure

Lower
pressure

Mercury manometer
That is to say, given the exact same amount of differential pressure generated by the restriction, the
manometer will register differently than if it was measuring air pressure. Determine whether the manometer
will register falsely high or falsely low, and also why it will do so.
file i00796

35

Question 35
In this hydraulic lift system, the oil pressure is registered by a pressure gauge as the vehicle is lifted off
the ground. The heavier the vehicle, of course, the more oil pressure will be required to lift it:

Valve

Compressed
air
Oil

Oil

Valve

. . . from
air
compressor

Pressure gauge

We know that force is equal to pressure times area in a fluid system (F = P A), and from this relationship
we could calculate how much force was being exerted by the lift in raising a vehicle off the ground for any
given amount of oil pressure. For example, if we knew the hydraulic pressure was 350 PSI and the piston
area was 13.7 square inches, we could calculate that the vehicle weighs 4795 pounds. It is important for unit
cancellation in the F = P A formula that we know the pressure in units of lb/in2 and the area in units of
in2 , otherwise the force would not come out in units of pounds:
F = PA
[lb] =


lb  2 
in
in2

Suppose, though, we knew neither the area of the piston (A) nor the unit of pressure measurement
(imagine a pressure gauge with numbers and divisions on the scale, but no unit written). We do know,
however, that the pressure gauge needle rises to 37.2 when a 5000 pound vehicle is lifted off the ground.
You are asked to figure out a multiplying constant for mechanics to use when determining the weight of
a vehicle from the gauges indication. In other words, you need to calculate a number which when multiplied
by the gauges reading will give vehicle weight in pounds.
In physics, this number is known as a constant of proportionality, and it is usually signified by the letter
k. Knowing that force is proportional to pressure for a constant piston area, we can say that force is equal
to some constant (k) multiplied by fluid pressure (P ):
F P
F = kP
Solve for k in this hydraulic lift system.
file i02991

36

Question 36
A very useful principle in physics is the Ideal Gas Law, so called because it relates pressure, volume,
molecular quantity, and temperature of an ideal gas together in one neat mathematical expression:
P V = nRT
Where,
P = Absolute pressure (atmospheres)
V = Volume (liters)
n = Gas quantity (moles)
R = Universal gas constant (0.0821 L atm / mol K)
T = Absolute temperature (K)
Apply this law to the scenario of a gas-filled cylinder and movable piston:

Cylinder

Gas

Piston
In particular, sketch how the gas pressure inside the cylinder relates to changes in cylinder volume
caused by piston movement, assuming no change in gas temperature or leakage of gas molecules from the
cylinder:

file i02923
37

Question 37
Question 38
Question 39
Question 40
Question 41
Read and outline the Zero and Span Adjustments (Analog Transmitters) section of the Instrument
Calibration chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where
important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to
thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03903
Question 42
Read and outline the Damping Adjustments section of the Instrument Calibration chapter in your
Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03904
Question 43
Read and outline the LRV and URV Settings, Digital Trim (Digital Transmitters) section of the
Instrument Calibration chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page
numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found.
Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in
this reading.
file i03905
Question 44
Read the An Analogy for Calibration versus Ranging section of the Instrument Calibration
chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important
illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully
discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03907
Question 45
Read and outline the Calibration Procedures section of the Instrument Calibration chapter in your
Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03906
Question 46
Read and outline the Typical Calibration Errors section of the Instrument Calibration chapter in
your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03908

38

Question 47
Read and outline the Instrument Turndown section of the Instrument Calibration chapter in your
Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03909
Question 48
Read and outline the NIST Traceability section of the Instrument Calibration chapter in your
Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations,
photographs, equations, tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with
your instructor and classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03910
Question 49
Shown here is a diagram of a standard pressure gauge, based on the pressure-sensing action of a hollow,
C-shaped metal tube called a bourdon tube:

Pressure gauge
mechanism

Bourdon
tube

Pinion gear

Lin

Sector gear

(dots shown
are pivot points)

Pointer

Applied
pressure
Using arrows, trace the motions of all moving components in this mechanism as an increasing pressure
is applied to the fitting at the bottom of the bourdon tube.
Also, describe how the measurement span of this pressure gauge could be changed. In other words,
what would have to be moved, adjusted, or altered in this mechanism in order to change the proportionality
of applied pressure to pointer movement?
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Question 50
A pressure gauge is supposed to accurately indicate applied pressure over its full calibrated range. In
this example, a gauge with a range of 0 to 500 PSI is subjected to five different pressures along that range,
and its response is accurate at all those points:
250

250

125

375

250

125

500

375

0 PSI applied

500

375

125 PSI applied

250

500

250 PSI applied

250

125

375

125

125

500

375 PSI applied

375

500

500 PSI applied

Describe, by drawing a set of five meter readings such as the set shown above, how a pressure gauge
accurate at 0% and 100% of applied pressure but with a nonlinearity problem between the LRV and URV
points might respond to the same five applied pressures.
Furthermore, describe how a bourdon tube pressure gauge instrument might be adjusted for linearity.
In other words, how may a nonlinear pressure gauge be calibrated to become more linear?
file i00174
Question 51
Answer the following four questions about deadweight testers:
(1) What is it about the nature of a deadweight tester that makes it so accurate and repeatable?
To phrase this question in the negative, what would have to change in order to affect the accuracy
of a deadweight testers output pressure?
(2) Why is it important for a deadweight tester to be level while it is being used to calibrate a
pressure instrument?
(3) What effect will trapped air have inside a deadweight tester?
(4) Why is it advisable to gently spin the primary piston and weights while the piston is suspended
by oil pressure?
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Question 52
A device called a manometer is a very simple and yet very precise pressure measuring instrument. It
works on the principle of a differential pressure displacing a vertical liquid column. The distance between
the tops of the two liquid columns is proportional to the difference in pressure applied to tops of the
two vertical tubes. This is where we get pressure units of inches/centimeters of water column and
inches/centimeters/millimeters of mercury from the operation of a manometer:

Manometer
Applied
pressure
(greater)

Transparent
tube allows
liquid columns
to be seen

Applied
pressure
(lesser)

Head

Explain how this instrument may serve as a standard for pressure measurement, just as a deadweight
tester may serve as a standard for pressure generation. To phrase this question in the negative, what would
have to change in order to affect the pressure measurement accuracy of a manometer?
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Question 53
A free-floating piston inside a hydraulic cylinder has a 1000 PSI of fluid pressure applied to one side of
the piston, and 850 PSI of pressure applied to the other side of the piston. The piston itself is 2.75 inches in
diameter. How much force will act on the piston, with these pressures applied to it?

Force on piston ???


tubing

850 PSI

piston
2.75"

tubing

1000 PSI

file i00155
Question 54
A double-acting hydraulic cylinder has 500 PSI of pressure applied to the side without the rod and 750
PSI of pressure applied to the rod-side. Calculate the resultant force generated at the piston and transmitted
through to the rod, and also determine this forces direction. The piston is 5 inches in diameter, and the
rod is 1 inch in diameter.

Force ???

rod

1"

750 PSI
piston
5"

500 PSI
file i00156

42

Question 55
A very useful principle in physics is the Ideal Gas Law, so called because it relates pressure, volume,
molecular quantity, and temperature of an ideal gas together in one neat mathematical expression:
P V = nRT
Where,
P = Absolute pressure (atmospheres)
V = Volume (liters)
n = Gas quantity (moles)
R = Universal gas constant (0.0821 L atm / mol K)
T = Absolute temperature (K)
Although this law is not perfectly accurate for real gases, especially at high pressures and/or near the
point of liquefaction, it is quite accurate for air near ambient temperature and pressure.
One very practical application of this law is found in a method for generating low air pressures such
as those easily measured by water- or oil-based manometers. Most mechanical air compressors generate
pressures far exceeding the range of all but the largest manometers. Though it is possible to purchase
precision pressure regulators for reducing such large pressures down to a level measurable by a manometer,
these devices are expensive. An alternative is to generate the air pressure with a hand pump (such as a
bicycle tire pump) connected to a relatively large pressure vessel:

Manometer

Pressure
vessel

Hand
pump

Vent
3
To instrument
under test
Without the volume of the pressure vessel connected to the tubing system, the air pressure would
increase dramatically for each stroke of the air pump. With the pressure vessel connected, each pump stroke
contributes a much smaller amount of additional pressure to the system. Use the ideal gas law equation to
explain why this is.
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43

Question 56
One challenge technicians face when calibrating low-pressure instruments is how to generate very low
air pressures to simulate different low-pressure conditions for the pressure instrument under test. Measuring
low pressures is no problem at all: very simple manometers will do the job quite nicely. Most mechanical air
compressors, however, generate pressures far exceeding the range of most manometers. Though it is possible
to purchase precision pressure regulators for reducing such large pressures down to a level measurable by a
manometer, these devices are expensive.
A simple way to divide the pressure output of a standard pressure regulator from a few PSI to a few
inches of water is to use a pair of small valves (preferably needle valves allowing for precise adjustment) to
throttle the flow of compressed air and vent the regulators output to atmosphere, then tap between those
valves to obtain a reduced pressure:

Air compressor
Pressure
regulator

Receiver

Manometer

To instrument
under test
Vent
Complete the following schematic diagram showing an electrical model for this pneumatic system, and
then explain how it works:

3-terminal
IC regulator
High voltage
source

Low-range
voltmeter

To instrument
under test
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44

Question 57
Suppose a pressure gauge uses a diaphragm as its pressure-sensing element, like this:

fulcrum
pivots

pointer

Scale

spring

Pressure to be
measured
This mechanism will work, but what if we desired to make it more sensitive? That is, we wished to
decrease its measurement span so that less pressure would drive the pointer to full-scale. What could we
alter in this mechanism to decrease the measurement span?
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Question 58
Some bourdon tube gauges are equipped with a very small spiral spring attached to the pointer shaft:

spring

Lin

anchor
point

Pointer

Now, this spring is much too weak to have any detectable effect on the span of the gauge. In other
words, it does not measurably resist the bending action of the bourdon tube, as a range spring would in
another design of instrument.
Given its weakness, what possible purpose does this spring serve in the gauge mechanism?
file i00175
Question 59
Describe what a spiral bourdon tube is, and what a helical bourdon tube is. Explain why these styles of
bourdon tubes are often used in precision pressure gauges, and what advantage(s) they have over C-shaped
bourdon tubes.
file i00179
Question 60

46

Question 61
Shown here is a very simple pressure transmitter, a device that measures a fluid pressure and converts
that measurement into an electrical signal:

Pressure transmitter

10 V

Power
terminals

Potentiometer
5 k
Output
terminals

Vout

Thin, flexible
metal diaphragm

Box

Applied
pressure

Suppose the potentiometer wiper will be at its full-down position with no pressure applied to the
diaphragm, and will be at its full-up position with 15 PSI (15 pounds per square inch) of pressure applied to
the diaphragm. Based on this information, and what you see in the schematic diagram, answer the following
questions:

Lower Range Value (LRV) of input, in units of PSI:


Upper Range Value (URV) of input, in units of PSI:
Input span, in units of PSI:
Lower Range Value (LRV) of output, in units of volts:
Upper Range Value (URV) of output, in units of volts:
Output span, in units of volts:

Now, suppose we make a modification to the electrical circuit portion of the pressure transmitter.
Assume the diaphragm still responds to pressure and moves the potentiometer wiper the same way it did
before. Answer the same questions again:
47

Pressure transmitter

10 V

6.25 k
Power
terminals

Potentiometer

5 k
Output
terminals

Vout

1.25 k
Thin, flexible
metal diaphragm

Box

Applied
pressure
Lower Range Value (LRV) of input, in units of PSI:
Upper Range Value (URV) of input, in units of PSI:
Input span, in units of PSI:
Lower Range Value (LRV) of output, in units of volts:
Upper Range Value (URV) of output, in units of volts:
Output span, in units of volts:
The latter design outputs what is commonly called a live-zero signal, whereas the first transmitter
outputs a dead-zero signal. Live-zero signals are much preferred in industrial instrumentation, because they
more readily betray wiring failures than dead-zero signals.
Explain how you answered all the questions, and also show currents and voltage drops in both circuits
(complete with arrows showing directions of current). Then, elaborate on why you think live-zero signals
are preferable to dead-zero signals.
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48

Question 62
Read the product manual for the WIKA (brand) DELTA-trans (model 891-34-2189) differential
pressure transmitter, which uses a Hall Effect sensor to generate an electronic output signal from a sensed
differential pressure. Then, answer the following questions:
Explain how an applied pressure is sensed by this DP transmitter, and how the mechanical motion is
converted into an electronic signal. You may need to do some research on Hall Effect sensors in order to
fully answer this question.
Identify how the zero and span adjustments are implemented are they mechanical, or electrical?
Identify how the high and low ports of this DP instrument are labeled. Which way does the sensing
element move when a fluid pressure is applied to the low port?
file i03911
Question 63
Read and outline the Piezoresistive (Strain Gauge) Sensors subsection of the Electrical Pressure
Elements section of the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial
Instrumentation textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations,
tables, and other relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and
classmates the concepts and examples explored in this reading.
file i03912
Question 64
Read and outline the Differential Capacitance Sensors subsection of the Electrical Pressure Elements
section of the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation
textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other
relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts
and examples explored in this reading.
file i03913
Question 65
Read and outline the Resonant Element Sensors subsection of the Electrical Pressure Elements
section of the Continuous Pressure Measurement chapter in your Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation
textbook. Note the page numbers where important illustrations, photographs, equations, tables, and other
relevant details are found. Prepare to thoughtfully discuss with your instructor and classmates the concepts
and examples explored in this reading.
file i03914
Question 66
Locate the Ordering Information page for the Rosemount model 3051S Series differential pressure
transmitter, located in the Product Data Sheet document (00813-0100-4801 Revision GA, April 2006) on
page 27. Then, answer the following questions:
Identify the different performance classes for this instrument model.
percentage accuracy and the rangedown limits for each.

Specifically, identify the

Identify some of the different codes for pressure measurement ranges. What is the lowest pressure
measurement range you can order this instrument in? What is the highest pressure measurement range?
Identify some of the different isolating diaphragm materials available for this instrument.
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49

Question 67
A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain (compression or expansion) of a solid object by
producing a resistance change proportional to the amount of strain. As the gauge is strained, its electrical
resistance alters slightly:

Metal specimen
Applied force

Applied force

Strain
gauge
(glued to
specimen)

Change in R
Explain why the electrical resistance of a strain gauge changes as it stretches and shrinks, and also
correlate the direction of resistance change (more or less) with the direction of applied force.
The following strain gauge is shown connected in a quarter-bridge circuit (meaning only one-quarter
of the bridge actively senses strain, while the other three-quarters of the bridge are fixed in resistance):

Metal
specimen

Strain
gauge
(glued to
specimen)

Explain what would happen to the voltage measured across this bridge circuit (VAB ) if the strain gauge
were to be compressed, assuming that the bridge begins in a balanced condition with no strain on the gauge.
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50

Question 68
The following bridge circuit uses two strain gauges (one to measure strain, the other to compensate
for temperature changes), the amount of strain indicated by the voltmeter in the center of the bridge.
Unfortunately, though, it has a problem. Instead of registering a very small voltage as it normally does, the
voltmeter shows a large voltage difference, with point B positive and point A negative:

R1
A

R2
V

Abnormally large voltage

Strain
gauge
"Dummy"
gauge

Something is wrong in the bridge circuit, because this voltage is present even when there is no physical
stress on the specimen. Identify which of the following faults could cause the excessive voltage to appear
across the voltmeter, and which could not. Consider only one of these faults at a time (no multiple,
simultaneous faults):

Resistor R1 failed open


Resistor R1 failed shorted
Resistor R2 failed open
Resistor R2 failed shorted
Strain gauge (measurement) failed open
Strain gauge (measurement) failed shorted
Dummy gauge (temperature compensation) failed open
Dummy gauge (temperature compensation) failed shorted
Voltage source is dead (no voltage output at all)
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51

Question 69
Convert between the following units of pressure:
22 PSI = ??? PSIA
13 kPa = ??? W.C.
81 kPa = ??? PSI
5 atm = ??? PSIA
200 Hg = ??? W.C.
17 feet W.C. = ??? Hg
8 PSI vacuum = ??? PSIA
900 Torr = ??? W.C.A
300 mm Hg = ??? PSI
250 W.C. = ??? bar (gauge)
70 W.C. = ??? Hg
300 PSIG = ??? atm
file i00226
Question 70
Complete the following table of equivalent pressures:
Atm
3.5

PSIG

inches W.C. (G)

PSIA

81
8834
0
7.12
368
2
100
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52

Question 71
Explain how the strain gauge acts to sense pressure:

Output
terminals
Vent
Strain
gauge

Metal
bar

Diaphragm
Box

Applied
pressure
Now, explain how this simple instrument could be modified to measure differential pressure.
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53

Question 72
A simple form of electronic pressure transmitter could be made with a bourdon tube and a Linear
Variable Differential Transformer, or LVDT:

Bourdon
tube

Output
terminals

Movable
core
Applied
pressure
Explain how this instrument works, what type of electrical output signal it generates (e.g. current,
voltage, resistance, etc.), and what polarity (if any) that output signal has.
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54

Question 73
A simple form of electronic pressure transmitter could be made with a bourdon tube and a differential
capacitor:

Bourdon
tube

Movable
dielectric

Output
terminals

Applied
pressure
Explain how this instrument works, what type of electrical output signal it generates (e.g. current,
voltage, resistance, etc.), and what polarity (if any) that output signal has.
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55

Question 74
Most modern electronic differential pressure instruments use a differential capacitance pressure-sensing
capsule to detect applied pressure and convert that measurement into an electrical quantity:

Output terminals
Solid metal

Pressure

Isolating
diaphragm

Pressure

Silicone Sensing
fill fluid diaphragm

Isolating
diaphragm

The Rosemount models 1151 and 3051 differential pressure transmitters are popular examples of this
technology.
Explain how this type of pressure sensor works, and what type of circuit it would be connected to in
order to convert the variable capacitance into either a voltage or a current signal.
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Question 75
An ingenious circuit used to convert the output of a differential capacitance sensor into a DC voltage
signal is the diode twin-t circuit shown here:

R
C

Vout
Rload

The AC excitation voltage source is typically of high frequency, at least 1 MHz. The diodes are
fast-switching units, ideally Schottky diodes. Resistors R must be equal in value, but Rload is usually much
greater than R. Together, the two matched resistors (R) form an averaging network for the two capacitances
C and C as they alternately discharge through Rload .
Identify which capacitance (C or C ) must increase in value to generate a positive DC output voltage,
and why this is so.
file i00186
Question 76
As any musician who plays a stringed instrument knows, the resonant frequency of a string changes
with the amount of tension applied to that string. A tensed string is nothing more than a spring, and all
springs have a natural frequency related to their spring constant (k) and mass (m):
r
1
k
f=
2 m
Explain how the formula for the resonant frequency of a spring/mass system (shown above) is very
similar to the resonant frequency of an LC electrical circuit, and use the spring/mass formula to explain why
a stringed instrument changes pitch when string tension changes.
This principle of mechanical resonance may be applied to the measurement of tension, which in turn
may be applied to the measurement of fluid pressure. Some years ago, the Foxboro corporation introduced
a pressure transmitter using a resonant wire as the sensing element, and more recently the Yokogawa
corporation introduced its DpHarp series of pressure transmitters using micro-miniature silicon resonators
to sense pressure. Research either one or both of these pressure transmitter technologies and explain how
the principle works.
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Question 77
A race car team wants to be able to measure tire pressures very quickly during pit stops. Absolute
accuracy is not as important as relative accuracy (being able to tell whether one or more tires is more
inflated than the others). They commission you to devise a very simple way to do this that does not require
letting any air out of the tire. This restriction automatically prevents you from using any sort of pneumatic
pressure gauge.
Explain your solution, and also devise a way to obtain maximum accuracy with your measurement.
Bonus points for devising a method that uses crude tools (easily found in a mechanics tool chest).
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Question 78
Question 79
Question 80
Question 81
Complete the following table of equivalent pressures. Show enough of your work that it is clear how you
performed each type of conversion (e.g. from PSIG to PSIA, from Torr to PSIA, etc.):
PSIG
15

PSIA

Torr

inches W.C. (G)

2.1
900
100
5
-30
10
85

file i00020
58

Question 82
Suppose someone replaces the oil inside a deadweight tester with a different oil of less density than the
original oil. Will this alteration of oil density increase the deadweight testers pressure, decrease it, or not
affect the generated pressure at all? Explain your reasoning.

This is a graded question: you will be graded on accuracy and originality (no plagiarized answers!).
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59

Question 83
Describe in your own words how you could build a simple U-tube manometer and use it as a pressuremeasuring instrument. Furthermore, explain how you would interpret the pressure measurement from this
home-made instrument, and convert it into units of PSI (pounds per square inch).

This is a graded question: you will be graded on accuracy and originality (no plagiarized answers!).
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60

Question 84
Briefly describe each of the following pressure-sensing element types, and how they work, in your own
words:
C-type bourdon tube

Spiral bourdon tube

Helical bourdon tube

Diaphragm

Bellows

This is a graded question: you will be graded on accuracy and originality (no plagiarized answers!).
file i00022
61

Question 85
An ingenious circuit used to generate an electrical voltage signal from a differential capacitance sensor
is the Twin-T diode circuit, shown here connected to a Rosemount-style differential capacitance pressure
sensor:

Vout
Rload

Solid metal

Pressure

Isolating
diaphragm

Pressure

Silicone Sensing
fill fluid diaphragm

Isolating
diaphragm

One capacitor is charged positive with respect to ground, while the other is charged negative with
respect to ground, as the AC voltage source alternates positive and negative. While one capacitor of the
pressure sensor is charging, the other is discharging through Rload , producing an output voltage (Vout ).
If both capacitances are equal, the output voltage will alternate equally between positive and negative
values, having a DC average value of zero. If one capacitance is larger than the other, it will store additional
charge on its plates, causing it to sway the output voltage of the Twin-T circuit in the direction of its
polarity. Thus, Vout becomes more positive as pressure increases on one side of the sensor, and more
negative as pressure increases on the other side of the sensor.
Based on this explanation of the Twin-T circuits operation, determine which side of the pictured
differential capacitance sensor is the High pressure side, and which is the Low pressure side.

This is a graded question: you will be graded on accuracy and originality (no plagiarized answers!).
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62

Question 86
A very useful principle in physics is the Ideal Gas Law, so called because it relates pressure, volume,
molecular quantity, and temperature of an ideal gas together in a concise mathematical expression:
P V = nRT
Where,
P = Absolute pressure (atmospheres)
V = Volume (liters)
n = Gas quantity (moles)
R = Universal gas constant (0.0821 L atm / mol K)
T = Absolute temperature (K)
Manipulate this equation to solve for volume (V ), and again to solve for temperature (T ). Be sure to
show all your work!

V =

T =

file i03229
63

Question 87
Complete the table of values for this circuit. Be sure to show all your work!

220

470

R1

R3
R2

R1

R2

130

R3

V
I
R

220

130

470

file i03145
64

12 volts

Total

Question 88
Identify what will happen to the output waveform from this amplifier circuit if resistor R1 fails open,
and explain why it will happen:

fails
open
R1

R2

U1

Vout

Vin

file i03191
65

Question 89
Calculate the power supplys output (total) current. Be sure to show all your work!

Power
supply
A

+ -

3k3

4k7
C

B
2k7

1k5

A
OFF

COM

Now, calculate the total current again assuming the same power supply voltage as before, but with the
4700 resistor failed open.

file i03151
66

Question 90
The following lamp circuit has a problem. The lamp refuses to turn on, no matter what position the
switch is set in:

Lamp
Terminal block

Battery

1
2
3

Switch

With the switch in the on position, you measure normal battery voltage between terminals 1 and 4 on
the terminal block. Based on this information, identify which of these proposed faults could possibly account
for the observed behavior of this circuit and which could not. Consider each fault one at a time (in other
words, ask yourself whether or not each proposed fault by itself could account for the behavior of the
circuit):

Switch failed open (contacts dirty or corroded) possible or not possible?


Switch failed shorted (contacts welded together) possible or not possible?
Broken wire between terminal block and battery possible or not possible?
Broken wire between terminal block and lamp possible or not possible?

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67

Question 91
Lab Exercise
Your teams task is to set up a pressure measurement loop using an electronic P or gauge pressure
transmitter. Instrument air pressure, either regulated or unregulated, is the suggested process variable to
measure. Other pressure variables are open for consideration, though. Each instrument in the loop should be
labeled with a proper tag name (e.g. PT-15 for a pressure transmitter), with all instruments in each loop
sharing the same loop number. Write on pieces of masking tape to make simple labels for all the instruments
and signal lines.
Part of this lab exercise is demonstrating how to use a deadweight tester as a primary pressure source.
You must either use a deadweight tester to calibrate your transmitter, or use it to test the calibration of some
other pressure-measuring instrument (such as a gauge). You must also attach either a 3-valve or a 5-valve
manifold to your transmitter and demonstrate its proper use in isolating the transmitter from a process for
diagnostic or calibration purposes.
Each team must calibrate the transmitter (trim both the sensor and the output) to ensure it
interprets pressure accurately and outputs an accurate current. Then, each team member must configure
the transmitter for a unique range (set the LRV and URV parameters) and scale the indicator (or indicating
controller) to register in the proper engineering units (e.g. a pressure transmitter ranged for 30 to 70 PSI
should actually register 30 to 70 PSI back at the control room display). The accuracy of this ranging will
be checked by the instructor by applying random air pressures to the transmitter while each student verifies
the indicator display.
Each student must diagnose a fault in the system within a 5-minute time limit, correctly identifying both
the general location and nature of the fault, and logically justifying all diagnostic steps taken. Additional
time will be given to precisely locate and rectify the fault following successful diagnosis within the allotted
time. Failure to identify both the general location and nature of the fault within the allotted time, and/or
failing to demonstrate rational diagnostic procedure will disqualify the effort, in which case the student must
re-try with a different fault. Multiple re-tries are permitted with no reduction in grade.
Objective completion table:

Performance objective
Component selection and testing
Loop diagram and inspection
Digital trim (sensor and output)
Loop calibration ( 1% of span)
Deadweight tester usage
Transmitter valve manifold usage
Troubleshooting (5 minute limit)
Lab question: Diagnosis
Lab question: Instruments
Lab question: Math
Lab question: Tools/safety

Grading
mastery
mastery
mastery
mastery
mastery
mastery
mastery
proportional
proportional
proportional
proportional

Team

Lab questions (reviewed between instructor and student team in a private session)

Diagnosis
Explain what
Explain what
Explain what
Explain what
Explain what

will
will
will
will
will

happen
happen
happen
happen
happen

(and
(and
(and
(and
(and

why)
why)
why)
why)
why)

if
if
if
if
if

the 250 ohm resistor fails open in the transmitter circuit


the 250 ohm resistor fails shorted in the transmitter circuit
the transmitter cable fails open
the transmitter cable fails shorted
loop power supply voltage is too low
68

Identify what things may be determined about a malfunctioning measurement loop from a single
measurement of the 4-20 mA process variable signal (e.g. suppose the indicator fails to accurately
register the pressure applied to a transmitter how could a loop current measurement help you in your
diagnosis?)
Instruments
Explain how a tube fitting seals against fluid leaks
Explain how a tapered-thread pipe fitting seals against fluid leaks
Identify the high and low pressure ports on your pressure transmitter, and explain their significance
Identify and explain range turndown on your transmitter (also called rangedown)
Identify and explain the purpose of damping on your transmitter
Explain how a 4-20 mA current signal conveys information
Explain the operating principle of the pressure transmitter (as detailed as possible)
Identify and explain zero and span adjustments on your transmitter
Explain how to use a P gauge or transmitter to measure positive pressure versus measuring a vacuum
Identify the purpose of a fill fluid inside the pressure transmitter capsule
Identify proper fill fluid types for pressure instruments going in to different processes (pure oxygen, food
processing, medical, etc.)
Explain proper three-valve manifold operating procedures (for both placing in and taking out of service)
Identify and explain maximum working pressure of your pressure transmitter

Math (no calculator allowed!)


Calculate the correct loop current value (mA) given a pressure transmitter calibration range and an
applied pressure
Calculate the pressure applied to a transmitter given a calibration range and the measured loop current
value
Calculate the percentage of span error for a transmitter given a calibration range and an As-Found
calibration table
Calculate the allowable pressure error for a transmitter given an allowable percentage of span error and
a calibration range
Convert between different pressure units, without relying on the use of a reference for conversion factors
(i.e. you must commit the major conversion factors to memory)

Tools/Safety
Demonstrate how to properly use a deadweight tester as a standard pressure source
Explain why a deadweight tester works as a standard pressure source
Demonstrate how to shut off and tag out electrical power to your loop instruments
Identify where the danger tags are kept (for tagging out devices)
Identify and explain low- and high-pressure pistons for deadweight tester
Identify and explain the effect of entrapped air in a deadweight tester
Demonstrate how to properly use an air pump as pressure source
Explain importance of deadweight tester fluids when calibrating pressure instruments for different
processes (pure oxygen, food processing, medical, etc.)
file i00112

69

Date:

70

Tag #

Description

Manufacturer

Model

Input range

Output range

Notes

Question 92

Revised by:

Loop diagram template

Loop Diagram:

Loop diagram requirements


Instrument bubbles
Proper symbols and designations used for all instruments.
All instrument bubbles properly labeled (letter codes and loop numbers).
All instrument bubbles marked with the proper lines (solid line, dashed line, single line, double lines,
no lines).
Optional: Calibration ranges and action arrows written next to each bubble.

Text descriptions
Each instrument documented below (tag number, description, etc.).
Calibration (input and output ranges) given for each instrument, as applicable.

Connection points
All terminals and tube junctions properly labeled.
All terminal blocks properly labeled.
All junction (field) boxes shown as distinct sections of the loop diagram, and properly labeled.
All control panels shown as distinct sections of the loop diagram, and properly labeled.
All wire colors shown next to each terminal.
All terminals on instruments labeled as they appear on the instrument (so that anyone reading the
diagram will know which instrument terminal each wire goes to).

Cables and tubes


Single-pair cables or pneumatic tubes going to individual instruments should be labeled with the field
instrument tag number (e.g. TT-8 or TY-12)
Multi-pair cables or pneumatic tube bundles going between junction boxes and/or panels need to have
unique numbers (e.g. Cable 10) as well as numbers for each pair (e.g. Pair 1, Pair 2, etc.).
Energy sources
All power source intensities labeled (e.g. 24 VDC, 120 VAC, 20 PSI)
All shutoff points labeled (e.g. Breaker #5, Valve #7)

71

Revised by: Mason Neilan


Field panel
JB-12

Process area

TE
205

0-1500oF
Yel

Red

1
2

Red

Red
Cable TT-205

Blk

3
4

Blk

0-1500oF

TB-11

TB-15

TT
205

Date: April 1, 2007


Control room panel
CP-1

Wht/Blu

Wht/Blu

Cable 3, Pr 1
Blu

1
2

Blu

Red

Red
Cable TT-205

Blk
TY

/P

Tube TV-205

TY
205b

Red

Red

Cable TY-205b
Blk

Blk

5
6

Wht/Org

Wht/Org

Cable 3, Pr 2
Org

Org

3
4

Red

205a

TB-11

TB-15

Blk

Blk

Red
Cable TY-205b
Blk

7
22 TIC
21 205
19
18
H
N

Blk
Wht

72
TV
205

ES 120 VAC
Breaker #4
Panel L2

AS 20 PSI
Valve #15
Column #8

Tag #

Description

Manufacturer

TE-205

Thermocouple

Omega

TT-205

Temperature transmitter

Rosemount

Model
444

Input range
0-1500o F

Output range

Notes

Type K

Ungrounded tip

4-20 mA

Upscale burnout

250

TY-205a

Resistor

Vishay

TIC-205

Controller

Siemens

PAC 353

1-5 V

0-1500o F

TY-205b

I/P transducer

Fisher

546

4-20 mA

3-15 PSI

TV-205

Control valve

Fisher

Easy-E

3-15 PSI

0-100%

Reverse-acting control
Fail-closed

Sample Loop Diagram (using a single-loop controller)

Loop Diagram: Furnace temperature control

Revised by: Duncan D.V.

Field process area

Field panel JB-25

0-50 PSI

PT
6

Red

Cable PT-6
Blk

Blk

1
2

TB-80
Red

Red

Cable 4, Pr 1
Blk

Blk

11
12

Red

Red

Cable PT-6
Blk

Blk

11
12

Card 4
Channel 6
Analog
input

0-50 PSI

Tube PV-6

PIC
6

73

PV
6
I

April 1, 2009

DCS cabinet

TB-52
Red

Date:

TB-52

/P

Red

PY
6

Red

Cable PV-6
Blk

Blk

15
16

TB-80
Red

Red

Cable 4, Pr 8
Blk

Blk

29
30

Red

Red

Cable PV-6
Blk

Blk

11
12

Card 6
Channel 6
Analog
output

AS 20 PSI
Tag #

Description

Manufacturer

Model

Input range Output range

PT-6

Pressure transmitter

Rosemount

3051CD

0-50 PSI

4-20 mA

PIC-6

Controller

Emerson

DeltaV

4-20 mA

4-20 mA

PY-6

I/P transducer

Fisher

846

4-20 mA

3-15 PSI

PV-6

Control valve

Fisher

Vee-ball

3-15 PSI

0-100%

Notes
HART-enabled input
Direct-acting control

Fail-open

Sample Loop Diagram (using DCS controller)

Loop Diagram: Blue team pressure loop

Revised by: I. Leaky


Bulkhead panel
B-104

Process area

H
L
(vent)

LT
24

Tube LT-24a

Date:

April 1, 2008

Control panel CP-11

Tube LT-24b
14

Out

In
C
LIC

A.S. 21 PSI

24
Tube LV-24

74

LV
24

D
Tube LV-24

Tag #

Description

LT-24

Supply

A.S. 21 PSI

Tube LV-24

Manufacturer

Model

Input range

Output range

Level transmitter

Foxboro

13A

25-150 "H2O

3-15 PSI

LIC-24

Controller

Foxboro

130

3-15 PSI

3-15 PSI

LV-24

Control valve

Fisher

Easy-E / 667

3-15 PSI

0-100%

Notes

Fail closed

Sample Loop Diagram (using pneumatic controller)

file i00654

Loop Diagram: Sludge tank level control

Question 93
Connect an ice-cube relay to a DC voltage source and a switch such that the relay will energize when
the switch is closed. All electrical connections must be made using a terminal strip (no twisted wires, crimp
splices, wire nuts, spring clips, or alligator clips permitted).
This exercise tests your ability to properly interpret the pinout of an electromechanical relay, properly
wire a switch to control a relays coil, and use a terminal strip to organize all electrical connections.

Relay socket
Relay

Terminal strip

Switch

The following components and materials will be available to you during the exam: assorted ice cube
relays with DC-rated coils and matching sockets ; assorted switches ; terminal strips ; lengths of
hook-up wire ; battery clips (holders).
You will be expected to supply your own screwdrivers and multimeter for assembling and testing the
circuit at your desk. The instructor will supply the battery(ies) to power your circuit when you are ready
to see if it works. Until that time, your circuit will remain unpowered.

Study reference: the Control Relays section of Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation.


file i03772

75

Answers
Answer 1
Ill let you figure this out on your own!
Answer 2
Answer 3
Answer 4
Force at large piston = 100 pounds. Ill let you calculate the fluid pressure on your own, as well as
explain the relationship of Pascals Principle to this system.
Answer 5
Ideally, the secondary pistons position will have no effect on the oil pressure sent to the gauge.
Consequently, the gauge indication should not change.
Answer 6
Answer 7
Answer 8
25 PSI = 172.37 kPa
40 W.C. = 1.4451 PSI
5.60 bar (gauge) = 81.221 PSI
3 atm = 44.088 PSIA
1,200 Hg = 16,314.51 W.C.
12 feet W.C. = 5.2022 PSI
4 PSI vacuum = 10.7 PSIA
110 kPa = 441.622 W.C.
982 mm Hg = 38.661 Hg
50 Pa = 0.007252 PSI
21 atm = 628.522 Hg absolute
270 PSIG = 19.367 atm
Answer 9
Partial answer:
P = 1100 PSI

F = 21,598.4 lbs

P = 461 kPa

F = 1312.8 lbs

P = 2.77 bar

F = 788.8 lbs

Answer 10

76

Answer 11
Ill answer this question with an equation:
P =

F
A

Where,
P = Pressure
F = Force
A = Area
Answer 12
The fluid pressure will exert an outward force on the cylinder walls, like this:

pressure

Force

77

Answer 13
A pushing force on the rod will compress the rubber ball to a smaller diameter. A pulling force will
expand it to a larger diameter.

Rubber ball
compresses

Rubber ball
expands

Answer 14
Absolute pressure is the measurement of a pressure as compared to a pure vacuum. Atmospheric
(barometric) pressure, like the pressure figures reported by meteorologists, is an example of absolute
pressure measurement.
Gauge pressure is the measurement of a pressure as compared to the pressure of Earths atmosphere.
The pressure indicated by a pressure gauge (like an oil pressure gauge for a car engine, or a tire pressure
gauge) is an example of gauge pressure. When vented, such a gauge will register zero, even though there is
still absolute pressure all around us due to Earths atmosphere.
Differential pressure is the measurement of a difference between two different pressures. In essence, all
pressure measurements are differential in nature: notice how absolute and gauge pressures are defined in
terms of a comparison of one pressure against another!
Suffixes are sometimes appended to pressure units to distinguish between absolute (A), gauge (G), and
differential (D) pressures. For example, you might see an absolute pressure represented as 150 PSIA, a
gauge pressure as 35 PSIG, or a differential pressure as 86.5 PSID. If no such suffix is given, the pressure
unit is assumed to be gauge.
Some units of pressure measurement are always absolute, never gauge or differential. These units include
the atmosphere (14.7 PSIA), the bar (very close to 1 atmosphere think of it as a metric atmosphere),
and the torr, which is absolute millimeters of mercury column.
Answer 15
Absolute pressure = 2,014.7 PSIA. Gauge pressure = 2,000 PSIG. Differential pressure (between tank
and water) = 1,978 PSID.

78

Answer 16
406.91 inches, which is a little bit less than 34 feet.
Deeper wells may be tapped by using submersible pumps (pumps located inside the well, near the
bottom):

Pump

Follow-up question: demonstrate how we could have arrived at an approximate answer by using rounded
figures for our unit-conversion constants, and mental math instead of a calculator.
Answer 17
With no nozzle on the end of the hose, the end may be raised a maximum of 184.54 feet. With a nozzle
in place, the hose end may be raised only 115.34 feet.
Follow-up question #1: explain how this problem relates to safety and firefighting.
Follow-up question #2: demonstrate how we could have arrived at an approximate answer by using
rounded figures for our unit-conversion constants, and mental math instead of a calculator.
Answer 18
Scenario #1: Force on each wall = 48 pounds
Scenario #2: Force generated by piston = 4,712.39 pounds
Scenario #3: Force generated by piston = 136.19 pounds
Follow-up question: demonstrate how we could have arrived at approximate answers by using rounded
figures for our unit-conversion constants, and mental math instead of a calculator.

79

Answer 19

PSIG
18
385.3
16.21
2.168
222.0
0.4335
-13.7
-5

PSIA
32.7
400
30.91
16.87
236.7
15.13
1
9.7

inches Hg (G)
36.65
784.5
33
4.413
452
0.8826
-27.89
-10.18

Answer 20
Answer 21
Answer 22
Answer 23
Answer 24
Answer 25
Applied pressure = 1.193 kPa
Answer 26
25 PSIA = 1.701 atm
340 W.C. = 26.983 PSIA
0.73 bar (gauge) = 21.557 Hg
5.5 atm = 4,180 torr
2,300 cm Hg = 12,717.72 W.C.A
500 m torr = 0.0096683 PSIA
91.2 cm W.C. = 8.9434 kPa
110 kPa = 441.62 W.C.
620 mm HgA = 620 torr (A trick question . . .)
77 Pa = 14.711168 PSIA
1 atm = 406.91 W.C.A
270 PSIA = 18.367 atm

80

inches W.C. (G)


498.25
10665
448.6
60
6145.1
12
-379.2
-138.4

Answer 27
5 PSI vacuum = 9.7 PSIA
25 Hg vacuum = 2.421 PSIA
2,800 torr = 0.3733 PaA
-59 W.C. = 649.98 torr
4,630 PaA = -14.028 PSI
0.05 atm = -386.56 W.C.
-3 kPa = 0.9704 atm
10 feet W.C. vacuum = 21.103 HgA
300 cm Hg = 4.946 atm
-2 mm W.C. = 1.0133 bar (absolute)
4 atm = 1,627.63 W.C.A
Answer 28
Answer 29
Answer 30
Answer 31
This is perfectly legitimate, because in either case all the pressure units involved in each conversion are
of the same type: either all gauge or all absolute. Where we encounter difficulties is if we try to mix different
units in the same unity fraction conversion that do not share a common zero point.
A classic example of this mistake is trying to do a temperature conversion from degrees F to degrees C
using unity fractions (e.g. 100o C = 212o F):

 o 
100o C
60 F
6= 28.3o C
1
212o F
This cannot work because the technique of unity fractions is based on proportion, and there is no simple
proportional relationship between degrees F and degrees C; rather, there is an offset of 32 degrees between
the two temperature scales. The only way to properly manage this offset in the calculation is to include an
appropriate addition or subtraction (as needed).
However, if there is no offset between the units involved in a conversion problem, there is no need to
add or subtract anything, and we may perform the entire conversion using nothing but multiplication and
division (unity fractions). Such is the case if we convert pressure units that are all gauge, or if we convert
pressure units that are all absolute.
To summarize, it is perfectly acceptable to construct a unity fraction of

27.68 W.C.
2.036 Hg

because 0 W.C.

is the same as 0 Hg (i.e. they share the same zero point; there is no offset between units W.C. and Hg).
Likewise, it is perfectly acceptable to construct a unity fraction of 27.68 W.C.A because 0 W.C.A is the
2.036 HgA
same as 0 HgA (i.e. they share the same zero point; there is no offset between units W.C.A and HgA).
Answer 32
Applied pressure = 2.5 W.C.

81

Answer 33
1 inch of bubble motion represents 0.02 inches of water column pressure (differential), or 2/100 W.C.,
applied across this micromanometer.
Answer 34
The manometer will register falsely high, showing greater differential pressure than what is actually
there. If you are having difficulty figuring this out, imagine if the liquid moving through the pipe was just
as dense as the mercury within the manometer: what would that do to the mercury in the manometer given
any applied P? In other words, set up a thought experiment with absurdly (simple) conditions and then
look for patterns or trends which you may generalize for any condition.
Challenge question: derive a mathematical correction factor for interpreting the manometers indication
to yield true inches of mercury P.
Answer 35
k = 134.4
Answer 36

V
Note that the function is a curve and not a straight line! In essence, the function plotted is this:
P =
Where k is a constant equal to nRT .
Answer 37
Answer 38
Answer 39
Answer 40
Answer 41
Answer 42
Answer 43

82

k
V

Answer 44
Answer 45
Answer 46
Answer 47
Answer 48
Answer 49
The parts in this gauge mechanism would move as such:

Pressure gauge
mechanism

Bourdon
tube

Pointer

Applied
pressure
Possible things to change to make this pressure-measuring mechanism more sensitive:

Decrease the spring rate (stiffness) of the bourdon tube


Shorted the arm of the sector gear (the portion to the right of the pivot, joining with the link)
Increase the sector gear radius
Decrease the pinion gear radius

83

Answer 50
Here is one example of how a pressure gauge might respond in a non-linear fashion to the same five
applied pressures, while still being accurate at the LRV and URV points:
250

250

125

375

250
actual

actual

125

375

(desired)

125

375

(desired)

500

0 PSI applied

500

125 PSI applied

250

500

250 PSI applied

250

actual
125

375

125

375

(desired)

500

375 PSI applied

500

500 PSI applied

Here, the gauge reads high at the 25% point (125 PSI), slightly low at the 50% point (250 PSI), and
low at the 75% point (375 PSI), while still accurate at 0% (0 PSI) and 100% (500 PSI).
Any adjustment that affects the traveling angle of the mechanism will have an effect on linearity. Some
(high-quality) pressure gauge mechanisms are equipped with an adjustable-length link to facilitate changes
to this angle:

Bourdon
tube

Traveling
angle

Link
(adjustable length)

Pointer

Applied
pressure
It is sage advice to leave all angle adjustment(s) untouched until all possible zero and span adjustments
have been made to the instrument. Usually, it is possible to get a nonlinear instrument to read within
specified tolerance in a 5-point calibration just by adjusting the zero and span adjustments.
84

In many mechanical instruments, a simple linearity alignment is to apply a 50% input signal and check
for link/lever perpendicularity (that all links and levers intersect at 90o angles to each other).
Answer 51
(1) The accuracy of a deadweight tester is fixed by three fundamental variables, all of which are
quite constant, two of which can be manufactured to highly accurate specifications, and the third
being a constant of nature:
The mass of the calibration weights
The area of the primary piston
The gravity of the Earth

(2) If a deadweight is not level, the force generated by the precision weights will not be parallel to
the primary pistons axis of travel, meaning that the piston will not support their full weight.
(3) Entrapped air will make the pistons motion springy rather than solid and secure.
(4) Spinning the primary piston eliminates static friction, leaving only dynamic friction (which is
much less) to interfere with gravitys force on the primary piston.
Answer 52
The accuracy of a manometer is fixed by two fundamental variables, both of which are quite constant:
The density (mass per unit volume) of the manometer liquid
The gravity of Earth
So long as these two variables do not change, neither will the accuracy of the manometer.
Answer 53
Net piston force = 890.936 pounds.
Answer 54
Net force = 4,319.69 pounds, in the downward direction.
Answer 55
Actuating the hand pump introduces more air molecules to the system (n). Assuming temperature (T )
remains constant, the air pressure (P ) will increase in inverse proportion to the volume (V ) of the pressure
vessel for each additional stroke of the pump.
Follow-up question: If we wished the pressure to increase less for every stroke of the pump, would we
want a smaller pressure vessel or a larger pressure vessel? Explain your answer.
Challenge question: suppose a technician follows these steps in using this system.

Close valve 2, open valves 1 and 3


Pump several strokes worth of air into the pressure vessel
Close valves 1 and 3
Slowly open valve 2 until manometer registers desired pressure, then close

Is the air pressure going to the instrument under test greater than, less than, or equal to the air pressure
in the vessel?

85

Answer 56

3-terminal
IC regulator
High voltage
source

Low-range
voltmeter

To instrument
under test

Ill leave the explanation to you!


Follow-up question #1: explain what you could do with one or both of the two needle valves to increase
the amount of pressure sent to the instrument under test.
Follow-up question #2: explain why placing a valve in series with the regulators output will not
adjust pressure to the instrument under test or the manometer.

Air compressor

Receiver

Pressure
regulator

This valve will not


adjust pressure!
Manometer

To instrument
under test

Answer 57
Ill let you figure this out on your own.
Answer 58
It is an anti-backlash spring, supplying enough torque to rid the sector/pinion gear set of any slack
or play, so that the pointer always responds to the slightest change in bourdon tube position.

86

Answer 59
Multiple-turn bourdon tubes generate more motion than C-shaped tubes, for the same rated pressures.
Therefore, they do not require gears for multiplication of motion to move a pointer. By eliminating gears
in the design, the instrument will have better (decreased) hysteresis and deadband, and be more tolerant of
vibration.
Answer 60
Answer 61
First transmitter design:
Input range: 0 to 15 PSI
Output range: 0 to 10 volts DC
Last transmitter design:
Input range: 0 to 15 PSI
Output range: 1 to 5 volts DC
Follow-up question: show the current in both circuits using both conventional flow notation and electron
flow notation.
Answer 62
Answer 63
Answer 64
Answer 65
Answer 66
Answer 67
Answer 68
Partial answer:

Resistor R1 failed open Possible


Resistor R1 failed shorted
Resistor R2 failed open
Resistor R2 failed shorted Possible
Strain gauge (measurement) failed open
Strain gauge (measurement) failed shorted
Dummy gauge (temperature compensation) failed open
Dummy gauge (temperature compensation) failed shorted Not possible
Voltage source is dead (no voltage output at all)

87

Answer 69
22 PSIG = 36.7 PSIA
13 kPa = 52.19 W.C.
81 kPa = 11.75 PSI
5 atm = 73.5 PSIA
200 Hg = 2719 W.C.
17 feet W.C. = 15.01 Hg
8 PSI vacuum = 6.7 PSIA
900 Torr = 481.9 W.C.A
300 mm Hg = 5.801 PSI
250 W.C. = 0.6227 bar (gauge)
70 W.C. = 5.149 Hg
300 PSIG = 21.41 atm
Answer 70
Atm
3.5
6.51
22.71
0
1.017
25.03
1.136
100

PSIG
36.75
81
319.1
-14.7
0.2572
353.3
2
1455.3

inches W.C. (G)


1017.3
2242
8834
-406.9
7.12
9779.6
55.36
40284

PSIA
51.45
95.7
333.8
0
14.96
368
16.7
1470

Answer 71
Ill let you figure out the answers to this question on your own!
Answer 72
Note very carefully how the two secondary coils are connected in series-opposing (as denoted by the
phase dots)! This detail is essential in figuring out how the LVDT works.
Follow-up question: LVDT position sensors have many favorable characteristics when compared to
potentiometers. Identify some of these advantages, and explain why they would be relevant to this pressuremeasurement application.
Answer 73
Hint: although it may not look like it at first, the two resistors form a bridge circuit with the differential
capacitor.
Answer 74
There is a lot of literature available discussing differential capacitance capsule technology, so I will refer
you to that!

88

Answer 75
The output voltage will be positive with respect to ground if C > C and negative if C > C.
Answer 76
Hint: you may find that Yokogawas DpHarp product is easier to obtain information on, being a more
recent product.
Answer 77
Did you really think I would reveal possible solutions to the problem this easily?
Answer 78
Answer 79
Answer 80
Answer 81
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 82
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 83
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 84
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 85
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 86
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 87
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 88
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 89
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 90
This is a graded question no answers or hints given!
Answer 91

89

Answer 92
Your loop diagram will be validated when the instructor inspects the loop with you and the rest of your
team.
Answer 93

90