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Dr.-Ing. C.Y.

Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

KJP626 / MEM665
Robotics & Automation
Introduction into Robotics

Credit: Dr Hanafiah Yussof

The notion Robot

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

What the layperson understands by robots:

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Automata, which recreates the behaviour of


animals and humans.

What robots mean in practise:


NC (Numerical control) handling machine.

Source: SONY, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL, JUSTAPI, FREI TECHNIK + SYSTEME


VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Der Begriff Roboter/DN/04.12.2007
CIM2_2_3_Der Begriff Roboter_Grafik1.psd

The Law of Robot

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

In 1942, Isaac Asimov introduced three laws of robotics


1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction,
allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings,
except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such
protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Isaac Asimov (1919-1992)
Professor in Biochemistry
and Science Fiction writer

Types of Robot

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

A robot is a mechanical device that acts as a virtual machine. The word robot can include both
physical machine and virtual software. Various types of robots are in use today like: industrial
robots, entertainment robots, robots use in space, toy robots, agricultural robots, and domestic
robots etc.
The Various types of robots can be categorized on the basis of:
Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Degree of autonomy: Stationary, ground, underwater, aerial, microgravity


Industry or field where used: Industrial robots, agricultural robots, telerobots, service
robots, mobile robots
Goal they are designed to fulfill: Contest, personal use, manufacturing, entertainment,
research, rescue

Reasons for using industrial robots

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Humanization of work
(Heat, Noise, Dirt, Toxic, Load, Monotony)

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Lowering of costs
(Lowering of piece costs despite increasing of fixed costs)
Improvement of quality
(Continuation of quality, Reproducibility, Process capability)
Increase in quantitative performance
(higher demand, higher market share, lower fixed costs)
Extension of machine running time
(Breaks, 2./3. coating, less supervision in operating zone)

Source: WITT, 2004


VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Grnde fr Einsatz von Industrierobotern/DN/04.12.2007

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Market overview: Robotics and Automation


Worldwide installed robots 2006

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

150.725
North America
16 %

132.967
Others
14 %

32.110
France
10 %
26.008
Spain
8%

60.049
Italy
19 %
315.624
Europe
33 %

64.863
Others
21 %
132.594
Germany
42 %

351.658
Japan
37 %

Industrial robots in Germany


Total number
New installations

2005

2006

2007 *

2010 *

126.294

132.594

137.900

147.400

10.075

11.425

12.700

13.000

* Forecast (Status 2007)


Source: IFR WORLD ROBOTICS, KUKA, 2007
VL_CIM_2_Kapitel_6.ppt/Marktbersicht: Robotik und Automation/DN/04.12.2007

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

What are robots good at?

What is hard for humans is easy for robots.


Repetitive tasks.
Continuous operation.
Do complicated calculations.
Refer to huge data bases.

What is easy for a human is hard for robots.


Reasoning.
Adapting to new situations.
Flexible to changing requirements.
Integrating multiple sensors.
Resolving conflicting data.
Synthesizing unrelated information.
Creativity.

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

What tasks would you give robots?

Dangerous
Space exploration
chemical spill cleanup
disarming bombs
disaster cleanup

Boring / repetitive
welding car frames
part pick and place
manufacturing parts

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High precision / high speed


electronics testing
surgery
precision machining

Terms and Definitions

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Degree of Freedom (DOF) = the number of joints

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Typically, a manipulator should have at least 6 DOF 3 for positioning and 3 for orientation, in order to
reach each point in its workspace with an arbitrary
orientation.
More than 6 DOF => kinematically redundant
manipulator (to reach around obstacles).

Joint rotation description: Yaw, Pitch, Roll


Joint Rotation

The workspace of a manipulator is the total volume


swept out by the endeffector as the manipulator executes
all possible motions.

A robotic system consists of the arm, external powers


source, end-of arm tooling, external and internal sensors,
and computer control (hardware and programmed
software).

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Components of Robot Manipulators

Robot manipulators (or robot arms) are composed of links connected by joints into
an open kinematic chain.
Due to mechanical design consideration, manipulators are generally constructed
from joints which exhibit just one degree of freedoms.
Most robot manipulator have revolute joint or prismatic joint (sliding joint).

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute Joint

Prismatic Joint

Other types of joint: Cylindrical, planar, screw and spherical

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Symbolic Representation of Robot Joints

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute joints

Prismatic joints

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Work Space
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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Types of Robot Manipulators

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Elbow Manipulator (RRR)


Example: PUMA

Structure

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Workspace

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute Type Configuration (RRR)

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Revolute Type Configuration (RRR)

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Revolute manipulator is also called articulated or anthromorphic


manipulator. These type of robot resembles human arm. Two
common revolute designs are the elbow type manipulator such as
the PUMA and the parallelogram linkage such as the Cincinnati
Milacron T3 735.
Advantages:
- 3 rotating, axes
- Can reach above or below obstacles
- Largest work area for least work space
- Two or four ways to reach a point
Disadvantages:
- Difficult to program off-line
- The most complex manipulator

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Spherical Manipulator (RRP)


Example: Stanford Manipulator

Structure

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Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Spherical Type Configuration (RRP)

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Spherical Type Configuration (RRP)

The first two joints of this type of manipulators are revolute,


while its third Joint is prismatic.

Advantages:
1 linear axis, 2 rotating axes
Long horizontal reach

Disadvantages:
Cannot reach around obstacles
Generally has short vertical reach

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

SCARA (Selective Compliant Articulated Robot


for Assembly) (RRP), Example: AdeptOne

Structure

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Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

SCARA Type Configuration (RRP or PRR)

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

SCARA Type Configuration (RRP or PRR)

The word SCARA stands for Selective Compliant Articulated Robot


for Assembly. There are two type of SCARA robot configuration:
either the first two joints are revolute with the third joint as prismatic,
or the first joint is revolute with the second and third Joints as
prismatic.

Advantages:
- 1 linear axis, 2 rotating axes
- Height axis is rigid
- Large work area floor space
- Can reach around obstacles
- Two ways to reach a point

Disadvantages:
- Difficult to program off-line
- Highly complex arm

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cylindrical Manipulator Configuration (RPP)


Example: GMF M-100

Structure

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Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cylindrical Type Configuration (RPP)

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cylindrical Type Configuration (RPP)

For cylindrical type manipulator, its first joint is revolute which


produces a rotation about the based, while its second and third
joints are prismatic.

Advantages:
- 2 linear axes, 1 rotating axis
- Can reach all around itself
- Reach and height axes rigid
- Rotational axis easy to seal.

Disadvantages:
- Cannot reach above itself
- Base rotation axis is less rigid than a linear axis
- Linear axes hard to seal
- Will not reach around obstacles
- Horizontal motion is circular

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cartesian Manipulator (PPP)


Example: Gantry Robot Cincinnati Milatron T3

Structure

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Workspace

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Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cartesian Type Configuration (PPP)

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Cartesian Type Configuration (PPP)

Manipulator whose first three joints are prismatic are known as a


Cartesian manipulator.. Cartesian manipulator are useful for table-top
assembly applications and, as gantry robots for transfer of material
and cargo

Advantages:
- 3 linear axes
- Easy to visualize
- Rigid structure
- Easy to program off-line
- Linear axes make for easy mechanical stops

Disadvantage:
- Can only reach in front of itself
- Requires large floor space for size of work envelop
- Axes hard to seal

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Grippers
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Applications of Robots

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Main application area of robot manipulators: Manufacturing

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Applications of Robots

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Main application area of robot manipulators: Manufacturing

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Other Application Areas

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Universiti Teknologi MARA

Decommissioning of nuclear waste or other waste


Decommissioning of land mines

Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Deep sea exploration


Space exploration
Support of the disabled (feeding devices, prosthetics)
Inspection of waste and water pipes
Tele-robotics

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Dr.-Ing. C.Y. Low, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal


Universiti Teknologi MARA

Jazakumullah
kairan kathira

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