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Homework 2 - 2.3, 2.4, 2.

5
Shawn Paul Smith
Math 307 - Diff. Eq.
January 18, 2011

Chapter 2.3
Question 1
There is a 200L tank with dye in a 1g/L concentration. It is diluted by fresh water flowing in at a rate of
2L/min. Find the time it takes to dilute it to 1%. The rate at which the amount of dye in the tank changes
is equal to the rate of dye going in less the rate going out. Let Q(t) be the amount of dye in the tank at
time t. Theres no dye in the water coming in, and the water going out is doing so at 2L/min and at a
concentration of Q/200 g/L.


dQ
Q
= (2 0) 2
dt
200
dQ
Q
=
dt
100
dQ
dt
=
Q
100
Z
Z
1
dQ
=
dt
Q
100
Omiting absolute value for Q, since it is always positive.
ln Q =

t
+C
100

Q = e(t/100)+C
Q = et/100 eC
Let D = eC .
Q = Det/100
Let t = 0 be just as the fresh water is being poured into the tank. At this time the concentration is 1g/L,
and the tank has 200L of dye solution in it, so there is 200g of dye.
200 = De0/100
D = 200
Q = 200et/100
We want to know t = t1 , when the concentration is 1% of what it was. Then there will be 200g/100 = 2g of
dye in the tank.
2 = 200et1 /100

1
= et1 /100
100


1
t1
ln
=
100
100
t1
100
100(ln(1) ln(100)) = t1
ln(1) ln(100) =

100(ln(100) ln(1)) = t1
100 ln(100) = t1
t1 460.5 min 7hr 40.5min

Question 12(a)
Here Q is the amount of carbon-12 in a sample. We are told the halflife of carbon-12 is = 5730yr, and
decay follows the equation Q0 = rQ. We are to find the decay rate constant r.
dQ
= rQ
dt
dQ
= r dt
Q
Z
Z
dQQ = r dt
Omiting absolute value for Q since it is always positive.
ln Q = r(t + C)
Q = ert+D
Q = F ert
Let Q0 be the quantity of carbon-12 when the sample was deposited, and t = 0 be that time. Then
Q0 = F e0
Q0 = F
Q = Q0 ert
When t = , the amount of carbon-12 is half what it was.
Q0 /2 = Q0 er
1/2 = er
ln 1/2 = r
ln 2 = r
ln 2 = r
ln 2
ln 2
r=
=
0.00012097

5730yr

Question 12(b)
An expression for Q(t) given Q(0) = Q0 . This was found above, we just plug in our value for r.
Q = Q0 e(t ln 2)/
or...
Q = Q0 e0.00012097t

Question 12(c)
Determine the age of remains that have 20% of the carbon-12 that they originally did.
Q0 /5 = Q0 e(t ln 2)/
1/5 = e(t ln 2)/
t ln 2

t ln 2
ln 5 =

t ln 2
ln 5 =

ln 5
t
=
ln 2

5730 ln 5
t=
13305yr
ln 2
ln(1/5) =

Question 18(a)
We are given
du
= k(u T (t))
dt
where T (t) = T0 + T1 cos(t). This equation doesnt seem to be seperable, so we need to find an integrating
factor. First we get it into form.
u0 = k(u T (t))
u0 = ku + kT (t)
u0 + ku = kT (t)
Now we can find the integrating factor
(t) = ek

dt

(t) = ekt
u0 ekt + kuekt = kT (t)ekt

(uekt )0 = kT (t)ekt
Z
kt 0
(ue ) dt = k T (t)ekt dt

uekt = k

ekt (T0 + T1 cos(t)) + C

Distributing the ekt and k...


kt

ue

Z
= T0 k

kt

e dt + T1 k

cos(t)ekt dt + C

Substitution p = kt, dp = k dt, dt = dp/k.


uekt = T0

ep dp + T1 k

uekt = T0 ekt + T1 k

cos(t)ekt dt + C

cos(t)ekt dt + D

We look at a table of integrals that has the property


Z
eax (a cos(bx) + b sin(bx))
+C
eax cos(bx) dx =
a2 + b2
Therefore
uekt = T0 ekt + T1 k

ekt (k cos(t) + sin(t))


+F
k2 + 2

ekt cannot be zero, so its safe to divide both sides by it.


u = T0 +

T1 k(k cos(t) + sin(t))


F
+ kt
2
2
k +
e

Figure 1: The graph of T(t)[blue] and the steady state[purple]

Question 18(b)
Let = /12, T0 = 60, T1 = 15, and k = 0.2. Create a graph of T (t) and the steady state of u(t), called
S(t).
Looking at the graph we can estimate the amplitude of S(t). It seems to go from 51 to 69, giving it an
amplitude of roughly 9 degrees. The time between the maxima of T (t) and S(t) seems to be roughly 3 to 4
hours.

Question 18(c)
Write the oscillatory part of S(t) as a R cos((t )).
T1 k(k cos(t) + sin(t))
k2 + 2
T1 k
T1 k 2
cos(t) + 2
sin(t)
2
2
k +
k + 2
By using the trig identity
cos(a b) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b)
We can rewrite R cos((t )) as
R cos(t )
R cos( ) cos(t) + R sin( ) sin(t)
So we want

T1 k 2
= R cos( )
k2 + 2
T1 k
= R sin( )
k2 + 2

If we divide the second by the first we get


T1 k
k2 + 2
T1 k 2
k2 + 2

R sin
R cos

= tan
k

= arctan
k


1
= arctan

k
If we instead square them and add them we get


T1 k 2
k2 + 2

2


+

T1 k
k2 + 2

2

= R2 cos2 ( ) + R2 sin2 ( )

T12 k 4 + T12 k 2 2
= R2 (cos2 ( ) + sin2 ( )
(k 2 + 2 )2
R2 =

T12 k 2 (k 2 + 2 )
(k 2 + 2 )2

T12 k 2
+ 2
T1 k
R=
k2 + 2
R2 =

k2

We can now use these to write the formula in the form R cos((t )).

 
T k
1
1
cos (t arctan

k
k2 + 2

Chapter 2.4
Question 4
Determine an interval where there certainly exists a solution for (4 t2 )y 0 + 2ty = 3t2 with y(3) = 1. We
need to get it into form.
3t2
2t
y
=
y0 +
4 t2
4 t2
As this is linear, there are solutions everywhere 2t/(4 t2 ) and 3t2 /(4 t2 ) are continuous. Both of these
equations are not continuous at either t = 2 or t = 2. Our given initial condition is at t = 3, so there are
solutions for all t < 2.

Question 5
Find the interval of a solution for (4 t2 )y 0 + 2ty = 3t2 with y(1) = 3. This is exactly the same as Question
4, except our initial condition is at t = 1. So our solutions exist where 2 < t < 2.

Question 25
We are given y1 (t) is a solution for y 0 + p(t)y = 0 and y2 (t) is a solution for y 0 + p(t)y = g(t). We want to
show that y = y1 (t) + y2 (t) is also a solution for y 0 + p(t)y = g(t). Note that p, g, y1 , and y2 are functions
of t, I will omit the (t). We know that
y10 + py1 = 0
and
y20 + py2 = g
We want to show that...
(y1 + y2 )0 + p(y1 + y2 ) = g
y10 + y20 + py1 + py2 = g
(y10 + py1 ) + (y20 + py1 ) = g
But we know that y10 + py1 = 0. So all thats left is
y20 + py1 = g
Which we also know is true. Therefore (y1 + y2 )0 + p(y1 + y2 ) = g is true.

Question 32
Solve y 0 + 2y = g(t), y(0) = 0, where
(
1
g(t) =
0

if 0 t 1
if t > 1

To solve this we use an integrating factor.


(t) = e2

dt

(t) = e2t
y 0 e2t + 2ye2t = g(t)e2t

(ye2t )0 = g(t)e2t
Z
2t 0
(ye ) dt = g(t)e2t dt

First we consider for 0 t 1.


ye2t =

e2t dt + C

Subtitution: u = 2t, du = 2dt, dt = du/2.


1
2

ye2t =

eu du + C

1 2t
e +D
2
If we divide both sides by e2 t (which cant be zero), we get
ye2t =

y=

1
+ De2t
2

Solving for y(0) = 0.


1
+ De0
2
1
0= +D
2
1
D=
2
1
1
y = 2t
2 2e
0=

or

1
(1 e2t )
2
Z
= 0e2t dt + C

y=
Now we consider for t > 1.
ye2t

ye2t = C
y = Ce2t
To make this a single continuous function it should have the same value where there is a discontinuity in
g(t), that is to say at t = 1. We need to determine y here for the first equation.
1
(1 e2 )
2
1
1
y= 2
2 2e
e2 1
y=
2e2
We now make y hold this value at that location for the second equation.
y=

e2 1
C
= 2
2e2
e
1 2
(e 1) = C
2
1
y = (e2 1)e2t
2
So

(
y(t) =

1
2t
)
2 (1 e
1 2
2t
2 (e 1)e

if 0 t 1
if t > 1

Chapter 2.5
Question 3
See attached graphs. For dy/dt = y(y 1)(y 2), y0 > 0, then there are critical points where y(y 1)(y 2)
is equal to zero, that is at y = 1 and y = 2. y = 1 is stable. Anything below y = 2 will work its way to
there. This is because if y < 1, then dy/dt = y(y 1)(y 2) is positive (the two negatives cancel out). If
1 < y < 2 then dy/dt is instead negative. The critical point at y = 2 is unstable. Anything below it fall to
y = 1, and anything above it grows away because dy/dt = y(y 1)(y 2) is positive.

Question 7(a)
We are given dy/dt = k(1 y)2 . The only critical point for this equation is where
0 = k(1 y)2
0=1y
y=1

Question 7(b)
See attached graphs. The graph of y(t) is increasing wherever dy/dt = k(1 y)2 is positive. Since k is
positive and (1 y)2 is positive for any real y, then dy/dt is always positive.

Question 7(c)
Solve dy/dt = k(1 y)2 .
dy
= k(1 y)2
dt
dy
= k dt
(1 y)2
Z
Z
dy
=
k
dt
(1 y)2
Substituting u = 1 y, du = 1 dy, dy = du
Z
u2 du = kt + C
1
= kt + D
1y
1
=1y
kt + D
1
y =1
kt + D
Finding for y(0) = y0
1
D
1
y0 1 =
D
1
1 y0 =
D
y0 = 1

D=
y =1
y =1

1
1
kt + 1y
0
1
kt(1y0 )+1
1y0

1 y0
kt(1 y0 ) + 1

y =1
y=

1
1 y0

kt(1 y0 ) + 1 1 + y0
kt(1 y0 ) + 1
y=

kt(1 y0 ) + y0
kt(1 y0 ) + 1

To see how this behaves as t we take the limit.


lim

kt(1 y0 ) + y0
kt(1 y0 ) + 1
lim

Well thats not good. We have to use Lhopitals Rule.


kt(1 y0 ) + y0
(kt(1 y0 ) + y0 )0
= lim
t kt(1 y0 ) + 1
t (kt(1 y0 ) + 1)0
lim

lim

k(1 y0 )
k(1 y0 )

This is positive anytime y0 6= 1.

Question 20(a)
The equation for the Schaefer Model is

dy
y
=r 1
y Ey
dt
K
There is an equilibrium point at y1 = 0, and if not, there can also be one where

y2 
y2 = Ey2
r 1
K

y2 
r 1
=E
K
y2
E
1
=
K
r
E
y2
=1
K
r


E
y2 = K 1
r
Since both y2 and K are positive, E/r must be less than 1, so this critical point only exists when E < r.

Question 20(b)
To get an idea of the phase line, we can graph the Schaefer Model equation as dy/dt vs. y, picking constants
somewhat randomly (except ensuring E < r). This gives an open-down parabola, crossing at 0 and some
positive number (which is dependant on the constants we picked). Graph attached. Therefore, above 0 and
below the other critical point y2 , dy/dt > 0 and therefore values grow away from zero, twords y2 . Above y2 ,
dy/dt is negative and values go down twords y2 . Therefore y1 = 0 is unstable and y2 is stable.

Question 20(c)
The sustainable yield Y = Ey2 . Therefore

E
Y =E K 1
r


E
Y = EK 1
r


Question 10(d)
To find E that gives the maximum Y we need to take the derivative of Y with respect to E and find the
zero(s).
E2K
Y = EK
r
Y
K
= K 2E
E
r
2EK
0=K
r
2EK
K=
r
Kr = 2EK
r = 2E
r
E=
2
This gives a maximum yield of
Ym =

Kr r2 K

2
4r

2Kr2 Kr2
4r
Kr
Ym =
4

Ym =