You are on page 1of 27

Maritime Logistics Module:

Introduction to TEN-T, MoS and


TrainMoS
Modes of Transport and Multimodal
Transport
04 February 2013

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Chain

Hinterland - Export

Overseas Transport

Hinterland - Import
Source: Adapted from MoS4MoS Project, 2012

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Modes
Air

Road

Rail

Pipeline
Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Waterbourne
3

Transport Mode: Air


Characteristics of Demand
Unpredictable, infrequent, in excess of local supply,
seasonal
Typical Commodity
Perishables or subject to quick obsolescence
Required on short notice
Valuable relative to weight
Expensive to handle or store
Required for high security transportation

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Air


Transportation by air, when distribution problems include
Risk of pilferage, breakage, or deterioration
High insurance costs for long in-transit period
Heavy or expensive packaging required for surface transportation
Need for special handling or care
Importance of Air Transport
Main drivers of globalisation beside sea transport
Enabling high level of mobility of persons for business and private purposes
Key factor to magnitise economic and political activities

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Air Transport Operation


Airport

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Air Transport Operation


Air Logistics Center

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Road


Characteristics of road freight
Require flexibility and quick response to the demand
Serve door-to-door services without no transhipment (uses of RoRo vessels
or Ferries for overseas transport possible)
Negative impact of road transport
Contribution to traffic jam
Large CO2-Footprint when comparing to other modes of transport
Often mis-exploitation / too much pressure on the truck drivers

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Road


Road Train Concept
Trucking concept for remote areas to move freight more efficiently (practiced in
Argentina, USA, Canada, Mexico and Australia)
Consists of conventional tractor unit pulling more than two units of trailers or semitrailer

Source: Wikicommons, 2004 (www.retas.de/thomas/travel/australia2005/)


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Transport Mode: Road


Road transport and Cross-Docking
Common practice in the logistics process for efficient distribution of good via road
transport
Loading of goods is done directly into outbound trucks or trailers with less or no
storage in between.
Mostly the goods are already sorted for the loading with the same or similar
destination.
Advantages

Disadvantages

Streamline supply chain from point of origin to


point of sale
Reduce handling, operating and storage costs
of inventory
Products get to the distributor and
consequently to the customer faster
Reduces, or eliminates warehousing costs for
retailers

Require good network of partners for start up


Need for adequate transport fleet to operate
Need for a computerised logistics system for
well-managed processes and therefore
investment intensive
Additional freight handling can lead to product
damage

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

10

Tranport Mode: Rail


Characteristics of rail transport
High level of safety and efficiency of energy consumption
Large capacity for hinterland transport resulting in moderate prices
comparing to road transport for the same distance
Less land occupation than road transport
Weakness of rail transport
Highly depends on the railway infrastructure with intensive maintenance
Less flexible than road transport
Infrastructure failures can disrupt freight revenue operation

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

11

Transport Mode: Rail


Block Train Concept
Scheduled cargo rail connections a
serving specific route from a
consolidation center (e.g. container
terminal) to a distribution center / point
Example of Block Train Operator: Polzug
Polzug offers regular services between
Rotterdam, Bremen, Hamburg and
Poland. Transhipment in Poland to be
further distributed to Baltic States,
Russia, Ukraine and Caucasus.

Source: http://www.kombiverkehr.de/neptun/neptun.php/oktopus/page/2/47

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Photo: Top - Hafen-Hamburg.de, Bottom Contrailo.de

12

Transport Mode: Rail


RailNetEurope (RNE)
Association set up in January 2004 by a
majority of European rail infrastructure
managers to enable fast, easy access
to European rail, as well as to increase
the quality and efficiency of international
rail traffic.
Currently with 38 members in the
network covering over 230,000 Km
Daily process and services:
European wide timetabling
Common marketing and sale approach
Cooperation in operations
Train information exchanges in real time
cross borders
After-sale service (e.g. reporting)
Source: http://www.railneteurope.com

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

13

Tranport Mode: Pipeline


Characteristics of pipeline transport
Progressive and economically advantageous mode of transport
Flexible and less or no freight losses in transit
Complete mechanisation and automation of loading and unloading operation as well
as recovery of packaging
Low cost per unit e.g. the costs of pipeline transportation are one-third of those for
railroad transport.
Typical commodity of pipeline freight
Liquids e.g. oil, chemical liquids, beer
Gas
Coal (with water as facilitator)

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

14

Tranport Mode: Pipeline and its funcition


Gathering pipeline
Group of smaller interconnected pipelines from complex networks
E.g. bringing up crude oil or natural gas from nearby plants or platforms
Typically not long and not large pipelines
Transportation pipeline
Mainly long and large diameter pipeline used to move products between cities,
countries or even intercontinent.
Typically installed with several compressure stations in gas lines or pump stations for
crude or multiproduct pipelines
Distribution pipeline (or feeder pipeline)
Consisting of several interconnected pipelines with small diameters to deliver the
product to final consumers
Also including pipeline at terminals for distributing products to tanks and storage
facilities
Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

15

Tranport Mode: Waterbourne


Classification of waterbourne transport
Overseas
Inland Waterway
Characteristics of waterbourne transport
Largest vehicle for freight transport
Economy of Scale in terms of costs per unit
of goods
Ability to transport large volume

Photo: MS Marco Polo, HHM, 2012

Typical commodity
Containerised cargo
General cargo
Bulk (solid, liquid)
Project / Heavy-lift cargo
Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

Photo: Hafen Hamburg / H.-J. Hettchen


16

Tranport Mode: Sea Transport


Summary from Review of Maritime Transport 2012 by UNCTAD
Seabourne trade reached 8.7 Billion Tons
World fleet grew by 37 percents in four years
However, freight rates reported as unprofitable for carriers
Container port throughput increased by 5.9 per cent
Growing concerns regarding freight transport Green Shipping, adoption of
Environmental Shipping Index (ESI)

Source: UNCTAD, 2012


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

17

Tranport Mode: Sea Transport

Source: UNCTAD, 2012


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

18

Tranport Mode: Inland Waterway


Characteristics of Inland Waterway
Competitive alternative to road and rail transport due to lower operational costs
Environmental friendly in term of energy consumption and emission of gas and noise
High degree of safety, in particular for dangerous cargo
Enabling decongestion of the overloaded road network
Very low external costs e.g. accidents, congestion, noise emission, air pollution and
other environmental impact.
High payloads, suitable for all kinds of massive goods, liquids and dry bulks
However, inland waterway is still not yet very popular mode of transport because
Relatively low network forming capacity. Mostly the network does not follow the cargo
flow.
Ship types on the market is built specially for specific cargo, therefore not flexible.
Source: PINE - European Commission, 2004
Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

19

Multimodal Transport
Also called Intermodal Transport, Sychromodal Transport, Co-Modality
Principle:
Defined as the movement of goods in one and the same load unit or road vehicle,
which uses successively two or more modes of transport, without moving the good
themselves when changing modes (UNECE)
Use of standard load units
With reduced cargo handling, the freight security can be improved. Damages and
losses can be reduced. Freight can be transported faster because of less handling
time.
Best possibility for utilising resources
Enabling optimised carbon footprint of a freight transport

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

20

Multimodal Transport:
Characteristics in
Comparison

Source: PINE/European Commission, 2004


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

21

Transport Mode in comparison on environmental impact

Source: Mercosul Line, 2012 (http://www.mercosul-line.com.br/ing/responsabilidade_TransporteeMeioAmbiente.php?n=2)


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

22

Increasing needs in Multimodal Transport


Multimodal transport is one key instrument in managing supply chain
Common drivers in supply chain: time, reliablity and flexibility
Role of transport in the supply chain is crucial.
Increasing requirements to transport such as security and safety to prevent damage or
value losses
Mutimodal transport can deliver following strengths which are need in the logistics
solutions:
The scale of operation can be flexible to demand because of efficiency in transport
24/7-Operation of transport services offered in the market
Use of terminals in the multimodal chain for (de)consolidation to optimise buffer in
transport chain
Use of intermodal load units for (un)loading to best fit the clients need
Source: EIRAC, 2010
Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

23

Solutions enhancing multimodal transport: Examples


Innovative Load Units

Tellibox

Glass safe on train


Source: EIRAC, 2010

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

24

Solutions enhancing multimodal transport: Examples


Innovative ICT Solutions

Efficient Terminal Operating System

Automatic ID for Intermodal Chain


Source: EIRAC, 2010

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

25

Solutions enhancing multimodal transport: Examples


Innovative ICT Solutions: Intermodal Transport Planning Tool

Source: EIRAC, 2010


Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

26

Kontaktdaten

HPA Hamburg Port Authority AR


Neuer Wandrahm 4
20457 Hamburg
www.hamburg-port-authority.de

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham


E-Mail: phanthian.zuesongdham@hpa.hamburg.de

Dr. Phanthian Zuesongdham

27