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Ubiquitous Learning: Teaching Modeling and Simulation

with Technology
Dietmar P.F. Mller

Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Applied Stochastics and Operations Research,


Erzstr. 1, D-38670 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
dietmar.moeller@tu-clausthal.de

Roland Haas

International Institute of Information Technology Bangalore, India


reh@iiitb.ac.in

Hamid Vakilzadian

University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Electrical Engineering, USA


hvakilzadian@unl.edu

Keywords: Blended learning, e-learning, internet of


things, lifelong learning, mobile learning, modeling and
simulation, ubiquitous learning, remote access.

Abstract

Education has undergone major changes in recent years


in conjunction with the development of computers and
information and communication technology (ICT)
networks. This has enhanced access to global information
and communication systems. Therefore, the number of
resources available to todays students at all levels of
education has been enhanced. In its early form, computers
and ICT applications in education were implemented as elearning which has transformed education. The rise in
Internet availability and the continual transformation
occurring in software and telecommunication services has
led to the ability to connect everything with anything. One
of the first opportunities that arose was the concept of
mobile and ubiquitous computing which has become the
basis for mobile e-learning (me-learning) and ubiquitous
learning (u-Learning). U-Learning has the potential to
alter education in a sustainable manner and remove many
of the constraints in education.
This will allow
customization according to students needs using
embedded modeling and simulation (M&S) on demand.
Hence, this paper presents an integrative concept for
teaching with enhanced technology.

1. Introduction
With advances in information and communication
technology (ICT), the development and expansion of the
internet, the increase in the number of ICT applications
useful for preparing educational materials, the availability
of streaming video, audio, and animation processing
software, and declining prices of computer hardware and
other accessories, the role of ICT in education has been
increasing in many countries. In the last two decades,

computer-based education (CBE), in its various forms and


versions, has opened up the world of knowledge to
everyone, leading to online education and e-learning in
the mid-1990s. This includes all forms of electronically
supported learning and teaching, and e-learning has
become a platform that promises big achievements in
educational programs. E-learning offers new ways for
students to access many resources, a major breakthrough
in education leading to better management of both inhouse tertiary education and distance education.
Therefore, the term e-learning is most likely to be utilized
in reference to out-of-classroom and in-classroom
education through technology, even as advances continue
in regard to devices and curriculum. Abbreviations like
CBT (Computer-Based Training), IBT (Internet-Based
Training) or WBT (Web-Based Training) have been used
as synonyms for e-learning.
Moreover, the term e-learning is also used as a general
term to refer to computer-enhanced learning (Holmes and
Gardner, 2006). This includes the use of web-based
teaching materials, hypermedia, multimedia material,
websites, discussion boards and forums, computer-aided
assessments, digital collaboration, or a combination of all
of these methods. E-learning can be self-paced or
instructor led and includes media in the form of text,
images, animation, streaming video, and audio.
In engineering education, e-learning plays an
important role in different forms and at various levels.
There are many universities offering online courses in all
fields of engineering. Feisel and Peterson (2004), Feisel
and Rosa (2005), and Gudimetla and Mahalinga (2006)
provide feasibility studies about the effectiveness of elearning in different engineering disciplines and
recommend project specific organizational goals and
benchmarks.
In 2007, Vakilzadian and Meller received a grant from
the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the

Undergraduate STEM Education Initiative in Creative


Educational Innovations for Electrical Engineering
Students (USE-ICE), a course, curriculum, and laboratory
improvement project. The goal of the project was to
implement a modeling and simulation (M&S) degree
program in engineering at the undergraduate level at the
Department of Electrical Engineering in the College of
Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL)
to stimulate educational innovation and the development
of skilled graduates for the public and private sectors. The
project combines e-learning with the M&S approach
within the same environment, helping students to better
understand the complexity of todays dynamic systems.
The outcome of this NSF project has been published in
several papers [Meller and Vakilzadian, 2012; Meller
and Vakilzadian, 2010; Vakilzadian and Meller, 2010].
However, in contrast to the increase in the utilization
of e-learning, developing e-learning strategies and
content, implementing courseware, and evaluating the
outcomes poses difficulties and challenges that need to be
addressed. Developing good courseware in engineering,
which may involve automating design and construction
processes, is a complex task and is hard to achieve. The
reason for this is the lack of certain frameworks that are
able to truly deliver essential dynamic learning products.
In contrast, the availability of the Internet everywhere
and rapid advances in ICT has led to the opportunity to
connect everything with anything. This allows embedding
e-learning on the mobile devices in the form of melearning, a term that reflects the option of mobility in the
e-learning approach.
Traditional e-learning offers educational content as
digital content on the web that can be viewed and printed
through a browser. It includes mostly multimedia content
and hyperlinks to access other sources and/or
explanations and allows integration of additional
graphics, video, audio, animation, and/or interactive
simulation, enabling a better understanding of the
complexity of the content as an additional value. A
student can also study at a time and location of his/her
choosing, enabling an independent form of learning with
other learners and/or instructors.
The fact that online education allows intensive
interaction among students and with instructors is
probably the biggest benefit of e-learning from an
instructional perspective, since it allows access to
resources and information anywhere in the world.
With the advances in online learning technology,
students can enjoy a rich range of interactions while
benefiting from e-learning's flexible scheduling and userdirected pacing. It offers alternatives for meeting national
needs for skilled professionals using time periods that are
shorter than those in conventional teaching methodology
[Meller and Vakilzadian, 2012].
However, the strategy advocated now is to step outside
the pure e-learning concept and introduce a hybrid

approach called blended learning (BL) that leads to better


achievement and higher satisfaction than pure e-learning.
In this approach, e-learning is combined with some form
of human interaction. In engineering, blended learning is
a combination of different modes and models of delivery
and styles which also make use of the laboratory as part
of an embedded collaborative virtual lab. The lab work is
organized through the remote access approach [Meller
and Schroer, 2011]. To run the lab work through the
remote access facility, students, called clients, access a
web page, which activates the web server application of
the lab work model, as shown in Fig. 1. When students
are logged in, the web server redirects them to their actual
lab work model. Data exchange occurs according to the
simple request-response method. The HTTP client of the
student sends a request to the HTTP server that processes
it and returns the response. Students and server establish a
connection via an interface for data exchange. Students
can access the lab work and are allowed to change
parameters and/or the lab work model itself. All
experimental data can be exported for further study.

Fig. 1. Infrastructure scheme of web-based remote access


The changes through technological innovations of the
past few years show a significant trend in the direction of
more mobile use of the Internet, because modern
equipment offers better options. Thus, the consequences
of the state of the art in e-learning are:
Past: access mostly through stationary personal
computers (PCs).
Today: access via Notebooks, tablets (iPad, etc.),
MP3 players (iPods), and smartphones is on the way
Tablets and smartphones show me-learning
content as Website or App
o Website: representation in the browser; meet
the technological options and constraints of
modern browsers
Pros: easy to achieve and is platform
independent
o App: autonomous programs

Pros:
use of smartphone/tablet
resources
Cons: complex, native programming for
each operating system (e.g., iOS,
Android) necessary.
In general, the pros and cons of me-learning are:
Pros:
me-learning content can be offered
independent of time and location; new scenarios
are feasible, such as the use of new time slots
(bus, train, etc.); mobile units allow fast and easy
to handle communication with other learners/
instructors, and more.
Cons: Smartphones have small displays which
result
in
presentation
restrictions;
smartphones/tablets without WLAN means
changing bandwidth reduces the possibility of
adequate streaming, high resolution graphics,
etc.; thus, downloading learning content to avoid
online connection.
Blended e-learning must fulfill the requirements of
todays digital native. This term has been used in
education [Bennet, Maton, and Kervin, 2008], higher
education [Jones and Shao, 2011], and in association with
the term New Millennium Learners, introduced by OECD
in 2008. In this regard, a digital immigrant is an
individual born before the existence of digital technology
and who has adopted it to some extent later in life. If
blended e-learning enables and supports learning within
transportation systems, such as bus, train, car, airplane,
ship, ferry, etc., it becomes the me-learning approach
which requires new forms of content delivery. The user
interface to broadcast learning object (LO) content in a
web browser is only a part of the necessary improvements
but the most important one because the user interface is
the gateway between the learner (full-time students, parttime students employed in industry, engineers entering the
job market, and midcareer engineers in industry) and the
learning materials. Therefore, features from psychology
and ICT have to be considered and summarized as
human-machine-interaction which deals with the useroriented design of interactive systems and their humanmachine or user interfaces [Meller and Sitzmann, 2012].
In short, the user interface must be designed in such a way
that it is easy and intuitive to use, independent of the front
end, as indicated in Fig. 2.
Since people are different and feel different about
"good," "beautiful," or "learning supportive" user
interfaces for the online computer engineering (TIO)
project, we created a widely adaptive layout. A first draft
is given in Fig. 3 [Meller and Sitzmann, 2012].
To accomplish the adaptive layout, a standard
template, which defines basic features of the user
interface, e.g., where the navigation or the content is
placed, a good look and feel, has been developed.
Working with the me-learning system, various properties
are customizable depending on individual taste; colors,

fonts, sizes can be freely chosen. Moreover, it is possible


to fade in or out other content elements, such as alternate
representations, links, additional resources, surveys, chats,
forums, etc. Thus, the user interface provides the potential
for adapting the system to users needs.

Fig. 2. Front ends in me-learning.

Fig. 3. TIO e-learning user interface example of the


online course Embedded Systems.
2.

TEACHING WITH TECHNOLOGY


As previously mentioned, education has undergone
major changes in recent years. The most relevant impact
on education originates from the availability of mobile
technologies which combine the functions of phones,
cameras, multimedia wireless computers, and more.
Mobile technologies enable the introduction of new
concepts in learning, such as lifelong learning (LLL), an
important approach to training the workforce of tomorrow
by increasing their:
Creativity
Initiative
Responsiveness
to facilitate adaptability by enhancing skills to:

Manage uncertainty
Communicate across and within cultures, subcultures,
families, and communities
Negotiate conflicts
The emphasis of LLL is on how to learn and how to
keep learning for a lifetime. Thus, lifelong learning uses
formal and informal learning opportunities, throughout
people's lives to foster continuous development and
improvement of the knowledge and skills needed for
employment and personal fulfillment through:
Learning to know: mastering learning rather than the
acquisition of structured knowledge.
Learning to do: equipping people for the types of
work needed now and in the future, including
innovation and adaptation of learning about future
work environments.
Learning to be: education contributing to a persons
complete development: mind and body, intelligence,
sensitivity, aesthetic appreciation, and spirituality.
In Table 1, the convergence between several learning
approaches and technology is shown.

Learning Approach
Technology Used
Learner centered
User centered
Situated
Mobile
Collaborative
Networked
Ubiquitous
Ubiquitous
Lifelong
Durable
Table 1: Convergence between learning approach and
technology used [Sharples, Taylor and Vavoula, 2005].
Using mobile technology learning can be regarded as
situated, collaborative, ubiquitous, pervasive, and/or
lifelong complementing the actual know how to become
updated with the latest knowledge in the area of
concentration. Moreover, mobile technology allows the
sharing of knowledge with others, independent of their
location. Thus, learning becomes ubiquitous with regard
to the mobile technology embedded in most digital
devices and/or units that perform human-oriented
functions. These devices and/or units are also becoming
more durable when it comes to storing content in
whatever format makes it possible to build backward
compatibility. This allows the preservation and
organization of digital records of humans learning over a
lifetime.
The rise in Internet availability elsewhere and the
continual transformation occurring in software and
telecommunication services has led to the ability to
connect everything with anything. One of the first
opportunities to arise was the concept of mobile and
ubiquitous computing, a term introduced by Mark Weiser
in the 1990s [Weiser, 1993]. It refers to the process of
seamlessly integrating microcomputers into the real
world. Thus ubiquitous computing allows embedding

computing everywhere. Early forms of ubiquitous


computing networks are evident in the widespread use of
mobile devices, the number of which worldwide
surpassed 2.5 billion in mid-2010. These little gadgets
have become an integral and intimate part of everyday life
for many millions of people.
As computers become ubiquitous, they cease being the
focus of activity, which allow them to vanish into the
background. Ubiquitous computing, however, includes
computer technology which is available in digital
cameras, microprocessors, smartphones, and other
devices. Broadcasting ubiquitous computing into
ubiquitous learning results in the interaction where
students use their mobile technology gadgets to become
connected with the manifold digital embedded devices
and/or services. Therefore, in a ubiquitous learning
classroom, students browse around the ubiquitous space
built by mobile technology to interact with the various
embedded digital devices and/or services. Thus,
ubiquitous learning has the potential to enhance education
in a sustainable manner and remove many of the
constraints of traditional education, e.g., allowing
customization in relation to student needs, building up the
basis of a mobile-technology-based ubiquitous
community. In this learning method, everything is:
Traceable
Identifiable
Connected together,
and smart phones are used as digital, low-cost computing
and communication devices representing the platform.
Thus, the platform capacity creates the concept in which
sharing information between objects and devices
connected to the ubiquitous space becomes a reality, a
real constraint of u-learning facilitated through the
Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. IoT was first used by
Kevin Ashton in 1999 and refers to uniquely identifiable
objects/things and their virtual representations in an
Internet-like structure.
IoT is an approach linking a smart world with
ubiquitous computing and networking, making different
activities easier to attain. This can be achieved by sensors
and actuators embedded in real-world objects linked
through both wired and wireless networks to the Internet.
When objects in the IoT can sense the environment,
interpret data, and communicate with each other, they
become tools for understanding complexity and
responding to events and irregularities swiftly. Thus, the
IoT is seen by many as a solution with insight into
complex real-world processes.
Started one decade ago as a wild academic idea, this
interlinking of the real-world and cyberspace foreshadows
an exciting endeavor highly relevant to researchers,
corporations, and individuals. Thus, ubiquitous computing
refers to computing which is embedded in every
object/thing. Ubiquitous computing allows computing to

be embedded everywhere. In this sense, IoT offers a


multitude of services, such as:
Person to person
Person to machine
Machine to person
Machine to machine
And more
Thus, a u-Learning space (ULS) or u-Learning
environment (ULE) can be introduced as a setting of
pervasive education where data are present in the form of
embedded digital mobile-technology-based objects.
Objects or things are normally introduced as natural
systems, physical systems, humans, sensors, actors,
computers, and more. They just have to be there.
Comparing u-Learning with me-learning, the level of
embedding can be low while the level of mobility has to
be high because me-learning is implemented in
lightweight devices, such as smart phones, PDAs, and
more, to become handy and usable anywhere. Internet
access with wireless communication technology,
however, is necessary to enable me-learning anytime and
anywhere.
Therefore, u-Learning requires embedded digital
mobility technologies, as previously mentioned, because
learners are moving around with their mobile devices
and/or units. This necessitates dynamic learning support
through communication with embedded computers in the
learning environment [Ogata and Yano, 2012].
Developing a u-Learning space has to take into
account the outcome of the existing learning theories in
terms of best practices, such as a structured relationship
between information and learners understanding in
educational settings. This helps to prevent learning
isolated from a meaningful context. For example, if a
student understands why and how something happens
rather than just being told that it is true, then the
information is more relevant and, therefore, is more
meaningful to the student. The rationale for this is that
how is the inclusion of the pedagogical information; and
why is the inclusion of interactive learning, allowing
students to create knowledge from what they perceive.
From a more technical perspective, the main hardware
components of a u-Learning space are:
Microcontrollers/computers:
embedded
in
objects/things, allowing the storing of information
about objects/things.
Server: provides client stations with access to files
and/or units and a database that stores all data about
objects/units, users and interactions, as shared
resources to a computer network.
Wireless communication technology: mostly in the
form of Bluetooth and WiFi.
Sensors: used to detect changes in the u-Learning
space; placed adjacent to objects/units and will be

used to recognize the presence of students in the uLearning space.


Thus, u-Learning can be defined as being supported by
embedded computer networks in everyday life based on
the specific types of learning environments [Lyytinen and
Yoo, 2002]. This development has allowed access to
global communications and increased the number of
resources available to today's students at all levels of
teaching.
After
the
initial
impact
of
microcontrollers/computers and their applications in
education, the introduction of e-learning and me-learning
epitomized the transformations occurring in education.
The mission of ubiquitous computing in education
distinguishes another step forward with ubiquitous
learning (u-Learning) emerging with the concept of
ubiquitous computing. U-Learning is pervasive and
persistent, allowing students to access educational
material flexibly, calmly, and seamlessly. In this sense,
ubiquitous learning has the potential for making education
easier to achieve, removing many physical constraints of
other forms of learning. Furthermore, the integration of
adaptive learning with ubiquitous learning allows us to
hope for innovation in the delivery of education, allowing
customization to student needs. Adaptive learning itself is
an educational method which uses computers as
interactive teaching devices. In this regard, computers
adapt the educational material to students' learning
requirements, as indicated by their responses to questions
and tasks. The seamless interaction between students and
devices/units in ubiquitous learning can be introduced as
follows:
Students arrive and observe the object in the M&S
area of concentration. Adjacent sensors detect
students presence and send data about the object to
the student's mobile device/unit.
Objects will access the u-Learning environment
server module and request information about the
student.
However, being capable of both networked and
independent operation, the object can operate alone and
transmit data such as student information or data
previously accessed, in a format suitable for that
particular student using the u-learning environment server
M&S module, and more. If the student has responded
correctly to information in the past, this information will
be transmitted [Jones and Jo, 2004]. This allows sending
the required content to a students smart device and
transmitting the students response to the u-Learning
environment server component. The communication
workflow is as follows:
M&S Object No. 1 is accessed by Student No. 1.
Information of M&S Object No. 1 is sent to Student
No. 1.
Student No. 1 responds to information received.
M&S Object No. 1 analyses the student's response
about information. No. 1 to identify the percentage of

understanding the M&S context. This will be done


with the help of the u-Learning server module.
This information, e.g., Student No. 1 understands
55% of the M&S topic area of concentration, is
relayed to all other objects in the u-space.
Let Student No. 1 now access M&S Object No. 2
which is aware of what Student No. 1 already knows
about M&S and will attempt to explain some of the
remaining content. Hence, Students No. 1s interaction
with the u-Learning space M&S objects during a uLearning access (session) can be tracked and stored on the
u-Learning M&S module server. If Student No. 1 joins
the u-Learning space again, the system is aware of student
No. 1s knowledge gained. The student will be assisted in
constructing a learning plan based on knowledge gained
to date. This results in an enhanced learning experience
and a deeper understanding of content in the M&S area of
concentration.
The availability of the Internet everywhere and rapid
advances in ICT have led to the opportunity to connect
everything with anything, whereby everything with
anything consists of the M&S learning objects and the
students. Thus, the M&S learning objects in the IoT based
u-Learning space can sense the progress in individual
learning, interpret data, and communicate with the
student. Therefore, u-Learning has become a method of
better understanding of system complexity and for
responding to events and irregularities swiftly.
3. QUALITY ASSURANCE
The prime objective is to create a customized u-Learning
process
to
make
development,
editing,
and
implementation sustainable. The central focus of the uLearning approach lies in development and testing of
various integrated processes including:
A process for qualification of instructors (as a topdown model) to gain experience in efficiently
developing and implementing u-Learning materials
within a short period of time with minimum cost.
Developing instruments to simplify the qualification,
production, and implementation of u-Learning
processes that will focus on didactics, appropriate
technology, low cost, and sustainability.
Production of high-quality, u-Learning content
(learning objects) to provide a venue for more
effective learning by qualified teaching personnel,
efficient utilization of the u-Learning course
modules, and other instruments of u-Learners, and
replication of the system and u-Learning materials to
different learners in various learning scenarios.
4.

M&S COURSE OFFERS


The Computational Modeling and Simulation (CMS)
course sequence of two 30-hour course modules covers
the required M&S topics, based on LOs. The LOs offer
two teaching options:
1. face-to-face (f2f) with me-learning support

2. me-learning with f2f and u-Learning support


The topics of the LOs of the CMS course modules are:
CMS I
LO No.
Topic
1
Introduction
2
Modeling and Simulation
3
Continuous System
Simulation
4
Mathematical Description of
Continuous Time Systems
5
Simulation Software
6
Verification and Validation
CMS II
LO No.
Topic
1
Discrete Event Modeling
2
Discrete Event Simulation
3
Stochastic Modeling
4
Stochastic Simulation
5
Simulation Software
5
Applications
To deepen the understanding of an application of
CMS, a capstone project course has to be taken which is a
weekly 3 hour workload. Working platforms for the
capstone project are simulation software like MATLAB
Simulink, ProModel, etc., for hands-on study. Thus,
students can run their own CMS-based capstone project
work solution and operate it as clients in a student team
project. It has been observed that students become highly
motivated, learning the basic and more advanced concepts
of CMS and how these concepts can be applied to realworld complex systems and diverse smart entity
applications in this way.
This M&S program area of specialization has to be
implemented by a set of agreed upon outcomes that
prepare graduates to attain the programs educational
objectives, shown in the following table:

Ability to apply mathematics, engineering,


science, and computing principles.

Ability to design and conduct experiments and to


analyze and interpret the data.

Ability to design system, component, or process


models to meet desired needs within realistic
constraints, such as economic, environmental,
social, political, ethical, health and safety,
manufacturability, and sustainability.

Ability to function in multidisciplinary teams.

Ability to identify, formulate, and solve mathematical, engineering and scientific problems by
selecting and applying appropriate methods.

Ability to understand professional and ethical


responsibility.

Ability to communicate effectively.

Table 2: Selection of qualification criteria, following the


ABET model.

To measure the expected learning outcome, key


questions, as shown in Table 3, have been used to identify
interactively whether students can go or not beyond the
what and how of the content to include the
explanation of why.
1. Describe what is meant by systems.
2. What is meant by continuous-time simulation?
3. Demonstrate an understanding of discrete-event
system simulation.
4. Describe the difference between discrete-event and
continuous-time modeling and simulation.
5. Describe the methodology beyond stochastic
simulation.
6. Why do we need verification and validation of
simulation models?
Table 3: Expected learning outcome.
5. OUTLOOK
The planned u-Learning space in the M&S domain will
use entity-entity oriented IoT services. The reason for that
is that the IoT services can be monitored in real time.
Hence, dependent of their actual status, the IoT services
automatically
can
react
through
IoT-enabling
technologies such as:
RFID: Radio-frequency identification devices, so
called tags, are a prerequisite for the IoT and uLearning application. So far, the objects of the M&S
u-Learning space are equipped with tags that can be
identified and tracked by the IoT computers.
Sensor technology: opening new frontiers for
improving the processes in the M&S u-Learning
space. Thus, installing seas of sensors allows a much
greater granularity monitoring student interactivity.
Therefore, the main features of the planned M&S uLearning space, besides others, are:
User data base with learners profile containing
name, age, gender, study program, area of
concentration, interests, etc.
U-space data base with data of LOs, rooms and
buildings, links between LOs, and expressions in the
LOs.
Hence, this planned u-space environment will allow
students to access the M&S u-Learning space in various
contexts and situations using their RFID-based wild cards.
The M&S u-Learning space will also examine students
knowledge and include the comprehensive level in the
LOs. In addition, the u-Learning space will be able to
detect a learners comprehension during system use,
giving advice to the learner and instructor, if enabled.
Therefore, in the u-Learning space, students are immersed
in the learning process. This can be interpreted as
pervasive learning because the LOs are all around the
student, but the student may not even be conscious of the
learning process. They must only be there.

6. CONCLUSION
The concept of u-Learning goes beyond portable
computers. It can be seamlessly embedded into a uLearning space and will become the major teaching
technique using the technology paradigm. Thus, using uLearning course modules is an ideal problem-oriented
learning strategy.
7.

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AUTHORS BIOGRAPHS
DIETMAR P.F. MLLER is a Professor for Stochastic
Models in Engineering Science at Clausthal University of
Technology (TUC), Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics
and Mechanical Engineering, Germany. He is also a
Professor at the University of Hamburg, Germany, and
Director of the McLeod Institute of Simulation Sciences
at TUC. His current research interests include
aeronautical and space engineering, computational
modeling and simulation, embedded intelligent systems,
hardware-software co-design, me-and u-Learning,
multimodal transportation and logistics, robotics,
transportation system analysis, modeling and simulation.
ROLAND E. HAAS is a Professor for Embedded
Systems at the International Institute of Information
Technology Bangalore (IIITB), India. His current
research interests include automotive IT, embedded
systems and advanced product data management,
engineering workflow automation, concurrent and
simultaneous engineering as well as knowledge-based
engineering. He is also interested in the architectural and
performance aspects of complex software systems as well
as design issues of mechatronic and embedded systems.
HAMID VAKILZADIAN is an Associate Professor for
Electrical Engineering at the University of NebraskaLincoln (UNL). He is a Region 4 Technical Activities
Chair of IEEE. His current research interests include
computational modeling and simulation, microcomputers,
logic design and analysis, embedded systems, and
curriculum development.