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# INCLINED PLANE

EXPERIMENT
FMB32302 - ENGINEERING MECHANICAL
PRACTICAL

## UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

MALAYSIA FRANCE

STUDENTINSTITUTE
NAME:

50214114029
50214114227
SYED AHMED FARIS BIN HASHIM
50218114265

TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.

DESCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION

MAIN OBJECTIVE

THEORY

EXPERIMENT

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION
What we call wedges or slides in everyday language are called inclined planes in
physics-speak. From our experience on slides during recess in elementary school, sledding
down hills in the winter, and skiing, we know that when people are placed on slippery
inclines, they slide down the slope. We also know that slides can sometimes be sticky, so that
when you are at the top of the incline, you need to give yourself a push to overcome the force
of static friction. As you descend a sticky slide, the force of kinetic friction opposes your
motion. In this section, we will consider problems involving inclined planes both with and
without friction.

In physics there are several mechanisms called simple machines. The inclined plane is
one of these. Basically, a simple machine can give you a force advantage when you are
moving something, often lifting something. A job that requires a lot of force can be made to
require much less force if a simple machine is applied to the problem.
An inclined plane when used as a ramp is a simple machine because it takes less force
to push an object up the ramp than to lift it vertically straight up. So a person who is not
strong enough to lift a box up to a higher level could be able to push it up a long shallow
ramp to the higher location, especially if the box had wheels to keep the friction low. The

ramp allows the job of raising the box to be done with less force than the weight of the box.

MAIN OBJECTIVE
The objectives of the experiment are to study the relationship between forces, angle of
inclination and the coefficient of friction for various types of materials.

THEORY
An inclined plane is a simple machine, consisting of a sloping surface, whose purpose
is to reduce the force that must be "directly" applied to raise a load. Note that the force
required is not reduced, but is "spread out" to allow the application of less force over a longer
period. From this experiment the explanation of the free body diagram about an inclined
plane will reveal.

Applied
force, F

Normal
force, N

Friction
force, fs

Weight, W = mg
Figure 1: free body diagram for static friction

To identify the different between static friction and kinetic friction, kinetic friction
acts to resist the motion of an object sliding across a surface, static friction is the force which
keeps a motionless object from being pushed or pulled across a surface.

fk
H

W = mg
B
Figure 2: free body diagram for kinetic friction.
N = normal force that is perpendicular to the plane (N)
F = applied force (N)
fk = friction force (N)
W = mg (kg); m = mass of object

## = Angle of elevation of the plane, measured from the horizontal

If a block is at rest on a horizontal surface, it is acted upon only by the normal force
and the gravitational force. If the surface is inclined by a small angle, , a component of the
gravitational force acts downward along the surface of the board. The magnitude of this
component is mg sin. If the block doesn't slide, then it is acted on by the static frictional
force, fs, which exactly balance the mg sin component of the object's weight.
If the inclination of the surface is increased further, the static friction reaches a
maximum strength. Unlike kinetic friction, which is roughly constant at low speeds, static
friction varies to resist other forces on the block. The formula for static friction, gives only
the maximum possible value of the static frictional force. The formula is as follows:

fs max = s N

s =

## Static friction coefficient:

For applied forces greater than the maximum force of static friction or if the surface is
inclined so much the block starts to slip and then the value for friction becomes kinetic
friction (fk) and the box is then under a net force so it start accelerates. The formula for
kinetic friction:

f k = k N

## By Newtons second law,

F = Fapplied + fk = Fapplied - k N = ma = 0
Fapplied = k N

k =

## Coefficient of friction can be determine by using trigonometry, where,

F = f - k N = ma = 0
W sin - k W cos = 0

k =

= tan =

EXPERIMENT
Experiment 1
Objective:
a) Understand the concept of static friction and kinetic friction
b) To determine the coefficient of static friction and kinetic friction between various
materials and the effect of weight on frictions
Safety & Precaution
a) Do not attempt to change the setting of the digital meter.
b) No body part should be underneath the weight hanger with weights.
c) Ensure the adjustable sliding bar is properly secured before conducting the
experiment.

## Equipments & Accessories:

a) LS-12006 Inclined plane apparatus
b) Set of weight
c) Digital protractor
d) Different material carriers
Procedure
1. Level the inclined plane (A) to a horizontal position.
2. Next, chose a specimen (D) and record its weight as R.
3. Then place the specimen onto the horizontal plane (A), somewhere down the
plane.
4. Connect a cord to the specimen hook as provided.
5. Run the cord over the pulley (B) and place the hanger into the other end of the
cord.
6. Put a 20g weight on to the hanger.
7. Does the specimen slide or move?
8. If it does not, place another 20g weight.
9. Repeat the process by adding weight until the specimen slides/moves along the
horizontal plane. Record down the weights + hanger weight that cause the test
specimen to move in constant velocity as Fs. At the same time, take down the
previous weights + hanger weight and denote it as Fk.
10. Repeat step 6 to 9 by adding 100g of weight on top of the specimen for 4 set of
results.
11. Repeat the experiment with different test specimens.
12. Compute the coefficient of static and kinetic friction for all the cases.

Results
Material

Stainless Steel

R(N)

Fs (N)

Fk (N)

2.52117

0.7848

0.3112

0.1962

0.0778

3.50217

1.1772

0.3361

0.7848

0.2241

4.48317

1.373

0.3063

1.1772

0.2626

5.46417

1.8639

0.3411

1.373

0.2513

Material

PVC

R(N)

Fs (N)

Fk (N)

0.562113

0.3924

0.6981

0.1962

0.349

1.540113

0.5886

0.3822

0.3924

0.2548

2.524113

0.7847

0.3109

0.5886

0.2332

3.505113

1.1772

0.3359

0.7847

0.239

Material

Mild Steel

R(N)

Fs (N)

Fk (N)

2.768382

0.7848

0.2835

0.1962

0.0709

3.755268

1.1772

0.3135

0.7848

0.209

4.736268

1.6677

0.352

1.1772

0.2486

5.717268

1.8639

0.326

1.6677

0.2917

Material

Brass

R(N)

Fs (N)

Fk (N)

3.051891

1.1772

0.3857

0.1962

0.064

4.032891

1.3734

0.3405

1.1772

0.2919

5.032891

2.0601

0.409

1.3734

0.2729

6.032891

2.0601

0.3415

2.0601

0.3415

Material

Aluminium

R(N)

Fs (N)

Fk (N)

0.994734

0.5886

0.5917

0.1962

0.1972

1.975734

0.7848

0.3972

0.5886

0.2979

2.975734

1.1772

0.3956

0.7848

0.2637

3.975734

1.3734

0.3454

1.1772

0.2961

Useful Equation ;
Calculate the coefficient of friction as follows:
s = Fs/R
k = Fk/R

Sample calculation:
R (N) = Weight of specimen (KG) X 9.81
For example material Stainless steel :
Weight of specimen, 0.257 KG X 9.81 = 2.52117 N
R = 2.52117 N
Fs = hanger weights + weight that cause the test
specimen to move

s = Fs/R

For example :

= 0.7848 N / 2 .52117 N

= 0.3112 N

## Weight that cause test specimen move = 60g @ 0.5886 N

Fs = 0.1962 N + 0.5886 N
= 0.7848 N
Fk = previous weights + hanger weight
k = Fk/R
= 0.1962 N / 2 .52117 N
= 0.0778 N

For example :
Previous weights = 0g @ 0N
Hanger weight = 20g @ 0.1962 N
Fk = 0 N + 0.1962 N
= 0.1962 N

Experiment 2
Objective:
a) Study the effect of angle of inclination on the coefficient of friction
Safety & Precaution
a) Do not attempt to change the setting of the digital meter.
b) No body part should be underneath the weight hanger with weights.
c) Ensure the adjustable sliding bar is properly secured before conducting the
experiment.
Equipments & Accessories:
a) LS-12006 Inclined plane apparatus
b) Set of weight
c) Digital protractor
d) Different material carriers
Procedure
1. Set the incline plane to the required angle (Le 15) of inclination with the use of
the digital angle displaying meter.
2. Next, chose a specimen (D) and record its weight as R.
3. Then place the specimen onto the horizontal plane (A), somewhere center the

plane.
4. Connect a cord to the specimen hook as provided.
5. Run the cord over the pulley (B) and place the hanger into the other end of the
cord.
6. Put a 20g weight on to the hanger.
7. Does the specimen slide or move?
8. If it does not, place another 20g weight.
9. Repeat the process by adding weight until the specimen slides/moves along the
horizontal plane. Record down the weights + hanger weight that cause the test
specimen to move in constant velocity as F.
10. Repeat the experiment with different test specimens.
11. Compute the coefficient of friction for all the cases.

Results :
Angle (degree)

15

Material

R(N)

R cos (N)

F(N)

Mild Steel

2.774268

26.83

1.7658

0.6365

PVC

0.562113

5.43

0.3924

0.543

Brass

3.051891

2.948

1.8639

0.611

Aluminum

0.994734

0.961

0.7848

0.789

Sample calculation :
Example specimen from Mild Steel material.
R = Weight of specimen X 9.81
= 0.1041g X 9.81

= 0.994734 N

= 15
R cos (N) = 0.994734 N cos 15
= 0.961 N

## Hanger weight = 20g @ 0.1962 N

Weight that cause test specimen move = 170g @ 1.6677 N
F(N) = Hanger weights + hanger weight that cause the test specimen to move
= 0.1962 N + 1.6677 N
= 1.8639 N

s = F(N)/R
= 1.8693 / 3.051891
= 0.611

CONCLUSION
On the inclined plane the weight is considered as two components. On the inclined
plane the pull of gravity, or the weight of the object, does two things, that is the weight causes
the object to push into and, if the object slides, to rub against the surface of the incline and
the weight causes the object to be pulled down the slant of the incline.
The component of the weight called the perpendicular force pushes the object into the
surface of the incline. This force causes the bottom of the object to rub against the top of the
incline's surface. The larger this force is, the larger friction will be. The object will not move
in this direction unless the surface of the incline, or the ramp, is not strong enough to
withstand this push. If the incline is strong enough, it will push back equally and oppositely
to this perpendicular force and prevent the object from going this way. If the incline is not
strong enough, like if you put an elephant on a ramp made of soda crackers, this force would
crush the incline.
The component of the weight called the parallel force pulls the object down the
incline. Without friction, this force would cause the object to accelerate down the incline. If
friction was present but less than this parallel force, then there would still be an acceleration
down the incline, but it would be less of an acceleration than you would see on a frictionless
inclined plane. In some cases static, or starting, friction could be greater than this parallel
force, and the object would not start to move.
Thus, what we can conclude from this experiments are theres an extra force to deal
with. The force of friction will oppose the downhill component of the gravitational force. If

the force of gravity is strong enough to overcome the force of friction, the object will
accelerate down the plane. Because the two masses are connected by a rope, we know that
they will have the same velocity and acceleration. We also know that the tension in the rope is
constant throughout its length. Because

## , we know that when the system is

released from rest, mass M will move downward and mass m will slide up the inclined plane.

REFERENCES
www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/labman1/incplane.htm
zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/forces/inclinedPlane/inclinedPlane.
html
www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter8section3.rhtml

APPENDIX