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Discrete Math Test Problems

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MA 193

Fall 2015

[1]

How many ways are there to form a three letter sequence using the letters a,b,c,d,e,f

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solution;

(a)

6.5.4 = 120

( b)

63

(c)

3.5.4 = 60

[2]

how many non empty different collections can be formed from five identical apples and eight identical

oranges ?

Solution:

54-1 = 53 ( there are 6 possible values for apples and 9 possible values for oranges. Subtract the one

collection which has neither apples nor oranges since problem asked for non empty collection )

[3]

How many different sequences of Heads and Tails are possible if a coin is flipped 100 times ??

Solution ; 2100

[4]

How many ways are there to pick 2 different cards from a standard deck of 52 cards such that ;

(a)

(b)

the first card is a spade and second card is NOT a Queen ? ( beware the Queen of Spades )

Solution;

(a)

4. 47 = 188

(b)

(1.48) + ( 12. 47 ) = 612 ( break up into two mutually exclusive events. First card picked is a Queen

of spade or Not )

[5]

(a)

how many 4 letter words ( sequence of letters with repetition ) are there in which the first and last

letters are

vowels ( ie: a,e,io,u ) ?

(b)

what if vowels appear only (if at all ) in the first and last letter ?

Solution;

(a)

52 . 262

(b)

262 . 212 ( the middle two letters must not be vowels so 212 while first and last letters

can be anything )

[6]

how many different 8 digit binary sequences are there with six 1s and two 0s ??

Solution

8

6

[7]

A coin is flipped 15 times. How many different sequences of 15 Heads and Tails are possible in which

solution;

11

3

2 440

2

choose 2 Tails in the first 11 flips followed by Tail on 12th flip. Then remainder can be

anything which is 23

[ 8] there are 10 white balls and 5 red balls in a box. How many ways can you select 3 white and 2 red balls ?

What is the probability that this will occur ?

Solution;

10 5

3 2

[9]

10 5

3 2

15

5

probability is

How many ways are there to arrange the letters REPLETE with no consecutive Es ? ( ie; cannot

have any Es together ) what is the probability that this will occur ?

Solution;

5

4!

3

-RPLT-

will

Result in word that does NOT have any consecutive Es.

RPLT can be arranged in 4! Ways.

7!

3!

so probability is

[ 10 ]

(a)

(b)

what is

n

i

2

i

i 0

n

(c)

verify

n

n i i

3n

5 3 2

i

i 0

x 25 y 75

in

(d)

(e)

bc in

(f)

a 4 b 2 c in

Solution

(a)

binomial expansion so

50

40

2

40

3x y

100

a 3b 2 c 6

a 3b 2 c 6

5

4!

3

7!

3!

(b)

n

(c)

n

n i i

5 3

i

i 0

53

8n 23 n

100

75

1

25

(d)

(e)

3 2 6

(f)

3 2 6

25

therefore sum is 3n

1, 1, 6

4, 2, 1, 1

[ 11 ]

(a)

show that

n

n

n3 3!

1

2

(b)

n

3 !

3

13 23 33 43

n3

evaluate

(c)

evaluate

12 k 1 k k 1

k 0

n

(d)

evaluate

2 3k

k 0

(e)

evaluate

n

1 2

1

k 1

n

n 1

n

Solution

(a)

And

n3

n n 1 n 2

n

3! 3 n 2 2n

3

3 n 2 2n

n n

n2 2!

2 1

n n

n

n

3! 3 2 !

2

1

3

2 1

k

k 1

n 1 n 1

3

2

2!

n

n n

3! 3!

3

2 1

k3

(b)

k 1

k 1

k

k k

3 ! 3 !

3

2 1

n 1

n 1

3

2

12 k 1 k k 1

(c)

k 0

n 1

6

n 1

6

k 1

3!

3

12

k 0

n 1

n n 1

n 1

n 2

by #5 on handout of binomial

4

12 3!

identity

(d)

n

4 12 k 9 k 2

(e)

2n n 2n1

k 0

4

k 0

12 k 9

k 0

k

k 0

n 1

n 1

9 2

3

2

4 n 1 12

[ 12 ] In how many ways can 10 identical candies be distributed among five children if

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solution:

(a)

10 5 1

10

5 5 1

(b)

(c)

5 8 1

[ 13 ] How many ways can 20 coins be selected from four large containers filled with pennies, nickels,

dimes and quarters ? ( each container has only one type of coin )

solution;

n 1

2

4 20 1

20

[ 14 ]

An ice cream store has 31 different flavors of ice cream available. In how many ways can you order a dozen

ice ream cones if

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solution:

31

12

(a)

31 12 1

12

(b)

(c)

31 12 1

31

12

[ 15 ] How many ways can you toss 100 (identical) dice so that at least 3 of each type of face shows up ?

Solution

6 82 1

82

[ 16]

Two n-digit integers (leading zeros allowed) are considered equivalent if one is rearrangement of the other.

( for example 12033 , 20331, 01332 are considered equivalent five digit integers )

(a)

(b)

If the integers 1,3 and 7 appear at most once, how many non equivalent five digit integers are there ?

Solutions;

10 5 1

(a)

ie: the ten integers are ten distinct donuts. You are selecting 5 with repetion

allowed

(b)

7 5 1

3

5

7 4 1

3

4

7 3 1

7 2 1

ie: drop all three special digits (1,3 and 7) OR include one of the 3 digits OR include exactly two of the

special digits OR include all 3 of the special digits

[ 17]

How many ways are there to place 12 marbles into 5 distinct jars if;

(a)

(b)

Solutions

(a)

5 12 1

12

(b)

512

[ 18 ]

(a)

How many times is the PRINT statement executed in following program segment ?

FOR I = 1 to 20 do

FOR J= 1 to I

do

FOR K= 1 to J do

FOR M= 1 to K do

PRINT ( I love math )

(b)

What is the value of the counter after following program segment ?

( all variables I, J, N are integers )

COUNTER = 0

FOR I = 1 TO N DO

FOR J=1 TO I DO

COUNTER = COUNTER + 1

Solutions

(a)

(b)

20 1 4

N 1 2

[ 19 ]

You were bored so you tried tossing a coin 12 times and you got 5 Heads and 7 Tails.

In how many ways can these tosses result in

(a)

(b)

three runs

Solutions;

(a)

4

3

(b)

4

6

3

5

[ 20 ] ( a )

(b)

How many ways are there to roll ten distinct dice so that all six faces appear ?

How many ways are there to select 5 card hand from regular deck of 52 cards

so that the hand contains at least one card from each suit ?

(c)

how many ways are there to distribute 4 distinct objects into 3 distinct boxes with at least one empty

box ?

(d)

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 20

with

0 xi 8

solution;

(a)

610

6 10

6 10

6 10 6 10 6 10

5 4 3 2 1

4

5

1

2

3

4 39 4 26

1 5 2 5

(b)

52

5

(c)

3 4 3 4

2 1

1

2

(d)

6 16 6 7

25

20

1 11 2 2

Let A

[ 21 ]

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

1, 2

4 13

3 5

B

1, 2

Solution;

(a)

(b)

, 1 , 2 , 1, 2

(c)

1, 2, 3 , 1, 2, 4 ,

1, 2

1, 2 , 3 , 1, 2, 4

Let A

[ 22 ]

(a)

A a, b

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

a, b, c, a, b

solutions

(a)

c , a, b

(b)

(c)

find ;

a, b, c

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3, 4

P A

a, b, c

(d)

(e)

(f)

[ 23 ]

TRUE or FALSE ?

(a)

2 1, 2,3

(b )

(c )

0 0,1, 2

1 , 2 , 3

d 0 0,1, 2

(e) 0 , 2 , 4 0, 2, 4

( f )

( g ) 1, 2 1, 2, 3, 4

(h ) 1, 2, 3, 4

(i ) 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4

( j ) 1, 2 1, 2, 3

(k ) 0

(l )

(m)

(n)

(o)

4, 5, 6

4, 5, 6

Solutions

(a)

TRUE

(b)

FALSE

(c)

TRUE

(d)

(e)

(f)

FALSE - and

0 , 2 , 4

0, 2, 4

are two different ways to represent the empty set. By definition no object

can be an element of an empty set and also the empty set cannot be a member of itself

(g)

TRUE if C B then x x C x B

(h)

TRUE

(i)

TRUE

(j)

(k)

FALSE - because

(l)

FALSE because

(m)

(n)

power set is

(o)

4, 5, 6 ,

but

is

is not subset of

but

is not subset of

4, 5, 6 ,

5, 6 ,

5, 6 ,

4, 6 , 4, 5 , 4 , 5 ,

4, 6 , 4, 5 , 4 , 5 ,

so power set is

A ( B C ) = ( A B ) C

Solution - TRUE

[ 25 ] For A = { 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 }

Determine the number of

(a)

subsets of A

(b)

(c)

proper subsets of A

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Solution

(a)

27

(b)

27 1

(c)

27 1

6 ,

6 ,

(d)

27 2

(e)

7

3

(f)

25

(g)

5

3

(h)

7

7

7 7

6

0

2 4

(i)

7

7

7 7

7

1

3 5

[ 26 ]

A 1, 2, 3, 4 , B 2 , 5 , C 3 , 4 , 7

For

(a)

A B

(b)

B A

(c)

A U

B C

determine ;

Solution;

(a)

A B

1, 2 2, 2 3, 2 4, 2 1, 5 2, 5 3, 5 4, 5

(b)

B A

2,1 2, 2 2, 3 2, 4 5,1 5, 2 5, 3 5, 4

(c)

A U

[ 27 ]

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 2, 3 2, 4 2, 7 5, 3 5, 4 5, 7

x | x 7

B C

Let

C

x | x3 4 x 0

(a)

A B ( symmetric difference )

(b)

C B I C

(c)

( A B ) C

(d)

A(B-C)

x |

find ;

x2

Solutions;

Elements in each set are A

1, 2 , 3 , K

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6

A B

(b)

C B I C

(c)

A B C

1 , 6 , 0

(d)

A B C

, B

1, 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , C

Natural numbers

Z K 2 , 1, 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , K

(a)

Integers

0, 0 0, 2 2, 0 2, 2 2, 0 2, 2

6

2, 6

[ 28 ] For A 1 , 2 , 3 and

B 2 , 4, 5 determine ;

AB

(a)

(b)

(c)

number of relations on A

(d)

(e)

Solution;

(a)

A B

3.3 9

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

9

5

[ 29 ] For A a , b , c , d

(a)

reflexive

(b)

symmetric

(c)

1, 2

and

1, 5

0, 2 , 2

(d)

Solution;

(a)

212

24 26 210

(b)

[ 30 ] For A 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

(c)

26

(d)

211

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solution;

(a)

(b)

(c)

[ 50 ] Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }

How many symmetric relations on A contain exactly four ordered pairs ?

Solutions

7 21

4 0

7

2

21

7 21

1

0 2

[ 51 ] For each of following relations, determine whether the relation is reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric

or transitive

(a)

(b)

Solution;

(a)

(b)

symmetric

if x y

is odd

reflexive , symmetric , antisymmetric and transitive

(a)

x y iff x is a multiple of y

(b)

x y

(c)

x y iff x y

iff x y 2

Solutions

(a)

(b)

(c)

[ 32 ] If A

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

define R on A by

x , y

if x y is a multiple of 3

(a)

(b)

Solution

( a ) show that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive

(b)

1 4 7 1, 4, 7

A

1, 4, 7

2 5 2, 5

2, 5

3 6 3, 6

3, 6

(a)

reflexive

(b)

symmetric

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

antisymmetric

(g)

(h)

(i)

Solutions;

(a)

212

(b)

24 26

(c)

26

(d)

211

(e)

24 25

(f)

2436

(g)

2435

(h)

24

(i)

[ 34 ] let

(a)

A 1, 2, 3, 4 and B 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6

how many of these are one-to-one ?, how many are onto ?

(b)

how many of these are one-to-one ?, how many are onto ?

solutions;

6!

are one-to-one and none are onto

2!

(a)

64 functions ,

(b)

[ 35 ] How many seven letter passcode using letters { a ,b, c , d} have atleast one occurrence of each of the

four letters ?

Solution

solution: let A

B

a,b,c,d

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

4

1

k 0

4 k

4k

= 8400

30,030 = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 13

possible ?

One example is ( 2 x 3 x 5 ) ( 7 x 11 x 13 ) = 30 x 1001

Solution:

This is equivalent to distributing six distinct objects into two indistinguishable boxes with no box empty

Thus there are

S 6,2

[ 37 ] Let A

2 6

1 2

6

2 1

2 ! 2

1

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

31

B { v , w, x , y , z }

(a)

f A { v , x }

f A

(b)

Solution

(a)

2 ! S 7, 2

(b)

5

2 ! S 7, 2

2

[ 38 ] suppose we have 7 different colored balls and four empty containers labeled I,II,III and IV

(a)

in how many ways can we distribute the balls so that no container is empty ?

(b)

in this collection of 7 different colored balls, one of them is say blue. In how many ways can we

Distribute the balls so that no container is left empty and the blue ball is in container II ?

(c)

If we now remove the numbers from the four containers so they are no longer distinguishable, in how

many ways can we distribute the 7 colored balls among the 4 identical containers with some containers

possibly empty

Solution

(a)

4 ! S 7, 4

(b)

3 ! S 6, 3

(c)

S 7, 4

4 ! S 6, 4

S 7, 3 S 7, 2

S 7,1

[ 39 ]

(a)

How many ways are there to roll ten distinct dice so that all six faces appear ?

(b)

How many ways are there to select 5 card hand from regular deck of 52 cards

so that the hand contains at least one card from each suit ?

(c)

how many ways are there to distribute 4 distinct objects into 3 distinct boxes with at least one empty

box ?

Solution;

(a)

6 ! S 10 , 6

(b)

4! S 5 , 4

(c)

34 3 ! S 4 , 3

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