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Recommended problems

MA 193

Fall 2015

[1]

How many ways are there to form a three letter sequence using the letters a,b,c,d,e,f

(a)

without repetition of letters ?

(b)

with repetition of letters allowed ?

(c)

without repetition and containing the letter e once ?

Solution;
(a)

6.5.4 = 120

( b)

63

(c)

3.5.4 = 60

[2]

how many non empty different collections can be formed from five identical apples and eight identical
oranges ?

Solution:
54-1 = 53 ( there are 6 possible values for apples and 9 possible values for oranges. Subtract the one
collection which has neither apples nor oranges since problem asked for non empty collection )
[3]

How many different sequences of Heads and Tails are possible if a coin is flipped 100 times ??

Solution ; 2100

[4]

How many ways are there to pick 2 different cards from a standard deck of 52 cards such that ;

(a)

the first card is an Ace and second card is NOT a Queen ?

(b)

the first card is a spade and second card is NOT a Queen ? ( beware the Queen of Spades )

Solution;
(a)

4. 47 = 188

(b)

(1.48) + ( 12. 47 ) = 612 ( break up into two mutually exclusive events. First card picked is a Queen
of spade or Not )

[5]
(a)

how many 4 letter words ( sequence of letters with repetition ) are there in which the first and last

letters are
vowels ( ie: a,e,io,u ) ?
(b)

what if vowels appear only (if at all ) in the first and last letter ?

Solution;
(a)

52 . 262

(b)

262 . 212 ( the middle two letters must not be vowels so 212 while first and last letters

can be anything )

[6]

how many different 8 digit binary sequences are there with six 1s and two 0s ??

Solution
8

6

[7]

A coin is flipped 15 times. How many different sequences of 15 Heads and Tails are possible in which

the third Tail appears on the twelfth flip ?


solution;
11
3
2 440
2

choose 2 Tails in the first 11 flips followed by Tail on 12th flip. Then remainder can be

anything which is 23

[ 8] there are 10 white balls and 5 red balls in a box. How many ways can you select 3 white and 2 red balls ?
What is the probability that this will occur ?
Solution;

10 5

3 2

[9]

10 5

3 2
15

5

probability is

How many ways are there to arrange the letters REPLETE with no consecutive Es ? ( ie; cannot
have any Es together ) what is the probability that this will occur ?

Solution;
5
4!
3

consider the letters

-RPLT-

wherever there is a dash you can insert letter E. This

will
Result in word that does NOT have any consecutive Es.
RPLT can be arranged in 4! Ways.

Once you have inserted the Es, the other letters

Probability is just this divided by total number of ways to arrange 7

letters of which there are 3 of a kind. So denominator is

7!
3!

so probability is

[ 10 ]
(a)

what is the coefficient of x40 in ( 1 + 2x )50

(b)

what is

n
i
2
i

i 0
n

(c)

verify

n
n i i
3n
5 3 2
i

i 0

x 25 y 75

in

(d)

find the coefficient of

(e)

find the coefficient of

bc in

(f)

find the coefficient of

a 4 b 2 c in

Solution
(a)

binomial expansion so

50
40
2
40

3x y

100

a 3b 2 c 6

a 3b 2 c 6

5
4!
3
7!
3!

(b)

this is binomial expansion of ( 1 + 2 )n


n

(c)

n
n i i
5 3
i

i 0

53

8n 23 n

100
75

1
25

(d)

(e)

3 2 6

(f)

3 2 6

25

therefore sum is 3n

1, 1, 6

4, 2, 1, 1

[ 11 ]
(a)

show that

n
n
n3 3!
1
2
(b)

n
3 !
3
13 23 33 43
n3

evaluate

(c)

evaluate

12 k 1 k k 1
k 0
n

(d)

evaluate

2 3k

k 0

(e)

evaluate

n
1 2
1


k 1

n

n 1
n

Solution
(a)
And

n3

n n 1 n 2

n
3! 3 n 2 2n
3

3 n 2 2n

n n
n2 2!
2 1

n n
n
n
3! 3 2 !
2
1
3
2 1

k
k 1

n 1 n 1

3
2

2!

n
n n
3! 3!
3
2 1

from lecture notes

k3

(b)

k 1

k 1

k
k k
3 ! 3 !
3
2 1

If you expand this you get

n 1
n 1

3
2

12 k 1 k k 1

(c)

k 0

n 1
6

n 1
6

k 1
3!
3

12
k 0

n 1

n n 1

n 1

n 2
by #5 on handout of binomial
4

12 3!

identity
(d)
n

4 12 k 9 k 2

(e)

2n n 2n1

k 0

4
k 0

12 k 9
k 0

k
k 0

n 1
n 1
9 2

3
2

4 n 1 12

[ 12 ] In how many ways can 10 identical candies be distributed among five children if
(a)

there are no restrictions ?

(b)

each child gets atleast one candy ?

(c)

the oldest child gets atleast two candy ?

Solution:
(a)

10 5 1

10

5 5 1

(b)
(c)

5 8 1

[ 13 ] How many ways can 20 coins be selected from four large containers filled with pennies, nickels,
dimes and quarters ? ( each container has only one type of coin )
solution;

n 1

2

4 20 1

20

[ 14 ]
An ice cream store has 31 different flavors of ice cream available. In how many ways can you order a dozen
ice ream cones if
(a)

you dont want the same flavor more than once ?

(b)

a flavor may be ordered as many as 12 times ?

(c)

a flavor may be ordered as many as 11 times ?

Solution:

31

12

(a)

31 12 1

12

(b)
(c)

31 12 1
31
12

[ 15 ] How many ways can you toss 100 (identical) dice so that at least 3 of each type of face shows up ?
Solution

6 82 1

82

[ 16]
Two n-digit integers (leading zeros allowed) are considered equivalent if one is rearrangement of the other.
( for example 12033 , 20331, 01332 are considered equivalent five digit integers )
(a)

how many five digit integers are considered not equivalent ?

(b)

If the integers 1,3 and 7 appear at most once, how many non equivalent five digit integers are there ?

Solutions;
10 5 1

(a)

ie: the ten integers are ten distinct donuts. You are selecting 5 with repetion

allowed
(b)

7 5 1

3
5

7 4 1
3
4

7 3 1

7 2 1

ie: drop all three special digits (1,3 and 7) OR include one of the 3 digits OR include exactly two of the
special digits OR include all 3 of the special digits

[ 17]

How many ways are there to place 12 marbles into 5 distinct jars if;

(a)

the marbles are all identical ?

(b)

the marbles are all distinct ?

Solutions
(a)

5 12 1

12

(b)

512

[ 18 ]
(a)

How many times is the PRINT statement executed in following program segment ?

FOR I = 1 to 20 do
FOR J= 1 to I
do
FOR K= 1 to J do
FOR M= 1 to K do
PRINT ( I love math )

(b)
What is the value of the counter after following program segment ?
( all variables I, J, N are integers )
COUNTER = 0
FOR I = 1 TO N DO
FOR J=1 TO I DO

COUNTER = COUNTER + 1

Solutions
(a)

(b)

20 1 4

N 1 2

[ 19 ]
You were bored so you tried tossing a coin 12 times and you got 5 Heads and 7 Tails.
In how many ways can these tosses result in
(a)

two runs of Heads and one run of Tail ?

(b)

three runs

Solutions;
(a)

4

3

(b)

4
6

3
5

[ 20 ] ( a )
(b)

How many ways are there to roll ten distinct dice so that all six faces appear ?

How many ways are there to select 5 card hand from regular deck of 52 cards
so that the hand contains at least one card from each suit ?

(c)

how many ways are there to distribute 4 distinct objects into 3 distinct boxes with at least one empty
box ?

(d)

How many different integer solutions are there to following equation ?

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 20

with

0 xi 8

solution;
(a)

610

6 10
6 10
6 10 6 10 6 10
5 4 3 2 1
4
5
1
2
3

4 39 4 26


1 5 2 5

(b)

52

5

(c)

3 4 3 4
2 1
1
2

(d)

6 16 6 7
25

20
1 11 2 2

Let A

[ 21 ]

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2

(a)

list all the subsets B of A such that

(b)

list all the subsets B of A such that B

(c)

list all the subsets B of A such that

1, 2

4 13

3 5

B
1, 2

Solution;
(a)

(b)

, 1 , 2 , 1, 2

(c)

1, 2, 3 , 1, 2, 4 ,

1, 2

1, 2 , 3 , 1, 2, 4

Let A

[ 22 ]
(a)

A a, b

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

a, b, c, a, b

solutions
(a)

c , a, b

(b)

(c)

find ;

P(A) is power set of A

a, b, c

1, 2, 3, 4

1, 2, 3, 4

P A

a, b, c

(d)

(e)

(f)

[ 23 ]
TRUE or FALSE ?
(a)

2 1, 2,3

(b )

(c )

0 0,1, 2

1 , 2 , 3

d 0 0,1, 2
(e) 0 , 2 , 4 0, 2, 4
( f )
( g ) 1, 2 1, 2, 3, 4
(h ) 1, 2, 3, 4
(i ) 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4
( j ) 1, 2 1, 2, 3
(k ) 0
(l )
(m)

list all possible subsets of

(n)

what is the power set of

(o)

what is the power set of

4, 5, 6

4, 5, 6

Solutions
(a)

TRUE

(b)

FALSE

(c)

TRUE

(d)

FALSE the element

(e)

FALSE the elements of

(f)

FALSE - and

is a set and does not match any of the numbers 0,1,2

0 , 2 , 4

are all sets but those of

0, 2, 4

are all numbers

are two different ways to represent the empty set. By definition no object

can be an element of an empty set and also the empty set cannot be a member of itself

(g)

TRUE if C B then x x C x B

(h)

TRUE

(i)

TRUE

(j)

FALSE - A B iff A B and B A

(k)

FALSE - because

(l)

FALSE because

(m)

list of all possible subsets are :

(n)

power set is

(o)

the only subsets of

4, 5, 6 ,

but

is

is not subset of

but

is not subset of

4, 5, 6 ,

5, 6 ,

5, 6 ,

4, 6 , 4, 5 , 4 , 5 ,

4, 6 , 4, 5 , 4 , 5 ,

so power set is

[ 24 ] is following true or false ?


A ( B C ) = ( A B ) C
Solution - TRUE

[ 25 ] For A = { 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 }
Determine the number of
(a)

subsets of A

(b)

non empty subsets of A

(c)

proper subsets of A

(d)

nonempty proper subsets of A

(e)

subsets of A containing 3 elements

(f)

subsets of A containing 1 and 2

(g)

subsets of A containing 5 elements, including elements 1 and 2

(h)

subsets of A with an even number of elements

(i)

subsets of A with an odd number of elements

Solution
(a)

27

(b)

27 1

(c)

27 1

6 ,

6 ,

(d)

27 2

(e)

7

3

(f)

25

(g)

5

3

(h)

7
7
7 7

6
0
2 4

(i)

7
7
7 7

7
1
3 5

[ 26 ]

A 1, 2, 3, 4 , B 2 , 5 , C 3 , 4 , 7

For

(a)

A B

(b)

B A

(c)

A U

B C

determine ;

Solution;

(a)

A B

1, 2 2, 2 3, 2 4, 2 1, 5 2, 5 3, 5 4, 5

(b)

B A

2,1 2, 2 2, 3 2, 4 5,1 5, 2 5, 3 5, 4

(c)

A U

[ 27 ]

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 2, 3 2, 4 2, 7 5, 3 5, 4 5, 7

x | x 7

B C

Let
C

x | x3 4 x 0

(a)

A B ( symmetric difference )

(b)

C B I C

(c)

( A B ) C

(d)

A(B-C)

x |
find ;

x2

Solutions;
Elements in each set are A
1, 2 , 3 , K

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6

A B

(b)

C B I C

(c)

A B C

1 , 6 , 0

(d)

A B C

, B

1, 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , C

Natural numbers

Z K 2 , 1, 0 , 1, 2 , 3 , K
(a)

Integers

0, 0 0, 2 2, 0 2, 2 2, 0 2, 2
6

2, 6

[ 28 ] For A 1 , 2 , 3 and

B 2 , 4, 5 determine ;

AB

(a)
(b)

number of relations from A to B

(c)

number of relations on A

(d)

number of relations from A to B that contains ( 1,2 ) and ( 1,5 )

(e)

number of relations from A to B that contain exactly 5 ordered pairs

Solution;
(a)

A B

3.3 9

(b)

there are 29 relations from A to B

(c)

there are 29 relations on A

(d)

there are 27 relations from A to B that contain

(e)

9

5

[ 29 ] For A a , b , c , d
(a)

reflexive

(b)

symmetric

(c)

reflexive and symmetric

1, 2

and

1, 5

determine the number of relations on A that are;

0, 2 , 2

(d)

reflexive and contains ( b, c )

Solution;
(a)

212

24 26 210

(b)

[ 30 ] For A 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

(c)

26

(d)

211

Determine whether reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, transitive

(a)

{ (1,1) , (2,2) , (3,3), (4,4) , (1,2) , (2,1), (2,3) , (3,2) }

(b)

{ (1,1) , (2,2) , (3,3), (4,4) , (1,2) }

(c)

{ (1,1) , (2,2) , (2,1 ), (1,2) }

Solution;
(a)

Reflexive and symmetric but not transitive and not antisymmetric

(b)

Reflexive ,antisymmetric and transitive but not symmetric

(c)

transitive and symmetric but not reflexive and not antisymmetric

[ 50 ] Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }
How many symmetric relations on A contain exactly four ordered pairs ?

Solutions
7 21

4 0

7

2

21
7 21

1
0 2

[ 51 ] For each of following relations, determine whether the relation is reflexive, symmetric, antisymmetric
or transitive
(a)

is the relation on ( positive integers ) where a b if a divides b

(b)

is the relation on ( integers ) where x y

Solution;
(a)

its reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive

(b)

symmetric

if x y

is odd

[ 31 ] determine whether following relations on the integers Z is ;


reflexive , symmetric , antisymmetric and transitive
(a)

x y iff x is a multiple of y

(b)

x y

(c)

x y iff x y

iff x y 2

Solutions
(a)

Reflexive Yes , Symmetric No , Antisymmetric No , Transitive -Yes

(b)

Reflexive No , Symmetric No , Antisymmetric Yes , Transitive -Yes

(c)

Reflexive No , Symmetric Yes , Antisymmetric No , Transitive -No

[ 32 ] If A

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

define R on A by

x , y

if x y is a multiple of 3

(a)

show that R is an equivalence relation

(b)

determine the equivalence classes and the partition of A induced by R

Solution
( a ) show that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive
(b)

1 4 7 1, 4, 7
A

1, 4, 7

2 5 2, 5

2, 5

3 6 3, 6

3, 6

[ 33 ] let A { w , x , y , z } determine the number of relations on A that are


(a)

reflexive

(b)

symmetric

(c)

reflexive and symmetric

(d)

reflexive and contains ( x,y )

(e)

symmetric and contains ( x,y)

(f)

antisymmetric

(g)

antisymmetric and contains ( x,y )

(h)

symmetric and antisymmetric

(i)

reflexive, symmetric and antisymmetric

Solutions;
(a)

212

(b)

24 26

(c)

26

(d)

211

(e)

24 25

(f)

2436

(g)

2435

(h)

24

(i)

[ 34 ] let
(a)

A 1, 2, 3, 4 and B 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, 6

how many functions are there from A to B ?


how many of these are one-to-one ?, how many are onto ?

(b)

how many functions are there from B to A ?


how many of these are one-to-one ?, how many are onto ?

solutions;
6!
are one-to-one and none are onto
2!

(a)

64 functions ,

(b)

46 functions , none are one-to-one , 4 ! S 6, 4 are onto. S ( 6,4) is stirlings number

[ 35 ] How many seven letter passcode using letters { a ,b, c , d} have atleast one occurrence of each of the
four letters ?
Solution
solution: let A
B

a,b,c,d

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

represent the position of seven letters used for passcode then

are the four letters used


4

The number of surjective functions A B is

1
k 0

4 k

4k

= 8400

[ 36 ] consider integer 30,030 which can be factored as


30,030 = 2 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 11 x 13

how many unordered two factor factorization of 30,030 are

possible ?
One example is ( 2 x 3 x 5 ) ( 7 x 11 x 13 ) = 30 x 1001
Solution:
This is equivalent to distributing six distinct objects into two indistinguishable boxes with no box empty
Thus there are

S 6,2

[ 37 ] Let A

2 6
1 2
6
2 1
2 ! 2
1

1, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

31
B { v , w, x , y , z }

Determine number of functions f : A B where


(a)

f A { v , x }
f A

(b)

Solution
(a)

2 ! S 7, 2

(b)

5
2 ! S 7, 2
2

[ 38 ] suppose we have 7 different colored balls and four empty containers labeled I,II,III and IV
(a)

in how many ways can we distribute the balls so that no container is empty ?

(b)

in this collection of 7 different colored balls, one of them is say blue. In how many ways can we
Distribute the balls so that no container is left empty and the blue ball is in container II ?

(c)

If we now remove the numbers from the four containers so they are no longer distinguishable, in how
many ways can we distribute the 7 colored balls among the 4 identical containers with some containers
possibly empty

Solution
(a)

4 ! S 7, 4

(b)

3 ! S 6, 3

(c)

S 7, 4

4 ! S 6, 4

S 7, 3 S 7, 2

S 7,1

[ 39 ]

** Note** this is problem [34] revisited using Stirling number notation

(a)

How many ways are there to roll ten distinct dice so that all six faces appear ?

(b)

How many ways are there to select 5 card hand from regular deck of 52 cards
so that the hand contains at least one card from each suit ?

(c)

how many ways are there to distribute 4 distinct objects into 3 distinct boxes with at least one empty
box ?

Solution;
(a)

6 ! S 10 , 6

(b)

4! S 5 , 4

(c)

34 3 ! S 4 , 3