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The Death of Phrasal Verbs?

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Table of Contents
Current Affairs

Hello again,

Think 119 is different from previous issues.

For once weve focused almost the entire


magazine on a specific theme: Bram Stoker,
his Dracula and vampires. To be perfectly
honest, when we started planning this issue
some months ago, I wasnt especially interested
in any of this. However, the deeper into it I got
the more important it all seemed. Dracula is the
most filmed story in movie history and vampires
are featured more and more in US TV culture. It
is no great exaggeration to say that vampirism is
one of the great myths of our 21st-century global
village. This issue makes an attempt to begin to
answer the obvious question: why?
We start on pp. 14-15 by looking at how
Bram Stoker came to create the central vampire
myth: Dracula. That investigation takes us
not to Transylvania as you might expect but
to Stokers Dublin (pp. 11-13). One of the
elements that helped to forge the Dracula
myth was the series of pandemics in Britain
throughout Stokers life: we look at these in The
Victorian Way of Death on pp. 22-23.
Most people know of Dracula perhaps
the most recognizable fictional character in
the world through movies; on pp. 24-25 we
follow the evolution of vampire films from
Nosferatu to Twilight. If Stoker created the
archetypal vampire for much of the 20th Century,
it was Anne Rice who developed the myth of
vampirism and carried it forward to its current
culturally-dominant position. We look at her life
and work on pp. 20-21. Finally, on the CD (tracks
1-6) we debate why vampirism has become such
a central theme in modern popular culture.
Quite a lot of the rest of the magazine is
written around the theme of vampires, though
the articles are not directly relevant to the main
theme. For example, the theatre article (pp.
18-19) looks at An Ideal Husband by Oscar
Wilde, Stokers friend who was once going to
marry Brams wife. The architecture article
(pp. 26-27) looks at an incredible building, The
Casino at Marino, which Stoker must have
known because it is located just up the hill from
his birthplace. Similarly, Word Building (p. 41)
and Idioms (pp. 38-39) take vampires as an
excuse to talk about words and expressions,
respectively, related to blood.
I hope you enjoy reading and listening to this
issue as much as we have creating it.
See you next month,

Nick Franklin
Editor
NickAtThink@gmail.com

www.thinkinenglish.net
www.myspace.com/thinkinenglish
www.revistasprofesionales.com
thinkinenglish@revistasprofesionales.com

4
Language News
Other News & Anecdotes
5
6
Science & Technology
Economics Third-Generation Bio-Fuel
8
10 Internet Gen-Y: Trouble Switching Off
11 Travel Desperately Seeking Stoker

(and Dracula) in Dublin

Culture
14 Feature The Genesis of Dracula
16 Society Victorian Female Servants
18 Great Theatre Wildes The Ideal Husband
20 Literature Anne Rice
22 10 Things You Didnt Know About...

The Victorian Way of Death
24 Cinema Vampire Movies
26 Architecture The Casino at Marino
28 Save In the Kitchen
29 Books Deluxe Transitive Vampire

Language
30 Methodology Getting the Most out of Think
32 Functional The Wrong Way Round
33 Pronunciation Ire of the Vampire
34 Translation Error Detectives (2)
36 Phrasal Verbs The Death of

Phrasal Verbs?
38 Idioms Blood Idioms
40

Wordplay Zeugma: Promiscuous Words

41

Word Building Blood- Compounds

42 Miscellany
43 Subscription form
44 Back issues coupon
45 Crossword
46 Tapescripts*
51 Next Month
Bookmark Physical False Friends (2)

*Download a bigger illustrated


version of the tapescripts at:

www.thinkinenglish.net
119 Think in English 3

Language News

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Teaching Teachers
Teachers in British schools have been provided with a manual in
an effort to get them to use3 the English language properly4. As
part of the National Literacy Strategy teachers have been given
a guidebook that explains basic grammar to them. In it they are
told things like, Verbs are very important. They are the words
that tell you what is happening in the sentence. As regards5
punctuation, the manual says it is used to chunk text up6 into
meaningful units7... In writing, we mark sentences by using a
capital letter8 at the beginning, and a full stop9 (or question
mark10 or exclamation mark) at the end. Incredible.

a newspaper prints an obscene headline by


mistake. Thats exactly what happened to Britains The Daily Express in September. The paper
offered the headline Can Dec anally match24
Ant? in reference to a comedy duo called Ant
and Dec. It should have said, Can Dec finally
match24 Ant?

Expensive Words

Correcting language can be an expensive business. Recently, the British Government decided
to change the name of one of its bureaucratic
bodies. The Department for Communities and
Local Government became Communities and
Local Government. The elimination of the
words The Department for meant that a new
logo and new stationery25 had to be created, at
a cost of nearly26 30,000. However, the Government seem
to think the change was worth it27. A Minister explained in
the House of Commons that the rebranding28 was required
to emphasize the mission of the department.

Un Faux Ami
This summer a British tourist arrived in the town of Dannemarie in Alsace looking for a room for the night. Seeing a big
building with Htel de Ville across the entrance she wandered
in29. She decided to nip into30 the loo31 before registering with
the hotel. Unfortunately, by the time she came out of the
toilets, the town-hall staff32 had locked up33 and gone home.

The Birth of an Idiom


What Fox 5 anchorman11 Ernie Anastos meant to
say12 was keep13 plucking that chicken14 meaning keep up15 the good work. Unfortunately,
while chatting to the TV channels weatherman16
what he actually17 said was, keep fucking that
chicken. Once upon a time18 this would have
simply been an innocent slip-of-the-tongue19;
heard by a few, laughed at and then forgotten.
But not in this day and age. The incorrect phrase
is now an Internet phenomenon appearing in
on-line dictionaries and is featured20 on T-shirts
across the States. The exaltation has been
discussed on late-night TV shows and politician
Rev Al Sharpton has even developed a bowdlerized21 version Keep on doing that chicken! to
be used as a shout of encouragement22.
The occasional slip-of-the-tongue19 is
unavoidable23, however its more serious when
just (in this context) only
saving (countable) reduction
3
to get s.o. to use (get-got-got) make s.o. use
4
properly correctly, appropriately
5
as regards in terms of, in relation to
6
to chunk sth. up (informal) group sth.,
organize sth.
7
meaningful units coherent phrases
8
capital letter uppercase letter [ABC...] (as
opposed to a lowercase letter [abc...])
9
full stop (UK English) period (US English)
10
question mark ?
11
anchorman primary presenter
12
to mean to say want to say, intend to say
1

to keep (in this context) continue


to pluck a chicken (literally) eliminate
plumage from a dead chicken (before cooking
it)
15
to keep sth. up (keep-kept-kept) continue
sth.
16
weatherman meteorological presenter
17
actually (false friend) in fact, really
18
once upon a time (in this context) in the past
19
slip-of-the-tongue lapsus, error of speech
20
to feature display, exhibit, include
21
bowdlerized sanitized, censored
22
encouragement endorsement, motivation
23
unavoidable inevitable

to match s.o. be s.os equal, rival s.o.


stationery pens, writing paper, etc.
nearly almost, just under
27
to be worth it be worth the effort, merit the
expense
28
rebranding renaming
29
to wander in enter in a relaxed way
30
to nip into quickly enter
31
the loo the toilet, the WC
32
town-hall staff employees of the municipal
government. Htel de Ville means town hall
in French
33
to lock sth. up close sth. with lock and key,
shut sth. securely

13

24

14

25

119 Think in English 4

26

The Briton proved that she had at least a little French and was
reasonably resourceful34; she glued35 a sign in the window that
said, Je suis fermer ici. Est ce possible moi la porte ouvrir?
Unfortunately, nobody saw the cry for help until 9 oclock the
following morning.
Meanwhile36, an apparently dyslexic Swedish couple put a little too much faith in their
GPS37. The Scandinavian tourists wanted to go
to the southern Italian resort38 island of Capri.
Unfortunately, they got the letters the wrong
way round39 when they typed the name into
their sat-nav system40 and ended up in41 the
northern Italian industrial town of Carpi.

Give a Sprog42 a
Bad Name...

Germans Crack Down on51 Names


The German authorities are getting increasingly strict
as regards5 long names. Back in 2004 a law was introduced that limited the number of
forenames52 that parents were
allowed to53 give their children to
five. Now a new ruling54 limits the
number of surnames55 one can have
to two. Frieda Rosemarie Thalheim
from Munich wanted to incorporate
her husbands double-barrelled56
surname into her own to become
Frieda Rosemarie Thalheim-KunzHallstein but she was not allowed
to53. Germanys economics minister
Karl-Theodor Maria Niklaus Johann
Jacob Philipp Franz Joseph Sylvester
Freiherr von und zu Guttenberg
refused to comment on the decision.

A survey43 of 3000 teachers in Britain has found that 49% of them make
assumptions44 about their pupils before
theyve even seen them, simply based on
Karl-Theodor Maria Niklaus Johann
their names. Teachers assumed that boys
Jacob Philipp Franz Joseph Sylvester
named Callum, Connor, Jack, Daniel,
Freiherr von und zu Guttenberg
Brandon, Charlie, Kyle and Liam would be
Judging by the chagrin57 expressed in the newspapers, the US
troublesome45, as would girls named Chelsea, Courtney,
Chardonnay, Aleisha, Casey, Crystal, Jessica and Brooke.
English second-person plural you guys has now firmly taken
Apparently, judging pupils by their names is nothing new;
root58 in Britain. To the disgust59 of many older people, waiters
now refer to their customers as you guys. As a result, the (colloone teacher commented that 40 years ago her colleagues
quial) English pronoun system can now be listed as:
believed that Waynes and Shanes are always pains46.

British English Gets a


Second-Person Plural

47

Gaol

Jargon

According to prison officers a modified version of Elizabethan thieves cant48 is enjoying a revival in Britains
prisons. However, it is more the idea of thieves cant
than the terms used when Shakespeare was alive that
has been revived. New terms like grade for money,
warbs for the police and cawbe for crack cocaine have
been introduced. Thieves cant gave Standard English
words such as moniker49 and to beef50.

subject

object

I
you
she/he/it
we
you two
you guys
they

me
you
her/him/it
us
you two
you guys
them

You guys tends to refer to three or more people. In this context,

guys is not a masculine form. 60

resourceful ingenious, imaginative


to glue sth. stick sth., fix sth. with adhesive
36
meanwhile at the same time
37
GPS global positioning system
38
resort centre for tourism
39
the wrong way round (in this context) write sth. in an incorrect order
40
sta-nav system satellite navigating system, GPS37
41
to end up in arrive in the end in
42
sprog child, kid. The original expression is Give a dog a bad name
(and hang [= execute] him), which means that it is very difficult to lose
a bad reputation even if it is unjustified
43
survey study, questionnaire
44
assumptions suppositions
45
troublesome problematic, difficult, disobedient
46
to be a pain be troublesome 45
47
gaol /eil/ (UK English) jail (US English), prison
48
thieves cant robbers slang, criminals argot
49
moniker name, nickname
50
to beef (informal) complain, protest
51
to crack down on become strict about
52
forename first name, Christian name (old fashioned)
53
to be allowed to be permitted to
54
ruling judicial decision
55
surname family name
56
double-barrelled (of names) compound, consisting of two parts
57
chagrin vexation, annoyance, irritation
58
to take root (take-took-taken) become established
59
disgust (semi-false friend) repulsion
60
though guy usually is
34
35

119 Think in English 5

Language News

Subscribers exercise D

News & Anecdotes

Other News & Anecdotes

Subscribers exercise D

The Wages of Sin

Lame14 Excuses

Many US Evangelical Christians believe in an event called the Rapture. This term refers to
the idea that just before the seven-year reign of the Antichrist, all pious Christians will be
suddenly1 carried off2 to heaven. This is good news for the pious Christians but potentially
disastrous for their pets3. Thats where Eternal Earthbound Pets (EEP) comes in4. EEP is an
atheist service that offers certified sinners5 and blasphemers who, in return for a small fee6,
promise to take care of cats and dogs that are left behind during the Antichrists reign!

In Britain state television is paid for


through a licence fee15 so that the BBC
doesnt have to survive from advertising. The TV Licensing Authority roams16
the countrys streets trying to identify homes where people have a TV but
havent paid the fee. To demonstrate that
they have a sense of humour the organization recently published a list of real
lame14 excuses that people have given
for not paying the licence. These include:

My 11-year-old son must have


bought the TV during the night.

It wasnt there when I went to bed.


I have not been making payments
because a baby magpie17 flew into
the house and I have had to stay
in to feed18 it.
The subtitles on my TV are set to
French so Im not paying a UK tax
for something I cant read.
I couldnt make my last payment
as my baby was sick on my shoulder and I didnt want to go to the
shop smelling of sick because the
guy I fancy19 works there.

Battling Cattle?

Googling for Fools

There have been a surprising number of deaths caused by cows recently in Britain. Indeed7, a spokesperson for the National Farmers Union (NFU) was forced to
comment, We would hope that this is an unfortunate coincidence. An interesting
choice of words8; was the NFU implying that they havent
ruled out9 the possibility that there is a concerted homicidal campaign by Britains bovine population?

This summer Britain convicted three


men who had planned to blow up20
passenger planes using adulterated mineral water. During the
trial21 it was revealed that one of
the men, Assad Sarwar, had only
managed to22 hide23 the hydrogen
peroxide he was going to use after
googling24, how to dig25 a hole.
This might be a reflection of the
stupidity of Mr Sarwar but surely
the fact that there are literally
thousands of websites26 explaining
how to dig a hole is a reflection
of our societys idiocy27. Anyway,
to save you having to spend extra
time on the Web Ill explain; first

you need a spade28...

When Not To Be Ill


You cant always choose when youre sick but if you can,
try not to be seriously ill on holiday in Britain in the
summer. Every August in Britain 50,000 junior doctors
start work or change to new jobs as part of their training
rotation. In the weeks that follow, deaths in the National
Health System increase by 6%. And if you do have to10
see a British doctor, choose a woman. A report by the
National Patient Safety Agency concludes that male
doctors are two-thirds more likely to be11 reported12 and
investigated for poor work or drug and alcohol misuse13.
suddenly quickly, unexpectedly
to carry s.o. off transport s.o.
3
pet domestic animal, animal that is
considered part of ones family
4
to come in (come-came-come) play a role,
have a function
5
sinner s.o. who has sinned (= done immoral
things from a religious perspective)
6
fee (in this context) payment for a service
7
indeed (emphatic) in fact
8
choice of words way of expressing an idea in words
9
to rule sth. out eliminate, reject, exclude
10
do have to (emphatic) have to
11
to be two-thirds more likely to be have a
1

66% greater probability of being


to be reported be denounced
13
misuse abuse, inappropriate use
14
lame (in this context) pathetic, ridiculous
15
fee (in this context) charge
16
to roam wander around,
drive along
17
magpie
18
to feed (feed-fed-fed) nourish,
give food to
19
to fancy s.o. be sexually
attracted to s.o.
20
to blow sth. up (blow-blewblown) cause sth. to explode
12

119 Think in English 6

trial judicial process


to manage to be able to
to hide sth. (hide-hid-hidden) place sth. out
of sight, conceal sth. (in this context) in the
ground
24
to google sth. search for sth. on Google,
do a search for (= try to find) sth. using
Google
25
to dig (dig-dug-dug) excavate, make
26
Google suggests there are 1,730,000
pages for how to dig a hole but I
refuse to believe that!
27
idiocy /'idisi/ stupidity
28
spade shovel
21

22

23

Subscribers exercise D

Shower Shock
The shower scene from the film Psycho is one of the most famous in cinema
history but researchers from Colorado University have discovered that there
is a much more real danger when showering. They found that shower heads1
harbour2 high levels of Mycobacterium avium. These bacteria cause respiratory illness in those with weak3 immune systems. So, if you notice you have a
cough4, why not disinfect your shower head?

Candles & Cancer


A study from South Carolina State
University has found that extensive use
of standard paraffin-oil candles5 can
cause cancer. Burning such candles for
five hours in a room leads to6 dangerous
levels of the carcinogen benzene as well
as high levels of toluene, which can cause
dizziness7. Exposure for short periods or
occasional exposure is unlikely to8 cause
problems. However, if you need to lie9
regularly in a bathtub10 in a small bathroom bathing in candlelight, make sure
you use beeswax11 or soy12 candles.

A beeswax candle

Healthy Marriages
A study of data from 3.8 million people found that being married significantly improves ones chances of surviving cancer.
Researchers from Indiana University have found that 63% of those who were married survived cancer for five years or more,
compared to 57% of those who had never married. However, the effect of marital break-up was strongly negative. Only 45%
of those who were in the process of breaking up when they were diagnosed survived for five years or more.

Mid-Week Blues
Mathematicians from the University of Vermont have been analyzing the language of millions of tweets13 and blogs and have
concluded that, contrary to popular legend, Monday is not the most
depressing day of the week. Unsurprisingly, the happiest day of the
week is Sunday. However, Monday is in fact the second happiest,
probably because we still retain many happy memories of Sunday.
The most depressing day of the week is in fact Wednesday, probably
because we have forgotten about the last weekend and the next is
still a long way off.

No More Sleepless Nights


Researchers at Brighton University have developed a sleep
system for babies that reduces the time it takes them to get to
sleep by up to 90%. Easidream works by imitating conditions
within14 the womb15. Pads16 under the babys blanket17 inflate
and deflate rhythmically to create a rocking18 motion19, while a
cuddly toy20 emits white noise21, similar to what a foetus hears

in the womb15.
shower head
to harbour be
home to, contain
3
weak ineffective
4
cough /kof/
5
candle
6
to lead to (lead-led-led)
result in, cause
7
dizziness disorientation
8
is unlikely to will
probably not
9
to lie (lie-lay-lain) relax,
1

be horizontal, recline
bathtub
11
beeswax a yellowto-brown wax (= soft
substance) made by
bees (= black and yellow
insects)
12
soy (adj.) made from
soyabean oil
13
tweet (in this context) a
miniblog on Twitter
14
within inside, in
10

119 Think in English 7

womb /wu:m/ uterus


pad (in this context) inflatable bag
blanket
18
rocking seesawing,
oscillating
19
motion movement
20
cuddly toy soft toy (e.g. a
teddy bear)
21
white noise (in this
context) the constant sound
of blood flowing in the
womb15
15

16
17

Science

Science & Technology

Economics

by Douglas Jasch douglasjasch@douglasjasch.com


At the heart of pond1 existence are humble algae. Most people
know pond algae for their abundance and importance to pond
ecosystems. Tony Hayward, CEO2 of British Petroleum (BP)
intends to make algae an integral part of our lives and he is willing to3 put his money where his mouth is4 to do this. BP has
invested $10M in a joint venture to explore the use of algae as a
new miracle, environmentally-friendly bio-fuel for our automobiles.

Miracle Algae: The Next Generation Bio-fuel


Beyond Petroleum
There was considerable scepticism in 2000 when BP branded itself5 as
Beyond6 Petroleum, particularly from the environmentalist7 community. BP
was the first of the worlds large oil companies to show its green credentials,
but sceptical environmentalists asked the question, Just8 how green can an
oil company be? Oil companies have made billions of dollars on the back of9
environmentally-harmful petroleum sales, so it was difficult to accept that
these companies were moving away from their cash cow10. Fossil fuels11 used
for transport are responsible for 25% of global greenhouse-gas emissions.
Behind this shift12 is an understanding that the future of oil companies like
BP will revolve around13 their ability to provide credible, green fuel11 alternatives to oil. The worlds oil supplies14 are decreasing and oil is a finite commodity15. For oil companies to remain16 in business for another hundred years,
they will have to adapt to the needs of a changing world. The shift in focus by
BP from petroleum to more environmentally-favourable fuel11 is based on selfpreservation and pragmatism rather than17 altruism.

The Mysterious Origin of Oil


The origin of petroleum remains18 a mystery, although scientists believe that this so
called fossil fuel11 most likely19 came from the fossils of plants and small marine
organisms. The leading theory is that dead
organic material accumulated 20 at the bottom
World Energy Usage
of oceans, riverbeds21 or swamps22 and mixed
with mud23 or sand24. Over time sediment
was deposited on top of the organic material
and the resulting pressure and therefore25
heat transformed the organic layer26 into
a dark wax-like27 substance called kerogen.
Ultimately28, kerogen turned into either
petroleum or gas. The process is thought to
take hundreds of thousands of years to occur.
Unlike29 petroleum, bio-fuels are made
from recently-living organisms, which
means that the only limiting factor to the
pond pool, expanse of fresh water (bigger
than a puddle and smaller than a lake)
2
CEO chief executive officer, managing director
3
to be willing to be ready to, be prepared to
4
to put ones money where ones mouth is
(put-put-put) spend money on sth. one
believes in, invest money in sth. you support
5
to brand oneself call oneself, give oneself an
epithet
6
beyond (in this context) more than just
7
environmentalist eco-friendly, eco-campaigning
8
just (in this context/emphatic) exactly
9
on the back of from
10
cash cow part of a business that generates a
lot of income/revenue
11
fuel /fju:l/ combustible substance used to
generate energy
1

shift (in this context) important change


to revolve around be centred on, depend on
14
supplies (in this context) reserves
15
commodity (false friend) product that is
bought and sold
16
to remain stay, continue to be
17
rather than as opposed to, instead of
18
remains (in this context) is still
19
likely (in this context) probably
20
to accumulate be deposited
21
riverbed the bottom of a river below the water
22
swamp marsh, area of land more or less
permanently covered in water
23
mud earth/soil mixed with water
24
sand particles of silicon (typically found in a
dune or on a beach)
25
therefore as a result

amount30 of bio-fuel we can produce is


the amount of land available for production. For example, the two most common
bio-fuels in use today are ethanol and
bio-diesel. Ethanol is usually made from
corn31 or sugarcane32, while bio-diesel
is usually made from plant oils. 33 Biofuels are carbon neutral: the CO2 they
release34 into the air during combustion is no greater than the volume they
remove35 from the air in the process of
growing.36 The drive to increase production of bio-fuels over the last decade has
led to37 an acceleration in the destruction of natural habitats; some environmentalists call bio-fuels deforestation
diesel.
Bio-fuel is not new. Both Henry Ford
and Rudolf Diesel designed engines38
that ran on bio-fuels; they didnt use them
commercially simply because Middle
Eastern petroleum was cheaper.

layer stratum
wax-like very viscous
ultimately (false friend) in the end
29
unlike in contrast to
30
amount quantity
31
corn (in this context) maize
32
sugarcane the cane from which sugar is
extracted
33
between 2000 and 2005 world production of
ethanol doubled (= x2), while bio-diesel
quadrupled (= x4)
34
to release (in this context) emit
35
to remove (false friend) eliminate
36
unfortunately, a lot of fossil fuels go into
producing them (e.g. in fertilizers)
37
to lead to (lead-led-led) result in, cause
38
engine motor

12

26

13

27

119 Think in English 8

28

Conversation Point: What, in your opinion, is the solution to the fuel crisis?

Miracle Algae

BP and Exxon: Committed to Algae

The consumption of bio-fuels to heat


houses, fuel39 cars and provide power
for cooking has skyrocketed40 in Europe,
the United States and Asia. Carmakers
Saab, Volvo, Ford and Cadillac all have
popular alternative-fuel11 cars available
for purchase41 in the UK. Mercedes,
BMW, Honda and Mazda have announced
that they have cars under production for
release42 in the near future. Alternativefuel11 cars have recently moved from an
eclectic experiment to the mainstream43.
Algae are increasingly seen as a
future miracle bio-fuel as it has some
amazing44 properties. The most important of these is that it can produce
over 30 times more energy per acre
than other, second-generation bio-fuel
crops45. A controversial aspect of using
corn31 and sugarcane32 as bio-fuels is
that some of these crops45 were previously grown by or for poorer countries
for food but are now being used for biofuel production instead. This is leaving
the world with less food which, in turn46,
causes higher food prices. The worlds
poor are the worst affected by this process. In 2008 a UN food expert described
bio-fuels as a crime against humanity.
The great thing about algae is that it
can be grown almost anywhere, including
both in salt and freshwater. It can even
be grown in contaminated water that
would be poisonous47 to many other living
organisms. Also, while algae produces oil
as part of the photosynthesis process, it
is biodegradable and so, unlike29 traditional oil, if a ship carrying it has a spillage48 there will be much less environmental harm to the ocean life.

In addition to BPs $10M commitment to algae research, Exxon has announced that it
is investing a massive $300M in a venture with research company Synthetic Genomics Incorporated (SGI) to research algae as a fuel source49. A further $300M has been
committed, depending upon the results achieved by the first payment.
This is an about-face50 for Exxon, whose chief executive Rex Tillerson once humorously referred to bio-fuels as moonshine51. Oil companies desperately want bio-fuel
cars to be the future rather than17 electric cars. The reason is that an electric car doesnt
require any products from an oil company because all you need to do is plug in52 your
car and recharge, which is great for electricity companies but commercial death for
an oil company. Bio-fuels, on other hand, require companies to process the product
(e.g. algae, corn or sugarcane) into fuel11, to store53 and transport the product and to
distribute it. Bio-fuels will keep oil companies in business.

to fuel be a source of energy for


to skyrocket increase dramatically
41
available for purchase that can be bought
42
for release (in this context) that will go on
sale, that will be sold
43
the mainstream the mass market
44
amazing incredible, fantastic
45
crops plants that are grown to be harvested
46
in turn consequentially
47
poisonous toxic
48
spillage when oil accidentally escapes into
the sea
49
fuel source way to obtain fuel11
50
about-face complete change of direction
51
moonshine a. a stupid idea; b. illicitly
distilled alcohol (especially whiskey)
52
to plug sth. in connect sth. to the electrical
network
53
to store keep a reserve of, stockpile, deposit
54
to be concerned about be worried about, be
preoccupied about
55
tax revenue fiscal income to the state
56
to run on sth. (run-ran-run) function using
57
not the situation now but a real possibility
in 2007
58
to miss out on not receive/obtain
39

40

Corn

Seaweed

The UK government has been


concerned about54 the potential for biofuels to have an adverse impact on their
tax revenue55. Many cars that use biofuels can also run on56 common, cheap
vegetable oil as fuel11. Imagine that it is
much cheaper to buy vegetable oil from
the supermarket to use as fuel11 than to
buy petroleum.57 If many people bought
vegetable oil the government would miss
out on58 its lucrative fuel11 tax. Because of
this, a law has been passed in the UK that
makes it illegal for anyone to go into a store and buy vegetable oil for use as car fuel11
unless an additional fuel tax has been separately paid. However, if it is ever necessary
to enforce59 this law, it will be very difficult to do so60.
On the other hand, bio-fuels can be made from used cooking oils, though production has so far61 only been on a small scale.

The Cost of a Good Idea


Despite all of its many advantages, there is one economic problem with using algae as
fuel11. It is currently too expensive to produce and so not economical enough to replace
other commercially available fuels11. BP and Exxons investments are an attempt62 to
find a cheaper way of producing fuel11 from algae.
The American anthropologist Margaret Mead once said, Prayer63 does not use up
artificial energy, doesnt burn up any fossil fuel11, doesnt pollute. Neither does song,
neither does love, neither does the dance. Neither does algae: the miracle bio-fuel.
to enforce impose, prosecute, effectuate
to do so (in this context) to enforce it
61
so far until now
59

62

60

63

119 Think in English 9

attempt effort
prayer (uncountable) formal conversations
with God/the gods

Economics

Subscribers exercise H

Internet

by Douglas Jasch
douglasjasch@douglasjasch.com

Gen-Y1 is the generation that is most comfortable with technology. They have grown up2 with a whole raft of3 wonderful new
technological advances which have improved our lives and made
us better informed. For most of us technology has made the world
a smaller place. We can communicate across the globe instantly
and often for free. Computers allow4 us to write more correctly
and air-conditioning means that our office environment is more
comfortable. One of the aims5 of technology is to improve our work
environment.
Yet6, despite all of these improvements, technology has also
had an adverse side-effect; many of us especially Gen-Y workers
are risking burnout7 because we are increasingly unable to8
separate ourselves from our work, even when on vacation or at the
weekends. Those of us who are technoholics are continually staying connected through our love of Blackberries, laptops and the
Internet. The 9-to-5 workday is fast becoming a thing of the past.

Gen-YSwitching Off

Having Trouble

A Healthy Lifestyle
A 2006 survey9 of highly15-paid American workers produced for the Centre
for Work-Life Policy found that 21% of
respondents worked at least 60 hours a
week under highly stressful conditions.
Working longer hours can take its toll
on17 our health and even our relationships or the quality of the work that we
produce. It is difficult to cook and eat
healthily when we are faced with18 60
hours a week committed to work.
The challenge19 for Gen-Y1 workers
and all employees who have trouble20
switching off21 after leaving the office
is to strive to22 find the optimum mix
where we are technologically-rich without becoming leisure-poor23. Only at
this point will we truly be enjoying the
fruits of our technological advances.
Having more leisure time is, after all,
what it is all about, isnt it? However,
with higher levels of unemployment
and increased competition in the workplace, finding the perfect balance is
more difficult than ever.

Staying Connected
1000 people aged between 18 and 29 were interviewed for a survey9 for the Chief
Information Officer Association of Canada. 23% of these respondents said they
spend at least an hour a day at home doing work on their home computer. Another
12% of respondents said they spend two to five hours a day doing work on their
own computer. With 24-hour accessibility to work files via the Internet, being
connected has come at a price10 for Gen-Y1.
The official working week actually11 hasnt changed much over the past two
decades, but what has changed is who in the workforce is working the longest
hours. In 1771 Philadelphian carpenters rebelled, going on strike12 in an attempt13
to reduce their work to a 10-hour workday. They failed. In 1983, it was the lowest
paid workers who were more
likely to work14 long hours.
However, by 2002 highly15-paid
workers were twice as likely
to work16 longer hours than
lower-paid workers. Younger
professionals increasingly work
longer hours with some of these
hours worked at home.

The time to relax is when you dont have time for it25
Gen-Y Generation Y, Generation Next, Echo
Boomers, those born between the late 70s and
the late 90s
2
to grow up (grow-grew-grown) mature,
become an adult
3
a whole raft of a large number of
4
to allow permit, enable
5
aim objective, goal
6
yet (in this context) however
7
to risk burnout be in danger of suffering
from constant exhaustion because you have
been working too hard
8
to be unable to not be capable of (+ -ing)
1

Interactive Discussion

This months interactive email chat topic24 is The time to relax is


when you dont have time for it25 Discuss26. Remember, to join this
months interactive email chat topic24, all you have to do is email your
comments to me Douglas at douglasjasch@douglasjasch.com. Also
if you have a topic24 you want to discuss26 with others send your
comments and I will circulate them. Everyone is welcome to join in.

survey study, questionnaire


to come at a price (come-came-come) have
significant disadvantages
11
actually (false friend) in fact
12
to go on strike (go-went-gone) stop working
in protest
13
attempt effort
14
to be more likely to work have a greater
probability of working
15
highly- (in this context) well
16
to be twice as likely to work have twice
(= x2) the probability of working
17
to take its toll on (take-took-taken) have an
9

10

119 Think in English 10

adverse effect on
to be faced with (in this context) have,
confront
19
challenge task, problem
20
trouble difficulty
21
to switch off (in this context) forget about
work
22
to strive to try hard to
23
leisure-poor poor in terms of free time
24
topic (false friend) theme, question,
matter
25
Sydney J. Harris
26
to discuss (false friend) debate, talk about
18

Desperately

Marino Crescent

Tr avel

Seeking
Stoker
(& Dracula)

in Dublin
Vampire-hunting holidaymakers may
choose to look for1 Dracula in Romania /ru'meini/ where they will be
shown Draculas castle. However, the
truth is that Bram Stoker (1847-1912),
the Counts creator, never visited
Eastern Europe. The fishing port of
Whitby on Englands North Yorkshire

Dublins Undead
That leaves Dublin for Dracula fans. The Irish
capital is not mentioned once in the novel.
However, Bram Stoker lived in Dublin from
his birth in 1847 until he moved to London in
1878.
The Bram Stoker trail8 starts at St. Michans
Church on Church Street. This was where the
Stokers family burial plot9 was. The church
is famous because the atmospheric conditions
cause corpses10 to mummify rather than11 rot12.
You can visit some of these mummies, which
may have inspired young Brams thoughts of
the undead.

Clontarf
Presbyterian church

to look for try to find


rewarding satisfactory, gratifying
3
feature (in this context) landmark,
characteristic building/place
4
sight (in this context) feature3
5
Goth member of a subculture that dresses
in black and emulates the aesthetic of horror
movies and vampires
6
harbour port
7
lacklustre uninspired, tedious
8
trail route, tour
9
family burial /'beril/ plot place in a
cemetery where the cadavers of a specific
family are put
10
corpse cadaver, dead body
11
rather than instead of/as opposed to (+ -ing)
12
to rot putrefy
13
to have something to do with (have-hadhad) be in some way related to
14
spite malice, vengeance
15
row terrace, group of houses that are joined
together
1

Whitby photo by Glen Bowman

119 Think in English 11

The trail8 continues in Clontarf, a northern suburb of Dublin. The easiest way to
get there is to take the DART train from
the city centre to Clontarf Station. Once
youve left the station and reached Clontarf Road turn left. You pass a church with
metal gargoyles which looks like it might
have had something to do with13 Dracula.
Unfortunately, this Presbyterian church
was built in 1890, so it neither influenced
Stoker when he lived here nor was it influenced by the novel (which was written a
few years later). Cross the road and you
come to Marino Crescent. Bram Stoker
was born at 15 Marino Crescent on 8th
November 1847 and it was here that he
spent much of his childhood sick in bed.
The house is privately-owned so be tactful
if you take any photos. Marino Crescent is
popularly known as Ffolliotts Revenge
or Spite14 Row15. The Crescent was built
in the 1790s specifically to ruin the view
of the sea from the Casino at Marino.
Continued on p. 12

Subscribers exercise C

coast is more rewarding2. Stoker


visited the seaside town in 1890
and described many of its features3
in Chapter 7 of Dracula. The tourist
office offers a Dracula Trail to sights4
mentioned in the novel and Goths5
tend to congregate in the town in late
spring and autumn. There is a Dracula Experience down by the harbour6
but its a bit lacklustre7.

15 Marino Crescent

Travel

Apparently, the Earl16 of Charlemont and a man called Charles Ffolliott had
fallen out17 over18 cards19, so Ffolliott built the Crescent with its chimneys20 and sheds21 towards the Casino 22 to spite the aristocrat. Anyway,
Marino Crescent was built on the site of one of the most famous battles in
Irish history, the Battle of Clontarf at which the Irish finally expelled the
Vikings from Dublin. Skeletons and artefacts from the battle were discovered while the foundations of the Crescent were being laid23.
Other sites where the Stokers lived while Bram was growing up24 include
Artane Lodge on Collins Avenue (to the north of the Casino at Marino).

Trinity College

Around Trinity College


There used to be a plaque at 30 Kildare St saying that Stoker lived there
but this was called into question25 and the plaque was quietly taken
down. It doesnt matter because across the road is the wonderful National
Museum of Ireland. Another nearby26 address where Stoker is supposed to
have lived is 16 Harcourt Street.
Just up the road from Kildare St. is Trinity College where Bram studied. Dracula is infinitely better known than anything written by Goldsmith
or Burke but of course it is their statues that flank the entrance to Trinity
College, not Stokers. This beautiful university built between the 16th and
the 18th Centuries is worth visiting27 for its own sake28. By this time the
sickly29 child had grown into a giant of a man30 and one of Irelands leading31 sportsmen.
Bram must have been an impressive young man because he stole
Oscar Wildes girlfriend, Florence and married her at St. Anns Church in
Dawson St. (parallel to Kildare St.). Almost immediately Bram and Florence
left Dublin and moved
Florence Stoker (left)
to London. Florence was
born and had grown up24
at 1 Marino Crescent, so
you have to return to Clontarf at this point! If you
are thinking that Florence
was lucky not to marry
Oscar Wilde you ought to
know that Stoker was also
probably bisexual and the
Stokers marriage wasnt
very happy either. On a
happier note32, Oscar got
over33 losing Florence
and he and Bram became
friends again in London.
Indeed,
when
Wilde
went into exile in France
following his obscenity
scandal, Stoker went to
visit him there.
earl English equivalent of a Count
to fall out (fall-fell-fallen) become
enemies
18
over (in this context) because of
19
cards (in this context) games such as
poker
20
chimney
21
shed small wooden
building in which tools
(= utensils) etc. are kept
22
see pp. 26-27 for more
on the Casino at Marino
23
to lay (lay-laid-laid)
put in place, set in
position
16
17

pp. 14-15

to grow up (grow-grew-grown) (of


children) mature, gradually become an
adult
25
to call into question put in doubt
26
nearby close-by, in the vicinity
27
is worth visiting should be visited
28
for its own sake (in this context) even if
there were no connection with Stoker
29
sickly (adj.) chronically ill, delicate
30
giant of a man (in this context) big
tall man
31
leading top, champion
32
on a happier note less depressingly
33
to get over (get-got-got) recover from,
recuperate from
24

119 Think in English 12

St. Anns Church

Photos by Marina Carresi

Travel

The Experience
That should be the end of the Bram Stoker trail8 but the most
rewarding2 visit weve left till last. Just across the road from
Marino Crescent is the West Wood Club, the largest sports and
fitness centre in Europe (they say!).34 Somewhere in this labyrinth is The Bram Stoker Experience, which you can visit on
Friday, Saturday and Sunday evenings.35
After half an hour wandering past36 fruit-juice bars, an
Olympic swimming pool, darkened clubs full of mirrors and
amusement arcades37 you finally reach The Bram Stoker Experience. Its a weird38 place somehow catering for39 teenagers40
wanting a scare41 and adults interested in Stoker and Gothic
literature but not at the same time. It starts of with a dark tunnel
echoing to42 scary distorted Gregorian chants43. Young people
walk quickly through this, eager to44 get frightened witless45.
However, along the walls of the tunnel there are texts and photos
that give a fascinating insight46 into Stokers life and some of the
possible inspirations behind his most famous novel. After the
dark tunnel you come to a walkway47 in a revolving tube48. No
attempt49 is made to connect this to either Stoker or Dracula
but it is very unsettling50, so fair enough51. The next section is
a whole series of tableaux 52 of scenes from the novel with lifesize53 puppets54 that suddenly move or make a noise (presumably activated by compressed air). For the teenagers this is the
Experience, for the rest of us its a bit silly. However, the whole
place reeks55 of damp56 earth like a graveyard57 which is an
interesting effect. Anyway, just as you are coming to the end of
that theres a video room. Adolescents pop their heads round
the door58 and almost immediately wander off59. However,
for us oldies60 theres a rare treat61; an absolutely fascinating
1-hour documentary about Bram Stoker and the whole Dracula
phenomenon. The only shame62 is that the documentary wasnt
available on DVD because Id happily watch it again.

The Victim of Snobbery


Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw, W.B. Yeats and James
Joyce are celebrated in museums and statues across the Irish
capital. Yet63 nothing they wrote comes close to rivalling Dracula in the popular consciousness. How many of the hundreds
of thousands of visitors to Dublin have read a single sentence
of Ulysses? Nevertheless Joyce is everywhere. Count Dracula
is probably the most recognizable character in world fiction
yet the Irish capital seems almost faintly64 embarrassed
by the most famous story written by a Dubliner. Of course,
Draculas sin65 is that it is popular culture, it is lowbrow66.
Maybe its about time67 Dublin celebrated a writer who its

visitors can actually68 relate to.


of course, the logical thing would be to
visit Marino Crescent and The Bram Stoker
Experience on the same day
35
check times at www.dracula.ie
36
to wander past pass
37
amusement arcade place where you can play
electronic games, etc.
38
weird strange, bizarre
39
to cater for (in this context) offer
entertainment for
40
teenager s.o. aged between 13 and 19
41
a scare a fright, a frightening experience
42
to echo to reverberate with
43
chant sung religious music
34

to be eager to be keen to, be enthusiastic to


to get frightened witless (get-got-got) be
terrified
46
insight deep understanding
47
walkway type of path/route
48
revolving tube rotating tunnel
49
attempt effort
50
unsettling perturbing
51
so fair enough so thats OK
52
tableau (plural tableaux) three-dimensional
representation
53
life-size the size of real people
54
puppet figure, mannequin
55
to reek smell strongly

44
45

119 Think in English 13

damp moist, wet


graveyard cemetery
to pop ones head round a door look into a
room for a moment
59
to wander off walk away, leave
60
oldie old or middle-aged person
61
rare treat special surprise
62
shame pity, unfortunate thing
63
yet (in this context) however
64
faintly slightly, a little
65
sin (in this context) failing, defect
66
lowbrow popular (as opposed to elitist)
67
its about time the moment has arrived for
68
actually (false friend) really
56
57

58

D
racula
Creating the Legend
Fiction is never entirely
invented. It is the blending1 of
experience with bits and pieces
stolen from previous fiction.

Vampires Before Stoker

Bram Stoker did not invent vampires. They had existed in Eastern European folklore for centuries and in western European literature for over a hundred years.
Coleridge, Goethe, Byron, Shelley and John Polidori2, had all written about them
some 80 years before Stoker. What the Irish writer did do was to create the first
vampire to really capture the popular imagination. Dracula /'rkjl/ would
become the archetypal vampire, eclipsing all others.

Bram Stoker as a child

Florence, Brams wife

Bram Stoker
to blend mix, mingle
Byrons friend and secretary
3
sickly (adj.) chronically ill, delicate
4
bedridden confined to bed
5
to bleed s.o. (bleed-bled-bled) extract blood 8
as a supposed cure
6
infirmity (false friend) frailty, weakness, illness
7
to harvest collect, gather
8
blood /bld/ red liquid found in veins and
arteries
1

Abraham Stoker was born in 1847 but for the first seven years of his life he
was sickly3 and bedridden4 most of the time. According to contemporary
medical practice, an uncle, William, who was a doctor used to regularly
bleed5 the boy, no doubt prolonging his infirmity6. In any case the image
of a man coming regularly to harvest7 blood8 must have affected young
Bram. Brams mother, Charlotte, used to tell the sickly3 child stories from
her childhood as he lay9 in bed. These included anecdotes from the cholera epidemic in Sligo in 1832. According to one, those who were sick with
the disease10 were sometimes forced into pits11 while still alive by their
terrified neighbours using12 sharpened13 sticks. Again, echoes of these
images of people with stakes14 and the living dead must have obsessed
Brams impressionably young mind. Though Bram didnt need to be especially imaginative, the chests15 of those who had committed suicide were
still being staked16 near Brams home in Clontarf during his
childhood. According to another Sligo story, the peasants17
used to drink the blood8 of cattle18 in times of famine19.
There is another macabre anecdote relating to the Stokers
family burial plot20 in the cemetery of St. Michans Church
in Dublin. Atmospheric conditions there are such that
corpses21 tend to mummify rather than22 rot23, so whenever
a grave24 was opened the occupant was apparently undead.
On a more speculative level many critics have linked
those in Brams life to characters in Dracula. Could his
brother Dr Thornley Stoker be the inspiration behind Van
Helsing? Is Henry Irving the actor with a magnetic domineering personality who Stoker worked for for 20 years before Dracula was
published the model for Dracula? Is pretty25, frivolous Lucy based on
Brams wife Florence? Is sensible Mina a reflection of his mother, Charlotte? There is no definitive answer to such speculation.

to lie (lie-lay-lain) recline, rest


disease illness, sickness, pathology
11
pit hole in the ground
12
using (in this context) who used
13
sharpened pointed
14
stake /steik/ pointed stick
15
chest torso, thorax
16
to stake penetrate with a stake14
17
peasant rural worker
18
cattle cows
9

10

119 Think in English 14

famine period of widespread hunger/


starvation
family burial /'beril/ plot place in a
cemetery where the cadavers of a specific
family are put
21
corpse dead body, cadaver
22
rather than instead of/as opposed to (+ -ing)
23
to rot putrefy
24
grave tomb, sarcophagus
25
pretty (adj.) attractive

19

20

Photo by Justin McIntosh

Dr acula as Autobiogr aphy

Sexual Politics

Dr acula & R acism

Dracula can also be read as a comment


on Victorian sexual politics. It is easy to
interpret vampirism as a code for venereal disease10, an enormous problem in
Victorian society. On another level Dracula seems to be a reactionary comment
on the rising26 independence of women.
One of the most memorable scenes in the
novel is when the three sexually-predatory vampire women attack Harker. In
a few minutes they give him more sexual
gratification than Mina does in the entire
novel! Sensible27 Mina survives the
vampires attempted seduction28; frivolous Lucy is turned into a vampire i.e.
she becomes independent and sexually
predatory and has to be staked16 by her
fianc29 (in a scene charged with sexual
violence).
Victorian literature was obsessed
about the idea of older men seducing
virginal young women. Henry James,
for instance, wrote a number of novels in
which independent but innocent young
women are preyed upon30 by vampirelike middle-aged men. Suffering from
a mid-life crisis mature men still often
try to regain31 their youth32 by seducing
much younger women.

On one level Stoker presents a conflict between the modern scientific society and
irrational forces. The castle of rational civilization is under siege33 from myth, ignorance, superstition, sexual passion, the subconscious, madness, hypnotism, drugs
and dreams. As Van Helsing suggests, if we forget the irrational forces in our lives
they can endanger34 our way of life.
However, a closer reading shows that it is western civilization that is under
threat35. The crusaders represent Britain (Harker), Ireland (Mina Murray), the
USA (Quincey Morris) and Holland (Dr Abraham van Helsing). Dracula represents
the barbarous East. He traces his ancestry back to36 Attila the Hun37 and sails38
in a ship called The Czarina Catherine39. In the late 19th Century London received a
significant influx of east European Jews40 who brought with them radical ideas like
communism41 and anarchism that threatened42 the unity of the British Empire.

rising (in this context) emerging, increasing


sensible (false friend) responsible
attempted seduction effort to seduce her
29
ones fianc s.o. that one plans to marry
30
to be preyed upon by s.o. be s.os victim
31
to regain win back, recuperate
32
youth /ju:/ early years
33
to be under siege be under attack
34
to endanger put in danger, menace,
threaten
35
under threat in danger
36
to trace ones ancestry back to say that one
is descended from
37
17 years after the publication of Dracula
the British were calling the Germans the
Hun in the First World War
38
to sail travel by sea
39
Catherine the Great was famously both
despotic and promiscuous
40
Jew Jewish person, Hebrew, s.o. who practises
Judaism or is simply ethnically Semitic
41
remember that, according to tradition, the
socialist/communist flag is red because it is
soaked in workers blood
42
to threaten endanger, put in danger
43
the (Potato) Famine cataclysm in Irish
history (1846-47) during which hundreds
of thousands died of hunger and illness and
millions emigrated
44
bloodsucker exploiter, (literally) s.o. who
sucks (i.e. drinks using suction) blood 8
45
landlord s.o. who owns a lot of terrain
46
to buy up (buy-bought-bought) buy,
purchase, acquire
47
ones nemesis s.o. who takes revenge on you
48
the Host (in this context) the Holy wafer,
the Eucharist
49
to deny s.o. sth. not permit s.o. to have sth.
50
ruling class elite, aristocracy
51
Harker first meets Count Dracula the night
before St. Georges Day
26
27

28

pp. 24-25

Religious Politics
Stokers politico-religious allegiances in Dracula are ambiguous. On the one hand,
the aristocratic Dracula has been seen as a representation of the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Significantly, the British aristocrats in Ireland in the 19th Century
and especially during the Famine43 were sometimes called bloodsuckers44. Like
the Protestant absentee landlords45 in Ireland, Count Dracula abandons his ancestral home to buy up46 property in London. Moreover, Van Helsing Draculas nemesis47 is a Roman Catholic and he
uses crucifixes, indulgences and
even the Host48 against the Count.
Dracula drinks blood8 to extend
his physical life though it denies49
him spiritual salvation. This is a
perversion of the Catholic Eucharist in which Christs blood8 is
drunk to ensure spiritual salvation. On the other hand, it has to
be said that Stoker was in fact a
Protestant and part of the British ruling class50 when he lived in
Ireland. Moreover, one interpretation of Dracula is as a version of
Corpes at St. Michans Church in Dublin
the story of St. George Englands
51
patron saint and the dragon.
After all, dracula is the Romanian word for dragon. If Mina
represents Ireland and Jonathan
Harker represents England, then
the whole of the novel can be seen
as the efforts to save the two
countries from separation and
divorce.52
Dracula may even be a theotract54
combining
sophical53
diverse Christian elements with
freemasonry, the occult and
superstition. Stoker was certainly
aware of55 and interested in
Theosophy, which was very popular in the late Victorian period.
Stoker was a Liberal who wanted
Irish autonomy but strongly opposed
independence. Ireland became independent
21 years later
53
the Theosophy Society was founded in 1875.
It combined an ecumenical view of religion

52

119 Think in English 15

(incorporating many ideas from Hinduism


and Buddhism) with superstition to create
a belief system adapted to the modern
world
54
tract thesis, treatise, pamphlet
55
to be aware of be conscious of

Feature

Subscribers exercise L

Society

ADVANCED

by Colman Keane

Poor scullery maids , washing up and scrubbing away at the dozens of pots3,
pans4, saucepans5 and plates, up to their elbows6 in suds7, their hands red raw8.
Ive seen them crying with exhaustion. Lets hope they get their reward in heaven.9
1

Female Servants
in Victorian Times

Subscribers exercise E

An Army of Servants

By the time Edward VII had succeeded


to the throne it was an undeniable fact
of life that good servants were becoming
harder and harder10 to find. Much to the
surprise and chagrin11 of rich Edwardians, whose wonderful lifestyle and
never-ending leisure12 was maintained
by a veritable army of underlings13,
the lower orders had by then begun to
shy away from14 seeking15 employment
below-stairs16. 10 years earlier there had
been over one and a half million domestic servants17 in the United Kingdom.
However, by 1901 the technological
age had begun with the invention
of labour-saving devices18 such as
the Puffing Billy19. Anyway, young
girls preferred to work in steam
laundries20 rather than21 be paid
a pittance22 as laundry maids
toiling away23 for up to24 16
hours a day in a posh London
house owned by the aristocracy.
Moreover, if they were unlucky in
such houses, they might be seduced
by a visiting manservant25 or even
by the son of the house. Other girls
fortunate enough to have acquired
sufficient schooling, found employment
as typewriters26 in offices where they
scullery maid female servant who
cleans dirty dishes
2
to scrub (away at) scour, clean
with a brush and soapy water
3
pot (countable)
4
pan
5
saucepan
6
elbow articulation in the
middle of ones arm
7
suds lather, foam, spume of
soap
8
raw (in this context) inflamed
9
Aslet, Clive, The Last Country Houses, Yale
University Press, 1982.
10
harder and harder more and more difficult
11
chagrin annoyance, irritation, frustration
12
leisure free time
13
underling (offensive) servant, subordinate
14
to shy away from avoid
15
to seek (seek-sought-sought) look for, try to
find
16
below-stairs downstairs in the servants quarters
17
this in 1891 made up 16% of the total work
force of the entire country
18
device gadget, small machine
1

were better remunerated and had more


freedom. Yet27, the dread spectre28 of the
loathed29 Workhouse loomed over30 most
young people from poor families who, in
an effort to escape having to live in one
of the filthy31, poverty-stricken32 rookeries33 in Londons East End, sought15 refuge
in one of the homes belonging to the wellto-do. There at least they felt sheltered34,
had a roof35 over their heads and were
entitled to36 three meals a day.
Some aristocratic houses resembled
exclusive hotels and teemed with37 servants. When the 15th Earl of Derby passed
away38 in 1893 he had a staff of 727 servants at his disposal while, by the turn
of the century the 6th Duke of Portland employed over 300 servants to
ensure the smooth running39 of his
numerous houses. Aristocrats were
not the only ones who kept servants. Most well-heeled40 middleclass families living in a house in
the fashionable West End would
be expected to employ a cook, a
parlour-maid41, a housemaid and
a nurse. Even a lower-middleclass family, in an effort to
acquire a sheen42 of respectability,
would employ a maid-of-all-work to clean,
cook and mind43 the children. Nevertheless, by the time of Edward VIIs accession

to the throne, traditional deference


had begun to wane44 and there was an
increasingly rapid turnover of staff45.46
This latter phenomenon would seem to
contradict the idyllic view of servants as
trusted family retainers who were happy
with their lot47. Servants moved either
because they no longer saw eye-to-eye48
with their employers or because they
had found a better situation. However,
employers wielded49 great power over
their servants and many were kept on
tenterhooks50 until such time as their
employers had deigned51 to give them
a glowing52 reference, a sine qua non
when it came to seeking15 another post.

a vacuum cleaner invented in 1901


steam laundry (historical) place where clothes
are cleaned using steam (= hot water vapour)
21
rather than instead of, as opposed to, in
preference to
22
a pittance a very small salary
23
to toil away work hard
24
up to as many as
25
manservant male domestic servant
26
in 20th-century English this term referred to
the machine not the person (= typist)
27
yet however, nevertheless
28
dread spectre (in this context) threat,
terrifying idea
29
loathed hated, despised, detested
30
to loom over threaten, intimidate
31
filthy very dirty, unhygienic
32
poverty-stricken (in this context) full of poor
people
33
high slum buildings (= substandard
apartment blocks) in which many
families lived together in one
room.
34
sheltered protected
35
roof

to be entitled to have a right to


to teem with be full of
38
to pass away (euphemistic) die
39
smooth running efficient management/
functioning
40
well-heeled prosperous
41
parlour-maid female servant who served
food and tea in the sitting room
42
a sheen the appearance
43
to mind look after, watch
44
to wane decline
45
turnover of staff frequency that employees
leave and have to be replaced
46
By 1901 the average stay of a servant in the
same house was just under eighteen months.
47
ones lot ones circumstances/conditions of
work
48
to see eye-to-eye with s.o. (see-saw-seen)
agree with how s.o. organizes things
49
to wield (in this context) have
50
to keep s.o. on tenterhooks (keep-kept-kept)
cause s.o. to be agitated and uncertain because
s/he does not know when sth. will happen
51
to deign /dein/ condescend, consent, see fit
52
glowing (in this context) very favourable

19

20

119 Think in English 16

36
37

Conversation Point: What is the worst job you have ever had to do?

pp. 22-23

Society

The Pecking Order


There was a clearly established pecking order53 downstairs on the
lowest echelon54 of which was the housemaid. Earning about 17 a
year55 she was expected to be up by cockcrow56 as many tasks57
had to be completed by the time the family was up. Victorian and
Edwardian employers, believing in the maxim that cleanliness is
next to Godliness, expected the housemaid to open all the shutters58, take up the hearthrugs59, clean the grates60, light the fires61,
trim62 the candles and oil-lamps, polish63 the furniture, and scrub2
the stone floor of the kitchen and the front steps of the house. Unlike
the better-paid parlour-maid41 who was expected to answer the door and
serve at table, the poor housemaid was on her knees64 for hours on end and
often suffered from a chronic ailment65, known as housemaids knee.

The Ladys Maid


The ladys maid, addressed by those beneath her as Miss, was one of the most important female servants,
she had to be highly skilled66 at dressing her mistress in a jiffy67. Such was her importance that no lady could
manage without her. It was also part of her brief68 to pack the luggage whenever her mistress went away for
a country house weekend. One of the perks69 of the job was that the ladys maid was usually given all her
mistress cast-offs70. The ladys maid would also be expected to possess a good knowledge of hairdressing in
addition to having a pleasant manner and being discreet. She would have taken up her post when she was
young and her ultimate aim71 would be to become a housekeeper before her youth had faded72.

Cooks Privilege
Whereas73 the Victorian and Edwardian mistress
made sure her female servants74 toed the line75,
she was very often in awe of76 her cook. This was
hardly surprising as a professed cook (as opposed
to a plain cook) was really difficult to find and, in
consequence, could earn over 45 a year. Irrespective of whether she was married or single,
the cook would at all times be addressed as Mrs
and, fully aware of77 the power she wielded49,
would brook78 no interference in her kitchen. The
professed cook made elaborate dinners, beautiful desserts79, pastries and jellies, and could
even rustle up80 something simple at a moments
notice. After dinner had been served she was
free and would leave the unfortunate scullery
maids1 with the thankless task57 of doing the
washing-up, a chore81 which could take hours.
Regarded as the apex of a successful house, the
professed cook could, with her manifold skills82,
enhance83 the social prestige of a house. Not
surprisingly the mistress of the house would be
on the lookout84 lest85 another lady rob her of

the jewel in her culinary crown.


pecking order hierarchy
echelon level in a hierarchy
55
According to Mrs Isabella Beeton, the
average annual wage of a housemaid was 17
in the West End but only 13 in other parts
of Britain.
56
by cockcrow at dawn, at
sunrise
57
task job, piece of work, chore
58
shutter
59
hearthrug rug (= carpet) laid
in front of a fireplace
60
grate metal structure in front of a fireplace
61
A veritable feat in Victorian and Edwardian
53

54

times as the housemaid had to make the fire


using no more than seven pieces of wood.
62
to trim (in this context) cut and tidy up
63
to polish clean
64
on ones knees on all fours,
65
ailment medical problem
66
skilled specialized
67
in a jiffy very quickly
68
brief (in this context) job
description
69
perk benefit, bonus, advantage
70
cast-off old clothes
71
ultimate aim final objective
72
to fade disappear, gradually vanish

119 Think in English 17

whereas while, although


According to the 1881 census, there were twentytwo women servants to every male servant.
75
to toe the line act as expected
76
to be in awe of s.o. be reverential towards s.o.
77
to be aware of be conscious of
78
to brook accept
79
dessert pudding, sweet
80
to rustle sth. up quickly prepare sth.
81
chore task, job
82
manifold skills many talents
83
to enhance improve
84
to be on the lookout be vigilant
85
lest in case
73

74

Great Theatre

Oscar Wildes An Ideal Husband


A Brief Summary

St.28 Oscar, Martyr

A foreign stockbroker, Baron Arnheim, has been preaching1 the philosophy that
there is no greater joy2 than the power to control others and that the means3 to
do so in the modern world is through wealth4. Years ago, an impoverished young
English gentleman, Robert Chiltern,
who was working as private secretary
to the Foreign Secretary, sold Arnheim
a state secret that allowed5 the Baron to
become rich. Chilterns reward6 enabled7
him to become a successful businessman
and a politician of unblemished8 reputation. Now, as the play opens, Chiltern is
a pillar of society, happily married and
an important figure in the Foreign Office.
However, another disciple of Arnheims
Mrs Laura Cheveley returns to England
from Vienna. She was the Barons lover
and obtained from Arnheim a letter written by Chiltern that incriminates him.
She tries to blackmail9 Chiltern with
making the letter public unless he lends
his support to10 a fraudulent scheme11
in Argentina. Sir Robert Chilterns wife
Lady Chiltern worships12 Robert
because he is incorruptible an ideal Victorian husband in both his private and
public life. Robert has to choose between accepting the blackmail13 and risking
his wifes love or refusing to yield14 to extortion and risking a public humiliation.
His only ally and confidant is the dandy, Lord Arthur Goring.

It is modern dogma that Oscar Wilde was


a genius and a martyr to Victorian Values.
Certainly, almost nobody in the early 21st
Century would condone29 the fact that he
was imprisoned for being gay. However,
his martyrdom does not of itself make
him blameless30 or all his work brilliant.
Few people could deny31 that The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) is a masterpiece or that Lady Windermeres Fan
(1892) and A Woman of No Importance
(1893) are significant comic plays. Nevertheless, Wildes drama was uneven32; it
included the awful Vera (1883) and The
Duchess of Padua (1891), as well as33
the instantly forgettable A Florentine
Tragedy and La Sante Courtisane (both
1893). An Ideal Husband is not as bad as
Wildes attempts34 at tragedy, but it falls
far short of35 the brilliance of Earnest.
Bosie
Oscar

No Masterpiece
An Ideal Husband (1895) is regularly performed and has been turned into at
least three films. This is more because it is by Oscar Wilde than because it is
a great play. The play is in many ways a standard moralistic Victorian melodrama spiced up with15 scenes written for the sole purpose of being vehicles for
Wildean epigrams16. The combination is not always successful.
Above all17, the characters are less attractive than in Wildes better plays.
Goring is appealing18 enough, though he is simply Lord Illingworth from A
Woman of No Importance reused19. However, it has to be said that while dandies
in their twenties20 can be adorable, dandies in their mid-thirties like Goring (34)
begin to seem rather21 pathetic. The Chilterns are an unattractive couple incapable of being honest to each other or themselves. One assumes22 they have
neglected23 children upstairs in the care of servants. Worse still, Mrs Cheveleys
unforgivable sin24 seems to be that she behaves25 like a man. After all, is her
crime26 any worse than Chilterns? Wilde seems to say that while effeminate
men (i.e. Goring) are fine even heroes assertive27 women are devils.

of Being Earnest
rather (in this context) a bit, somewhat, a little
to assume (false friend) suppose
23
neglected (in this context) emotionally
abandoned by their parents
24
sin immoral act
25
to behave act, conduct oneself
26
crime (false friend) illegal act
27
assertive confident, forceful, determined
28
St. (in this context) Saint
29
to condone accept, excuse
30
blameless above reproach, virtuous
31
to deny contradict, negate
32
uneven irregular, not uniformly good
33
as well as together with, and
34
attempt effort
35
to fall short of not be comparable with, be less
admirable than

21

22

to preach (in this context) advocate, proclaim,


disseminate
2
joy pleasure, satisfaction
3
means way, method
4
wealth affluence, being rich, (in this context)
money
5
to allow enable, permit
6
reward compensation, payment, recompense
7
to enable allow, permit
8
unblemished impeccable
9
to blackmail s.o. extort money from s.o.
10
to lend ones support to sth. (lend-lent-lent)
back sth., publicly express approval for sth.
11
scheme project, plan, venture
1

to worship sth. venerate sth., adore sth. (like


a god)
blackmail extortion
14
to yield submit
15
to be spiced up with be made more
interesting by including
16
Wildean epigrams short humorous phrase
usually based on a paradox (typical of the
writings of Oscar Wilde)
17
above all most importantly
18
appealing attractive
19
reused used again, recycled as a different
character in another play
20
such as Algernon and Jack in The Importance
12
13

119 Think in English 18

Conversation Point: Are politicians


- or husbands - ever blameless30?

Subscribers exercises G & Q

No Ideal Husband

The trouble with An Ideal Husband is


that there is too much of Oscar Wilde in
it. Wilde clearly identifies himself with
Lord Goring; indeed36 he gave Arthur
this name because he started to write
the play in Goring-on-Thames in the
summer of 1893. But Wilde is also partly,
Robert Chiltern, the husband who keeps
secrets from this wife. The germ of the
play came from two sources37. On the one
hand, Chiltern can be seen to be partially
based on Lord Drumlanrig. He was the
private secretary to Lord Rosebery, the
Foreign Secretary and a possible future
Prime Minister. Drumlanrig was not only
a friend of Wildes but the elder brother
of Wildes lover, Lord Alfred Bosie Douglas. Though the details are murky38 it
seems that Lord Drumlanrig committed
suicide when blackmailers39 threatened
to40 expose his sexual relationship with
Lord Rosebery. On the other hand, Wilde
himself was being approached by blackmailers39 at the time. Bosie had given
a second-hand suit41 to another lover,
James Wood, but had forgotten to check
the pockets. In the suit was a love letter
from Oscar to Bosie. This letter was
passed on to members of Alfred Taylors
gang of rent boys42 and petty criminals43. They used the letter to extort
some money out of Wilde, though at the
time of writing An Ideal Husband the
problem had apparently blown over44.

The central argument of the play is that


a wife should not idealize her husband
and then judge him when he falls short
of35 the ideal but rather45 accept him as
he is and forgive him whatever he does.
This is a very convenient argument for
a man who had largely abandoned his
wife and children and ran off with his
lover (it is irrelevant that Wildes lover
was a man). This argument is reinforced by the ideal modern couple to
be46 in the play: Arthur Goring and
Mabel (Roberts sister). At the end of
the play Mabel says she does not want
Arthur to be an ideal husband but to be
himself. Meanwhile47, she promises to
be a real wife. It is unclear what she
means by that but it does not seem to
suggest any idea of gender equality, or
mutual tolerance and forgiveness.

What the Butler Saw48


If Wilde used An Ideal Husband to laugh
about the attempts to blackmail him,
it is paradoxical that the play should
be the source49 of his downfall. When
Wilde started his lawsuit50 against the
Marquis of Queensbury51 for libel52, it
was actor Charles Brookfield who has
played Gorings butler, Phipps who
led53 Queensburys detectives to Alfred
Taylor54 . Brookfield was angry with
Wilde because Oscar had been disdainful about an aesthetic burlesque the
actor had once written. The end result
of all this was that Wilde was sent to
prison for two years hard labour, his
reputation in tatters55.

indeed (emphatic) in fact


source origin, inspiration
murky unclear
39
blackmailer extortionist
40
to threaten to do sth. say that you
will do sth. to intimidate s.o.
41
suit
42
rent boy young male prostitute
43
petty criminal (false friend) s.o.
involved in petty crime (= minor illegal acts)
44
to blow over (blow-blew-blown) pass, go away
45
but rather (in this context) by contrast she
should
46
couple to be future matrimony
47
meanwhile at the same time
48
incidentally, the title of a 1969 play by Joe
Orton
49
source (in this context) origin, indirect cause
50
lawsuit legal action
51
Bosies father, who had called Wilde a
somdomite
52
libel defamation
53
to lead (lead-led-led) take, show, guide
54
the leader of the gang of rent boys and petty
criminals who blackmailed Wilde (see
Blackmail & Bosie above)
55
in tatters destroyed, in ruins
56
e.g. Iago in Othello
57
who also comes from Vienna
58
to rock undermine, shake, weaken
59
i.e. devotion to family, public and private
responsibility and obedience to the law
60
filthy lucre corrupting money, dishonourable
profit
36
37

38

A Bit of Xenophobia
For the Elizabethans the primary figure
of immorality was the Italian machiavel.56 For the late Victorians it was
an Eastern European aristocrat. Baron
Arnheim, who temporarily corrupted
Chiltern and permanently perverted
Mrs Cheverley in An Ideal Husband,
is just another version of Melmotte 57
in Trollopes The Way We Live Now
(1875) and indeed of the Count in
Stokers Dracula (1897). The late Victorians seemed incapable of understanding that the corruption scandals that
rocked58 their society were not the
result of some malign foreign influence but the degeneration of their own
values59 in the face of filthy lucre60.

119 Think in English 19

Great Theatre

Blackmail & Bosie

Anne Rice has written 33 books in as many years1 and has sold nearly 100
million copies making her one of the most widely-read authors2 of modern times.

Anne Rice

from god to
Vampires to god

A Girl
Called Howard

High-School Sweethearts

Shortly after Anne Rice


was born into an IrishAmerican family on 4th
October, 1941, she was
Howard
christened3
Allen
OBrien.
Her

When Im writing, the darkness is


always there. I go where the pain is.
Anne Rice
mother, whose maiden
name4 was Katherine
Allen, decided to name
the child Howard for5
her
father,
Howard
OBrien, despite the fact
that Howard is a boys
name. The little girl
always hated the name
and on her first day at
school she told the nun6
who was her teacher that
her name was Anne.
Anne
OBrien
was
brought up7 a good Catholic girl in New Orleans.
However, some inkling
of8 her future might have
been detected: she wrote
her first book when she
was 11 in the fifth grade;
it was about two children
from Mars who commit
suicide.
in as many years in the same number of years,
(in this context) in 33 years
2
one of the most widely-read authors one of
the authors whose books have been read by the
greatest number of people
3
to christen /'krisn/ baptize
4
maiden name surname before marriage
5
to name s.o. A for B (US English) name s.o. A
after B (UK English), name s.o. A in honour of B
6
nun religious woman who typically lives in
a convent
7
to bring s.o. up (bring-brought-brought) rear
1

When Anne was 14 her mother died as a result of alcohol abuse. Two years
later, Howard OBrien and his daughters relocated to9 Texas. Anne met Stan
Rice while they were both studying at Richardson High School in Texas and
when Stan went to San Francisco State University (SFSU), Anne followed
him there. Anne married the poet-cum-sculptor in 1961 and they stayed
together for 41 years until Stan died of cancer in 2002. The couple lived in
the San Francisco Bay Area from 1962 to 1988, which meant they had frontrow seats10 to watch the Hippie Revolution taking place11 around them. In
1964 Anne received a BA12 in Political Science from SFSU, followed by an
MA13 in 1971.

Catharsis
In 1972 Anne and Stans five-year-old daughter Michele (Mouse) died of
leukaemia. Following the tragedy Anne wrote Interview with the Vampire in
only five weeks in a grief-stricken14 haze15.16 The six-year-old child vampire,
Claudia, who is granted17 immortality, is based on Michele.
Interview with the Vampire was repeatedly rejected by publishing companies before finally being accepted in 1976 and becoming a best-seller.18 Rice
has said that Interview with the Vampire, is about the near despair19 of an
alienated being who searches the world for some hope that his existence
can have meaning. His vampire nature is clearly a metaphor for human
consciousness or moral awareness20... The vampire was the perfect metaphor
for the outcast21 in all of us, the alienated one in all of us, the one who feels
lost in a world seemingly22 without God. In other words Lestat de Lioncourt
was a male23 version of herself.
s.o., raise s.o., gradually prepare a child for
adult life
8
inkling of small indication of, slight hint of,
clue to
9
to relocate to move (home) to
10
to have front-row seats (have-had-had) have
an excellent vantage point, be perfectly placed
11
to take place (take-took-taken) happen, occur
12
BA Bachelor of Arts, an ordinary degree
13
MA Master of Arts, higher degree
14
grief-stricken suffering from grief (= sorrow/
sadness because s.o. has died)

119 Think in English 20

haze blur, period of mental confusion


according to a less poetic version of the story,
she wrote the book in only five weeks to meet
the deadline of a writing competition she
wanted to enter
17
to be granted be given, receive
18
it sold over four million copies
19
despair hopelessness, desperation
20
awareness consciousness
21
outcast outsider, pariah /p'rai/
22
seemingly apparently
23
male masculine
15
16

by Jessica Millet

Grotesque

Before her daughter Michele was diagnosed with leukaemia, Anne had a
premonitory dream in which she saw
her little girl dying because something
was wrong with her blood24. 30 years
later Stuart Townsend was chosen to
play Lestat in the film version of Queen
of the Vampires (2002). Soon after being
cast Townsend went to New Orleans
to see Rice. Anne gave the Irish actor
a copy of The Witching Hour and told
him to turn to page 486. On the specified page Townsend found the phrase
The Life of Stuart Townsend. The
actor thanked Rice saying, Oh, Anne,
thats so sweet that you put me in one of
your books. But Anne replied, Stuart,
I wrote that book eleven years ago!
Maybe premonitions run in the
family because in 2000 in his first
novel A Density of Souls Annes son,
Christopher, described the destruction
of New Orleans by a major hurricane.25

Despite Rices blessing26 The Queen of the Damned failed to27


convince the film critics. It did somewhat28 better than expected
with the public because of a macabre series of events. First, before
the movie was released its 22-year-old female star, Aaliyah Dana
Haughton, died in a plane crash in Barbados in August 2001, creating a certain morbid interest. Then, 10 months after the movie was
released on 22/02/2002 a man called Allan Menzies from West
Lothian in Scotland murdered one of his friends, ate part of his head
and drank his blood24. He claimed29 in court that it was Akasha
Aaliyahs character in the film who had told him to do it.

blood /bld/ red liquid typically found in


veins and arteries
sceptics would argue that meteorologists
had been predicting that New Orleans
would suffer a major hurricane for years
and, anyway, Christophers hurricane is
called Brandy, not Katrina
26
blessing (in this context) approval
27
failed to did not
28
somewhat a little
29
to claim declare
30
steamiest most sexually explicit, most
uninhibited
31
pen name nom de plume, writers
pseudonym
32
Goth Pride movement movement to
promote the values and lifestyle of Goths
(= members of a subculture that dress in
black and emulates the aesthetic of horror
movies and vampires)
33
to turn up to appear at

A Middle-Aged Party Girl


In the 1980s when Rice was not writing about vampires, witches,
demons, mummies and ghosts she was writing some of the steamiest30 sadomasochistic erotica on the market under the pen names31
Ann Rampling and A.N. Roquelaure.
In the 1980s Rice was involved in the Goth Pride movement32 and
used to turn up to33 book signings wearing black wedding dresses.
On one occasion in New Orleans she arrived to a book signing in a
coffin34 carried in a jazz funeral procession. At the time35 Rices only
concern36 about the hereafter37 was literary; I want my books to
live, to be read after Im dead. That will be justification enough for
all the pain and work and struggling38 and doubt. However, all this
was to change...

24
25

Queen of the Saved


In 1998 Rice returned to Roman Catholicism having described
herself for years as an atheist. In 2004 she declared that from that
moment on39 she would write only for the Lord40; with, according
to some, a consequential deterioration in the quality of her work.
However, Rice has not repudiated her previous work, saying that it

reflected her quest for41 meaning in a world without God.


coffin
at the time during that period
36
concern (n.) worry, preoccupation
37
the hereafter the afterlife, what
happens after we die
34
35

struggling conflict
from that moment on after that, from that
point
40
the Lord God
41
quest for search for, effort to discover
38
39

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119 Think in English 21

Literature

Clairvoyants

cholera had been confined to


India but modern means of transport13
allowed14 it to become a global disease.
The disease was terrifying. Its symptoms
were constant diarrhoea and vomiting.
Dehydration caused the body to shrivel15
by up to16 25% and turn blue or black.
Disconcertingly, the victim can twitch17
for several hours after death. Asiatic
cholera first arrived in the British Isles
in October 1831 on a ship from Hamburg.
Each decade until 1866 would see
further epidemics. The 1831-32 epidemic
killed 31,000 people. The second British epidemic occurred in 1848-49 when
some 60,000 died.18 Another 31,000 died
in the 1853-54 outbreak19. However, in
1854 Dr John Snow proved that cholera
was a waterborne20 disease and was not
caused by miasmas. Although the medical profession was slow to accept Snows
conclusions, improved sanitation meant
that the death toll21 from the 1865-66
cholera epidemic was only 15,000. This
was Britains last cholera epidemic,
largely22 thanks to strict quarantining of ships from foreign cities. In 1884
German scientist Robert Koch identified
the cholera bacillus. Cholera is underrepresented in the literature of the time
because there is nothing poetic about the
disease and you wouldnt wish it on23
your worst enemy.

The Victorian Way of Death


1

The Victorian Sanitary Revolution. Britain was the first industrialized


country, so it was the first country to suffer the problems of overcrowded4 industrial cities. It was also the first country to combat these problems with sanitary measures. This great conflict took place during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). The
first step was to identify the problem. In 1835 proper records5 of the cause of death
had begun to be compiled6. Then, in 1842 a report7 revealed that half of children died
before their fifth birthday in Britain, that only 12% of urban areas had access to hygienic water supplies and that deaths from infectious diseases8 were almost exclusively
confined to the poor urban areas. Gradually, improvements in basic sanitation and the
provision of clean water won the battle against the diseases.

Tuberculosis (TB). This disease known


as consumption at the time, is the illness we
most closely associate with the Victorians. It has been
estimated that TB killed 25% of the adult population
of Europe in the 19th Century. Consumption dominates Victorian literature. This is partly because
TB sufferers became bizarrely beautiful (to the
Victorian eye). With their almost translucent skin9
and dark eye sockets10 they looked like martyrs in
mediaeval paintings. Moreover, it was erroneously
believed that people with special sensitivity were
especially vulnerable to TB; poets Keats, Shelley
and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and novelists such
as the Bront Sisters and Robert Louis Stevenson,
could be cited as consumptives to prove this. On
the other hand, the pale skin, red eyes, sensitivity
to light and coughing up11 of blood12 meant that TB
was associated in folklore with vampirism.
swine flu (informal) the new H1N1 influenza virus
to spare a thought for think compassionately
about
3
to put up with (put-put-put) tolerate, stand
4
overcrowded overpopulated, with more
people than is healthy
5
proper records an adequate register
6
to compile write down, draw up, record
7
A Survey into the Sanitary Condition of the
Labouring Classes in Great Britain by Edwin
Chadwick (1800-1890)
8
disease illness, sickness, pathology
9
skin body covering, cutaneous organ
1

eye sockets the two cavities in ones face/


cranium in which the eyes are located
11
to cough sth. up eject sth. from ones mouth
12
blood /bld/ red liquid typically in veins and
arteries
13
means of transport methods/forms of
transportation
14
to allow enable, permit
15
to shrivel shrink, dehydrate, get smaller
16
up to as much as
17
to twitch have spasms, move involuntarily
18
in 1849, 2000 people per week were dying of cholera
19
outbreak epidemic
10

119 Think in English 22

Cholera. Before the 19th Century

Typhus. Typhus fever is spread24


by lice25 and so is a disease of the
poor. Fatalities26 are usually proportionally higher among those aged over 40.
The first typhus epidemic had occurred
before the Victorian era in 1816-19. The
1837-38 visitation27 killed 28,000 people,
especially in the new northern industrial
cites.28 The disease returned in 1847-48
killing another 30,000 people in England
and Wales, and 47,000 in Ireland. During
this, the last major outbreak19 of typhus
in the British Isles, the disease was known
as the Irish fever because many of those
who suffered from and spread 29 the
typhus were Irish immigrants escaping
waterborne that was transmitted through water
the death toll the total number of deaths
largely primarily, mostly, principally
23
to wish sth. on s.o. desire that s.o. should
suffer from sth.
24
to be spread be propagated, be disseminated
25
louse (plural lice)
26
fatality death
27
visitation outbreak 19, epidemic
28
as described by Elizabeth Gaskell
in Mary Barton
29
to spread (spread-spread-spread)
propagate, disseminate

20

21

22

Dictation

10 Things

Homeless in Victorian London (by Gustave Dor)

Before you obsess about swine flu1, spare a thought


for2 what the Victorians had to put up with3.

An anti-vaccination caricature

from the Potato Famine. Perhaps


1,100,000 people died from
typhus, dysentery, diarrhoea
and hunger in Ireland from 1847
to 1951. Typhus remained30
present in Ireland until the end
of the century.

Typhoid 31. Like cholera, typhoid fever is caused


by faeces32 from an infected
person contaminating drinking
water or food. Queen Victorias
husband, Prince Albert, died
from typhoid after drinking a
glass of contaminated water. 10 years later her son, Edward, nearly died33 from the
same disease. However, he survived to become Edward VII, Victorias successor.
Charles Darwin also suffered from and survived typhoid. Although the disease was
present throughout the Victorian era, the most severe typhoid epidemic to affect
Victorian Britons took place during the Great Boer War (1899-1902) in South Africa.
The disease killed 77,000 British troops six times as many as were killed in fighting.

Dr John Snow

STDs42. Syphilis and


gonorrhea
reached
near-epidemic
proportions in late Victorian Britain. This is partly because
the authorities routinely
checked prostitutes for the
STDs but not their clients.
And prostitution was
rampant43 in the Victorian era. In 1887 there
were 80,000 prostitutes
in London, a city of two
million at the time. Famous
Victorians who had syphilis include Oscar Wilde and Randolph
Churchill (Winstons father).

Imperial Diseases. Diseases


that had been consigned to history
in Europe could still ravage44 the British
Empire. The bubonic plague flared up45
again in China from 1855 onwards46 and
once it had reached Hong Kong, travelled
throughout the world. Between 1897 and
1917 it killed over 10 million people in
India alone. New Zealand was repeatedly struck47 by scarlet fever48 epidemics
throughout the Victorian era. Australia
was also affected by scarlet fever but
its worst epidemic was the German
measles49 outbreak19 of 1938-41.

10

tal was the largest city in


the world during the Victorian era; it
was also something of a death trap50.
Living conditions in the slums51 were
so awful that they were known as
fever nests52. Another problem was
the River Thames which was an open
sewer53 for the entire city. The problem came to a head during the long hot
summer of 1858. The stench54 from
the river was so intense that Members
of Parliament threw up55 in the
House of Commons. Queen Victoria,
travelling on a boat on the Thames,
fainted56 because of the smell. In
the end Parliament was closed until
autumn. The crisis became known as

the Great Stink57.

How cholera and typhoid spread

Smallpox34. This disease had been endemic in Britain for centuries but it should
have been a thing of the past by the beginning of Victorias reign. Variolation had
existed for a century and Jenner had developed vaccination35 back in 1798. The rich
routinely vaccinated their children throughout the period but the poor were suspicious of the treatment and suffered disproportionately as a result. Until the middle
of the century smallpox chiefly36 killed babies and small children. From the 1850s
onwards37 the old contracted smallpox in higher numbers. In the 1837-40 epidemic,
which coincided with a major typhus epidemic, 42,000 people died from smallpox.38
The last major epidemic came in 1871-72 when over 50,000 died in Great Britain.

Influenza39. Flu was as international in the Victorian era as it is now. The


queens reign opened with an influenza (and measles40) pandemic (1836-37) that
also affected Britain. The disease swept across41 Europe again in 1847-48 and there
was another flu pandemic in 1889-90.
to remain continue to be
typhoid (fever) enteric fever, Salmonella typhi
32
faeces /'fi:si:z/ excrement
33
nearly died almost died, came close to death
34
smallpox variola major
35
vaccination inoculation, immunization
36
chiefly mostly, primarily
37
from the 1850s onwards after approximately
1850
38
there were eruptions (though not full
epidemics) of smallpox in 1848, 1851, 1852,
1858 and 1863-64
30
31

influenza flu, a very contagious viral disease


measles /'mi:zlz/ rubeola, a very contagious
viral disease
41
to sweep across (sweep-swept-swept)
propagate rapidly through
42
STDs sexually-transmitted diseases, venereal
diseases
43
to be rampant be out of control
44
to ravage devastate, desolate
45
to flare up reappear unexpectedly
46
from 1855 onwards after 1855
47
to be struck (in this context) be affected

scarlet fever scarlatina


German measles rubella
death trap place in which it is lethal to live
51
slums overcrowded 4 urban area
characterized by poor-quality housing
52
nest (literally) home of a bird or a rat
53
open sewer exposed channel for effluence/
waste
54
stench stink, bad smell
55
to throw up (throw-threw-thrown) vomit
56
to faint pass out, lose consciousness
57
stink stench, bad smell

39

48

40

49

119 Think in English 23

London. The British capi-

50

10 Things

Subscribers exercise J

Cinema

Dracula is probably the most recognizable fictional character in the world.


This is not because of the terribly verbose2 novel much less for its author;
Bram Stoker is hardly3 a household name4. What made Dracula and derived
vampire tales the dominant mythology of the modern age was cinema.
More films have been made about Dracula than about any other story.5

dracula
From Novel to Film

Nosferatus

So why did a novel that was panned6


when it first came out become the most
successful story of the cinema and television age? Part of the reason is that Stoker
worked most of his adult life as a manager
in the theatre, so he was very aware of7
what worked8 visually and melodramatically. But this is not the only reason. A
more important factor is that Dracula
is multi-layered9 and ambiguous, thus10
allowing11 each generation to project its
own popular anxieties onto the story.
Dracula can be about the primeval12
fear13 of the dark, it can be about sexuallypredatory men and women or it can
be about the envy of old people towards
the young. It can be seen as a defence of
racial purity or an attack on the liberation of women. It can focus on STDs14 or
on drugs. The Count and his imitators
can be terrifying old men or gorgeous
young hunks15. Ultimately16, vampirism
is just17 exploitation: one person selfishly
using and destroying another. Dracula, in
other words, is everything to everybody.

Today Nosferatu18 (1922) is considered a masterpiece of expressionist cinema.


However, we are lucky that it survived at all. Stokers widow19 took legal action
against this unauthorized version of Dracula and all the
copies of it were meant to20 have been destroyed. Nosferatu follows the same basic story as Stokers Dracula
but simplifies it, for instance by omitting Arthur Holmwood21 and Quincey Morris22. The action takes place in
Germany. The Dracula character, Orlok, doesnt create
new vampires, he just17 kills people. The townsfolk23
confuse those he kills with plague victims. In other words,
the connection between Dracula and pestilence is much
stronger in Nosferatu. Orlok is rodent-like and repulsive,
very different from seductive Dracula. Finally, Orlok is
not killed by being staked24; he is killed by sunlight.
Prior to Nosferatu, Dracula may have preferred the dark
but he could appear in sunlight without problems.25
In 1979 Werner Herzog remade Nosferatu in his own image. The film is in colour
but it is almost silent. The emphasis is on sublime photography and
creating a mood26, so it doesnt make
much of27 a horror film. Crucially, it
confuses the roles of Lucy and Mina
and merges28 Dr. Seward and Dr van
Helsing into one character; thats a bit
like blending29 Sherlock Holmes and
Dr Watson into a single individual!
The 1922 film of Nosferatu became
the subject of another movie Shadow
of the Vampire (2000). The intriguing idea is that Max Schreck30 (18791936), who played Orlok, was in fact
a real vampire. Unfortunately, the film
doesnt fully live up to31 expectations.

zeitgeist the spirit of the times/era


verbose bombastic, using more words than
are necessary
3
hardly not really, (in this context) certainly not
4
household name name that is universally
known
5
there have been over 150 Dracula movies,
according to David Parkinson in Cinema
[1995, Oxford]. The Count Dracula Society
say there have been over 200.
6
to pan sth. (informal) severely criticize
7
to be aware of be conscious of
8
to work (in this context) function
9
to be multi-layered can be understood at
different levels
10
thus (formal) in this way
11
to allow permit, enable
12
primeval ancient, primitive
13
fear terror
14
STDs sexually-transmitted diseases,
venereal disease
15
hunk sexually-attractive man
16
ultimately (false friend) in the final analysis
1

just (in this context) simply


the term Nosferatu a synonym of vampire
was popularized by Stoker, though it appeared
in earlier sources. The Romanian word either
comes from Greek nosophoros (= diseasebearing, contagious) or from Romanian
nesuferitul (= the insufferable one).
19
widow wife whose husband has died
20
to be meant to be supposed to
21
Lord Godalming, English aristocrat and
Lucys fianc
22
an adventurer from Texas
17
18

119 Think in English 24

townsfolk citizens
to stake s.o. kill s.o. with a stake (= pointed stick)
in Chapter 13 of Stokers Dracula Harker
sees the Count walking around Piccadilly in
London in broad daylight
26
mood atmosphere, feeling
27
it doesnt make much of it isnt a very good
28
to merge fuse, blend, conflate
29
to blend fuse, merge, join together
30
ironically, Schreck in German means
fright/terror
31
to live up to fulfil, satisfy
23

24

25

Bram Stokers Dracula?


Despite its title, Bram Stokers Dracula (1992, directed by Francis Ford Coppola) is
not simply a screen version of the novel. In the 1990s the idea of unmotivated evil38
was hard to swallow39, so Coppola humanized Dracula by making his malevolence
the product of the loss of his soul-mate40, who looked a bit like Mina. If only there
had been therapists in mediaeval Transylvania! Moreover, Coppola takes for granted
that Stokers count is based on the historical despot Vlad Tepes. In fact, this is a
matter of intense academic dispute. Furthermore, the idea that Dracula is motivated
to travel to England by a picture of Mina is actually41 taken from Nosferatu. The
fact is that a faithful version of Bram Stokers Dracula is still waiting to be made.

21st-Century Draculas

The Other Dracula


Movie Tradition
The story of Dracula movies has been
significantly influenced by a 1924 play,
Dracula (which was authorized by Mrs
Stoker). This stage32 Dracula radically
simplified the story for example fusing
Lucy and Mina into a single character.
Like Nosferatu the play eliminates Arthur
and Quincey. In 1927 a modified version
of the play was taken to Broadway, where
it starred Bela Lugosi. The famous 1931
film version of Dracula starring Lugosi
was based on the play rather than33 Stokers novel.
From the 1950s to the 80s sex played
an ever-more34 important role in Dracula
movies. The focus shifted35 to the Count
as sexual predator in Dracula (1958) starring Christopher Lee. Lugosis Dracula
seems positively grotesque beside Lees
charming aristocrat with a pale face and
unforgettable eyes. The Vampire Lovers
(1970) pushed the boundaries36 further
by explicitly introducing lesbianism and
female dominance to the Dracula story.37
Meanwhile, the focus of Tony Scotts
The Hunger (1983) was the eroticism of
female vampires.
stage (adj.) theatrical
rather than as opposed to, instead of
ever-more more and more
35
to shift move, change
36
to push the boundaries expand the limits
37
influenced by Sheridan Le Fanus Carmilla (1872)
38
evil (n.) malevolence, malignancy
39
hard to swallow difficult to accept
40
soul-mate the love of ones life
41
actually (false friend) in fact
42
to stomach accept
43
in the original Marvel comic book Blade is
not half-vampire
44
struggle battle, war, conflict
45
to rely upon count on, depend on
46
to swoon faint, lose consciousness, pass out
47
evil (adj.) malevolent, malignant
48
chalk white (emphatic) completely white
49
glaring staring angrily, menacing

The number of vampire movies has increased exponentially over the last decade.
However, there is one salient characteristic to the recent movies; we cant stomach42
the idea that a whole ethnic group in this case Vampires is inherently evil. As a
result, from Blade43 (1998, 2002, 2004) to televisions Angel and Twilight (2009) there
are good vampires who help us humans in the struggle44 against the bad ones. Moreover, in recent years the seductive abilities of the mature male could no longer be relied
upon45 to make the girls swoon46, so modern vampires/Draculas tend to be hunks15.
The same has happened to Draculas nemesis; in Van Helsing (2004) the middle-aged
doctor is now a 30-something muscular Hugh Jackman.

Beyond Dracula Movies


Even when Dracula is not mentioned by name he is the archetypal evil47 being. There
are aspects of Dracula in Darth Vader (Star Wars 1977-2005). When J.K. Rowling
described Voldemort in the Harry Potter novels as having a most terrible face... chalk
white48 with glaring49 red eyes the description is almost identical to Stokers Count50.
But its not just the figure of Dracula thats influenced other films; the story itself
has been regularly plundered51 for its impacting situations. In Alien (1979) a mysterious stowaway52 on a spaceship kills each member of the crew one-by-one. This is
essentially what happens in chapter 7 of Stokers Dracula. The same could be said of
The Thing (1951, 1982). In fact, much of science fiction would be impossible without
Dracula. How could you have The Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1955) without the
precedent of the Count who invades England to rob people of their free will53?
Indeed, Dracula reaches deep into popular culture. The Count metamorphosis
can be seen all over TV culture from the hypnotic Ming the Merciless in Flash
Gordon to the (literally) bloodthirsty54 invaders of V to Count von Count on
Sesame Street. It is no exaggeration to say that Dracula is the dominant myth of
our age. The novel has never been out of print since it was published and this is

almost entirely due to55 the overwhelming56 influence of cinema.

32
33

34

a livid white face... with red eyes (Chapter 19)


to plunder pillage, steal, rob
52
stowaway s.o. who travels on a ship without
permission

free will autonomy, ability to act freely


bloodthirsty (literally) needing to drink blood
due to because of
56
overwhelming irresistible, profound

50

53

51

54

119 Think in English 25

55

Cinema

Subscribers exercise P

The Casino at Marino

Subscribers exercise W

One of the most extraordinary buildings in Europe is unknown to


most Dubliners living only a few kilometres away.

Approaching the Casino1


The first glimpse2 we get of the Casino1 as we trudge up3 the Malahide Road
is across a school sports field. It looks like a white cube, more of a sculpture
than a building. It is almost impossible to gauge4 the scale of the Casino from
this distance. The signposting is pretty awful5 so it takes a bit of time to find
the entrance to the greatest neoclassical edifice in Ireland. Of three locals6
all friendly two give correct directions. Once we are finally up-close, scale
is still a problem. What we are apparently looking at is a solid block adorned
with columns. Like Marble Arch in London or the Arc de Triomphe in Paris it
seems to be not quite7 a building and not quite a sculpture more of a monument. We circle it. I was taught to do this first as a best way to understand
the relationship between a buildings interior and exterior once I got inside.
It doesnt help; we cant see in through the windows for some reason, so the
building remains8 impenetrably solid. However, the impression we get leads9
us to conclude that this is a pavilion consisting of one very large room; a pleasant space in which to organize small concerts in the summer, perhaps.
the building is a casino in the Italian sense
of little house. It was never a casino in the
English sense of gambling house (for poker,
roulette, etc.).
2
glimpse momentary view
3
to trudge up walk wearily up, ascend with effort
4
to gauge judge, guess, estimate
5
pretty awful rather unhelpful, not good
6
locals local people, people from the area
7
not quite not really, not entirely
8
to remain continue to be, be still
9
to lead (lead-led-led) cause
10
to dawn (in this context) gradually becomes clear
11
basement underground level, cellar
12
sunken below ground-level
13
walkway footpath, route
14
to allow enable, permit
15
woollen (UK English) woolen (US English)
made of wool (= the hair of sheep)
16
slippers light shoes typically worn at home
17
to wander around walk about
18
trompe-loeil /tromp 'loi/ sth. that tricks
1

Conversation Point: Which is your


favourite building? Describe it.

ones eyes, optical illusion


detached house house that is not attached to
other houses, free-standing house
20
to display show, exhibit
21
feat triumph, accomplishment
22
quite staggering extremely impressive
23
contrivance deception49, trick 34 , subterfuge
24
to come to realize (come-came-come)
become conscious
25
to devise design
26
window pane piece of glass in a window
27
slightly a little
28
state room most formal room in which to
receive visitors
29
flight of stairs staircase, series of steps
inside a building
30
roof covering over a building
31
the sea was much closer in the 18th Century.
It was this view that Charles Ffolliott tried
to ruin by building Spite Row, where Bram
Stoker was born (see the section Clontarf on
pp. 11-12).

19

119 Think in English 26

The Truth Dawns10


The visitors entrance is through the
basement11. A sunken12 walkway13
around the Casino allows14 natural light
to reach the basement rooms. Once inside
the extremely well-informed guide gives
you woollen15 slippers16 to wear instead
of your shoes to protect the floors in the
rooms above. These slippers are speciallymade by a cooperative in Mongolia. The
basement rooms are functional; kitchen
and servants quarters. You only begin
to get an idea of the magnificence of
the building when you reach the first
floor. The rooms are relatively small but
are tastefully and opulently decorated.
The parquet floor in the entrance hall is
particularly impressive and we are told
that it is made of seven different types
of wood from the seven corners of the
18th-century British Empire. However, it
is only when the front door is opened and
we step into the open
air that we suddenly
remember the outside.
Apparently, we have
been
wandering
around17 a completely
different
building.
Slowly but surely we
begin to understand
the secrets of one
of the most origiOur tour guide at
nal buildings ever
the Ca sin o at Marin
o
constructed.

Trompe-loeil18
Structurally, the Casino is a comfortable
middle-class detached house19 inside a
neoclassical monument. The ingenuity
displayed20 in this feat21 of architecture
is quite staggering22. As you step outside
you see that the gigantic front door visible from the outside is, in fact, a contrivance23; the real door that opens is only a
small part of the whole. Slowly you come
to realize24 that the enormous windows
do not correspond to a single room but are
cleverly devised25 to illuminate several.
This, of course, would look awful from
outside looking in, so the glass in each
window pane26 is slightly27 convex. As
a result you cant see in from outside,
though the view from inside is unaffected.
The most ornate room is on the second
floor, the State Room28. Finally, a narrow
flight of stairs29 leads to a flat roof30 which
provided majestic views over Dublin to
the Wicklow Mountains to the South and
out across Dublin Bay to the Southeast.31

The Saloon

Architecture

The State Room

In total, rather than32 one large room, the


Casino consists of 16 modestly sized ones33.
However, the adaptation of the classical form
does not end here. After all, this little Roman
temple of a building is standing on a hill to the
north of Dublin in a land too cold and wet for
the Romans to conquer. The tricks34 of engineering that allow14 the Casino to be a comfortable house in Ireland are especially cunning35.
First there are the great Roman funerary urns
that decorate the roof30 at the top of the north
and south faades. These are not, in fact, classical adornments but rather36 chimneys for
the fireplaces that kept the Casino warm.
Then there are the four columns at the outer
corners of the building. These are actually37
hollow38 tubes that allow14 rainwater to run
off the roof without using unsightly39 drainWindows with convex window panes
pipes40. Finally, the steps up to the front door
are subtly angled so that rainwater will drain
off them rather than32 forming puddles41. The whole building is a wonderful exercise
in combining practical solutions with what was considered supremely aesthetic in the
18th Century.

A Masonic Lodge?
An air of secrecy hangs over48 the
Casino. Perhaps it is just the multiple
visual deceptions49 that are engineered
into the fascinating building. Maybe it is
all the classical motifs on the walls and
ceilings and the intricate Star of David50
in the parquet floor of the Saloon. It
could be the implication of the secret
tunnel (now blocked) that used to run
from the Casino to the main51 house52
on the estate. Perhaps it is the fact that
the south window of the Saloon points
directly at the lodge53 on Montpelier Hill,
a favourite spot in the Wicklow Mountains of the Hellfire Club 54 in the early
18th Century. It might even be the star
signs in the aptly named Zodiac Room.
Certainly, the white dome55 in the ceiling has a hypnotic effect. In any case,
there are a series of clues56 that might
suggest that Charlemont had more than
a passing interest in Masonic ideas. A
few of the features57 in the house seem
designed to be symbolic at the expense
of practicality. For instance, the door
leading onto the viewing platform on
top of the Casino is unusually small.
It seems to represent the Eye of the
Needle that only allows14 initiates to
discover the final secrets of the building.
In any case, even if the building didnt
have any esoteric significance, a visit to
Dublin without seeing this marvellous
edifice would be a regrettable58 missed

opportunity.

Charlemont & Chambers


The Casino is the realization of one mans life-long dream. James Caulfield, 1st Earl42 of
Charlemont (1728-99) wanted to create a little bit of Italy in his beloved home town of
Dublin. The Casino was conceived as a summer house inside his landscaped estate. Like
most British aristocrats, as a young man James had been on the Grand Tour taking in43
France and Greece and ending up in Rome, where he stayed for four years.44 In Rome
James had met and made friends with45 the Scottish architect William Chambers (172396), who would later become Britains greatest 18th-century neoclassical architect. At
some point in the second half of the 1750s the two men hatched46 the idea of Chambers
building Charlemont a Palladian belvedere47. The project was to take some two decades
to complete. Sadly, although he was immensely proud of his Casino at Marino, Chambers
never had enough free time from his other commitments to come and see the building.
rather than instead of, in contrast to
plus four more interior spaces
34
trick ploy, ruse, (in this context) cunning35
effect
35
cunning (in this context) inventive, skilful
36
but rather (in this context) by contrast they are
37
actually (false friend) in fact
38
hollow empty in the middle (as opposed to solid)
39
unsightly ugly, unattractive
40
drainpipe tube for rainwater
41
puddle accumulation of rainwater

earl British equivalent of a count


to take in (take-took-taken) visit
44
apparently, nobody at the time saw the irony
of the Protestant nobility going to Rome to
find high culture
45
to make friends with (make-made-made)
become the friend of, befriend
46
to hatch (in this context) develop, have
47
belvedere summerhouse with good views
48
to hang over (hang-hung-hung) pervade,
permeate, saturate

deception (false friend) trick 34 , contrivance 23


Star of David
51
main primary, principal
52
Marino House no longer exists
53
lodge small house on the land of a
mansion
54
see Think 93, pp. 22-23
55
dome cupola (in this context) concave ceiling
56
clue hint, subtle indicator
57
feature (in this context) element
58
regrettable unfortunate

32

42

49

33

43

50

Interior photos were kindly provided


courtesy of the Office of Public Works.

119 Think in English 27

For further information and times:


www.heritageireland.ie

Save

Save

by Miles Pratt

fridge dusty coils can waste up to


30% extra electricity;
(ii)defrost13 the fridge regularly, and if
it has an economy setting14 use it;
(iii)let food cool properly15 before
putting it in the fridge, and
(iv)defrost food by taking it out of the
N ow t
press hat's a
freezer compartment the previous
u re co
oker!
day and leaving it in the fridge overnight this will help to keep the
fridge cool and save you needing to
defrost the food in the microwave.

in th e Kitch en
Save When Cooking

Steam Power
Steaming1 is a healthy way of cooking, as it preserves the vitamins and other
nutrients in the food. It can also save
money and emissions: you can boil2 rice
or potatoes, steam vegetables and warm
a sauce all with the same hob3. Special
multi-layer steamers and even steam
ovens4 are available. Where steaming is
not appropriate, roasting all of the meal
(meat 5, vegetables, potatoes, etc.) together
in the oven is another way of making the
best use of the cookers energy.

Get a new fridge. Although it is


normally considered more environmentfriendly to re-use old equipment rather
than10 buy new consumer-durables,
modern fridges are often much better
for the planet. They typically use less
energy and will not contain the ozonedamaging chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
that older models used. As a fridge is
switched on16 24 hours a day, its essential that you buy the most efficient one
available. The EU energy-rating marks
make this easy: A+ fridges use up to 25
per cent less energy than those rated A.

Put a Lid on it ...or even better,


use a Pressure Cooker
Keeping a lid6 on cooking pots7 can
retain the heat and lead to lower fuel8 use.
Even better, a pressure cooker reduces
the cooking time of pulses9, rice, soups,
puddings, etc. by a factor of 2, 3 or even
4, so they require far less energy than
conventional cooking.

Save with a Toaster


Use a toaster rather than10 the grill
to make toast it uses less energy.

Save with the Fridge/Freezer

Keep your Fridge Cool


Fridges are energy-hungry appliances11, but there are several things we
can do to make them more efficient. One
is to not put the fridge near a cooker or
windows that admit lots of sunlight, as
it will work more efficiently in cooler
places.

Don't leave the fridge open too long!

n it!
Put a lid o

Cut Down on Kitchen Waste


Use cotton cloths17 instead of
disposable kitchen paper where possible you can even save more money by
making cloths by cutting up old towels or
sheets18. Try to use less aluminium foil19
in the kitchen as it takes lots of energy
and resources20 to produce. If you really
need to use it, buy foil made from 100%
recycled aluminium. It is good to save
leftover food21, but remember that it may
be both more expensive and worse for the
environment to wrap your leftovers in22
foil19 or plastic cling-film than to throw
them away (you can also save them in a
Tupperware-type box).
Interesting links and reading:

www.naturalcollection.com
- for eco-friendly products and ideas

The
Green
Kitchen
by
Richard Ehrlich, available at
www.foe.co.uk/shop

Basic Fridge/Freezer
Maintenance
Other ways to reduce your fridges
carbon emissions include the following:
(i)clean the coils12 at the back of the
to steam sth. cook sth. in very
hot water vapour
2
to boil sth. cook sth. in 100C
water
3
hob/gas ring
4
steam oven independent
machine that steams1 food
5
note that meat production has a high carbon
cost, so from an environmental point of view
using little or no meat is better see Is Your
Food Causing Climate Change? in Think 100
1

Get a New Fridge/Freezer

lid
pot (countable)
8
fuel (in this context) gas or
electricity
9
pulses (in this context) beans,
legumes
10
rather than instead of, as
opposed to
11
appliance machine used in the home
12
coils (in this context) convoluted metal tubing
13
to defrost eliminate ice

setting (in this context) option


properly fully, completely
to be switched on be on, be activated
17
cloth piece of textile
18
sheet typically white thin rectangle of textile
between you and the bed
19
aluminium foil type of metallic paper
20
resources useful materials
21
leftover food food that has been prepared but
not eaten
22
to wrap A in B cover A with B

14

15

119 Think in English 28

16

The $64,000 Question27

Some time ago I was browsing1 in a second-hand bookshop in Oxford when my


eyes fell on a curious title, The Deluxe Transitive Vampire: The Ultimate 2 Handbook3 of Grammar for the Innocent, the Eager4, and the Doomed5 (= The DTV)
by Karen Elizabeth Gordon. It took some time for me to get my head around6
what I was looking at because The DTV is quite unique. In fact, what it is
is a grammar book, specifically an explanation of English grammatical nomenclature. True, theres nothing particularly unique about that. What makes The
DTV special is its illustrative examples, and its full of them. Where most grammar books have useful but mundane7 example sentences, The DTV specializes
in quirky8 phrases that you could never possibly use. The idea is that these
sentences escape from the dry world of grammar and take you into a bizarre
realm9 of the fantastical and the impossible. Here are a few to give you an idea:

ple of an interjection]

! A stepfather18 is a faux pa19. [Here faux


pa is offered as an example of a subjective complement20. Specifically, it is a
predicate noun21]

19

Meanwhile22, the grammatical explanations


are sound23, if on occasions a bit whimsical24.
I particularly enjoyed the particles of phrasal
verbs being described as the base verbs familiars25. Moreover, the definition of the subject is
given as, what the sentences other words are
gossiping about26. However, the most entertaining aspect of the book is the Victorian blackand-white illustrations, often used in bizarre
montages.
to browse look around, have a look
ultimate (false friend) definitive
3
handbook manual, guide
4
the eager enthusiastic/keen people
5
the doomed the cursed, the ill-fated, people
who are destined to fail
6
to get ones head around (get-got-got)
(colloquial) understand
7
mundane (false friend) boring, dull,
uninteresting
8
quirky bizarre, surprising, exotic, unusual
9
realm /relm/ world

wolf (plural wolves)


to hurl throw, chuck
compound predicate two (or more)
verbs that belong to the same subject
13
to tango dance a tango
14
coordinate conjunction
conjunction that joins two words or
phrases that are of equal importance
15
indeed (emphatic) in fact
16
gums soft pink skin around ones teeth
17
to bleed (bleed-bled-bled) haemorrhage, lose
blood

10

11

stepfather the husband of ones mother


when he is not ones biological father
(wordplay) a faux pas is an indiscretion,
which sounds like foe pa (= father who is
your foe = enemy)
20
subjective complement word or phrase that
comes after a copulative verb that explains or
identifies the subject
21
predicate noun noun that is a subjective
complement
22
meanwhile at the same time
23
sound (adj.) correct, reasonable
24
whimsical capricious, playful, eccentric
25
familiar (n.) spirit that takes the form of an
animal and accompanies s.o. (e.g. a witchs
black cat)
26
to gossip about chat about, talk about
27
the $64,000 question the big question, the
clincher, the crucial question
28
to dip into browse through, look through,
examine
29
EFL learner s.o. who is learning English as
a foreign language
30
ultimately (false friend) in the final
analysis
31
regrettably unfortunately, Im sorry to say
32
to make up (make-made-made) constitute,
fill
33
weirdness strangeness, bizarreness
34
specifically schloss (= castle) and
gossamer (= a fine spiders web)
35
for more on this see Think 108, pp. 34-35
36
to be fair be just
37
next to no very little

18

12

119 Think in English 29

Subscribers exercise A

I really enjoy dipping into28 The DTV


and I cant say that about many grammar books. However, the big question
is, would I recommend it to an EFL
learner29? Ultimately30, the answer has
to be no, regrettably31. There are two
reasons. First, although the examples
that make up32 a significant part of the
book are entertaining, their very weirdness33 means that they can be difficult to
understand. Indeed15,
I had to look up
a couple of words
Secondly,
myself.34
one of the big problems of English grammatical
nomenclature is that there is
often more than one
word for a concept;
The cat whos checking out the back room
The bat suspended from Loonas hairdo
the old word derived
says hes here on a divine mission.
was repulsed by her Nuit Blanche perfume.
from Latin and the
modern term used
! Rome goes back to wolves10. [Rome is the subject of this sentence]
in linguistics.35 Gordon doesnt address
! The baby vampire hurled11 his bottle at his nanny and screamed for
this problem and most of the time uses
type-O instead. [Explaining that hurled and screamed represent a
the Latinate term. However, you as an
compound predicate12]
EFL learner29 dont really need to know
! The robot and the dentist tangoed13 beneath the stars. [Illustrating and
what an abstract noun, a transitive verb
as a coordinate conjunction14]
or a reflexive pronoun is. To be fair36 the
15
16
! Indeed , the baby vampires gums are
book is written for native speakers, most
bleeding17; its not what youre thinking
of whom have next to no37 knowledge of
the nomenclature of grammar.

at all. [Here Indeed is given as an exam-

Books

surreal grammar for the undead

Methodology

The articles in Think magazine, and their footnotes, offer the student of English a broad range1 of
new vocabulary. What is the best way to take advantage of this resource2?

Build Your Vocabulary With Think


Recently a Think reader, Juan C.C. wrote to us asking for advice3 on how to
remember all of the new words that are introduced in the magazines articles.
Research shows that different people have different ways of learning vocabulary,
but here are a few ideas.

Vocabulary Learning
Strategies
Before you read any further4, consider
what strategies a student could use to
learn the following words / expressions:
earthquake

blade

flood

clever

awful

sand

Later we will give some ideas for remembering these words and others, but
remember that your own strategies for
retaining new language may be better for
your own learning style.

See, Then See Again


I was once told that, to remember a word,
we need to see it three times. This rule is
over-simplistic, but it is true that repetition is helpful. Different ways of seeing or
hearing a word again include:
scribbling5 the word on some paper,
recording it on an MP3 or telephone,
sticking6 labels7 all over your house

Relate and Re-use


The poet John Donne famously said No
Man is an Island. Similarly, no word
exists on its own it is connected to other
information both in the language and in
our brains. It helps us to remember a word
if we relate and connect it to other words,
to our experience and to its context.13
Relate
Relate words to yourself how might
you use this word in the future?
Relate words to each other synonyms, antonyms, word families, collocations, etc.14
Relate words to terms you already know
in English, in your own language, in
other languages. For example the word
flood could be related to the English
flow, German Flut or the Spanish fluir
(all are related to water).

with the names of the object,

carrying a notebook to look at while8


waiting for the bus,

... and many more.


Remember that it is especially helpful to
see or hear the words in a relevant context
using highlighters9 to make the word
stand out10 in a text can help for this
purpose. More ways of relating a word
to a context are given below. Of course,
the more times you come across11 a word
explained in different contexts in Thinks
footnotes, the more likely you are to12
learn it.
broad range wide variety, ample choice
resource tool, useful thing
3
advice recommendations, suggestions
4
any further (in this context) more
5
to scribble write quickly
6
to stick (stick-stuck-stuck) fix (with adhesive)
7
label sticker, tag, small piece of paper/card
8
while (in this context) during the time
that you are
9
highlighter
10
to stand out (stand-stood-stood) be
noticeable

Blade showing off his blade.

Relate

words to people, places,


names, songs, or other things that
you know well for example, relate
blade15 to the Blade movies, or relate
clever to the rhyming name Trevor

to come across (come-came-come) encounter


the more likely you are to the more probable
it is that you will
13
look how often in this context is used in our
footnotes
14
notice how our footnotes usually offer
two synonyms
15
blade the cutting edge of a knife or
sword
16
by Ian Dury and the Blockheads
17
porridge oats a hot viscous breakfast
food made from cereals

11

12

119 Think in English 30

The great Ian Dury sang about


Clever Trevor.
(there is a song called Clever Trevor
/'klev trev/ too).16
Many English words are used in product names and marketing slogans, and
students can take advantage of this.
For example, an Ecuadorean student
could remember the word earthquake
by thinking of the product Quaker
porridge oats17, which are well-known
in Andean South America.18
Relate words by pronunciation (e.g.
rhyming; silent letters) e.g. flood
rhymes with blood19 and mud20
(and not with food or mood21).
Relate words to their context what
were you reading about / listening to
when you first came across11 the new
word? It might have been in a book, in
a song, in a film or in class.
Relate words to images visualize finding sand in your sandwich, for example.
Relate words with puns22 and other word
games. For example, I can easily remember the Japanese word ichiman (= the
number 10,000) by thinking of a man
scratching23 an itch24: itchy man!
you can simply relate spellings and/or
sounds. The etymological explanation is that
to quake means to tremble (= shake) and
a quake is a tremor. Quakers supposedly
tremble on hearing the word of God
19
blood /bld/ red liquid typically in veins and
arteries
20
mud /md/ earth/soil mixed with water
21
mood /mu:d/ frame of mind, humour
22
pun play on words, piece of wordplay
23
to scratch alleviate an itch24 with your fingernails
24
itch cutaneous irritation
18

Conversation Point: What are your preferred methods for learning vocabulary?

by Miles Pratt

Dunes: sand for your sandwiches

We remember words much better if we use them. So try to use


the new words you learn as soon as possible. Ideally, you will be
able to practise them in conversation, but if not you can write
them in a sentence, think of different sentences and repeat them
to yourself, or just25 visualize yourself in a situation where you
will use the new words for example, to remember the word
flood you could think of a sentence about a real flood situation,
or imagine yourself up to your neck26 in water (an unpleasant
but perhaps effective way of remembering the word).

Select, Categorize, List


Writing down a new word is helpful, but research shows that
we remember words better in groups, for example:
Topic27 groups (see tables below);
Grammatical groups (e.g. irregular verbs);
Words with their collocates (e.g. different phrasal verbs
with up, out etc.);

Words containing similar letter combinations, (e.g. words


ending with -ful: useful, careful, awful)28

Flood: rhymes with blood and mud

Think

and so on.

Vocabulary Sheet

An advantage of Think is that you already have some important information to help you remember each new word correctly.
The word stress is indicated (the stressed syllable always being underlined), the meaning/explanation (the second column in
the table) and an example sentence (the third column in the table) can be simply copied from the magazines text and footnotes.
A simple chart29 like the one below could be a useful tool30 for recording and revising the new vocabulary that appears
in the magazine:
Word or Expression

Synonym/ Explanation

To fall out
(p. 12, n. 17)31

Original Sentence / Context

Alternative Sentence

Apparently, the Earl of Charlemont


I fell out with my ex-girlfriend
and a man called Charles Ffolliott
when we were on holiday.
had fallen out over cards.
32

become enemies

You may wish to use the same format but have a different list for different topic27 categories, for example the sections of the magazine
(Cinema, Internet, Literature etc). This may be helpful both for remembering the words and as a reference source33. For example:
Subject

25
26

Word or Expression

Synonym / Explanation

Original Sentence / Context

Alternative Sentence
A stowaway was
discovered hiding in the
life-boat.

Cinema

stowaway
(p. 25, n. 52)

s.o. who travels on a ship


without permission

In Alien (1979) a mysterious


stowaway on a spaceship
kills each member of the
crew one-by-one.

Internet

Gen-Y
(p. 10, n. 1)

Generation Y: those born


between the late 70s and
the late 90s

Gen-Y is the generation that


is most comfortable with
technology.

My nephew is from Gen-Y,


he grew up with computers
and digital technology.

Literature

widely-read
(author)
(p. 20, n. 2)

one of the authors whose


books are read by the
greatest number of people

[Anne Rice is] one of the


most widely-read authors of
modern times.

He went from being


unknown to being one
of the most widely-read
authors in the country.

just (in this context) simply


neck part of ones body
between ones head and ones
torso

topic (adj.) (false friend) thematic


see the Word Building section each
month
29
chart table

tool (in this context) method


i.e. page 12, footnote 17
earl English equivalent of a Count
33
source place in which you can find sth.

27

30

28

31

119 Think in English 31

32

Methodology

Re-use

Functional
Subscribers exercise O

The Wrong Way Round


Upside down
Boy, you turn me inside out
And round and round.
Diana Ross, Upside Down

Many languages have a single1 term to say that something is not as it should be
and rely on2 context to say how.3 English does not have a single term that means
reversed; the expression we use depends on which parts of something are not where
they should be.

dnuor yaw rehto/gnorw ehT


When one thing is usually on the left and
the other is normally on the right but this
order has been reversed we say the other
way round or the wrong way round.
The two phrases are not quite the same;
the other way round simply means that
things have been reversed, the wrong
way round means that they are incorrect
because they are reversed:
e.g.Your socks4 are on the wrong way
round.
e.g.Oh no. The knives5 and forks6 are the
wrong way round.
e.g.I usually have my mouse on the left
and the keyboard on the right but I see
you have them the other way round.
e.g.The torch7 didnt work because you
put the batteries in the wrong way
round.
e.g.Why do so many young people wear
their baseball caps the wrong way
round?

We also use the two expressions with


their subtly different meanings to refer
to the order of a sequence:
e.g.I put the milk in first and then the tea.
He does it the other way round.
e.g.First she added salt, then vinegar and
then oil. Thats the wrong way round,
isnt it?

Back to front

Inside Out
Inside out means that the part that
should be facing inwards is facing8
outwards and vice-versa.
e.g.Havent you got your T-shirt on inside
out?
e.g.He turned the shirt inside out before
ironing12 it.
Why do so many young people wear their
baseball caps the wrong way round?

Back to front means that the back part


is facing8 forwards and vice-versa:
e.g.Youve put your pullover on back to
front.
e.g.Look, Timmy, youve written your
ps9 back to front like qs10 . Try again.
This expression and the wrong way
round can be used figuratively:
e.g.Youve understood everything
back to front/the wrong way
round. (= Youve got the wrong
end of the stick11).

Upside Down

The truck landed upside down after the tsunami.

Upside down means that the top part


of something is at the bottom, and the
bottom part is at the top:
e.g.Youve hung13 that Kandinsky upside
down!
e.g.Bats sleep hanging14 upside down.
e.g.The page-designer put the photograph
upside down in the magazine.
e.g.Once youve washed the cups place
them upside down on the draining
board15.
e.g.He lay16 the photograph of his family
upside down (or face down) on the
desk.
e.g.At the end of the day17 the children
have to put their chairs upside down
on their desks to make it easy for the
cleaners.

a single (in this context) just one, only


one
2
to rely on depend on, count on
3
for examples al revs in Spanish or
lenvers in French
4
socks
5
knife (plural knives)
6
fork
7
torch (UK English)
flashlight (US English)
8
to be facing be oriented
1

(UK English), be orientated (US English)


ones ps the way one writes the letter p
10
ones qs the way one writes the letter q
11
youve got the wrong end of the stick you
have completely misunderstood
12
to iron /ain/
13
to hang (hang-hung-hung)
suspend, (in this context)
exhibit
14
hanging (in this context)
suspended
9

119 Think in English 32

draining board an angled surface beside


a sink (in the kitchen) that permits water to
come off things that
are drying and flow
into the sink
16
to lie (lie-lay-lain)
(in this context) put,
place
17
at the end of the day
(in this context) when school has finished for
the day

15

Pronunciation

The word-ending1 -ire has a very stable pronunciation in English. In rhotic


varieties2 it is pronounced /ar/ and in non-rhotic varieties 3 it is pronounced
/a/. This is true for all ordinary words where the -ire follows a consonant
(though see Exceptions at the end of this article).

Spire!

The Ire of the Vampire


Monosyllabic Words
Ending -ire
fire
sire6
wire9

ire4
spire7

mire5
squire8

Disyllabic verbs ending -ire


stress10 the second syllable:
acquire
attire11
enquire12
inspire
retire

admire
conspire
expire
perspire
transpire

aspire
desire
inquire13
require

-ire is not the only way to spelling the


ending /a/. As regards18 pronunciation, -yre is the same as
-ire, so pyre19 rhymes
Wire! with fire.
We also find the sound
when several other vowels
are combined before a
final -r:
brier20

prior21

buyer

More nouns stress10 the first syllable:


sapphire
vampire

satire

However, a couple15 stress10 the second


syllable:
attire16

desire

entire17

Desire!

word-ending termination
most varieties of US English
the dominant variety of UK English
4
ire (poetic) anger, fury
5
(quag)mire bog, area of soft wet dangerous
terrain
6
sire (old-fashioned term of address) sir
7
spire the pointed tower of a
church
8
squire (historical) landowner,
minor aristocrat
9
wire metal string (see photo)
10
to stress emphasize, have
emphasis on
11
to attire (formal) to clothe
12
to enquire (UK English)
inquire, ask
13
to inquire ask
14
umpire referee in some
sports (e.g. tennis)
15
a couple (in this context) two
16
attire (formal) clothes, clothing
17
entire is in fact the only polysyllabic
adjective ending -ire.
18
as regards in terms of, in relation to
19
(funeral) pyre big accumulation of wood
on which a dead body is burned
20
brier wild plant with pointed defensive
protuberances. It can also be spelt briar
without this changing the pronunciation
21
prior a. religious man in charge of a priory,
b. previous
22
to lead to (lead-led-led) result in, cause
23
dire terrible, calamitous, dreadful
24
dyer s.o. who dyes (= colours
textiles)
25
tire a. (v.) exhaust, b. (n.) pneumatic
ring (US spelling)
26
tyre (UK spelling)
27
friar Franciscan or Dominican
monk
28
fryer s.o./sth. that fries food
29
to hire (sth.) rent; (s.o.) employ
30
higher taller, of greater altitude
31
lyre
32
liar s.o. who does not tell the truth
33
quire a. group of 24 uniform sheets
of paper used in making books,
b. alternative spelling of choir34
34
choir a. group of choristers, group
of people who sing in church, b. part
of a church/cathedral where the choir
sings
35
shire county, administrative area
36
shyer (comparative of shy) more timid
1

Fire!

Disyllabic Nouns &


Adjectives Ending -ire

empire
umpire14

Subscribers exercise Z

Disyllabic Verbs
Ending -ire

Other Spellings
of /ar/

Homophones
All this leads to22 some interesting
homophones:
dire23
tire25
friar27
hire29
lyre31
quire33
shire35

dyer24
tyre26
fryer28
higher30
liar32
choir34
shyer36

Exceptions
The only exceptions to the rule that
-ire after a consonant is pronounced
/ar/ are the county names ending
in -shire as pronounced in British
English. These are all pronounced //:
Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Gloucestershire,
Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire,
Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, Yorkshire, etc.

119 Think in English 33

Wire photo by Arnold Reinhold

Translation

Please send us your photos


In Think 117 we asked readers to send in photos of signs that featured1 broken
English2. We had an excellent response, the first fruits of which are on this page:

Error Detectives

Readers Signs
Easy

1. Bath esponge3

(on a packet in a hotel bathroom. Photo by STH)


2. A clasic Mediterranean chick pea paste.4
(on a packet of fresh humus. Photo by Erica)

Short but More Difficult


3. Take care of your head5

(in a Chinese building).


4. Support yourselves when in motion6
(on an Italian bus. Photo by Alex).
5. I open some time7
(in a shop window in Venice. Photo by Gloria).
6. RICE AND WHOLEMEAL WHEAT TOASTED FLAKES8 WITH FRUIT
(on a box of cereals. Photo by Ema C)

Longer Signs
7.
(The first paragraph is mostly incomprehensible and untranslatable).
Do not touch the bottom9 when using it.10
Cool down the iron11 before hiding.12
Do not put it on the desk or glass directly when using it.13
It is not allowed14 to power on15 the iron11
Over 30 minutes16 , since those excess
Heat is adequate for 10 minutes.17
(on a Chinese travel iron. Photo by Adam McKay)
to feature include
broken English substandard English as used
by some non-native speakers
3
misspelling
4
misspellings
5
unnatural expression: the idea is clear but to
take care implies looking after sth. over a
longer period of time
6
unnatural expression: to support oneself
means to be financially independent
7
wrong term: some time means a certain
period of time, a while. So the sign means that
the shop is open for a reasonably long period of
time. Presumably, the idea is that the shop does
not have fixed opening times
8
ambiguity: this noun cluster is just too
long. Toasted could be a verb with rice and
wholemeal flakes as the subject. We know
from the Spanish that the toasted flakes
contain wholemeal wheat and rice but this is
not clear in the English version. The sentence
can be improved by changing the word order
or through punctuation.
9
bottom a. underside, (in this context) ironing
surface32 , b. arse, anus
10
ambiguity: there is some infantile double
1

entendre in this sentence as


it is. In any case the sentence
could be much clearer
11
iron /ain/ (countable)
12
wrong words: cool down
usually means calm
down; it refers to emotions. We dont need
a phrasal verb. Usually, you dont hide your
own iron, you put it in an appropriate place
where you and others will find it. However, a
literal interpretation of the sentence would
understand it to mean before hiding yourself!
13
ambiguity and incorrect word division: the
desk implies a specific desk we have already
mentioned. In any case a desk is a specific
piece of furniture; presumably, they mean any
wooden surface. The only possible divisions
are di/rect/ly, though it would be better not to
divide this word.
14
to be allowed be permitted
15
wrong verb: to power the iron sounds unnatural,
to power on the iron is simply not English.
16
nonsense: they may be referring to the
maximum time the iron can be turned on
17
nonsense: they are possibly trying to say that
the iron remains hot for 10 minutes

119 Think in English 34

8.
A supplementary fare18
should be paid in case19
passenger
do not have20 Travel
Passes
or Tourist Travel Passes
Available at ticketing
machines located21
before the exit in these
stations22
(on an underground train
from Madrids airport.
Photo by Gloria)

9.
INSTRUCTIONS
OF
HANLING23
1. PLEASE SELECT THE
WISHED24 PRODUCT
BY DIALING 25 THE
COR R ESPON DI NG
NUMBER.
2. CHECK THE PRICE AT
THE DISPLAY26 AND
INSERT THE INDICATED AMOUNT27
3. IN CASE OF28 BAD FUNCPLEASE
TIONING 29,
PUSH THE REFUND30
MONEY BUTTON.
IN CASE19 THE SMALL
CHANGE IS EXHAUSTED
PLEASE INSERT THE
EXACT AMOUNT27.
(on a drinks machine in
Spain. Photo by Alex)

Subscribers exercise T

Suggested Improvements
1.Bath esponge
2.A classic Mediterranean chickpea
paste.
3.Mind your head
4.Hold on tightly31 when the bus is
moving.
5.We have erratic opening times
6.TOASTED FLAKES OF RICE AND
WHOLEMEAL WHEAT WITH
FRUIT or
RICE AND WHOLEMEAL-WHEAT
TOASTED FLAKES WITH FRUIT
7.
Do not touch the ironing surface32
when the iron is on.
Allow the iron to33 cool before putting
it away.
Do not put the iron directly on wooden
or glass surfaces when it is on.
Do not heat the iron for more than 30
minutes. After 10 minutes it should
be hot enough. [?]
8.
Passengers who use the train without
a Travel Pass or a Tourist Travel Pass
must buy a special ticket available
from the ticket-dispensers located21
next to the exit in these stations
9.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
1. PLEASE SELECT THE DESIRED
PRODUCT BY PRESSING THE
CORRESPONDING NUMBER.
2. CHECK THE PRICE ON THE
DISPLAY26 AND INSERT THE
REQUIRED AMOUNT27
3. IF THE DISPENSER DOES NOT
WORK PROPERLY34, PLEASE
PUSH THE REFUND MONEY
BUTTON.
IF THERE IS NO SMALL CHANGE,
PLEASE INSERT THE EXACT
AMOUNT27.
To participate in The Error
Detectives, please send photos of
broken English to us through:

www.thinkinenglish.net

Wrong preposition
amount quantity, sum
wrong expression: like in note 19, in case of
does not mean in the event of.
29
unnatural expression
30
refund act of returning money to a
customer
31
tightly firmly
32
ironing surface
33
to allow sth. to (in this context) let
sth. to, leave sth. to
34
properly correctly, appropriately
27

28

fare charge for being transported


wrong expression: in case does not mean in
the event that.
20
non-agreement: passenger does not have or
passengers do not have
21
located situated
22
ambiguity: it doesnt seem to say which
stations these stations are, but thats the same
in the Spanish. In any case the whole text

18

19

needs to be restructured to make better sense


and sound more natural.
misspelling: hanling is not an English word
(and handling is not the right word here).
24
wrong word: we dont use wished as an
adjective.
25
wrong verb: we only use to dial to refer to
telephoning
26
display (n.) (in this context) small screen.
23

119 Think in English 35

Translation

?
Subscribers exercise M

Good News?

We have to rely on15 the context to understand which the young Americans mean.
Moreover, the phrasal verb with in still
exists in US English and in all other
varieties so the EFL learner4 has to
understand both forms.

Though grammar books are surprisingly reluctant to1 talk about it, there is a
clear tendency in American English towards dropping2 the particle from a series
of phrasal verbs. As everyone knows though not everybody admits where US
English goes, other varieties eventually3 follow. So, does this mean the death of
phrasal verbs? Should EFL learners4 around the world be preparing to party?
No... and no. The clipping5 of phrasal verbs has so far6 affected a tiny7
percentage of the thousands of phrasal verbs that exist. Specifically, the process does not affect light verbs8. This is logical because a light verb without its
particle is largely devoid of meaning9. The only light phrasal verb that has been
clipped the exception that proves the rule is to do someone in (= kill s.o.).
Tony Thornes Dictionary of Contemporary Slang gives the example:
e.g.He didnt say a goddamn10 word, he just11 went and did her.
The sentence perfectly illustrates why light phrasal verbs are not usually
clipped. In informal English to do someone also means to have sex with somebody, so Thornes example sentence has two radically different meanings!
The clipping of phrasal verbs is not good news for EFL learners4 because on
the one hand it increases ambiguity and on the other it increases the number of
forms you have to learn. Lets have a look.

To freak out means to lose control


emotionally. The term originated
amongst hippies in the late 1960s. You
can freak out by becoming very angry or
by crying uncontrollably:
e.g.My dad will freak out when he sees the
state of his car.
Young Americans increasingly omit out.

Did You Check Your Bags?

Are You Pissed?

The place where you leave your baggage at the airport is called the check-in. In all
varieties of English we can say: Did you check your bags in? (= Did you leave your
bags with the airline for them to be transported in the hold12?).
Young Americans now increasingly say: Did you check your bags? omitting the
particle in. Unfortunately, this adds ambiguity because around the Anglosphere13
Did you check your bags? means Did you inspect the contents14 of your bags?.

A classic example of clipping that tends


to amuse16 young British people is the
informal expression to be pissed. In UK
English this means to be drunk:
e.g.I was really pissed last night at the
party.

reluctant to unwilling to, disinclined to, not


ready to
2
to drop (in this context) omit
3
eventually (false friend) in the end
4
EFL learner s.o. who learns English as a
foreign language
5
clipping truncation, shortening
6
so far up until now, up to this moment
1

tiny minute, very small


light verbs verbs such as come, go, do,
take, get, set, put and stand that do not
have a stable meaning. When these base verbs
are part of phrasal verbs, the particle has a
greater influence on the meaning. See Think 56
9
to be largely devoid of meaning mean very
little, mean practically nothing

Here are some


phrasal verbs:

clipped

He Freaked

goddamn (US expletive) damn, bloody


just (in this context) simply
hold (n.) part of a passenger plane in which
big bags are stored
13
Anglosphere English-speaking world
14
the contents what is/was contained inside
15
to rely on depend on
16
to amuse s.o. entertain s.o., make s.o. laugh

10

11

119 Think in English 36

more

12

Phrasal Verbs

On the other hand, in informal UK


English to be pissed off means to be
angry:
e.g.I was really pissed off when he asked
me to work over the weekend.
However, in US English pissed never
means drunk. On the other hand, while
to be pissed off (= be angry) exists in US
English, most Americans prefer to clip the
phrasal verb. As a result, to an American,
I was really pissed last night... means
I was really angry last night.... Not the
same thing at all. By contrast, if a British
person hears, I was really pissed when he
asked me to work over the weekend, she
or he will understand I was really drunk
when he asked....
Similarly, to get pissed means to
become drunk in UK English but to
become angry in US English. British
people would express this idea using to
get pissed off:

When Did He Pass?


To pass away is a euphemistic
way of saying to die:
e.g.When did your husband pass away?
However, for some Americans it is not
euphemistic enough. Increasingly in
US English the phrasal verb is clipped,
omitting away.

He Didnt Show
To show up means to come, to
appear at a specific place, especially one
where you have agreed to meet:
e.g.He said, Outside the cinema at 8. I
waited for half an hour but he never
showed up.
Typically, young Americans would omit
the up.
17
18

to solve sth. find a solution for sth.


in the example sentences the objects are the
situation and it, respectively.

Can You Deal?


To deal with sth. means to solve17 sth.:
e.g.Can you deal with the situation?
e.g.Dont worry I can deal with it.
Young Americans will often omit not
only the particle with but also the object
of the sentence18 . As a result the previous
two sentences become Can you deal?
and Dont worry. I can deal. For the rest
of us to deal means to distribute playing cards to each player before a game of
cards, so these sentences are ambiguous.

Lets Hang!
To hang out with someone means to
spend time with that person:
e.g.I used to hang out with that gang but
not any more.
e.g.We dont do anything. We just hang out.
Young Americans often omit out in
such sentences. Obviously most people
can understand the meaning from the
context but for non-American native
speakers, to hang with someone means
to be executed on a gallows19 at the same
time as the other person is executed!

Just Chill
The 1960s hippie phrasal verb to chill
out spread20 into informal English across
the Anglosphere13:
gallows
to spread (spread-spread-spread)
be disseminated, propagate
21
notice that although the
intransitive verb to creep
(= walk furtively) is irregular
[creep-crept-crept], the phrasal
verb to creep out is not. This is
because the phrasal verb comes
from the adjective creepy.
22
gross repulsive, repugnant
23
assignment activity, piece of work
24
register (in this context) the context in
which a term is used and by whom
25
are three times as likely to clip have a
probability x3 greater of clipping

19

20

119 Think in English 37

e.g.Just chill out, man. Its all good!


However, American and British young
people tend to clip the verb by omitting
the particle out. The clipping of this
phrasal verb began in young African
American communities.

A Few More
Other phrasal verbs that can be clipped
include:
bail out = leave (in a hurry)
e.g.Im bored. Lets bail out.
creep s.o. out = a. make s.o. feel
uncomfortable, frighten s.o. b. make
unwelcome sexual advances towards s.o.
e.g.We watched Nosferatu and it really
creeped21 me out.
e.g.That boy creeped me. It was like so
gross22.
team up = work together, become a team
e.g.Why dont we team up for this class
assignment23?

Register24
According to an article quoted on the
Internet an unnamed linguist who had
researched the clipping phenomenon
found, first of all, that females are three
times as likely to clip25 as males, and
that males only clip talking to females.
He also showed that clipping is used to
establish intimacy and full phrasal verbs
are used to establish authority.

Idioms

Blood Idioms

Blood crops up1 in some2 20 everyday expressions.

Subscribers exercise U

Violence & Anger


The Ancient Greek doctor, Galen,
whose ideas dominated medicine until
the modern era, associated blood with
passion. Moreover, blood is associated
with war for obvious reasons:

S to make your blood boil


= infuriate you:
e.g.The one thing I cant stand3 is cruelty
to animals. It really makes my blood
boil.
S your blood is up
= you are in a belligerent mood4:
e.g.Once his blood is up its almost
impossible to stop him getting into5
a fight.
S there is bad blood between A and B
= there is long-standing hostility
between A and B:
e.g.Theres been bad blood between the
OReillys and the MacNeils ever since
grandpa OReilly shot6 the MacNeils
dog back in 48!
S to have blood on your hands
= be responsible for a death:
e.g.Of course the members of the previous Administration have blood on
their hands but theyll never stand
trial7.
S to murder s.o. in cold blood
= done deliberately, not in the heat of
passion. Truman Capote wrote a novel
called In Cold Blood (1966):
e.g.It was not a crime of passion. It was
meticulously planned and he clearly
murdered her in cold blood.
to crop up appear
some (in this context) more or less
3
cant stand cant bear, hate, detest
4
mood frame of mind, temper, humour
5
to get into (get-got-got) become involved in,
take part in
6
to shoot (shoot-shot-shot) kill with a gun
(= firearm)
7
to stand trial (stand-stood-stood) be
judicially processed
8
bloodshed killing, bloodletting
9
match game, formal sporting encounter
10
struggle conflict, battle

S blood and guts


= violence and bloodshed8. US General
George Patton (1885-1945) was known
as Old Blood and Guts. Blood-andguts can also be used as adjective
meaning full of violence:
e.g.That movie was all blood and guts.
Next time lets watch something a bit
more subtle.
e.g.The match9 rapidly degenerated into a
blood-and-guts struggle10.
S blood and iron
= military force rather than11 diplomacy.
The term is a translation of Blut und
Eisen coined12 by Otto von Bismarck
in 1886. Blood and iron is even less
subtle than gunboat diplomacy13:
e.g.Trying to build US hegemony on blood
and iron is hardly14 an intelligent
strategy.

Hard Work
S to sweat blood
= work until one is exhausted:
e.g.We really had to sweat blood to get the
presentation ready on time.
S blood, sweat15 and tears16
= extremely hard work. This is a misquotation of Churchills 1940 phrase, I
have nothing to offer but blood, toil17,
tears and sweat.
S like getting blood out of stones
= extremely difficult and frustrating. In
the USA they say like getting blood
out of a turnip18. It comes from the
17th-century expression, you cant get
blood from a stone:
e.g.Trying to get paid by that company is
like getting blood out of stones.
rather than instead of, as opposed to
to coin (a term/phrase) invent (a term/
phrase)
13
gunboat diplomacy diplomacy with the
threat (= intimidating possibility) of military
force
14
hardly not (really)
15
sweat /swet/ perspiration
16
tears drops of water that
fall from your eyes when
you cry
17
toil hard work
18
turnip

11

12

119 Think in English 38

Blue-blooded Blood Relations

Before the development of genetics ones ancestry was


believed to reside in ones blood:

S blood relative/relation
= someone to whom you are related by common ancestry as
opposed to by marriage:
e.g.Shes not actually19 a blood relation just20 one of my in-laws21.
S ones own flesh and blood
= s.o. who is a relative22:
e.g.You wouldnt treat a
stranger23 like that. How can
you do that to your own flesh
and blood?

S first blood
= the first advantage in a contest27. The expression comes from
duelling28. First Blood (1982) was the name of Sylvester
Stalones first Rambo movie:
e.g.Chelsea got first blood with a goal after only 10 minutes.

S blue-blooded
= aristocratic
e.g.Lucy was thrilled24 by the
idea of marrying a blueblooded man like Arthur.

S to taste blood
= achieve29 an early success30 that stimulates further31 efforts.

S blood is thicker than water


= family loyalties are stronger
than friendships. The phrase
first appeared in Germany
in the 12th Century:
e.g.Id much prefer to share25 a
flat with you but Jenny is my
sister and blood is thicker
than water.

Some Other Blood Titles


Blood and Sand starring Rudolph Valentino
Blood and Wine starring Jack Nicholson
Blood Diamond starring Leonardo DiCaprio
Blood Wedding by Federico Garca Lorca
Captain Blood starring Errol Flynn

Other Blood
Expressions
S in your blood
= as an inherent characteristic:
e.g.His uncle was a movie star so
you could say that acting was
in his blood.
S to make s.os blood curdle26
S to make s.os blood run cold
= fill s.o. with horror, horrify s.o.. We also talk about a bloodcurdling scream.
S new/young blood
= new members of a group considered to be an invigorating force:
e.g.If we dont get some new blood soon this club will die out with us.
actually (false friend) in fact
just (in this context) only
21
ones in-laws the family of ones spouse (= husband or wife)
22
relative (n.) relation, member of ones extended family
23
stranger (false friend) s.o. one doesnt know
24
to be thrilled be very excited
25
to share (in this context) cohabit in, live in
26
to curdle (literally) coagulate
27
contest (false friend) competition
28
duelling fighting with swords
(usually over a question of honour)
29
to achieve get, obtain
30
success (false friend/in this context)
advantage, triumph
31
further (in this context) additional

19

20

119 Think in English 39

Idioms

Blood is thicker than water.

Consanguinity

Wordplay

Zeugma occurs when the same term refers to two or more words in different senses.1 Lets look at an example:
e.g.Paris Hilton threw her glass, a tantrum2 and then a party.
This sentence means that Ms. Hilton hurled3 her glass, had a tantrum and then organized a party. In other
words in each phrase threw has a different meaning. By using the same word (i.e.4 threw) to refer to
these three objects we create an effect that surprises and amuses5 the reader.

Zeugma

Promiscuous Words
Subscribers exercise F

Verbal Zeugma
The example relating to Paris Hilton given above is an instance6
of verbal zeugma: the verb is the word that relates to other words in
different senses. This is perhaps the most common form of zeugma.
For instance7, Alexander Pope famously suggested that Queen Anne
sometimes took counsel8 and sometimes tea9. An equally good example comes from the episode Angel One from Star Trek: The Next
Generation:
e.g.You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens, as you see fit10.
In fact, zeugma can even pop up11 in pop songs:
e.g.You held your breath12 and the door for13 me.14
Verbal zeugma can even crop up15 in current affairs16. CNNs Anderson
Cooper commented on Hurricane Katrinas effect on New Orleans that:
e.g.The levees17 were broken and so were the promises.18

Prepositional Zeugma
One of the most famous examples of zeugma in English comes from
Dickenss Pickwick Papers:
e.g.Miss Bolo... went home in a flood of tears and a sedan chair19.
In this case the zeugmatic word is the preposition in. The first
phrase in a flood of tears means weeping20 a lot; the use is idiomatic. However, in the second phrase in a sedan chair in means literally
inside. Here are some more examples of prepositional zeugma:
e.g.She looked at the object with suspicion and a magnifying glass21.
e.g.They fought with swords22 and fervour.

Adjectival Zeugma
Similarly, the adjective in a sentence can
refer to two nouns in different senses:
e.g.This is the city of broken dreams... and
windows.
e.g.Gavin is into23 loud clothes24 and
music.
For some rhetoricians the subject (= theme)
under discussion (= being talked about) in this
article is syllepsis, not zeugma. For those of
us who are not rhetoricians it really doesnt
matter.
2
(temper) tantrum huff, fit of temper,
unexpected attack of anger
3
to hurl throw, chuck, fling, cause sth. to fly
through the air
4
i.e. (id est) that is
5
to amuse entertain
6
instance example
7
for instance for example
8
to take counsel (take-took-taken) accept
advice/suggestions
9
to take tea (take-took-taken) have tea, drink tea
1

as you see fit in the way you think is


appropriate
11
to pop up appear, crop up
12
to hold ones breath (hold-held-held)
intentionally stop breathing for a few seconds
in anticipation
13
to hold the door for s.o. (hold-held-held)
keep a door open so that s.o. can pass through
14
Alanis Morissette, Head over Feet
15
to crop up appear
16
current affairs news stories
17
levee /'levi:/ barrier to stop a river flooding
a city
18
Anderson Cooper, Dispatches from the Edge
19
sedan chair (historical) type of covered chair
carried by two men (see photo)
10

119 Think in English 40

Punning Zeugma
Finally, zeugmatic structures can
combine with puns25 to create highly26inventive sentences. For instance7, a
(possibly apocryphal27) school boy is said
to have once written:
e.g.The ink, like our pig, keeps running
out of28 the pen29.
In Duck Soup (1933) Groucho Marx says:
e.g.You can leave in a taxi. If you cant
get a taxi, you can leave in a huff30.
If thats too soon, you can leave in a

minute and a huff31.


to weep (weep-wept-wept) cry,
shed tears
magnifying glass
22
sword /so:rd/
23
to be into sth. like sth.
24
loud clothes garish, kitsch, excessively
colourful
25
pun play on words, piece of homophonic
wordplay
26
highly very
27
apocryphal fictitious, imaginary
28
to run out of (run-ran-run) escape from
29
pen a. writing implement, b. enclosure for
farm animals
30
in a huff in a bad mood, in a tantrum2 , angrily
31
huff sounds similar to half
20
21

Subscribers exercise I

S bloodthirsty16
e.g.Not only was he a dictator but he was also a bloodthirsty maniac.
The only hyphenated compound adjective with
blood- is:
S blood-red17

blood collocations
The word blood is also used adjectivally before several
nouns. In most cases blood refers directly to the red
liquid in veins and arteries:
S blood bank
S (red/white) blood cell
S blood clot18
S blood donor
S blood group19
S blood poisoning20

S blood pressure
S blood sample
S blood sausage21
S blood test
S blood transfusion
S blood vessel22

However, there are a few cases in which blood is used


metaphorically:
S blood money24
S blood orange23
S blood sport25

blood- nouns
There are five solid compound nouns beginning
blood- that you need to know:
S bloodbath3
e.g.If politicians incite tensions between the two
ethnic groups there will be a bloodbath.
S bloodhound4
e.g.The prison guards used bloodhounds to track5 the
escaped prisoners.
S bloodshed6
e.g.Im not on either side, I just want to avoid7 bloodshed.
S bloodstain8
e.g.Forensic scientists found a minute9 bloodstain on his coat
that linked him to10 the murder.
S bloodstream11
e.g.If you inject the drug directly into the bloodstream, it acts much faster.

-blood words
-blood occurs as the second element in only one solid
compound noun:
S lifeblood 26
e.g.Small donations are the lifeblood of Wikipedia;
without them it would cease to exist.
You may have seen half-blood27 in the title Harry
Potter & the Half-Blood Prince. Be careful with this
term, it is offensive for some people.

blood- adjectives
Most of the solid compound adjectives beginning with blood- collocate
with12 specific words:
S bloodcurdling scream13
S bloodless coup14
S bloodshot eyes15
However, there are two that have a wider use:
S bloodstained
e.g.Quick, get out of those bloodstained clothes before anyone sees you!
highly very
confident optimistic
3
bloodbath massacre
4
bloodhound a big dog with an excellent
sense of smell used for hunting or for tracking
fugitives
5
to track hunt down, pursue, follow and find
6
bloodshed bloodletting, killing (especially
in war)
7
to avoid evade, (in this context) prevent, stop
8
bloodstain mark of blood (usually on a piece
of clothing)
9
minute /mainju:t/ tiny, very small
1

to link A to B connect A with B


bloodstream the blood that is flowing
through ones body
12
to collocate with X be regularly used with X
13
bloodcurdling scream terrifying cry/yell
14
bloodless coup putsch (= forcible and
unconstitutional taking of power) in which
nobody dies
15
bloodshot eyes when ones eyes are red
because the blood vessels22 in them are inflamed
16
bloodthirsty sanguinary (formal)
17
blood-red (adj.) dark red
18
blood clot coagulation of the blood

blood group (UK English) blood type (US English)


blood poisoning septicaemia, toxaemia,
infection of ones blood
21
blood sausage (US English) black pudding
(UK English)
22
blood vessel vein, artery or capillary
23
blood orange orange with blood-red17 juice
24
blood money money paid to a killer
25
blood sport any recreational activity
involving killing animals
26
lifeblood the essential ingredient of sth.
27
half-blood (n./adj.) (person) of mixed
ethnicity

10

19

11

20

119 Think in English 41

Word Building

Though English has such words as haemal, haematic


and sanguineous they all sound highly1 technical and we
prefer to use blood adjectivally. Notice that the adjective
sanguine /sngwin/ is a false friend meaning confident2.

Miscellany

Key Words & Picture Description


Picture Description
Try to describe the two photographs on this page. First, for each
picture, describe the faces you can
see and their emotions. Remember
to describe clothing, colours and
textures. Mention similarities and
contrasts between the two photos.
Finally, comment on your personal

reaction to what you can see.


Do you approve of musicians
playing in the street and
asking for money?
When you have finished, listen
to the model version on the CD

(track 20) and try to follow


what
the
native-speaker
is
describing. Finally, read through
the tapescript for the recording
(on p. 50) while11 you listen
again. Write down any new words
or expressions you have come
across12 .

Key Words
In the magazine the most difficult
words are printed in green phrases.
These are grouped together here.
Listen to them on the CD and then
practise repeating the sentences.

bio-fuel /'baiou fju:l/, p. 8 BP has


invested $10M in a joint venture to
explore the use of algae as a new
miracle, environmentally-friendly
bio-fuel for our automobiles.
bio-diesel /baiou 'di:zl/, p. 8 For
example, the two most common bio-fuels
in use today are ethanol and bio-diesel.
burial /'berl/, p. 12 This was
where the Stokers family burial
plot1 was.
family burial plot place in a cemetery
where the cadavers of a specific family are
put
2
to call into question put in doubt
3
to regain win back, recuperate

plaque /pla:k/, p. 13 There used to


be a plaque at 30 Kildare St saying
that Stoker lived there but this was
called into question2 and the plaque
was quietly taken down.
youth /ju:/ p. 15 Suffering from a
mid-life crisis mature men still often
try to regain3 their youth4 by seducing much younger women.
allegiances /'li:nsiz/, p. 15
Stokers politico-religious allegiances in Dracula are ambiguous.
echelon /'elon/, p. 17 There was
a clearly established pecking order5
downstairs on the lowest echelon6 of
which was the housemaid.
apex /'eipeks/, p. 17 Regarded
youth early years
pecking order hierarchy
6
echelon level in a hierarchy
7
manifold skills many talents
8
to enhance improve

119 Think in English 42

as the apex of a successful house,


the professed cook could, with her
manifold skills7, enhance8 the social
prestige of a house.
disciple /di'sapl/, p. 18 However,
another disciple of Arnheims
returns to England from Vienna.
dysentery /'disnri/, p. 23 Perhaps
1,100,000 people died from typhus,
dysentery, diarrhoea and hunger in
Ireland from 1847 to 1951.
gauge /gei/, p. 26 It is almost
impossible to gauge9 the scale of the
Casino from this distance.
cloths /klos/10 , p. 28 You can even
save more money by making cloths
by cutting up old towels or sheets.
to gauge judge, guess, estimate
notice the contrast with clothes /klouz/
while at the same time as
12
to come across (come-came-come)
encounter
9

10
11

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Pronunciation
Symbols Key

Here are the symbols we use


in this magazine to help your
pronunciation:
Consonants
/t/ church (a CH sound)
// wash, sure (a SH sound)
/d/ judge
// vision, measure
/j/ yes, yellow
// thick, path
// the, this, breathe
// sing
Pure Vowels
/o/ hot
/a/ cat
// cut, some, couple
/o:/ court, taught, warn
// occur, aroma, supply
Diphthongs
/ou/ oboe, know, broke
/oi/ toy, soil
/i/ ear, here
/e/ air, there

Test how well you have retained the vocabulary from this issue of Think by doing the following crossword:
If you find the crossword difficult, do the easy clues (in red) first. This will make the rest of the words much easier to find.

Crossword
Across

Down
1. plot, scheme, intrigue (v.)
2. sharpened stick; interest.
Homophone and anagram of
steak
3. Mesopotamian city.
Homophone of 45 ACROSS
4. a stupid idea; illicitly distilled
alcohol (especially 26 DOWN)
5. Probate Judge (initialism);
pyjama (abbreviation)
6. informal thanks (UK English)
7. flu, grippe
9. flightless Australian bird
11. preposition
12. get hold of, capture, remove
(v.); interpretation
16. Same as 63 ACROSS
17. bloodsucking undead person
19. sick
20. stone type of modern
music
22. same as 2 DOWN
23. pointed church tower
24. garment worn to protect
clothing when cooking etc.
26. strong alcohol drink (US and
Irish spelling)

27. same as 12 DOWN


28. vicious, sanguinary
30. emit or reflect light
31. auditory organ
32. same as 78 DOWN
33. homicide
40. same as 32 DOWN
42. same as 42 ACROSS
43. girls name. New Zealand
Army (initialism)
47. buggy, pushchair; someone
who is sauntering or ambling
48. tool for opening a lock.
Homophone of quay
49. interceptor missile
(initialism); imperial
(abbreviation)
51. Computerized _________
Tomography (as in CAT scan)
52. illness, pathology
53. negative adverb.
Homophone of know.
Anagram of 8 ACROSS
55. even prime number.
Anagram of tow
57. Italian river. Homophone
of Poe

58. in need of a drink


59. lunatic, psychopath
62. cylindrical tool for spreading
paint; cylindrical tool for
flattening lawns; a long
heavy wave
65. prohibition based on custom
or superstition
66. several, various. Homophone
of sum
67. accumulation, stockpile.
Homophone of horde
68. climbing plant
70. effortlessness, no difficulty
71. fine, I agree
74. snake-like fish. Anagram
of Lee
75. exclamation that is meant to
startle
76. automobile
77. same as 29 ACROSS
78. anger, fury (poetic)
80. manmade home for a pig.
Homophone of stye
82. Ghana (Internet address)
86. database, decibel
(abbreviations)

119 Think in English 45

1. utilization, consuming; tuberculosis?


7. electrically charged atom (+/- an electron). Homophone of
41 ACROSS
8. preposition. Activated?
9. consume food. Anagram of ate
10. @
12. person from Troy; delayed action computer bug
13. indefinite article
14. (I) exist in the morning?
15. variable star that has a cataclysmic eruption; _______
Scotia, an eastern Canadian Province
18. pyramidal coniferous tree. Homophone of fur
21. you and me American?
23. unnerved. How James Bond likes his martinis
24. permit, enable, let
25. opposite of high
27. tuberculosis (abbreviation)
29. object pronoun
30. lugubrious, funereal
32. small demon
33. Member of Parliament (initialism)
34. stock; portion. Anagram of hears
35. fast rabbit-like mammal. Homophone of hair
36. (they) exist. Anagram of 31 DOWN
37. Kiribati (Internet address)
38. knock out (initialism)
39. spoil; dilapidated building
40. preposition. Fashionable?
41. ferrous metal; electrical appliance
42. same as 8 ACROSS
44. Eastern Orthodox, equal opportunities (initialism)
45. make a mistake
46. New Zealand (initialism)
47. practise a winter sport
48. same as 37 ACROSS
50. muffle, numb, stifle
52. lair of a lion, a bear etc. A secluded informal room (US
English). Anagram of end
54. endeavour, effort
56. entice, coax, induce
59. same as 29 ACROSS
60. 14th letter in the Greek alphabet
61. ironic, sardonic. Homophone of rye
63. exclamation of surprise
64. creator (painter, sculptor, musician, etc.). Anagram of strait
66. go away! out! Homophone of shoe
69. American Association of Engineers (initialism)
71. out of order, of obscure origin (initialisms)
72. handle, crank, bar. Homophone of leaver (UK English)
73. at any time. Anagram of veer
75. extortion
77. post. Homophone of male
79. affirmative adverb
81. adverb used to measure time from now into the past
82. start, leave
83. South Africa (initialism)
84. made a mistake
85. the colour of blood. Homophone of read (past participle)
87. light, lieutenant (abbreviations); Lithuania (Internet address)
88. intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio
comma. Anagram of chorale
89. epoch. Anagram of 31 DOWN and 36 ACROSS
90. city in the British Midlands. Match between two teams
from the same city.
91. preposition

Think 118 Solutions

Tapescripts
Subscribers exercise K

Tapescripts - Think 119


Debate about Vampirism (17m31s)
Commentary: Listen to this debate about the longterm popularity of stories of the undead.
1. Part 1: A Recent Obsession?
(3m05s)
American man (AM): Recently I was just thinking that
1
there are quite a few television shows on today that
have a vampire as one of the characters. A couple that
come off... I can think of off the top of my head2 are
Blood3 Ties... I think, another one is Moonlight and I
think another one is called True Blood3. Why is this
something thats just4 happened all of a sudden5?
Englishman (EM): But its not that recent, is it?
AM: Its been the past couple, two, three years I think.
EM: Yeah, but before that youve got stuff6 like Buffy the
Vampire Slayer
AM: Buffy the Vampire Slayer, yeah.
EM: youve got Angel, in terms of films youve got
American Woman 1 (AW1): Interview with a Vampire.
AM: But, I mean7, were talking in the last 10 years
though, arent we?
EM: I dont think so.
American Woman 2 (AM2): But, I mean7, I dont think
thats really true because even in the 90s you had a lot
of different shows. I think its something thats going on
and on8.
EM: In the 80s you had The Lost Boys in terms of films.
Northern Irishman (NI): Salems Lot as well9.
EM: Uh huh.
NI: That was a vampire film as well9, wasnt it?
EM: Yeah, uh huh. Blade, in the last 10 years, the trilogy
or whatever it is of Blade.
AW1: Yeah. The Anne Rice novels.
EM: And then you had the Hammer House of Horrors
stuff6 in the 1960s.
AW2: So, its something thats been present forever.
EM: I think its yeah.
AW2: It just4 changes maybe the way they sort of10
the profile. Like11, maybe the vampires now in the
like11 the 2000s, the vampires are like11 young
hunks12 and maybe
AM: Yeah, well thats
AW2: in the 70s and 80s you had like11 maybe
the gentleman type like11 I dont know if you remember, youre maybe not old enough, but there was this
comedy film about a vampire. I think it was called Love
at First Bite and it was George Hamilton and he was
sort of10, like11 the typical gentleman type of thing.
NI: And Christopher Plumber.
AW2: And now you have like11 Twilight. You have a
teenager13 thats really good-looking; hes a vegetarian,
very nice, trying-to-save-the-world type of person. So
AM: Well, what I was trying to get at14 before with these
recent TV shows, how the vampire is characterized. I
mean7, it has, besides being a vampire and needing
blood3 to survive, they have these superpowers, which,
for me, at least when I was young and I remember reading Dracula, they didnt have these superpowers that
quite a few a lot, many
off the top of my head immediately, without thinking about
it much
3
blood red liquid typically found in veins and arteries
4
just (in this context) simply
5
all of a sudden suddenly, unexpectedly
6
stuff (colloquial) things
7
I mean (pause filler) yknow, like, kind of
8
to be going on and on (emphatic) be continuing for a long
time
9
as well too, also
10
sort of (pause filler) yknow, like, kind of
11
like (pause filler) yknow, kind of, sort of
12
hunk attractive young man
13
teenager person aged between 13 and 19
14
to get at (get-got-got) suggest, imply
15
to hit the nail on the head (hit-hit-hit) discover the right
answer
16
picking and choosing carefully selecting the parts one likes
and ignoring the parts that one does not
1

they could
EM: Being undead is a bit of a superpower, isnt it?
AM: Yeah, but its silly.
AW2: But the way they project the vampire today is a
bit different. For example, going back to Twilight, the
vampire lives in daylight and the sort of10, like11 the
myth is that vampires only survive at night, that the
light sort of10 destroys them or they cant survive.
AM: I think you hit the nail on the head15 there. You
said it was a myth and thats exactly what it is, you
know?
EM: But isnt it also like11 a collection of myths?
Theres a bit of picking and choosing16.
2. Part 2: The Evolution of Vampires (4m45s)
AW1: The interesting thing about science fiction and
fantasy is how much it tells us about our current situation. And I think its interesting that originally were
talking about old, decrepit vampires, then they become
more gentlemanly and they get younger and younger
as the 20th Century moves into the 21st Century. And
that has a lot to a lot to say about17 our obsession
with youth and how right now the point at which your
growth can be stunted18 and you can still be an interesting, attractive character and you could be in your
teens19 and not in your 20s as it was like11 in the
early 90s or later in life as it mightve been in the mid20th Century.
AW2: That is true because you can if you remember
the old black-and-white movies, the vampires had this
sort of10 ghastly20 appearance. They had like11
bad breath21 and these big ugly teeth and fangs22. And
now you see, like in the 20th Century, the vampires
are actually23 good-looking, even if theyre characterized as bad vampires, like in Buffy. Buffy was like the
vampire-hunter.
AW1: Uh huh.
AW2: But then all of a sudden5 you have a vampire
thats sort of10, like11 all nice and good-looking. You
feel like going out with him.
AW1: Exactly, they used to be pretty24 disgusting25.
EM: But wasnt the idea always that I mean7, the
whole Victorian thing with vampires, as I understand
it, was that it was all about sex and it was all about the
threat26 of older men seducing innocent girls, innocent
young women. And because the Victorians couldnt
talk about that directly, they developed the whole of this
myth which sort of10 to some extent27 continues on
today.
AM: Uh huh.
AW1: Thats interesting. How do you think it moved
into that decrepit, old, disgusting25 vampire myth?
Where could that have come from?
EM: Well, in terms of... if youre talking about people
who are dead and vampires are dead normally, then
presumably the majority of people are old. I mean7, the
idea of vampires is ancient, isnt it?
AW1: Do you think that mightve been like11 a puritan reaction to the original idea of a vampire and that
to have a lot to say about (have-had-had) have a lot to do
with, be very relevant to
to stunt s.os growth stop s.o. from getting bigger, (in this
context) stop s.o. from maturing further
19
to be in ones teens be aged between 13 and 19
20
ghastly horrific, awful
21
bad breath halitosis
22
fangs protruding incisors of a carnivore
23
actually (false friend) in fact, really
24
pretty (adv.) quite, reasonably, rather
25
disgusting (semi-false friend) repulsive, repugnant
26
threat danger, peril
27
to some extent to some degree, partially
28
to move backwards return
29
towards in the direction of, closer to
30
to evolve back into return to
31
kind of (pause filler) sort of, yknow, like
32
grotty dirty, filthy
33
dishevelled scruffy, untidy, badly-dressed
34
kind of (in this context) more or less

17

18

119 Think in English 46

were moving back 28 towards29 that Victorian conception right now?


EM: In what way?
AW1: In that it started out being a very attractive, erotic
figure and then as the society became more liberal
in certain ways and more puritan in others it created
a more disgusting25 myth of a vampire. And then its
evolved back into30 a more erotic, attractive figure.
AM: I dont know. I think it actually23 started I
dont know if I have my facts right, but I think in the
18th Century, the idea of the vampire and the figure of
a vampire kind of31 emerged, no? And I think the
initial form this character took was like11 a grotty32,
dishevelled33 old man, kind of34 what you were saying,
that would rape35 and bother36 women. I think that was
kind of31, like11 the first
EM: Well, I think in one sense you can take it further
back in terms of the mediaeval incubus, the Devil,
which rapes35 women while they sleep in mediaeval
Christianity.
AW1: So, there was no figure of a vampire before the 18th
Century? Its not a very ancient myth.
AW2: It is, actually23. I read up that it actually23 went
back even to Greek mythology and Mesopotamian
cultures as well9. So, I think thats always been the
idea of a vampire has been around its just4 changed.
EM: Well, it depends on what you mean. In terms of
the undead and the threat26 that the undead pose37, but
in terms of all of the paraphernalia of maybe drinking blood3, killing with stakes38, the Dracula myth, if
you like, then I think thats sort of10 more recent.
So, maybe I mean7, theres supposedly the Magyar
word vampir comes from a Turkish word which is uber
and thats sort of39 related to Mesopotamia, etc. etc. So,
theres a sort of10 theres a family tree, but I think
in terms of what we would recognize as a vampire...
because in terms of yknow40 maybe drinking blood3
or whatever, the Balkan myth that came out of41 the
18th Century isnt that old. It isnt that directly ancient
thing. And thats probably what we would recognize
happened.
3. Part 3: Vampires, Death & Disease42 (2m07s)
AW2: So, what would be the common denominator
from the origin to now? Maybe the idea of immortality?
EM: Yeah, I think the idea that if somebody sort
of10 dies in sin43 they can come back and hurt44 other
people. I mean7 the in Britain they were staking45
people who committed suicide, they were staking their
hearts until the beginning of the 19th Century. Theres a
whole Prussian tradition, a very long Prussian tradition
of burying46 hearts and bodies separately so that people
couldnt come back47, presumably. So, I think a lot of its
to do with48 to do with sort of10 folk49 interpretations of Christianity, a lot of it of sinners50 and that
sort51 of thing.
AM: I think it depends on the culture as well9. But there
is also the idea of the separation of body and soul52 and
the ignorance towards decaying53 and dead bodies,
to rape sexually assault
to bother s.o. molest s.o., make s.o. feel uncomfortable
to pose (in this context) present, represent
38
stake
39
sort of (in this context) more or less
40
yknow (pause filler) like, sort of, kind of
41
to come out of (come-came-come) emerge from
42
disease illness, sickness, pathology
43
in sin without repenting
44
to hurt harm
45
to stake s.o. penetrate s.os body with a stake 38
46
to bury inter, put sth. underground
47
to come back (come-came-come) (in this context) return
from the dead
48
to be to do with be related to
49
folk popular, uneducated
50
sinner s.o. who has not repented about his/her immoral acts
51
sort type, kind
52
soul eternal spirit
53
decaying putrefying
35

36
37

Download tapescripts with larger print at:


www.thinkinenglish.net

to mistake sth. for (-take/-took/-taken) misinterpret sth. as


out of this world (in this context) otherworldly, supernatural
to wander around walk about
57
consumption (historical) tuberculosis, TB
58
to waste away become thinner and smaller because of illness
or malnutrition
59
to drain (in this context) extract
60
scary frightening, terrifying
61
like (in this context) as if
62
slightly a little, a bit
63
kind (n.) (in this context) type, sort
64
point (in this context) reason for existing
65
just (in this context) only
66
fairly reasonably, quite, pretty24
67
grim (in this context) formidable, menacing
68
hard (in this context) difficult
69
to tie A into B relate A to B

5. Part 5: From East to West 


(1m35s)
AM: So, this kind of31 slightly62 going in a different
direction, the form of a vampire, as in the Dracula that
we have today, was that basically after Bram Stokers
Dracula or did something come before that? Was he
noted for hes basically noted for making that figure
famous, no?
EM: Yeah, that is the most famous figure, but there
are I mean7, theres a short story by Henry James
which is earlier, and the legends etc. come out of the
Balkans in the I mean7, I think the conduit, if you
like, is that the Austro-Hungarian Empire takes over74
the Balkans, takes over Bosnia and Croatia and those
countries in the early- to mid-18th Century and so a lot
of the folk49 legends are there because thats connected
to Vienna and Viennas very much connected to Paris,
they get plugged into75 Western culture if you like.
AM: Right.
EM: And its sort of10 exciting, which is why the
yknow40 the whole of all of those ideas tend to be
based around Eastern Europe. Maybe they should be
more based around the Balkans than around Hungary
and Transylvania, which is the later myth, but
AM: Thats Vlad the Impaler, right?
EM: Yeah, which had nothing I mean7, that association is completely Bram Stokers. Theres no reason why
one current and the other current are connected. He
connected Vlad if you like.
AM: Well, I think it was a good addition.
EM: Well done, Bram!
(3m33s)
6. Part 6: Dracula Movies 
EM: But, I mean7, the fact is that Dracula is the story
that has been made most times into films bar none76.
It is the most popular, for filmmakers, story in film
history. Why does it connect so much do you think?
AM: Thats a very good question.
AW1: I go back to what I said before. The lack of77 a
moral a being that does not have a problem with
evil78 is very attractive to humans who are constantly
struggling with79 moral issues80. Someone who is
outside of that is fascinating to an audience who goes
to a movie theatre to experience out of their body, out
of their life experiences. They want to be projected in
undercurrent suggestion, insinuation
topic (false friend) theme
cos (slang) because
73
therefore so, for that reason
74
to take over (take-took-taken) take control of
75
to get plugged into (get-got-got) be inserted into
76
bar none with no exceptions
77
lack of absence of
78
evil (n.) malevolence, malignancy
79
to struggle with (in this context) try to make sense of
80
issues (in this context) questions
81
evil (adj.) malevolent, malignant
82
tie (n.) (in this context) link, connection
83
to appeal to be attractive to, attract, please
84
teenage adolescent, referring to people aged between 13 and 19
85
divide (n.) division, distinction
86
to reach be meaningful for, attract

54

70

55

71

56

72

119 Think in English 47

this evil81 character, who really isnt evil. He encompasses he has both things about him. The vampire has
the passion that a human being wuld have because he
has this desire for blood3, but he has no ties82 to current
morals.
EM: Texas-Chainsaw-type stories I think tend to
appeal to83 teenage84 boys. Is there an element to which
Dracula stories appeal both to men and women, boys
and girls? Does it cross that sort of10 divide85 or not?
AW2: I think it reaches86 both men and women.
EM: If so, why? Why does it do so more than other types
of horror stories?
AW2: Well, because you have the power aspect to the
vampire; you also have the sex side of it and the idea of
control, so its attractive to both sexes. So, its a character
you can play around with in both TV and movies and
you can sort of10 adapt it to any kind63 of era. So, I
mean7, if you just4 go on the Internet you can just4 see
that throughout87 any decade there are always vampire
movies or TV shows, whether88 its comedy or drama
and even musicals. So
EM: So, youre saying the undead have a future?
AW1: I think vampires have an interesting I think
theyre very attractive to women because women do
appreciate a subtle sort of10 violence. Theyre not
you know Texas Chainsaw Massacre is not
NI: Its not the most subtle.
AW1: Its not the most subtle, no, but
AM: Too gory89.
AW2: But what she was saying about control before, I
think its very appealing to83 women who cannot regularly exercise a more physical power on the world; its
more through mind control and powers that arent that
obvious. And you have these vampire figures that are
kind of31 thin and yknow40 that apparently theyre
very weak, but they turn out to have this great power
over people. Very often you have them hypnotizing;
blood3 kind of31 can be associated with poison90,

with draining59 I think its fascinating. 


7. Pronunciation: The Ending ire  (2m37s)
Commentary: Listen to these words from p. 33.
Monologues: The Stupidest Thing I Did
(13m19s)
as a Teenager13
Commentary: Listen to these people talking about
embarrassing things they did when they were younger.
8. Monologue 1 [British English]  (3m10s)
OK, I wheel this story out91 from time to time92. It
stands out93 in my mind as probably one of the silliest
things Ive done and it comes from two things that I
think Ive made use of in later life. One is my passion
for makeup94 and the other is my social skills95. I put
it96 that I was very small and that I didnt really know
any better. And my sister was a good two-and-a-half
years younger than me, so we were both very small
at the time and the occasion was a dinner party of
my parents97. They held98 fairly99, I call them, quite
smart100 parties; people used to dress up101 and there
was a certain amount of102 formality and ritual about
the parties and we were supposed to be upstairs in bed.
Only I decided I wanted to join in the party and I had
a plan, as usual. And my mother had in her bedroom,
throughout during
whether irrespective of whether (= if , but if cannot be
used before or)
89
gory characterized by gore, bloodthirsty, brutal
90
poison venom
91
to wheel sth. out (in this context) repeat
92
from time to time occasionally
93
to stand out (stand-stood-stood) be memorable
94
makeup cosmetics
95
skill ability, talent
96
to put it (put-put-put) (in this context) explain
97
ones parents (false friend) ones mother and father
98
to hold (hold-held-held) (in this context) organize
99
fairly reasonably, quite, rather
100
smart (in this context) elegant, formal
101
to dress up (in this context) wear formal clothes
102
a certain amount of quite a lot of
87

88

Subscribers exercise B

4. Part 4: TV and Movie Vampires Today (2m26s)


AW2: But like11 today its like61 that concept is sort
of10 totally different. Vampires arent as scary60 as
AM: No, today we have the Hollywood version of
vampires: hunks12 with fangs22.
NI: Well, theyre slightly62 more comic, arent they?
AM: Yeah, more detectives.
NI: Theyre not so serious. I suppose theyve lost the
moral
AW2: But the idea
NI: theyve lost the moral threat26.
AM: Yeah.
NI: And theyve theyre not there to teach any kind63
of moral lesson anymore, so they lose their point64 a
little bit so theyre left with their comic side.
AM: Yeah.
EM: But that maybe that but that is also to some
extent27 the television thing. I mean7, there are still
pretty24 scary60 vampire films, arent there?
NI: Like which?
EM: OK, I dont tend to watch these things.
NI: I think certainly the Hammer House films from
sort of10 the 60s and 70s were pretty24 scary60, though
perhaps it was just65 the time in life whenever I was
watching them. But they had the... I suppose, a fairly66
grim67 vampire, typically. But nobody quite like Bela
Lugosi, isnt it? A very famous one.
AM: Oh, yeah. Well, you had The Lost Boys, was kind
of31 scary60. And what was
NI: Admittedly though, that was Kiefer Sutherland
AM: Yeah.
NI: and hes not that scary60.
AW1: Or he is scary60.
NI: Yeah, his father was more scary60.
AM: Well, what was the one with Tom Cruise based on
the Anne Rice book?
AW1: Thats Interview with a Vampire.
AM: Interview with a Vampire.
EM: That had its
AM: Thats slightly62 scary60.
NI: Was Tom Cruise a vampire?
AW2: Yeah, he was.
AM: Yes.
EM: Yes, yes.
NI: Thats hard68 to believe.

AW1: Thats in a moment when they were tying vampirism a lot into69 homosexuality and there was all an
undercurrent70 of debate and it also came out around
the same time of AIDS
AM: Yeah.
AW1: when that was seen as a topic71.
EM: Well, thats what a lot of the Victorian thing was
about cos72 they couldnt talk about syphilis, they
couldnt talk about venereal diseases42. A lot of the
whole vampire thing, the idea of transmission all this
sort51 of thing, was very much related to to the whole
of that enormous pandemic problem that the Victorians
had because of their wonderful values.
AW1: When you stop to think about it, it makes perfect
sense that theyre afraid of people with no morals,
therefore73 theyre afraid of people without a soul52 who
dont discriminate and have this understanding of the
world that they have, which is people close to death, you
know?
EM: Uh huh.

Tapescripts

what actually23 happened with a dead body. I think a lot


of times they mistook that for54 being something out of
this world55 or
EM: And also the ignorance about a lot of diseases42
and the way they affected people. Theres one disease42
thats porphyria which creates mental disturbance and
an intense sensitivity to light. So, people wont go out in
the light, which is similar to rabies. Rabies also creates
some sensitivity to light and creates insomnia. So,
people are wandering around56 in the dark at night etc.
and, obviously, rabid dogs and things attack you; I dont
know if rabid people do. But, I mean7, even with something like consumption57, people go sort of10 pale
white and waste away58 and that looks like somebodys
draining59 them of blood3. So, I think also our reaction
to the unknown, the fact that yknow40 there are
diseases42, theres death and all these sorts of things are
scary60 in a sort of10 fun way in 21st-century American films and television, but in a really scary60 way for

Tapescripts

which was a sort51 of Aladdins cave103 of joy to me and


I was strictly forbidden104 to go there was her actually23 it was a cupboard with a basin105 and mirror in it
with a wonderful surround light and shelves106 on either
side covered in pots and pots of wonderful makeup94.
And (I was) absolutely forbidden104 to go there and I said
to my sister, Come on! Theres a mums got this special
cream and I know what were going to do. And I think I
mustve contemplated this for quite a while107. Nobody, of
course, had to explained to me what this stuff108 was and
Id seen mum use it, but hadnt totally calculated what
maybe I hadnt seen her use it, I dont know, but anyway
I decided I knew what this meant. A large109, great big
large pot and I said, Come on, Juliette. What we have to
do is we cover ourselves in this stuff108 and then we can go
downstairs and nobody will see us, because the pot was
labelled110 vanishing cream111, which is what they used
to call it in those days. So, we took off our nightdresses112
and smeared113 ourselves from head to foot in the most
expensive Helen Rubenstein vanishing cream and then
duly114 went down to the party. And I think the guests
quite enjoyed the spectacle. My mum and dad were
rather115 shocked and Juliette completely went along
with116 everything I said as always, poor thing. I just4 told
her thats what she had to do. That was on the silly side117.

lamps on the inside. This probably went on for a good136


five minutes. Just as we were leaving the scene we see a
police car turn down the street. We looked at each other
and started to run. Tim and I were faster than Don and
we were able to escape through backyards137 and make
it back to138 his house. We were certain Don had been
caught. About 15 minutes later we heard the doorbell.
Tim answered the door and it was the police. Although
Tim and I denied being involved139, we soon found out140
that Don had ratted us out141. Tim had to go wake up142
his mom and I was told to have143 my mom call the police
station the next day. In the end, it was just65 a scare144 for
Tim and I, though Don got in big trouble145 and had to
pay for the repairs on the sign. Yeah, that had to have
been the stupidest thing I did as a teenager13.

(2m31s)
9. Monologue 2 [US English] 
Id have to say that the dumbest118 thing I probably did
when I was a teenager13 happened the night I stayed
over119 at my friend Tims house. We were around 13 or
14 at the time and if I remember correctly it was around
11.30 at night when it all began. We were practicing
guitar together when there was a knock120 on the window.
It was Don, a neighbourhood friend that lived just down
the street121. Don had just got a new slingshot122 that
he wanted to try out and he convinced us to sneak out
of123 the house to join him. So, we quietly left through
the back door and started to walk around the neighbourhood while124 Don told us all about his new toy. After a
while125 he began to pick up pebbles126 off of the street
and fire127 them at things that we walked past, like street
signs and mailboxes128. I have to say that I wasnt entirely
cool129 with the situation, but I didnt want to be the one
to spoil130 all of the fun. Eventually131 we reached the
end of the road where there was a store132. This particular store had a big illuminated plastic sign sitting out
front. Of course, Don thought it would be fun to shoot
stones at it with his slingshot122. He released133 the first
stone and BANG! it made an extremely loud sound
and shattered134 the plastic. Tim and I looked on135 in a
stupor as Don continued to fire stone after stone at the
sign, breaking more plastic as well as the fluorescent tube

10. Monologue 3 [New York English]



(2m22s)
I dont know that this was the stupidest thing Ive ever
done in my life, but it certainly was an embarrassing
moment for me. About 30-some-odd146 years ago I was
hired147 to work in a theatre company which was to tour
the United States for a year. The company was going
out visiting various towns and cities and doing shows
almost148 every day for a year. It was a lot of work. We
rehearsed149 in Texas because the company was based in
Rockport, Texas. We rehearsed for six weeks and then the
company was ready to go out on tour. Well, about a week
before we were ready to go out on tour one of the women,
one of the actresses had to leave the company because her
mother had a stroke150. Well, the director of the company
was beside himself151 and he was going crazy152 looking for153 an actress to replace this actress that had left
the company and asked us if we knew of anyone that
could fill in154. I told him that I had a very good friend
in New York that I was pretty24 sure that shed be willing to155 take on156 the job and that she was an extremely
talented, hard-working actress. So, he trusted me and
we called her and she was willing to155 take the job. She
came down to Texas. She had one week to rehearse149. At
the first rehearsal she was given her script157 and we were
doing three plays in repertoire. And the first scene the
she rehearsed, one of her first lines was, I know you like
the back of my hand, which means, of course, I know you
very well. Well, this talented actress just4 couldnt get the
intonation right and it kept coming out as I know you
like the back of my hand, which is a completely different
interpretation. And the director and all the actors were
trying to show her the difference. Theres a difference in
the line reading and it makes a complete difference in the
interpretation, what the line means. Well, she just4 didnt
get158 it and the director looked at me. He gave me such a

cave cavern
to be forbidden be prohibited
basin
106
shelves
107
quite a while quite some time, a
considerable period of time
108
stuff (in this context) substance
109
large (false friend) big
110
to be labelled be identified by a
label (= sticker) that said
111
vanishing cream colourless cleansing or moisturizing cream (it sounds
like it could be a cream that makes you vanish/disappear)
112
to take off ones nightdress (take-took-taken) remove ones
nightdress, get undressed
113
to smear oneself cover oneself (with a lotion)
114
duly subsequently
115
rather quite, reasonably
116
to go along with (go-went-gone) do willingly/
obediently
117
to be on the silly side be reasonably ridiculous
118
the dumbest most idiotic, the stupidest
119
to stay over stay the night
120
knock hitting sound made to attract s.os
attention
121
just down the street a few doors away
122
slingshot
123
to sneak out of (sneak-snuck-snuck) leave...
furtively
124
while during which time, as
125
after a while after some time
126
pebble small rounded stone
127
to fire shoot
128
mailbox
129
cool (in this context) happy

to spoil ruin
eventually (false friend) in the end
store (US English) shop (UK English)
133
to release (in this context) fire, shoot
134
to shatter sth. break sth. into pieces
135
to look on observe sth. without participating in it
136
for a good for at least, for a minimum of
137
backyard (US English) back garden (UK English), garden
behind a house
138
to make it back to (make-made-made) manage to return to
139
to deny being involved say that you did not participate in sth.
140
to find out (find-found-found) discover
141
to rat s.o. out inform on s.o., betray s.o.
142
to wake s.o. up (wake-woke-woken) interrupt s.os sleep
143
to have s.o. do sth. (have-had-had) ask/tell s.o. to do sth.
144
scare (n.) frightening experience
145
to get in big trouble (get-got-got) have a serious problem
146
30-some-odd approximately 30
147
to hire s.o. employ s.o.
148
almost nearly, practically
149
to rehearse practise performing
150
stroke apoplexy, thrombosis
151
to be beside oneself be hysterical, be very nervous
152
to go crazy (go-went-gone) go mad, (in this context) become
very anxious
153
to look for try to find
154
to fill in substitute for s.o.
155
to be willing to be ready to, be prepared to
156
to take sth. on (take-took-taken) accept
157
script text an actor has to learn
158
to get (get-got-got) (in this context) understand
159
such a look a terrible glare, a hard stare
160
to be all over the place be out of control
161
to take place (take-took-taken) occur, happen
162
rioting riots, street violence, problems of public order

103

104
105

look159 as if I was responsible for the greatest fiasco that


had ever happened to this repertoire company. And it
really shouldve been the woman who was embarrassed,
but I was just4 humiliated. I mean7, the actress was very
talented. She just4 didnt get158 this line. That was my
embarrassing moment.
11. Monologue 4 [British English]  (1m57s)
When youre a teenager13 your hormones are all over
the place160, so you do things which are unbelievably
stupid from the point of view of an adult. The stupidest thing I ever did took place161 in the early 1980s
when I was maybe 14 or 15. At the time there was serious rioting162 in many British cities and the police and
many young people were on edge163. Anyway, I was in
the centre of Oxford with some friends and I think my
brother was there too. It was Friday or Saturday night
and the centre was quite busy. A police car had stopped
in the middle of the street which was otherwise164 only
for pedestrians165. In any event, the policemen from
inside the car were hassling166 some young people. I
cant remember very well what was happening exactly.
Whatever it was I decided to crouch down167 and start
playing with the bolts168 on the patrol car169s wheel170,
like171 I was going to unscrew172 the nuts173, dismantle174
the wheel170 and render175 the police car useless! It wasnt
going to happen. Anyhow176, unknown to me, while I
was larking about177, this copper178 came up behind
me and demanded to know what I was doing. Taken
completely off guard, I sputtered out179 some excuse
and the policeman cautioned me and then told me that
if he saw me again that night he was going to break my
fingers. Somewhat180 aggressive this law enforcer181!
But I suppose he couldve arrested me, which wouldve
been much worse in the long term. I think its fascinating to think how mind-blowingly182 stupid we can all
be in adolescence. I mean7, in the case I just mentioned
there was absolutely nothing to be gained by doing what
I did. I wasnt even doing something that was likely to
impress183 the people I was with, but it was something
that couldve got me into serious trouble184. Incredible!
12. Monologue 5 [US English]
(3m19s)
Probably the stupidest thing I ever did... well, I dont
know about the stupidest, but one of the stupidest things
Ive done was when I was about 19 and I was playing
drums185 at that time and a friend of mine and I were
playing African percussion and we were playing the
djembes186. And we were recruited187 by some friends
(in quotes) of ours, a couple of twins188 called Dustin
and Derek, that had these great ambitions of becoming
famous singers. And they hired147 us to play with them.
to be on edge be nervous
otherwise apart from that
pedestrians people
walking in the street (as
opposed to driving cars)
166
to hassle harass,
torment, inconvenience
167
to crouch down
168
bolt
169
patrol car
170
wheel
171
like (in this context) as if,
did I really think
172
to unscrew take off
173
nut (in this context)
174
to dismantle sth. take sth. apart
175
to render make, leave
176
anyhow anyway, in any event
177
to lark about play the fool, fool around,
act idiotically
178
copper (countable) (UK informal)
policeman
179
to splutter out say incoherently
180
somewhat rather, quite, reasonably
181
law enforcer police officer
182
mind-blowingly incredibly,
unbelievably
183
was likely to impress would probably
have impressed
184
trouble difficulties, problems
185
drum
186
djembe
187
to recruit employ, hire
188
twins two people born at the same
time to the same mother

130

163

131

164

132

165

119 Think in English 48

Subscribers exercise V

13. Word Building: Blood Words (0m57s)


Commentary: Listen to the following phrases from p. 41.
Tofu Dialogues

(9m40s)

Commentary: The following dialogues offer practice


for learners preparing for the TOEFL or TOEIC exams.
For maximum benefit, use them in conjunction with the
listening comprehension test in the subscribers exercises.
14. Dialogue 1: The Experience 
(5m12s)
Meg (G): Oh, I feel really queasy204 after that tunnel.
205
Mel (L): Dont be a little sissy . This is fun!
G: I dont know.
L: Well, come on. This is like11 my dream to be in one of
these places. I always wanted to go but nobody would ever
take me.
G: Well, you owe me for this206. Lets go. Come on.
L: OK, come on. Itll be fun. I mean7, its like11 not very
long either.
G: Oh!
L: Lets just4 go through this. I mean7, its nice. Look at
look, look! Were getting to the puppet thing207. Theyre not
too scary60.
G: Oh, these are a little strange. It smells kind of31
funny208 in here too.
L: Well, its sort of10, like11 to get you sort of10
(Screams)
L: Oh God! What was that?
G: Uh, a doll209?
(time) slot spot, window, opportunity to perform
to realize be conscious
to host (in this context) offer
192
way over far away
193
a(n all-)male review a show of male strippers (like in the
film The Full Monty)
194
segregated (in this context) ethnically-distinct, all-Black,
exclusively African-American
195
in the crowd (in this context) of all the people in the club
196
buxom shapely, full-figured, voluptuous, large-breasted
197
like fish out of water out of place
198
to take off ones clothes (take-took-taken) undress, strip
199
catcall (in this context) wolf whistle, high frequency noise
accompanied by a lascivious comment
200
guy (US English) bloke (UK English), man
201
to be a cutie be cute, be adorable
202
to look into investigate, find out about
203
beforehand prior to the event, before this happened
204
queasy nauseous, sick
205
sissy coward, baby, chicken (originally abbreviation of
sister)
206
you owe me for this you are in my debt for this
189

190
191

L: A doll, so, you see its exciting.


G: Yeah.
L: But, I mean7, it could be worse.
G: What was that?
L: What was that?
G: Uh oh, I dont like it in here too much.
L: Oh, come on. This is getting better and better.
G: This is scary60.
L: Oh, Im really getting hyped up210 now.
G: Come on, keep211 walking.
L: Alright, well, well just4 well do it quickly so you dont
get
G: Hurry up! I wanna212 get out of here.
L: Oh, look. Look at that. Thats big and ugly. Thats cool,
isnt it?
G: Yuck!213 I dont know. These dolls are very real looking.
L: Oh, come on. Theyre just4 good.
G: They let kids214 in here?
L: Yeah, Im like a little kid.
G: I dont like it. Lets go.
L: It is getting a little bit spooky215 here.
G: Yeah, lets just4 Oh, look. This doll looks very real.
Dracula (D): I am Count Dracula!
(Screams)
L: Oh God!
G: You scared216 us.
L: Hes real. Hes an actor, isnt he?
D: Erm, yeah.
G: Hi there.
D: Hi, hi.
L: God, youre really pretty24 good.
G: That was yeah, I was scared216.
D: Did you think I was good?
G: Yeah.
L: Yeah, that was really good. It was like so real.
D: Alright, just4 dont tell anybody, OK?
G: Why?
L: No, but I mean7 you really should get into something
bigger217 here. I think we should sort of10 talk to your
manager or something so you can
D: Uh, well no, thats probably not a great idea.
G: What do you mean?
D: If youre scared216 and you enjoyed it, well just4 leave it at
that, OK? Its a part of the show, part of the show.
L: But you deserve218 something like11 better I mean7
maybe I like it when people like11 really get into their
role219 here, so every time Im happy I like like going to
the manager and sort of10 putting everything in writing.
G: Yeah.
D: But the thing is Im not supposed to be here.
L: What do you mean?
D: Well, the thing is I dont actually23 work here. Im sort
of10 living here.
L: Excuse me?
G: What do you mean you live here?
D: Well, I sort of10 lost my job and then I couldnt
afford220 well, there were a lot of people who lost a lot of
money and yknow40 and I couldnt stay221 where I used
to live, so
L: Ah, thats sad.
G: Really? What did you do?
the puppet thing (in this context) the part that includes
mannequins
funny peculiar, strange, odd
209
doll (in this context) figure of a person, mannequin
210
to get hyped up (get-got-got) become excited/tense
211
to keep (keep-kept-kept) continue
212
wanna (slang) want to
213
yuck! (exclamation of repulsion) ugh!
214
kids children
215
spooky phantasmal, ghostly, frightening, scary
216
to scare frighten, terrify
217
to get into sth. bigger (get-got-got) (in this context) find a
more important acting job
218
to deserve merit, should have
219
to get into ones role (get-got-got) become the character
one is acting, take ones acting seriously
220
cant afford not have enough money for
221
to stay (in this context) continue to live
222
stock broker speculator, s.o. who works in the stock
exchange buying and selling shares
223
hedge fund company involved in high-risk speculation
on stocks
207

208

119 Think in English 49

D: I used to be a stock broker.


G: Of all things! And now youre a vampire?
D: Sort of10 a stock broker222 sort of10, like11 I had a
hedge fund223. It was like Dracula but even more scary60!
G: And now you live here?
D: Yes, yes, I do. Ive got just around the corner past the
cobwebs224 Ive got a little bunk 225 there and
G: What do you eat? Do you eat bats226?
D: Uh, bats? Bats, no. Theyre not my favourite. Theres
L: Dont be silly, Meg.
D: You remember on the way in theres a Burger King there,
but, no, theres that and I get the odd bits and pieces227
around.
G: Well, you had to be a carnivore.
D: I did, yeah.
L: So, how do you get away with228 it? I mean7, youre not
working here. You do a good job and you dont get paid for
it.
D: Well, most people think Im just4 one of the puppets229.
I just4 get up there, scream a bit and tuck my way back 230.
But, if you want, I can show you where I, where I look this
is my its all kind of31 dark and spooky in there.
G: That would be interesting.
L: Oh, Ill pass.
D: This is where I sleep. Its kind of31 cosy231 really.
L: No, I dont think thats such a good idea.
G: Oh, I wanna212 see how this works232 on the inside. Lets
see.
D: Its sort of10 rent free.
G: I wanna212 see the machines.
L: Werent you the first one who was like11 scared216 of
getting in here. I definitely wouldnt go in there.
G: Its so artificial. Come on, Ive gotta233 find out140 how
this works232. I mean7, it scared216 us but Im sure theres
some interesting stuff6 here.
D: Oh, there is.
L: Yeah, but this
D: Yep234, just right here is where I sleep, where I
G: Uh huh.
D: make my coffee in the morning.
G: Oh!
D: And, yeah, its just65
G: And whats back there?
D: Come this way.
L: Im staying, OK? Ill wait for you guys235 out here.
G: Alright, Ill see you in a while236.
L: Alright.
(Meg screams)
L: Meg? Meg? Oh my God! Where are you?
15. Dialogue 2: The Minutemen
(4m28s)
Saul Proctor (S): Yes, can I help you?
Chuck (C): Er hem. (Clearing his throat.)
Ned (N): Er hem. (Clearing his throat.)
C: Saul? Saul Proctor?
N: Saul Proctor?
S: Yes, Im Saul Proctor, yes.
C: Youre going to have to come with us, sir.
N: Yep234, with us, come with us.
S: What do you mean come with you? Who are you?
C: Well, were the minutemen237 and we need all
cobweb old spiders web
bunk bed
bat
227
odd bits and pieces miscellaneous
things
228
to get away with sth. (get-got-got) be
able to do sth. illegal without being
detained/stopped
229
puppet mannequin
230
to tuck ones way back (in this context)
return furtively
231
cosy (informal) comfortable
232
to work (in this context) function
233
gotta (slang) got to
234
yep (slang) yes
235
you guys (US English) you people, you folks, you (plural).
Guy is masculine but you guys can refer to men and
women
236
in a while in a few minutes
237
minuteman (plural -men) (in the American revolutionary
war) militiaman who was ready/prepared to fight instantly
(i.e. in a minute)
224
225

226

Tapescripts

They got a special slot189, time slot in the middle of a big


show in the Cotton Club in Cleveland. So, put like that,
it sounded like this great opportunity to play in this big
jazz club and we thought, OK, this is great. What we
didnt realize190 was that the Cotton Club that night was
hosting191 way over192 on the east side of Cleveland, it
was hosting an all-male review193 night. And this was
on the east side of Cleveland, which at that point in time
(and probably still today) was a very segregated194 part
of town. And myself and... Beau and myself arrive on
the scene to play the drums185 and then to discover that
we were the only two white faces in the crowd195 and
we were playing African percussion not very well. And
Dustin and Derek, their special magic time slot189 that
was this grand opportunity was right in the middle of an
all-male review193. So, here are Beau and myself walking
into a place full of about 500 buxom196 black women and
we come in with these two African drums and looking
really like fish out of water197 and not ever having any
experience like being in a male review193. Fortunately,
no one was expecting us to take off our clothes198 and
neither did Derek or Dustin, but it was a bit... it was a
bit... uh, it was a bit uncomfortable I have to say. We were
getting some yknow40 some sort of10 catcalls199
like, Hey, you! Oh, we like that guy200 with the drum.
Look at that guy with the drum. Oh, hes a cutie201! It
was a little bit... it was a little bit strange and I shouldve
known better. The Cotton Club is a famous name of a
jazz club, but not the Cotton Club in Cleveland and I
shouldve looked into202 it a little bit beforehand203. 

Tapescripts

able-bodied 238 men to come with us.


S: But, whats a minuteman?
N: All able people that are available must come
with us.
C: Thats right.
S: But, to do what? Where are we going?
C: Were going to fight the British, of course.
N: Theres a war. Were going to fight the British.
S: Yes, what are you going to throw rocks at them?
How are you going to fight the British?
C: No, dont worry about that, Saul. Well provision you.
N: Well give you things you need.
S: I, I, I think youve got the wrong guy200. Im not
a good fighter.
C: Oh, really?
S: You better try someone else.
C: No, youre Saul Proctor, correct?
S: Yes, Im Saul alright.
N: Are you Saul Proctor?
S: Im Saul Proctor, thats right.
C: The one with the turnip 239 farm?
S: Thats right, I have a turnip farm.
N: You have a turnip farm?
S: Yes, I do, I have a turnip farm.
N: He does have a turnip farm.
C: He does. OK, then youre the Saul Proctor were
after240.
S: But, but you dont want me, believe me. Im not
a good fighter. Ive never been a good fighter. No
ones ever asked me to fight for them and, I mean7,
I couldnt even defend my own mother if I had to.
C: Well, dont worry, after a week with us well
make a fighter out of you.
N: Well turn you into a soldier.
S: No, really, really, I have very bad eyesight 241.
You see these glasses? Theyre so thick I couldnt
I couldnt see three feet in front of me.
C: Well, you can bring your glasses with you.
N: You can bring your glasses.
S: But, well, these glasses are very loose 242. Theyll
fall. If Im running, for example, I know theyll
fall and Ill step on them, Ill smash 243 them and
Ill probably shoot one of us, one American. You
dont want believe me, you dont me to fight on
your side.
C: No, well take care of 244 your glasses. Well
tie 245 them onto your head or something. Dont
worry about that.
N: Well be absolutely certain that your glasses are
safe.
S: But Ive got flat feet and Ive got eleven children.
Whos going to take care of 244 the kids? I mean7,
my wife! Have you seen my wife? I dont know if
youve seen my wife. Shes not fat, shes pregnant.
Thats number 12 on the way. How can I leave her
here?
C: All the more reason for you to come with us.
N: Yes, all the more reason for you to come with
us.
S: But I dont see the logic. What good would that
do?
C: Because youre protecting your family from the
British yoke 246.
N: Patriotic duty247.
S: I think Id be better off staying here and
able-bodied fit, healthy (as opposed to sick, handicapped
or invalid)
turnip
240
to be after be looking for, be trying to
find
241
eyesight the ability to see, vision
242
to be loose (in this context) be too big
243
to smash break
244
to take care of (take-took-taken) look
after, care for
245
to tie fasten
246
yoke (in this context) domination
247
duty responsibility, obligation
248
fellows guys, friends
249
to lay down (substandard slang) lie down, rest, go to bed
238
239

protecting my family right here. What do you say,


fellows 248? Ill see you when the wars over?
C: Im afraid thats not an option.
N: Not possible.
S: Well, listen Ive got a terrible headache. I mean7,
if I could just 4 lay down 249 for a few minutes and
Ill give you a call, how about this afternoon, this
evening?
C: Im sorry but were moving out this afternoon.
N: This afternoon we move out.
S: Well, where are you moving to?
C: Were going up north.
S: How far north?
N: Very far north, up north. Yep 234, thats where
were going.
C: Up north.
S: Up north, oh! Up north? Oh, its cold up north.
No, Ill never survive. I cant survive. I need to be
in warmth 250. If Im in cold, I could fall apart 251.
Believe me, fellows 248, I would not be a good
soldier.
C: Dont worry, Saul, well get you some
blankets 252.
S: No, really, I really cant.
N: Lots of blankets252.
S: Please, please, dont no, dont take me. Please,
please, let me go. Let
Mrs Proctor (P): Saul?
S: Yeah.
P: Saul! Saul, your lunch is ready. Its been on the
table for 20 minutes. What are you doing?
S: Im coming. Im just 65 talking to some fellows 248
who just came to the door.
P: No, Im not having that. Youre coming now!
S: Well, they want me to go with them. But Im
explaining to them that I cant. Theyre just about
to leave 253.
P: The soups cold and the lettuce 254 is limp 255.
Now whats going on 256? Who are these two? What
are you doing?
C: Sorry, Mrs Proctor?
P: Filthy257 feet on my clean floor. Get out! Out!
Go on!
N: Mrs Proctor?
S: This is my wife.
C: Sorry, maam, Im Chuck and this is Ned.
P: Im not having any of this. Im not having it, not
at lunch time. You can come back tomorrow. Get
rid of 258 these people. I dont want your friends
around here at lunch time. Off you go 259! Go on!
Im not having anymore. Enough! Out!
S: They were just leaving.
P: Out! Out! Out!
S: They were just leaving. Werent you boys?
P: Out! Out! No more discussions 260.
C: Saul, well be back for you later.
N: We will be back for you later.
S: Theyll be back for me later, honey.
P: Im not having that. Hes gotta 233 finish his tea
first and then theres the washing. Off you go! Go
on!

S: See you guys 200. Bye.


16. Wordplay: Zeugma Promiscuous
Words
(1m08s)
Commentary: Listen to these phrases from p. 40.
warmth heat
to fall apart (fall-fell-fallen) (literally)
disintegrate, (in this context) become ill
252
blanket
253
to be just about to leave be going to
leave imminently
254
lettuce
255
limp flaccid, tired
256
to be going on be happening, be
occurring
257
filthy very dirty
258
to get rid of s.o. (get-got-got) send s.o.
away, tell s.o. to leave
259
off you go! leave now!
260
discussions (false friend) debating,
250
251

119 Think in English 50

17. Idioms: Blood Expressions



(2m04s)
Commentary: Listen to these phrases from
pp. 38-39.
18. Picture Description 

(3m29s)

Commentary: Listen to the following


description of the photos on p. 42.
Examiner: Would you compare and contrast
these two pictures, please?
Examinee: Well, lets see, theyre both pictures
of musicians. One looks like an interior, the
photograph on the right looks like the people
are inside a building two girls playing violins
or even violas, they look pretty24 large109, or
maybe perhaps a violin. The girl on the left whos
wearing a black sweater looks like shes playing a
violin and the girl on the right whos wearing a
knit top 261, looks like shes playing a viola. In the
picture on the left, youve got two guys 262 and it
looks like theyre outside on the street playing.
The guy on the right is playing a mandolin. The
guy on the left is playing a guitar. It looks like
theyve both got capos 263 on their instruments to
change the key of that theyre playing in. Theyre
also singing; the guys on the left are singing. The
girls in the photo on the right look like theyre
not singing. Lets see, in the background 264 of
the photo on the left I can see flowers hanging 265
and I see the long hair of a girl whose back is
towards 266 us. And in the photo on the right I
see in the background 264 a man, young man with
short hair whose back is to us.
Examiner: Good. Do you approve of musicians
playing in the street and asking for money?
Examinee: Um, it depends on how good they
are. If theyre really horrible, if theyre really
horrible but making a real effort, I think thats
OK. If theyre doing something a bit fraudulent
like Ive seen in the subway before a guy200 that
was playing some sort of10 ethnic instrument
and was wearing a special kind 63 of ethnic
clothes as if he was trying to claim 267 a sort of10
uniqueness about what he was doing, but he
was not actually23 playing the instrument that
he had. He was just 65 kind of 31 banging 268
it and not making anything that even vaguely
resembled music. He was making noise and
he was a spectacle but a bit of an irritating
spectacle. That I find frustrating. I mean7, Im
a bit biased 269 because Im a musician myself.
But if... if the people that are on the street are
making a good effort I suppose it doesnt really
matter how good they are, just as long as 270
theyre really doing it.

19. Dictation
(7m59s)
Commentary: The text for the following
dictation comes from p. 22, section 3.
20. Key Words
(2m31s)
Commentary: In the magazine the most
difficult words are printed in green phrases.
These are grouped together on p. 42. Listen to
them and then practise repeating the sentences.
conversations
knit top type of jersey
(see photo)
262
guy (US English) bloke
(UK English), man
263
capo capo tasto
264
background (according
to the perspective) the part
furthest from the viewer
265
hanging suspended
266
towards facing
267
to claim declare that one has
268
to bang hit
269
biased prejudiced, partial
270
just as long as (just) so long as, provided that, if (and only if)
261

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