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Lean Glossary

by Stephen A. Rooney and James J. Rooney

A
Activity based costing: An accounting
poka yoke is sometimes referred to as a sys-
tem in which only a warning is provided
(see “poka yoke”).
Cell: An arrangement of people,
machines, materials and equipment in
which the processing steps are placed right
system that assigns costs to a product based next to each other in sequential order and
on the amount of resources used to design, Balanced plant: A plant in which the through which parts are processed in a
order or make it. capacity of all resources is balanced exactly continuous flow. The most common cell
with market demand. layout is a U shape.
Andon board: A production area visual
control device, such as a lighted overhead Balancing the line: The process of even- Cellular manufacturing: Arranging
display. It communicates the status of the ly distributing both the quantity and variety machines in the correct process sequence,
production system and alerts team mem- of work across available worktime, avoid- with operators remaining within the cell
bers to emerging problems (from andon, a ing overburden and underuse of resources. and materials presented to them from out-
Japanese word meaning light). This eliminates bottlenecks and downtime, side.
which translates into shorter flow time.
Autonomation: A form of automation in Change agent: An individual from with-
which machinery automatically inspects Batch and queue: Producing more than in or outside an organization who facilitates
each item after producing it, ceases produc- one piece and then moving the pieces to the change within the organization; may or
tion and notifies humans if a defect is detect- next operation before the pieces are needed. may not be the initiator of the change effort.
ed. Toyota expanded the meaning of jidohka
to include the responsibility of all workers to Bottleneck: Any resource whose capaci- Changeover: A process in which a pro-
function similarly—to check every item pro- ty is equal to or less than the demand duction device is assigned to perform a dif-
duced and, if a defect is detected, make no placed on it. ferent operation or a machine is set up to
more until the cause of the defect has been make a different part—for example, a new
identified and corrected (see “jidohka”). Breakthrough event: A dramatic change plastic resin and new mold in an injection
in process during which a team gets past an molding machine.

B
Baka yoke: A manufacturing technique
old barrier or milestone to achieve a signifi-
cant increase in efficiency, quality or some
other measure.
Changeover time: The time required to
modify a system or workstation, usually
of preventing mistakes by designing the including both teardown time for the exist-
manufacturing process, equipment and
tools so an operation literally cannot be per-
formed incorrectly. In addition to prevent-
C
Capacity constraint resources: A series
ing condition and setup time for the new
condition.

ing incorrect operation, the technique of nonbottlenecks (based on the sequence in Constraint: Anything that limits a sys-
usually provides a warning signal of some which jobs are performed) that can act as a tem from achieving higher performance or
sort for incorrect performance. The term constraint. throughput; also, the bottleneck that most

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LEAN GLOSSARY

severely limits the organization’s ability to 7. Production of defective parts. tomer has used some of that inventory.
achieve higher performance relative to its 8. Not fully utilizing employees’ brain-
purpose/goal. power, skills, experience and talents. First pass yield (FPY): Also referred to as
the quality rate, the percentage of units that
Continuous flow: A concept whereby Equipment availability: Machine opera- complete a process and meet quality guide-
items are processed and moved directly tional availability is the percentage of time lines without being scrapped, rerun, retest-
from one processing step to the next, one during which a process (or equipment) is ed, returned or diverted into an offline
piece at a time. Also referred to as one-piece available to run. This can sometimes be repair area. FPY is calculated by dividing
flow and single-piece flow. called uptime. To calculate operational the units entering the process minus the
availability, divide the machine’s operating defective units by the total number of units
Cycle: A sequence of operations repeat- time during the process by the net available entering the process.
ed regularly or the time necessary for one time.
sequence of operations to occur. Five-phase lean approach: A systematic
Error detection: A hybrid form of error method for implementing lean manufactur-
Cycle time: The time required to com- proofing. It means a bad part can be made ing that helps improve the production
plete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time but will be caught immediately, and correc- process and sustains gains made in the pro-
for every operation in a complete process tive action will be taken to prevent another duction cycle in an area or plant. The five
can be reduced to equal takt time, products bad part from being produced. A device is phases are:
can be made in single-piece flow (see “takt used to detect when a bad part is made and 1. Stability. Provides an environment
time”). then stop the process. This is used when with controlled process variables,
error proofing is too expensive or not easily decreased waste and increased busi-

D
Dependent events: Events that occur
implemented.

Error proofing: A process used to prevent


ness impact.
2. Continuous flow. Is characterized by
reduced work in process inventory,
only after a previous event. errors from occurring or to immediately time loss and defects, increased
point out a defect as it occurs. If defects are process flexibility and repeatable
Downtime: Lost production time during not passed down an assembly line, through- processes between workstations.
which a piece of equipment is not operating put and quality improve (see “poka yoke”). 3. Synchronous production. Is charac-
correctly due to breakdown, maintenance, terized by disciplined process
power failures or similar events. External setup: Die setup procedures repeatability and synchronization
that can be performed safely while the between operations and customer

E
Eight wastes: Taiichi Ohno originally
machine is in motion. Also known as outer
exchange of die (see “internal setup”).
requirements.
4. Pull system. Creates an environment
in which material replenishment links
enumerated seven wastes (muda) and later
added underutilized people as the eighth
waste commonly found in physical produc-
F
Feeder lines: A series of special assembly
operations with customer demand.
5. Level production. Reduces response
time or changes in demand and
tion. The eight are: lines that allow assemblers to perform pre- upstream schedule variability.
1. Overproduction ahead of demand. assembly tasks off the main production line.
2. Waiting for the next process, worker, Performing certain processes off the main Five S’s: Five Japanese terms beginning
material or equipment. production line means fewer parts in the with S (with English translations also begin-
3. Unnecessary transport of materials main assembly area, the availability of ser- ning with S) used to create a workplace suit-
(for example, between functional vice ready components and assemblies in ed for visual control and lean production.
areas of facilities, or to or from a stock- the main production area, improved quality • Seiri (sort, structure or sift) means to
room or warehouse). and less lead time to build a product. separate needed tools, parts and
4. Overprocessing of parts due to poor instructions from unneeded materials
tool and product design. First in, first out (FIFO): Material and remove the latter.
5. Inventories more than the absolute produced by one process is used in the • Seiton (set in order or systematize)
minimum. same order by the next process. A FIFO means to neatly arrange and identify
6. Unnecessary movement by employ- queue is filled by the supplying process parts and tools for ease of use.
ees during the course of their work and emptied by the customer process; • Seiso (sanitize or shine) means to con-
(such as to look for parts, tools, prints when a FIFO lane gets full, production duct a cleanup campaign.
or help). is stopped until the next (internal) cus- • Seiketsu (standardize) means to con-

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duct seiri, seiton and seiso at frequent, tor progress (see “value stream”). whereby material is brought to the work
indeed daily, intervals to maintain a site only when it is needed. To achieve this
goal, each operation must be synchronized
workplace in perfect condition.
• Shitsuke (sustain or self-discipline)
means to form the habit of always fol-
IInformation flow: The task of dissemi-
with those subsequent to it.
The concept refers to the manufacturing
lowing the first four S’s. Collectively, nating information for taking a specific and conveyance of only what is needed,
they define an orderly, well-inspected, product from order entry through detailed when it is needed and in the amount need-
clean and efficient working environ- scheduling to delivery (see “value stream”). ed. In addition, a minimum amount of
ment. inventory is kept on hand (in supermarkets,
Informative inspection: A form of for example). This enhances efficiency and
Flow: The progressive achievement of inspection used to determine nonconform- enables quick responses to change (see
tasks along the value stream so a product ing product (see “judgment inspection”). “supermarket”).
proceeds from design to launch, order to
delivery and raw to finished materials in
the hands of the customer with no stop-
pages, scrap or backflows.
Internal setup: Die setup procedures
that must be performed while a machine is
stopped; also known as inner exchange of
K
Kaizen: A Japanese term meaning grad-
die (see “external setup”). ual unending improvement by doing little
Flow kaizen: Radical improvement, usu- things better and setting and achieving
ally applied only once within a value Inventory: The money invested in pur- increasingly higher standards. Masaaki
stream. chasing things an organization intends to Imai made the term well-known in his book
sell. Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success.
Functional layout: The practice of
Kanban: A communication tool in the
grouping machines (such as grinding
machines) or activities (such as order entry)
by type of operation performed.
JJidohka: Stopping a line automatically
just-in-time production and inventory con-
trol system that authorizes production or
when a defective part is detected. Any nec- movement. Kanban, from a Japanese word

H
Heijunka: A method of leveling produc-
essary improvements can then be made by
directing attention to the stopped equip-
ment and the worker who stopped the
for visible card or record, was developed by
Taiichi Ohno at Toyota. It is a small card or
signboard (or any other authorizing device)
tion, usually at the final assembly line, that operation. The jidohka system puts faith in attached to boxes of specific parts in the
makes just-in-time production possible. It the worker as a thinker and allows all work- production line signifying the delivery of a
involves averaging both the volume and ers the right to stop the line on which they given quantity.
sequence of different model types on a are working (see “autonomation”). Originally, a card signaled the need to
mixed model production line. Using this deliver or produce more parts, but today a
method avoids excessive batching of differ- Judgment inspection: A form of inspec- variety of replenishment signals is used.
ent types of product and volume fluctua- tion used to determine nonconforming Currently, kanban is a unique information
tions in the same product (see “production product (see “informative inspection”). carrying device that ensures every opera-
smoothing”). tion produces only the amount of product
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing: An that will actually be used in the next step of
Hoshin kanri: The selection of goals, pro- optimal material requirement planning the production process. It serves as instruc-
jects to achieve the goals, designation of system for a manufacturing process in tion for production and conveyance (with-
people and resources for project completion which there is little or no manufacturing drawal). The quantity authorized per
and establishment of project metrics (see material inventory on hand at the manu- individual kanban is minimal, ideally one.
“policy deployment”). facturing site and little or no incoming The number of circulating or available
inspection. kanban for an item is determined by the
Hoshin planning: Breakthrough plan- The JIT philosophy’s ultimate objective demand rate for the item and the time
ning; a Japanese strategic planning process is to eliminate waste, which may appear in required to produce or acquire more. This
in which a company develops up to four many forms: rejected parts, excessive number generally is established and
vision statements that indicate where the inventory levels, interoperational cues, and remains unchanged unless demand or other
company should be in the next five years. excessive material handling, setup and circumstances are altered dramatically. In
Company goals and work plans are devel- changeover times. this way, inventory is kept under control
oped based on the vision statements. JIT is an approach to manufacturing that while production is forced to keep pace
Periodic audits are then conducted to moni- stresses the benefits inherent in a system with shipment volume.

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LEAN GLOSSARY

Kanban regulates pull in the Toyota production throughput over time. production technology with scale require-
production system. A routine exception to ments requiring designs, orders and prod-
this rule is that managers and workers are Line balancing: A process in which ucts be brought to the machine to wait in
continually exhorted to improve their work elements are evenly distributed and line for processing. The opposite of a right
processes and thereby reduce the number staffing is balanced to meet takt time (see sized machine (see “right size”).
of kanban required. “takt time”).
(Note: Sometimes spelled or referred to Muda: Japanese for waste. Any activity
as “kamban.” Load-load: A method of conducting sin- that consumes resources but creates no
gle-piece flow in which the operator pro- value for the customer.
Kitting: A process in which assemblers ceeds from machine to machine, taking the
are supplied with kits—a box of parts, fit-
tings and tools—for each task they perform.
This eliminates time consuming trips from
part from one machine and loading it into
the next. The lines allow different parts of a
production process to be completed by one
N
Nagara system: Nagara is smooth pro-
one parts bin, tool crib or supply center to operator, eliminating the need to move duction flow, ideally one piece at a time,
another to get the necessary material. around large batches of work in progress characterized by synchronization (balanc-
inventory. ing) of production processes and maximum

L
Lead time: The total time a customer M
use of available time; includes overlapping
of operations where practical. A nagara pro-
duction system is one in which seemingly
must wait to receive a product after placing Manufacturing resource planning unrelated tasks can be produced simultane-
an order. (MRP II): Material resource planning, plus ously by the same operator.
capacity planning and a finance interface to
Lean: Producing the maximum sellable translate operational planning into financial Nonvalue added: Activities or actions
products or services at the lowest opera- terms and into a simulation tool to assess taken that add no real value to a product or
tional cost while optimizing inventory lev- alternative production plans. service, making such activities or actions a
els. form of waste (see “value added”).
Mapping symbols or icons: An easy
Lean enterprise: A manufacturing com-
pany organized to eliminate all unproduc-
tive effort and all unnecessary investment,
and effective way to communicate the flow
of materials and information through a
plant. The symbol type doesn’t matter, as
O
One-piece flow: The opposite of batch
both on the shop floor and in office func- long as the use is consistent from map to production. Instead of building many prod-
tions. map. Mapping the flow helps identify con- ucts and then holding them in line for the
straints and potential improvement oppor- next step in the process, products go
Lean manufacturing/production: An tunities. through each step in the process one at a
initiative focused on eliminating all waste time, without interruption. It improves
in manufacturing processes. Principles of Material handling: Methods, equipment quality and lowers costs.
lean manufacturing include zero waiting and systems for conveying materials to var-
time, zero inventory, scheduling (internal ious machines and processing areas and for One-touch exchange of dies: The reduc-
customer pull instead of push system), transferring finished parts to assembly, tion of die setup to a single step (see “single -
batch to flow (cut batch sizes), line balanc- packaging and shipping areas. minute exchange of dies,” “internal setup”
ing and cutting actual process times. The and “external setup”).
production systems are characterized by Material requirements planning
optimum automation, just-in-time supplier (MRP): A computerized system typically Operating expenses: The money
delivery disciplines, quick changeover used to determine the quantity and timing required for a system to convert inventory
times, high levels of quality and continuous requirements for production and delivery into throughput.
improvement. of items to both customers and suppliers.
Using MRP to schedule production at vari- Operations: Work or steps taken to trans-
Lean migration: The journey from tradi- ous processes will result in push produc- form raw materials to finished product.
tional manufacturing methods to one in tion because any predetermined schedule is
which all forms of waste are systematically an estimate only of what the next process Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE):
eliminated. will actually need. The product of a machine’s operational
availability, performance efficiency and
Level loading: A technique for balancing Monument: Any design, scheduling or first-pass yield.

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P
3P: The production preparation process is
Pitch: The pace and flow of a product.

Point of use: A technique that ensures


Q
Queue time: The time a product spends
a tool used for designing lean manufactur- people have exactly what they need to do in a line awaiting the next design, order
ing environments. It is a highly disciplined, their jobs—the right work instructions, processing or fabrication step.
standardized model that results in the parts, tools and equipment—where and
development of an improved production when they need them. Quick changeover: The ability to change
process in which low waste levels are tooling and fixtures rapidly (usually within
achieved at low capital cost. Poka yoke: Japanese term that means minutes), so multiple products can be run
mistake proofing. A poka yoke device is one on the same machine.
Painted floor: Provides visual clues to that prevents incorrect parts from being
determine stock levels. Similar to kanban.

Parallel operation: A technique to create


made or assembled or easily identifies a flaw
or error. R
Resource activation: Using a resource
an economy of scale by having two opera- Policy deployment: The selection of goals regardless of whether throughput is
tors work together to perform tasks on and projects to achieve the goals, designa- increased (see “resource utilization”).
either side of a machine. Using this tech- tion of people and resources for project com-
nique reduces the time it takes a single pletion and establishment of project metrics Resource utilization: Using a resource in
operator to move from one side to the other, (see “hoshin kanri”). a way that increases throughput (see
making the overall process more efficient. “resource activation”).
An example of parallel operation is having Process kaizen: Improvements made at
two people work on a changeover, supple- an individual process or in a specific area. Right size: Matching tooling and equip-
menting each other’s work effort. Sometimes called point kaizen. ment to the job and space requirements of
lean production. Right sizing is a process
PDCA (plan-do-check-act) at a macro Production (analysis) board: A board at that challenges the complexity of equip-
level (for example, as in hoshin kanri): the job site on which hourly production tar- ment by examining how equipment fits into
• Plan. Senior management should use gets are recorded, along with the actual pro- an overall vision for workflow through the
the visioning process in the context of duction achieved. Details concerning factory. When possible, right sizing favors
its business plan. The business plan is problems and abnormal conditions are also smaller, dedicated machines rather than
translated into action plans that are recorded. Management checks the board large, multipurpose batch processing
meaningful to all levels of the organi- hourly, takes steps to prevent recurrence of machines.
zation. abnormalities and confirms the positive
• Do. Implementation of action plans; effects of the job site improvements that Runner: A person on the production
answers what, how and who for the have been made. This is a good example of floor who paces the entire value stream
total number of tiers in an organiza- visual management. through the pickup and delivery of materi-
tion, taking into account the fewer the als through kanban usage (see “kanban”).
number of tiers, the better. This is the Production smoothing: Keeping total
time to bring members of manage-
ment together and provide them with
a basic understanding of the action
manufacturing volume as constant as possi-
ble (see “heijunka”). S
Sanitizing: English translation of seiso,
plans. Productivity: A measurement of output one of the Japanese five S’s used for work-
• Check. On a periodic basis, review for a given amount of input. Increases in place organization. Sanitizing (also referred
the measurements of the outputs, and productivity are considered critical to raising to as shining or sweeping) is the act of
note what you’ve learned that can living standards. cleaning the work area. Dirt is often the root
help in the future. cause of premature equipment wear, safety
• Act. Make the necessary adjustments Pull system: An alternative to scheduling problems and defects.
to plans and priorities to ensure the individual processes, in which the customer
success of the strategy breakthroughs. process withdraws the items it needs from a Seiban: The name of a Japanese manage-
supermarket, and the supplying process pro- ment practice taken from the Japanese words
Physical transformation task: Taking a duces to replenish what was withdrawn. sei, which means manufacturing, and ban,
specific product from raw materials to a fin- Used to avoid push (see “supermarket” and which means number. A seiban number is
ished product delivered to the customer (see “kanban”). assigned to all parts, materials and purchase
“value stream” and “information flow”). orders associated with a particular customer

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LEAN GLOSSARY

job, project or anything else. This enables a ment in profits, employee morale and quali- Stop the line authority: Power given to
manufacturer to track everything related to a ty of products or services. Six Sigma quality workers to stop the process when abnor-
particular product, project or customer and is a term generally used to indicate a process malities occur, allowing them to prevent the
facilitates setting aside inventory for specific is well controlled (±6 s from the centerline defect or variation from being passed along.
projects or priorities. That makes it an effec- in a control chart).
tive practice for project and build to order Suboptimization: A condition in which
manufacturing. Sort: English translation of the Japanese gains made in one activity are offset by loss-
word seiri, one of the 5S’s used for work- es in another activity, or activities that are
Seven wastes: Taiichi Ohno’s original place organization. Sorting (also referred to caused by the same actions that created
enumeration of the wastes commonly found as structuring or sifting) involves organiz- gains in the first activity.
in physical production (see “eight wastes”). ing essential materials. It allows the opera-
tor to find materials when needed because Supermarket: The storage locations of
Shadow board: A visual management they are in the correct location. parts before they go on to the next opera-
tool painted to indicate what tool belongs tion. Supermarkets are managed by prede-
where and what tools are missing. Standard in-process stock: One of the termined maximum and minimum
three elements that make up standard inventory levels. Each item in the plant is at
Sifting: English translation of Japanese work. It is the minimum quantity of parts a designated location.
seiri, one of the 5S’s used for workplace always on hand for processing during and
organization. Sifting involves screening between subprocesses. It allows workers to Sustain: The English translation of shit-
through unnecessary materials and simpli- do their job continuously in a set sequence, suke, one of the 5S’s used for workplace
fying the work environment. Sifting is sepa- repeating the same operation over and over organization. Sustaining (also referred to as
rating the essential from the nonessential. in the same order (see “standard work”). self-disciplining) is the continuation of sort-
ing, setting in order and sanitizing. It is the
Simulation: A 3-D technique used to Standard work: A precise description of most important and the most difficult
balance a line. It involves using cardboard, each work activity specifying cycle time, because it addresses the need to perform
wood and plastic foam to create full-sized takt time, the work sequence of specific the 5S’s on an ongoing and systematic basis.
equipment mock-ups that can be easily tasks and the minimum inventory of parts
moved around to obtain an optimum lay- on hand needed to conduct the activity. All System kaizen: Improvement aimed at
out. jobs are organized around human motion to an entire value stream.
create an efficient sequence without waste.
Single-minute exchange of dies: A
series of techniques pioneered by Shigeo
Shingo for changeovers of production
Work organized in such a way is called
standard(ized) work (see “takt time,”
“working sequence” and “standard in-
T
Takt time: The rate of customer demand,
machinery in less than 10 minutes. process stock,” which are the three elements takt time is calculated by dividing produc-
Obviously, the long-term objective is always that make up standard work). tion time by the quantity of product the cus-
zero setup, in which changeovers are tomer requires in that time. Takt, the
instantaneous and do not interfere in any Standard work instructions: A lean heartbeat of a lean manufacturing system, is
way with continuous flow. Setup in a single manufacturing tool that enables operators an acronym for a Russian phrase.
minute is not required, but used as a refer- to observe the production process with an
ence (see “one-touch exchange of dies,” understanding of how assembly tasks are to Theory of constraints (TOC): Also called
“internal setup” and “external setup”). be performed. It ensures the quality level is constraints management, TOC is a lean
understood and serves as an excellent train- management philosophy that stresses
Single-piece flow: A process in which ing aid, enabling replacement or temporary removal of constraints to increase through-
products proceed, one complete product at a individuals to easily adapt and perform the put while decreasing inventory and operat-
time, through various operations in design, assembly operation. ing expenses. TOC’s set of tools examine the
order taking and production without inter- entire system for continuous improvement.
ruptions, backflows or scrap. Standardization: When policies and The current reality tree, conflict resolution
common procedures are used to manage diagram, future reality tree, prerequisite tree
Six Sigma: A methodology that provides processes throughout the system. Also, and transition tree are the five tools used in
organizations tools to improve the capability English translation of the Japanese word TOC’s ongoing improvement process.
of their business processes. This increase in seiketsu, one of the Japanese 5S’s used for
performance and decrease in process varia- workplace organization (see “five S’s”). Throughput: The rate the system gener-
tion lead to defect reduction and improve- ates money through sales, or the conversion

46 I JUNE 2005 I www.asq.org


rate of inventory into shipped product. departmental and functional boundaries. “andon board,” “kanban,” “production
board,” “painted floor” and “shadow
Total productive maintenance: A series Value stream mapping: A pencil and board”).
of methods to ensure every machine in a paper tool used in two stages:
production process is always able to per- 1. Follow a product’s production path
form its required tasks. The result is pro-
duction is never interrupted due to
from beginning to end, and draw a
visual representation of every process
WWaste: Any activity that consumes
machine breakdowns. in the material and information flows. resources and produces no added value to
2. Then draw a future state map of how the product or service a customer receives;
Toyota production system (TPS): The value should flow. The most impor- called muda in Japanese.
production system developed by Toyota tant map is the future state map.
Motor Corp. to provide best quality, lowest Work in process: Items between
cost and shortest lead time through the Visual controls: Any devices that help machines or equipment waiting to be
elimination of waste. TPS is based on two operators quickly and accurately gauge pro- processed.
pillars: just-in-time and jidohka. TPS is main- duction status at a glance. Progress indica-
tained and improved through iterations of tors and problem indicators help assemblers Working sequence: One of the three ele-
standardized work and kaizen (see “jidohka” see when production is ahead, behind or on ments of standard work refers to the
“just-in-time” and “kaizen”). schedule. They allow everyone to instantly sequence of operations in a single process
see the group’s performance and increase that leads a floor worker to produce quality

V
Value added: Activities that transform
the sense of ownership in the area (see goods in the most efficient way.

input into a customer usable output. The


customer can be internal or external to the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS agement certificate at Rutgers University
organization. The authors thank Brian Buckberry and and is a member of ASQ.
George Alukal for their contributions to
Value analysis: Analyzing the value the creation of this glossary. JAMES J. ROONEY is a senior risk and
stream to identify value added and nonval- reliability engineer with ABSG Consulting
ue added activities. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Inc.’s operational risk and performance con-
Imai, Masaki, Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s sulting division in Knoxville, TN. He
Value engineering: The process of ana-
Competitive Success, McGraw-Hill/ earned a master’s degree in nuclear engi-
lyzing the components and process that cre-
Irwin, 1986. neering from the University of Tennessee,
ate a product, with an emphasis on
Ishikawa, Kaoru, Guide to Quality Control,
minimizing costs while maintaining stan- Knoxville. Rooney is a Fellow of ASQ and
dards required by the customer. second revised edition, Asian Produc-
an ASQ certified quality auditor, quality
tivity Press, 1986.
auditor-hazard analysis and critical control
Value stream: All activities, both value Ohno, Taiichi, Toyota Production System:
added and nonvalue added, required to Beyond Large-Scale Production, Produc-
points, quality engineer, quality improve-
bring a product from raw material state into tivity Press Inc., 1988. ment associate, quality manager and relia-
the hands of the customer, a customer Schutta, James T., Business Performance bility engineer.
requirement from order to delivery and a Through Lean Six Sigma: Linking the
design from concept to launch. Knowledge Worker, the Twelve Pillars and
Baldridge, ASQ Quality Press, 2005.
Value stream loops: Segments of a value
Shingo, Shigeo, A Revolution in Manufac-
Please
stream with boundaries broken into loops comment
turing: The SMED System, Productivity
as a way to divide future state implementa-
tion into manageable pieces. Press Inc., 1985. If you would like to comment on
this article, please post your
Value stream manager: The person remarks on the Quality Progress
STEPHEN A. ROONEY is a quality manag-
responsible for creating a future state map Discussion Board at www.asq.org,
er with Battelle’s energetic systems and
and leading door-to-door implementation or e-mail them to editor@asq.org.
of the future state for a particular product security technologies division in Atlantic
family; makes change happen across City, NJ. He has completed a process man-

QUALITY PROGRESS I JUNE 2005 I 47