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2002 Redistricting &

The Downsizing of the Legislature:


An Analysis

By Tomás Alberto Avila


Policy Analyst

Center for Hispanic Policy & Advocacy (CHisPA)


2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 2 Tomás Alberto Avila
2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 3 Tomás Alberto Avila
Introduction
The Latino community is presently caught in the middle of deciding whether to invest it's efforts
and resources in the vigilance of a fair and accurate reapportionment and the battle of repealing
the downsizing legislature approved by the voters and ratify by the House in 1994.

As part of my research, I've read through many different documents provided by the different
organizations and other publications to get a sense of what benefits each proposed agenda will
bring to the Latino community. What continues is my report, based on my research and analysis
of available information

As the 20th century draws to and end, and we prepare to welcome a new millennium and look
forward to the 2000 census, battle lines are already forming on how the RI political map will be
redrawn in 2002. This battle is brewing in the General Assembly over how to conduct legislative
reapportionment the politically explosive issue of drawing a new political map to reflect Rhode
Island's population changes over the decade of the 90's as well as in community organizations.

Adding ammunition to this battle is the upcoming down sizing of the Legislature from 150-
member body to 113 approved by the voter in 1994 by a margin of 51.8%. This schedule
downsizing is fuelling a lot of concern, from a variety quarters, over the impending size
reduction for the Rhode Island General Assembly. This concept was flawed from the start, and
now people are starting to realize that it would make the legislature less responsive to the people
of Rhode Island.

Redistricting
Every ten years, following the census, the nation's political map undergoes an upheaval as
political jurisdictions at the local; state and federal levels change district lines to comply with the
constitutional requirement for equal representation.

At the federal level, the process of reapportionment is intended to ensure that each state has the
number of U.S. Representatives proportionate to its population. The subsequent process of
redistricting is intended to ensure that each congressional district in a state has exactly the same
population as all other districts in that state. Similarly, state legislative districts are redrawn every
ten years to reflect population changes, as are local district lines.

Next year, after the 2000 census, the reapportionment of the House of Representatives will be
determined by a complicated mathematical formula (called the "method of equal proportions"),
set by a 1941 federal law, that allocates the proper number of congressional seats to each state.
Then state legislators who will be redistricting their own seats at the state level will undertake the
process of redistricting the actual drawing of congressional district boundaries .

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 4 Tomás Alberto Avila


Because the redistricting process affects the political life and death of politicians, it has always
been, and remains, an intensely political and partisan struggle. Incumbents of both political
parties strive to have district lines drawn so that their reelection prospects are enhanced as much
as possible. Where one party in a state is dominant and controls the drawing the lines, it
inevitably strives to draw lines that favor its candidates.

The process of redistricting is extremely powerful. By packing or splitting concentrations of


voters, those who draw district lines can often effectively eliminate competitive elections in a
given district for a decade, by ensuring for all practical purposes that the candidates of one party
or the other will prevail in that district, essentially without regard to who those candidates are.

The extremely partisan nature of the redistricting process, and the deeply-rooted reluctance of
legislators to open up the process to reform, present formidable challenges to those interested in
establishing a more fair and open process for redistricting, as well as more competitive elections.

According to information analyzed, the city of Providence has lost 2 House seats in the General
Assembly during the 1980 and 1990 decennial census due to population lost to migration to
suburbia. Census officials have announced that RI's population continues to decline since the
1990 census, reaching dip of 1.6 from the 1,003,464 in the previous census. At stake will be an
uncertain but reapportionment of the General Assembly in 20002, causing more lost seats for the
city of Providence. If the census officials predictions hold true in the decennial census result, it
can cause a domino shift of House districts in the city of Providence similar to the one of 1992,
when 2 seats were lost causing the following results.

Democratic Representative T. Elaine Bucci of Providence was placed in the same district with
Representative Thomas Rossi, D-Providence

Edward W. Dodd of Warwick was placed in the same district with Representative George
Zainyeh

Providence Representative Peter N. Waslyk and Alfred W. Cardente were placed in the same
district.

East Providence Representative William H. Greene was placed in the same district with
Representative Thomas E. Hodge of Pawtucket which was a newly created district.

Cumberland Representative Donald Large and Francis A. Gaschen were paired in a new district.

East providence Senators James P. McStay and James F. Correia were placed in a new district
and faced each other in the primaries.

Senators John A, Sabatini of Pawtucket and William V. Irons of East Providence were place in a
new district that had 70% of its population in Pawtucket wards 2 & 3 and the other 30% in
Rumford East providence.

The commission plan also created 3 new House Districts in western and southern parts of Rhode

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 5 Tomás Alberto Avila


Island. Meanwhile Providence Pawtucket and Warwick each lost a seat to accommodate the
population changes.

Shifting a district from East Providence to western Rhode Island created one new Senate district.

During the 92 reapportionment, the commission proposed a shift of two South Providence
districts into parts of Cranston that were challenged by the minority community. The proposal
was opposed by the incumbent legislators Senator Robert Kells, D, District 10 and Rep. Jeremiah
P' Murphy, D, District 17 who argue that the proposed shift would hurt minority voting interests
and didn't think there was a need to dilute the voting strength of the minority groups they
represent.

According to official electorate reports, district 10 contain the highest minority concentration in
the state as follow: 35% Hispanic, 25% African American and 11% Asian. The legislatures were
backed by the Rhode Island Minority Redistricting Committee strongly opposing the diluting of
the minority voting strength in existing minority districts.

The downsizing of the Legislature


A Blue Ribbon Commission on the General Assembly appointed in September 1992 by then
Speaker of the House, Representative Joseph DeAngelis, and then Senate Majority Leader,
Senator John J. Bevilacqua, recommended the downsizing of the Legislature. The commission
was charged with developing a broad blue print for the General Assembly in the 21st Century.
The commission's efforts are part of a process, which has resulted in four-year terms for the
State’s general officers, and the adoption of comprehensive campaign finance reform and ethic
reforms legislation.

The Commission began its work by laying out its vision of the General Assembly in the 21st
Century.

In the 21st Century, the General Assembly plays an active, creative and independent
leadership role in state government it is accessible to qualified candidates and provides
appropriate compensation and staff support for its members. Its structure and procedures
help legislators speak and act for their constituents and it successfully reflects and
embodies the kind of government the people of Rhode Island want for their State.

Based on this Vision Statement, the Commission adopted a Work Plan, which focused on the
following questions:

 Does Rhode Island need a more effective legislature? Can the General Assembly
be more effective 'and remain a citizens"' legislature?

 What changes, if any, should be made in the size of the General Assembly?
Should the terms for legislators be longer? Should there be term limits?

 What resources does an individual legislator need to be effective?


2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 6 Tomás Alberto Avila
 How should legislators be compensated?

 How can the lawmaking 'and oversight process be strengthened?

 Is information about the activities of the General Assembly readily available to


the public?

As part of its Work Plan, the Commission held five televised public hearings and distributed a
questionnaire to members and former members of the General Assembly. Briefing papers were
developed by Commission staff on certain key issues. After extensive meetings, all of which
were posted and open to the public, the initial findings and recommendations of the Commission
were incorporated in a draft report. This draft report was released for public comment on August
1, 1993. A public hearing on the draft was held in October. Subsequent to that hearing the
Commission met to formulate its final recommendations. This report reflects those
recommendations. Taken together they constitute the Commission's blueprint for the General
Assembly in the 21st Century1.

A can be seen from the redistricting experience, the Latino and minority communities have a lot
at stake when it comes times for redistricting. In my opinion this experience show us that if the
legislature is down size as planned in 2002, the minority communities voting power risk being
diluted and setting back their ability to elect their own legislators.

Providence minority population has exploded since 1980, up from 18% of the city to nearly 40%,
but even with this overwhelming growth its Senate delegation remains disproportionately white.
The current redistricting maps of Providence has three minority districts, with majorities of
Latino, Black, and Asians. Except for Senator Charles Walton the incumbents in the other two
districts are white.

Conclusion
All the talk that fewer districts will bring increased competition to legislative seats fails to take
into account that a challenger will have an extremely more difficult time prevailing against an
incumbent who represents a larger constituency. These new larger districts will make it much
harder for a challenger to meet enough voters in a short period of time, while an incumbent has
been interacting with these very voters throughout his/her term or terms of office. As most
people in Rhode Island know, a challenger in our state who cannot meet enough voters in person
before the election cannot expect to present much of a challenge.

A larger district means more voters to reach than before, and this translates into more money that
a candidate will have to spend. This will result in a number of undesirables: the candidate pool
may consist of wealthy individuals who can fund their own campaigns; candidates may have to
seek more and more money from special interests; people in the middle and working classes will

1
The General Assembly In RI, A Blue Print for the 21st Century

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 7 Tomás Alberto Avila


simply be unable to compete realistically. The days of running a grassroots campaign will be
gone, and we will have an Assembly that will be less representative of and less responsive to the
residents of our state.

That the Assembly size issue was presented to the voters in 1994 does not preclude the voters
from having a chance to revisit this matter. The voters of the state of Rhode Island need to revisit
the issue of Assembly downsizing.

Finally an emotionally charged debate in south Florida is offering a preview of what could
become a flood of litigation over efforts to redraw congressional and other voting districts across
the United States.

At issue is the extent to which officials may rely on racial criteria to draw new districts after the
all-important 2000 Census. The issue has been the subject of several US Supreme Court
decisions in the 1990s, but the legal standards remain murky. Thus the outcome here could have
a direct impact on minority participation and representation in government - and eventually help
shape the direction of democracy in America.

Depending on who wins the legal challenges, African-Americans and Hispanics across the
country could find themselves losing voices in Congress and state legislatures. On the other side
in this case are some white voters who feel disenfranchised because they live in neighborhoods
included in strangely shaped districts designed to elect minority candidates. At the heart of the
debate: Whether it is appropriate to use racial gerrymandering to compensate for generations of
racial discrimination and segregation.

Based on all the information researched for this report, it’s my conclusion that CHisPA should
not involved itself in divisive decision making regarding a particular organization, but instead it
should become the voice of the Latino community in the redistricting process and try to
influence the voters of the state of Rhode Island need to revisit the issue of Assembly
downsizing.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 8 Tomás Alberto Avila


In 1994, the voters in the City of Cranston decided to reduce the membership of the school
board, increasing the size of districts. Just four years later, the very same voters reversed their
decision and restored the districts to their original size. No one in Cranston complained about
revisiting this issue. Perhaps the voters in Cranston felt they were correcting a mistake.

As can be seen through this report, even without the inclusion of downsizing of the legislature,
the minority communities face a monumentous challenge after the 2000 census and therefore
The Latino community should start developing it’s on agenda for the upcoming redistricting of
2002 that is base on the benefits for the Latino community, rather than preconceived agendas by
other organizations based on their own interest.

This conclusion is based on the benefits and dangers presented in future negotiations in the
reapportionment proceedings that will start in 20001 that will require the coalesce of minority
communities with other organizations across the state and therefore the organization should not
engaged itself in partisan redistricting and downsizing politics.

No ethnic group has a larger stake in the path our state legislature chooses between now and the
year 2000 than Latinos. Latinos comprise more than 6 percent of this state, including almost 46
percent of the school age population. It is the youngest and fastest growing minority. Since 1990,
Latinos represent the largest minority group in Rhode Island, and within 50 years 20 percent of
the entire population will be Latino. As citizens with a substantial role and stake in the future of
this state, we, Latinos of the state of Rhode Island should take the responsibility of our future in
our own hands.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 9 Tomás Alberto Avila


Appendix A

99 -- H 5441
=======
LC01333
=======
STATEOFRHODEISLAND
IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY
JANUARY SESSION, A.D. 1999
____________
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR
REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

Introduced By: Representatives Carpenter, Moura, Lopes, Palangio and Almeida


Date Introduced : January 28, 1999
Referred To: Committee on Judiciary

RESOLVED, That a special legislative commission be and the same is hereby created consisting
of seventeen (17) members: five (5) of whom shall be from the House of Representatives, not
more than three (3) from the same political party to be appointed by the Speaker; five (5) of
whom shall be from the Senate, not more than three (3) from the same political party, to be
appointed by the (Majority Leader); seven (7) of whom shall be representatives of the following
organizations whose work includes fair representatation of whom one (1) shall be a
representative from each of the following organizations: Urban League of Rhode Island;
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Providence Chapter; National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Newport Chapter; Council for Hispanic
Policy and Advocacy; Progresso Latino; League of Women Voters of Rhode Island; Common
Cause of Rhode Island, each to be appointed by the president or executive officer of said
organization.

In lieu of any appointment of a member of the legislature to a permanent advisory commission, a


legislative study commission, or any commission created by a general assembly resolution, the
appointing authority may appoint a member of the general public to serve in lieu of a legislator,
provided that the majority leader or the minority leader of the political party which is entitled to
the appointment consents to the appointment of the member of the general public.

The purpose of said commission shall be to study questions related to reapportionment in the
light of recent court rulings that may effect the redistricting that will follow the census to be

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 10 Tomás Alberto Avila


conducted in the year 2000 and the representation of persons of color in the General Assembly
and in Congress.
Forthwith upon passage of this resolution, the members of the commission shall meet at the call
of the speaker of the house and organize and shall select from among the legislators a
chairperson. Vacancies in said commission shall be filled in like manner as the original
appointment.

The membership of said commission shall receive no compensation for their services.
All departments and agencies of the state shall furnish such advice and information, documentary
and otherwise, to said commission and its agents as is deemed necessary or desirable by the
commission to facilitate the purposes of this resolution.

The Speaker of the House is hereby authorized and directed to provide suitable quarters for said
commission: and be it further
RESOLVED, That the commission shall report its findings and recommendations to the general
assembly on or before January 20, 2000 and said commission shall expire on January 1, 2001.
=======
LC01333
=======
EXPLANATION
BY THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
OF
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR
REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

***
This resolution creates a seventeen (17) member special legislative commission whose purpose it
shall be to study fair reapportionment in the State of Rhode Island and who shall report back to
the legislature no later than January 20, 2000 and whose life shall expire on January 1, 2001

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 11 Tomás Alberto Avila


99 -- H 5441 AS AMENDED
=======
LC01333
=======
STATEOFRHODEISLAND
IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY
JANUARY SESSION, A.D. 1999
____________
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR
REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

Introduced By: Representatives Carpenter, Moura, Lopes, Palangio and Almeida


Date Introduced : January 28, 1999
Referred To: Committee on Judiciary

RESOLVED, That a special legislative commission be and the same is hereby created consisting
of {DEL seventeen (17) DEL} {ADD nineteen (19) ADD} members: five (5) of whom shall be
from the House of Representatives, not more than three (3) from the same political party to be
appointed by the Speaker; five (5) of whom shall be from the Senate, not more than three (3)
from the same political party, to be appointed by the (Majority Leader); seven (7) of whom shall
be representatives of the following organizations whose work includes fair representatation of
whom one (1) shall be a representative from each of the following organizations: Urban League
of Rhode Island; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Providence
Chapter; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Newport Chapter;
Council for Hispanic Policy and Advocacy; Progresso Latino; League of Women Voters of
Rhode Island; Common Cause of Rhode Island, {ADD Rhode Island AFL/CIOADD} each to be
appointed by the president or executive officer of said organization {ADD and one of whom
shall be a member of the business community to be appointed by the speaker ADD}.

In lieu of any appointment of a member of the legislature to a permanent advisory commission, a


legislative study commission, or any commission created by a general assembly resolution, the
appointing authority may appoint a member of the general public to serve in lieu of a legislator,
provided that the majority leader or the minority leader of the political party which is entitled to
the appointment consents to the appointment of the member of the general public.

The purpose of said commission shall be to study questions related to reapportionment in the
light of recent court rulings that may effect the redistricting that will follow the census to be
conducted in the year 2000 and the representation of persons of color in the General Assembly
and in Congress.
2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 12 Tomás Alberto Avila
Forthwith upon passage of this resolution, the members of the commission shall meet at the call
of the speaker of the house and organize and shall select from among the legislators a
chairperson. Vacancies in said commission shall be filled in like manner as the original
appointment.

The membership of said commission shall receive no compensation for their services.
All departments and agencies of the state shall furnish such advice and information, documentary
and otherwise, to said commission and its agents as is deemed necessary or desirable by the
commission to facilitate the purposes of this resolution.

The Speaker of the House is hereby authorized and directed to provide suitable quarters for said
commission: and be it further
RESOLVED, That the commission shall report its findings and recommendations to the general
assembly on or before January 20, 2000 and said commission shall expire on January 1, 2001.
=======
LC01333
=======
EXPLANATION
BY THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
OF
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR
REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

***
This resolution creates a seventeen (17) member special legislative commission whose purpose it
shall be to study fair reapportionment in the State of Rhode Island and who shall report back to
the legislature no later than January 20, 2000 and whose life shall expire on January 1, 2001

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 13 Tomás Alberto Avila


H 5441
99 -- H 5441
=======
LC01333
=======

S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY JANUARY SESSION,


A.D. 1999
____________
J O I N T R E S O L U T I O N CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON
FAIR REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

Introduced By: Representatives Carpenter, Moura, Lopes, Palangio and Almeida


Date Introduced : January 28, 1999
Referred To: Committee on Judiciary

RESOLVED, That a special legislative commission be and the same is hereby created consisting
of seventeen (17) members: five (5) of whom shall be from the House of Representatives, not
more than three (3) from the same political party to be appointed by the Speaker; five (5) of
whom shall be from the Senate, not more than three (3) from the same political party, to be
appointed by the (Majority Leader); seven (7) of whom shall be representatives of the following
organizations whose work includes fair representatation of whom one (1) shall be a
representative from each of the following organizations: Urban League of Rhode Island;
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Providence Chapter; National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Newport Chapter; Council for Hispanic
Policy and Advocacy; Progresso Latino; League of Women Voters of Rhode Island; Common
Cause of Rhode Island, each to be appointed by the president or executive officer of said
organization.

In lieu of any appointment of a member of the legislature to a permanent advisory commission, a


legislative study commission, or any commission created by a general assembly resolution, the
appointing authority may appoint a member of the general public to serve in lieu of a legislator,
provided that the majority leader or the minority leader of the political party which is entitled to
the appointment consents to the appointment of the member of the general public.

The purpose of said commission shall be to study questions related to reapportionment in the
light of recent court rulings that may effect the << redistricting>> that will follow the census to
be conducted in the year 2000 and the representation of persons of color in the General
Assembly and in Congress.

Forthwith upon passage of this resolution, the members of the commission shall meet at the call
of the speaker of the house and organize and shall select from among the legislators a
chairperson. Vacancies in said commission shall be filled in like manner as the original
appointment.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 14 Tomás Alberto Avila


The membership of said commission shall receive no compensation for their services.
All departments and agencies of the state shall furnish such advice and information, documentary
and otherwise, to said commission and its agents as is deemed necessary or desirable by the
commission to facilitate the purposes of this resolution.

The Speaker of the House is hereby authorized and directed to provide suitable quarters for said
commission: and be it further
RESOLVED, That the commission shall report its findings and recommendations to the general
assembly on or before January 20, 2000 and said commission shall expire on January 1, 2001.

=======
LC01333
=======
EXPLANATION
BY THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
OF
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR REAPPORTIONMENT
IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

***

This resolution creates a seventeen (17) member special legislative commission whose purpose it
shall be to study fair reapportionment in the State of Rhode Island and who shall report back to
the legislature no later than January 20, 2000 and whose life shall expire on January 1, 2001

As always, your comments concerning this page are welcomed and appreciated.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 15 Tomás Alberto Avila


H 5441 AS_AMENDED
99 -- H 5441 AS AMENDED
=======
LC01333
=======

S T A T E O F R H O D E I S L A N D IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY JANUARY SESSION,


A.D. 1999 ____________
J O I N T R E S O L U T I O N CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON
FAIR REAPPORTIONMENT IN THE

STATE OF RHODE ISLAND


Introduced By: Representatives Carpenter, Moura, Lopes, Palangio and Almeida

Date Introduced : January 28, 1999


Referred To: Committee on Judiciary

RESOLVED, That a special legislative commission be and the same is hereby created consisting
of {DEL seventeen (17) DEL} {ADD nineteen (19) ADD} members: five (5) of whom shall be
from the House of Representatives, not more than three (3) from the same political party to be
appointed by the Speaker; five (5) of whom shall be from the Senate, not more than three (3)
from the same political party, to be appointed by the (Majority Leader); seven (7) of whom shall
be representatives of the following organizations whose work includes fair representation of
whom one (1) shall be a representative from each of the following organizations: Urban League
of Rhode Island; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Providence
Chapter; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Newport Chapter;
Council for Hispanic Policy and Advocacy; Progresso Latino; League of Women Voters of
Rhode Island; Common Cause of Rhode Island, {ADD Rhode Island AFL/CIOADD} each to be
appointed by the president or executive officer of said organization {ADD and one of whom
shall be a member of the business community to be appointed by the speaker ADD}.

In lieu of any appointment of a member of the legislature to a permanent advisory commission, a


legislative study commission, or any commission created by a general assembly resolution, the
appointing authority may appoint a member of the general public to serve in lieu of a legislator,
provided that the majority leader or the minority leader of the political party which is entitled to
the appointment consents to the appointment of the member of the general public.

The purpose of said commission shall be to study questions related to reapportionment in the
light of recent court rulings that may effect the << redistricting>> that will follow the census to
be conducted in the year 2000 and the representation of persons of color in the General
Assembly and in Congress.

Forthwith upon passage of this resolution, the members of the commission shall meet at the call
of the speaker of the house and organize and shall select from among the legislators a
2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 16 Tomás Alberto Avila
chairperson. Vacancies in said commission shall be filled in like manner as the original
appointment.

The membership of said commission shall receive no compensation for their services.
All departments and agencies of the state shall furnish such advice and information, documentary
and otherwise, to said commission and its agents as is deemed necessary or desirable by the
commission to facilitate the purposes of this resolution.

The Speaker of the House is hereby authorized and directed to provide suitable quarters for said
commission: and be it further

RESOLVED, That the commission shall report its findings and recommendations to the general
assembly on or before January 20, 2000 and said commission shall expire on January 1, 2001.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 17 Tomás Alberto Avila


=======
LC01333
=======
EXPLANATION
BY THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
OF
JOINTRESOLUTION
CREATING A SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION ON FAIR REAPPORTIONMENT
IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND

***

This resolution creates a seventeen (17) member special legislative commission whose purpose it
shall be to study fair reapportionment in the State of Rhode Island and who shall report back to
the legislature no later than January 20, 2000 and whose life shall expire on January 1, 2001

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 18 Tomás Alberto Avila


Sources
Blue Ribbon Commission on the General Assembly The Assembly in Rhode Island: A Blue
Print for the 21st Century, December 1993.

Carpenter, Moura, Lopes, Palangio and Almeida State of Rhode Island In General
Assembly January Session, A.D. 1999 Joint Resolution: Creating A Special Legislative
Commission On Fair Reapportionment In The State Of Rhode Island.

Center for Voting & Democracy, The Mapmakers and Competitiveness: Analyzing the 1991-
1992 Round of Redistricting, January 1995.

Common Cause of Rhode Island Common Cause Involvement in the Year 2000 Redistricting
Process, June 1999

Federal Supplement, Janathan K. Farnum vs Robert Burns, United States District Court, D.
Rhode Island, February 11, 1983

Ocean State Action Democracy Counts: The Facts about The Downsizing of The General
Assembly, November 1999

Providence American, November 25, 1999 Voters should revisit assembly size reduction.

Providence Journal, April 1, 1991 Lawmakers Start Work on Touchy Subject: Reapportionment
has a history of deceit, costs to taxpayers.

Providence Journal, May 23, 1991 Battle Lines Form on How to Redraw RI Political Map

RI Advisory Committee to US Commission on Civil Rights, Redistricting in RI: It's Problems,


Practice and Promise, September 1986

Westerly Sun, June 6, 1991 Redistricting Deal Favors Democrats

Westerly Sun, June 6, 1991 Our Opinion: Cheating in RI, When the players stack the deck.

Providence RI Bulletin, July 3, 1991 DC Firm hired to aid General Assembly in


reapportionment.

Providence Journal, July 8, 1991 Annals of Self Preservation

Providence Journal, December 19, 1991 City May Loose A Seat in RI House

Providence Journal, December 18, 1991 redistricting commission overspending its budget.

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 19 Tomás Alberto Avila


Providence Journal, January 1, 1992 Panel will seek opinion of public on controversial new
districts.

North Kingston Standard Time, January 10, 1992 North Kingston throes of redistricting flap.

Providence Journal, January 9, 1992 Consensus absent at redistricting hearing

Providence Journal, January 10, 1992 Panel will seek opinion of public on controversial new
districts.

Providence Journal, January 20, 1992 Hearing Planned on legislative redistricting.

Providence Journal, January 23, 1992 Officials, other residents decry redistricting plan as
diluting voting power.

Providence Journal, January 17, 1992 Complex plans for redistricting outlined at hearing.

Providence Journal, January 17, 1992 DeAngelis draws the line: Speaker helps revise district to
regain edge.

Providence Journal, February 3, 1992 2 Likely departures aid redistricting plan

Providence Journal, March 11, 1992 Party leaders denounce plan for redistricting state
legislature: Local chairman South Kingston gets awful deal.

Providence Journal, March 30, 1992 Two Senators may sue over redistricting.

Providence Journal, April 5, 1992Minority concerns cited in delay on redistricting plan

Providence Journal, April 19, 1992 redistricting delays anger GOP chairman.

Providence Journal, April 30, 1999 House Oks Assembly redistricting proposal

Providence Journal, May 15, 1992 Senate approves new voting districts: Measure may face court
challenge by minority groups.

Providence Neighborhood Fact book, The Providence Plan, Providence RI March, 1999

The Miami Herald, Thursday, November 18, 1999, Davie redistricting plans delayed: A case of
dueling data may prevent Davie's voting districts from changing before the town's March 14,
2000 elections.

The Miami Herald, Friday, August 20, 1999, Congressional redistricting in court's hands

The Miami Herald Thursday, August 19, 1999, Redrawn districts lose state support

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 20 Tomás Alberto Avila


The Christian Science Monitor, September 9, 1999 A test of race based voter district: A Florida
case will be the next barometer of how far states can go in drawing times to elect minority
lawmakers.

US Census Bureau, www.census.org

2002 Redistricting & Downsizing 21 Tomás Alberto Avila