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# EXPERIMENT I: INTRODUCTION TO OP-AMPS

OBJECTIVE

## To observe several typical applications of the 741 op amp

To gain experience with it and to discover some of the basic limitations of op-amps.

EXPERIMENT MATERIALS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Oscilloscope
DC power supply
Resistors (4 x 100k, 2 x 10k, 2 x 1k, 1 x 100)
LM741 type OP-AMP
Capacitor (0.1F)
Function generator

THEORY
The operational amplifier (op amp) is a device connected t dc power supplies, +Vcc and Vcc and
having two input terminals, a non-inverting and inverting terminal, generally labelled +v and v,
respectively. The op amp is grounded from the outside. Having A as the open loop gain, the output
voltage Vo depends on Vd = V+ - V- i.e Vo = Avd.

## Fig 1: Ideal Operational Amplifier

An ideal operational amplifier has infinite open loop gain, infinite input impedance, zero output
impedance, infinite bandwidth, zero offset and zero drift with temperature change. These properties
allow it to amplify input signals with no noise and infinite gain. Practical op amps, however, differ
from the ideal ones in terms of:
I.
Voltage gain
VII.
Bandwidth
II.
Input impedance
VIII.
Output impedance
III.
Input current requirement
IX.
Output current capability
IV.
Slew-rate limiting frequency
X.
V.
Maximum output voltage swing
XI.
Power supply rejection ratio
VI.
Maximum input voltage swing

The difference comes about because practical op amps have several characteristic imperfections.
These include finite gain, finite input resistance and nonzero output resistance. They also include
input bias current, which is a small amount of current that flows into the inputs. This current is
mismatched slightly between the inverting and non-inverting inputs (there is an input offset
current), which generally only affects very low power circuits.
Another characteristics that make practical op amps different from ideal ones are the input offset
voltage, which is the voltage required across the op-amp's input terminals to drive the output
voltage to zero. In the ideal amplifier, there would be no input offset voltage. However, it exists in
actual op-amps because of imperfections in the differential amplifier that constitutes the input stage
of these devices. Input offset voltage creates two problems: First, due to the amplifier's high voltage
gain, it virtually assures that the amplifier output will go into saturation if it is operated without
negative feedback, even when the input terminals are wired together. The second problem created
is that in a closed loop, negative feedback configuration, the input offset voltage is amplified along
with the signal and this may pose a problem if high precision DC amplification is required or if the
input signal is very small as in the experiment.
The other imperfections are common mode gain, a measure of which is the Common Mode
Rejection Ratio (CMRR) as well as temperature drift, which is particularly important a the input
offset voltage level of the circuit.
Operational amplifiers can be inverting or non-inverting. Inverting circuits have the signal input
connected through R1 to the inverting terminal of the op amp and the output terminal connected
back through a feedback resistor R2 to the inverting terminal. The non-inverting terminal of the op
amp is grounded. The gain of non-inverting op amps is negative and is determined by the choice of
resistors only.
Non inverting circuits have the input signal entering at the non-inverting terminal of the op amp
while the inverting terminal is connected to the output through R2 and also to the ground through
R1. The gain of this type of op amp is positive and greater than or equal to one. The input resistance
of the circuit is infinite as the op amp draws no current.
Summing amplifier

1
1

2
2

So, for R1 = R2 = Rf ,
0 = (1 + 2 )
Fig 2: Summing Amplifier

The weighted sum of several voltages in a circuit can be obtained as shown above.
This circuit, called a summing circuit, is an extension of the inverting circuit. It sums the two input
signals and produces the result at the output.

Difference amplifier

2
+
=0
3
4
1 0
:
+
=0
1
2
And =
So, for 1 = 3 2 = 4 ,
2 (1 + 2 )
0 =
1 (1 + 2 )

And 0 = (2 ) (2 1 )
:

## Fig 3: Difference amplifier

For this application of the op amp, two signals are applied to both inputs. The basic operation is the
amplification of the difference between the two input signals. An ideal difference amplifier would
give zero output for identical signals applied at the two inputs.
Integrating amplifier
The output of this circuit is the integral of the input.

1
0
=

So 0 =

## Fig 4: Integrating Amplifier

This shows that if the input to the integrating amplifier is a sine function then the output will be a
negative cosine function.
Differentiating amplifier
The output of this circuit is the derivative of the input signal.

0
=

0 =

## Fig 5: Differentiating Amplifier

The above expression is an indication that if the input is sine function, the output will be an inverted
cosine function.

PROCEDURE: PART A
PART 1: SUMMING AMPLIFIER
The circuit was connected with Rf = 100 and R1 = R2 = R3 = 100k. Vcc was set to 10V and a 100Hz
sinusoidal waveform was applied as the input that had a peak to peak magnitude of 2V. We
measured the gain of the circuit and used both channels of the scope to verify that the amplifier was
actually summing the input signal before recording our results and drawing input and output
waveforms.

## PART 2: DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER

Our component values for the difference amplifier were R1 = 1k and R2 = 10k for the resistances.
With Vcc set to 10V, a 100Hz sinusoidal waveform with 2V peak to peak magnitude was applied as
the input. The gain of the circuit was measured and both channels of the scope were used to verify
that the output was a function of the difference of the input signals applied. Input and output
waveforms were also drawn.

## PART 3: INTEGRATOR CIRCUIT

An integrator circuit was constructed with Rin = 10k, Rf = 100k, C = 0.1F. Vcc was set to 10V and
a 100Hz square waveform was applied. This waveform had a peak to peak magnitude of 2V. We used
both channels of the scope to verify that the input was being integrated and finished this section of
the experiment by sketching our input and output waveforms.

## PART 4: DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT

The circuit was connected with Rs = 100, Rf = 10k, and C = 0.1F. Vcc was set to 10V and a
triangular waveform was applied that had a peak to peak magnitude of 2V. We used both channels
of the scope to verify that the amplifier was actually differentiating the input signal before recording
our results and drawing input and output waveforms.
PART B: SIMULATION
For the first part of the simulation, we derived the output equation for the inverting summing
amplifier circuit shown below. We then generated the output voltage waveform using multisim for
V1, a sine wave of 1Vpp and a DV voltage, V2 of 5V. The curve was then plotted out as a function of
amplitude vs time.

Fig 6: Simulation A

Output Equation:

0 = (

1 + 2 )
1
2

=(2.131 + 2 )
The second part of the simulation involved deriving the output equation of the difference amplifier
shown below and then generating the waveform of the output voltage using multisim for a sinewave
of 1Vpp together with a DC voltage, V2 of 5V.

Fig 7: Simulation B

Output Equation:

0 =

]
1 (3 + 2 ) (1 + )

=2.13

The differentiation and integration functions of the op amp were explored by simulating the waves
of 100Hz, 2Vpp that were used for the integrator and differentiator respectively and our results and
output waveforms are given below.

Fig 8: Integrator

Fig 9: Differentiator

RESULTS

VI: 2V

VO =0.181V

|VO/VI |= 11.11

VI: 2V

VO =0V

|VO/VI |= 0

## Theoretically, VO = -(R2/R1)( V1-V2)

= 2V -2V = 0V
Integrating amplifier:
V1 = 2V
Vo = 9.2V

VO/VI = 4.6

## Phase difference between input and output signals=

Theoretically; difference = 90

Differentiating amplifier:
V1 = 2 V
Vo = -1V

1.7
6

360 = 102

|VO/VI| = 2

## Phase difference between input and output signals=

Theoretically; difference = 90

1.6
6

360 = 96

## |VO/VI |= RC = (314100000 0.110-6) =0.318

DISCUSSION
The results obtained were close to the theoretically anticipated values. There were,
however, small differences between the practical and theoretical values. This is due to the
fact that practical operational amplifiers have several characteristic imperfections that
cannot be attributed to idea op amps. These include finite gain, finite input resistance, input
bias current, input offset voltage, common mode gain and temperature drift.
Systematic errors in our experiment set up could also have contributed to the results
obtained. These usually include internal impedances within the function generator, wires
and other equipment. Other errors include random errors, which resulted in some outlying
output values for our waveforms, as well as human error in the approximation of waveform
amplitudes, although this was generally mitigated by checking our values with a multimeter.

CONCLUSION
Operational amplifiers are among the most versatile and widely used circuits in several
applications in electrical engineering. We studied the uses of practical op amps and the
effects of their characteristics that set them apart from ideal operational amplifiers in terms
of performance. The experiment was successful as the objectives were met.

REFERENCES
Irwin, J., Nelms, R., 2011, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, Wiley, MA.
Kuphaldt T., 2009, Lessons in Electric Circuits: Semiconductors, Open Book Project.
Sedra A.S., Smith K.C., 2003, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press.
Vodovozov V., 2010, Introduction to Electronic Engineering, Ventus Publishing.