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An Industrial Training Report

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Bachelor of Technology

Electronics & Communication Engineering


Ankit Kumar Patel


Babu Banarasi Das

Engineering College, Lucknow

U. P. Technical University, Lucknow


There are about 1, 20,000 bridges of different type with varying spans on Indian Railways. As
on date approx. 40% of the bridges are over 100 years old and 60% bridge are 80 years old and
have already completed their codal life. With the introduction of 25 t loading, HM loading and
DFC loading the maintenance/rehabilitation effort for the bridges is being increased regularly.
To meet the challenge it has been continuously striving to get knowledge from international
market. Various types of projects in this context has also been undertaken some of them are
acoustic emission, under water inspection, nondestructive testing, instrumentation of bridges
etc. The present method of bridge inspection is mostly visual and is not capable to assess
hidden defects in structure, if any. For Railway bridges, particularly steel, fatigue is the
principle mode of failure and may lead to crack growths. There was a need to develop a
suitable technique for monitoring fatigue crack and its growth.
NDT survey is relatively quick, easy to use, cheap and give a general indication of the required
property of the Structure (concrete). It is often worthwhile to perform Non-Destructive Testing
(NDT) techniques as compared to other methods involving greater expense, preparation or
damage .The choice of particular NDT method depends upon the property of concrete to be
observed such as strength, corrosion, crack monitoring etc. Though there are some limitations
of these test methods. Even then subsequent testing of structure will largely depend upon the
results of preliminary testing done with the appropriate NDT technique.
NDT techniques not only provide fair idea about the relative strength and overall quality of
concrete in structure but also help in deciding whether more rigorous tests like load testing,
core drilling etc. at selected location are required or not. The objective of a non- destructive
test is to obtain an estimate of the required property of material by measuring certain
parameters which are empirically related to its strength.
Now a days different type of NDT equipments are available for condition assessment of
bridges and structures. Some of them have been procured by RDSO. I have got training
regarding the following NDT Instruments.

Purpose of Non-destructive Tests:

The non-destructive evaluation techniques are being increasingly adopted in concrete
structures for the following purposes:
(i) Estimating the in-situ compressive strength
(ii) Estimating the uniformity and homogeneity
(iii) Estimating the quality in relation to standard requirement
(iv) Identifying areas of lower integrity in comparison to other parts
(v) Detection of presence of cracks, voids and other imperfections
(vi) Monitoring changes in the structure of the concrete which may occur with time
(vii) Identification of reinforcement profile and measurement of cover, bar diameter, etc.
(viii) Condition of pre-stressing/reinforcement steel with respect to corrosion
(ix) Chloride, sulphate, alkali contents or degree of carbonation
(x) Measurement of Elastic Modulus
(xi) Condition of grouting in pre-stressing cable ducts
From the discussions on various non-destructive test methods given hereunder, it will be
apparent that each method have some strengths and some weaknesses. Therefore, the prudent
approach would be to use more than one method in combination so that the strength of one
compensates the weakness of the other.
Types of Non Destructive Tests:
According to their use, non-destructive equipment can be grouped as under:
i) Strength estimation of concrete
ii) Corrosion assessment and monitoring
iii) Detecting defects in concrete structure
iv) Laboratory tests



1. Rebound Hammer
This method is based on the principle that the rebound of an elastic mass depends on the
hardness of the surface against which the mass impinges. Rebound Hammer consists of a
spring-controlled mass that slides on a plunger within a tubular housing. When the plunger is
pressed against the surface of the concrete, the spring controlled mass rebounds and the
extent of such rebound depends upon the surface hardness and, therefore, the rebound is
related to the compressive strength of the concrete. The rebound value is read along a
graduated scale and is designated as the " rebound number". The compressive strength cab
be read directly from the graph provided on the body of the hammer. Depending upon the
impact energy, these are classified into four types i.e. N, L, M and P. Type N test hammer
having impact energy of 2.2 N-m and are suitable for grades of concrete from M15 to M45.
Type P is suitable for grades of concrete below M15. Type L test hammer is suitable for
lightweight concrete or small and impact sensitive part of the structure. Type M test hammer
is generally recommended for heavy structure and mass concrete.

Figure 1 Rebound Hammer

for taking a measurement , the hammer should be held at right angle to the surface of the
structure. the test can thus be conducted horizontally on vertical surfaces or vertically
upwards or downwards on horizontal surfaces . if the situation so demands , the hammer can
be held at intermediate angles also, but in each case, the rebound hammer will be
different( up to certain extent ) for the same concrete. it is necessary that the test hammer is
frequently calibrated and checked against the test anvil to ensure reliable results.
The rebound hammer method provides a convenient and rapid indication of the compressive
strength of concrete by means of establishing a suitable correlation between the rebound
number and the strength of concrete. Rebound hammer directly gives the average
compressive strength of the tested location. The compressive strength is in N/mm 2. Unit is
inter changeable to R, Q, psi and Kg/cm2.

Figure 2 Using Rebound Hammer

the rebound number increases as a strength increases but it is also influenced by a number of
other factors like type of cement and concrete; surface condition and moisture content ,age of
concrete and extent of carbonation on concrete surface . as such the estimation of strength of
concrete by rebound hammer method cannot be considered to be very accurate and probable
accuracy of prediction of concrete strength in a structure is 25 %. If the relationship
between rebounding number and compressive strength can be checked by test on core
samples obtained from the structure of standard specimens made with the same concrete
materials and mix proportion then the accuracy of the result and confidence there on are
greatly increased . it can then be used with greater confidence for differentiating between the
questionable and acceptable parts of a structure or for relative comparison between two
different structures.

2. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Meter :

This is based on the principle that the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse through any material
depends upon the density, modules of elasticity and Poissons ratio. Comparatively higher
velocity is obtained when concrete quality is good in terms of density, uniformity,

Figure 3 Ultrasonic pulse Velocity Meter

Pulse Velocity measurements can be used to assess the homogeneity of concrete,

presence of cracks, voids etc., quality of concrete relative to standards requirements.
Ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements are influenced by surface condition, moisture
content, temperature of concrete, path

length, shape and size of member and

presence of reinforcing bars. The method is complex and requires skill to obtain
usable results, which can often provide excellent information regarding condition of
using the special equipment the ultrasonic pulse is produced by a transducer held in
contact with one surface of concrete members Under test .after traversing a known
path length (L) in the concrete, the pulse of vibration is converted into an electrical
signal by the second transducer held in contact with the other surface of the concrete
members at the predetermined place and

an electric timing circuit enables the

transmit time(T) of the pulse to be measured. the pulse velocity is given by



in km/sec.

There are three possible ways of measuring pulse velocity.


Direct transmission


Semi direct transmission


Indirect transmission (surface probing)

out of the three methods , the direct transmission method is considered to be the best.
Once the ultrasonic pulse impinges on the surface of the material, the maximum energy is
propagated at right angles to the face of the transmitting transducer, and best results are
therefore obtained when the receiving transducer is placed on the opposite face of the
concrete member. This is called Direct Transmission or Cross Probing. In many
situations, the two opposite faces of the structural member may not be accessible for
measurements. In such cases, the transmitting and receiving transducers are placed on the
same face of the concrete member. This is called Surface Transmission. Surface
transmission is not so efficient as Direct Transmission, because the signal produced at the
receiving transducer has an amplitude of only 2 to 3 % of that produced by Cross Probing,
and the test results may vary from 5 to 20% depending upon the quality of concrete under

In view of inherent variability in the test results, sufficient number of readings are taken by
dividing the structural member under test in suitable grid markings of 30x30cm and in some
cases even smaller. Each junction point of the grid becomes a point of observation.

Table 1 Guidelines for assessing condition of concrete based on pulse velocity

Since actual values of the pulse velocity obtained depend on a number of parameters, any
criterion for assessing the quality of concrete on the basis of pulse velocity as given in the
above table can be considered as satisfactory only to a general extent. However, when the
comparison is made amongst different parts of the structure, which have been built at the
same time with similar materials, construction practices and supervision, the assessment of
quality becomes more meaningful and reliable.
The assessment of compressive strength of concrete from ultrasonic pulse velocity values is
not adequate because the statistical confidence of the correlation between the ultrasonic pulse
velocity and the compressive strength of the concrete is not very high. Ultrasonic Pulse
Velocity test can also be used for measuring depth of crack.

Figure 4 Mechanism for pulse velocity

3. Windsor Probe:
Windsor Probe Test is based on penetration of hardened concrete. ASTM, C 803-82 has
standardized this equipment/test procedure. The underlying principle of this penetration
resistance technique is that for standard test conditions, the penetration of probe into the
concrete is inversely proportional to the compressive strength of the concrete. In other words,
larger the expose length of the probe, greater the compressive strength of concrete.

Figure 5 Using Windsor probe

This equipment consists of a power-activated gun or driver unit, hardened alloy probe, loaded
art-ridge and a measuring instrument such as depth gauge etc. The probes are 6.35mm in
diameter and 79.5mm in length. Larger diameter probes (7.94mm) are also available for
testing lightweight concrete. Probe is threaded in to the probe-driving head and fired into the
concrete using a template. The driver utilizes a standard power cartridge. The power level can
be reduced when testing low strength concrete by locating the probe at a fixed position within
the driver barrel. Two types of templates are provided with the equipment e.g. single probe
template and a three probe triangular template. Exposed length of probe is correlated to the
compressive strength of concrete.
The Windsor Probe is basically a hardness tester and provides an excellent means of
determining the relative strength of concrete in the same structure or relative strengths in
different structures. The test is not expected to determine the absolute values of strength of
concrete in the structure. The method may be used to assess the uniformity of in-situ
concrete, to delineate zones or regions of poor quality or deteriorated concrete in the structure
and to indicate changes with time in characteristics of concrete, when forms and shoring may
be removed.
The precision of Windsor probe measurement has been found to vary with the maximum size
of aggregates in concrete. The penetration of the probe in to the concrete is affected by the
hardness of the aggregates. Therefore, it is desirable to prepare separate calibration curve for
the type of aggregate used in the concrete under investigation. There are requirements of
minimum edge distance, probe spacing and member thickness. If the minimum recommended
dimensions are not complied with, there can be danger of splitting of members. The
penetration technique is considered almost non-destructive as the damage to concrete made
by 6 mm probes is only local, which has to be made good. The test has the advantage over
rebound hammer test as the measurement is made not on the surface of the concrete but in
depth .

4. Cut And Pull Out :

The principle behind pull out testing with CAPO test is that test equipment designed to a
specific geometry will produce pull out forces that closely correlate to the compressive

strength of concrete. This correlation is achieved by measuring the force required to pull a
steel ring embedded in the concrete, against a circular counter pressure placed on the
concrete surface concentric with the ring.

5. Core

Figure 6 Cut and Pull Out

Cutter :

This is the most reliable method for checking the compressive strength of concrete. But this
is not a purely NDT but comes under partially destructive test. This can be used for bigger
size members where partial destruction of concrete due to core cutting does not disturb the
stability of the member.

Figure 7 Core Cutter

In this method, a core size of 50mm or 70mm dia. is taken out from the member using
diamond bits. The length to core dia. ratio shall be normally between 1.0 to 2.0 (preferably
2.0). The core dia. shall be at least three times the nominal maximum size of the aggregate.
The location for taking out the sample should be decided so that it does not have any
The core will be tested for compressive strength and at least three cores shall be tested for
acceptable accuracy. Tests should be conducted as per IS : 516-1959, IS : 1199 1959 & IS :
456 2000.

6. Permeability Tester:

The permeability tester is a measuring instrument which is suitable for the determination of
the air permeability of cover concrete by a non destructive method. The permeability tester
permits a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the quality of the cover concrete with
respect its durability.
Significance of permeability in addition to compressive strength in accessing quality of
concrete has become more important due to increase instances of corrosion in reinforce
cement concrete. The rate at which the air from concrete cover me extracted is a measure of
permeability of concrete .this method can be used to access the resistance of concrete to
carbonation, penetration of aggressive ions and quality of grout in post tension ducts.
It operates under vacuum and can be used at the building site and also in the laboratory. the
essential features of the method of measurement are a two Chamber vacuum cell and pressure
regulator which ensures an air flow at right angles to the surface and into the inner chamber.
Dry Surface without cracks should be selected for test .it should we ensured that inner
chambers should not be located above the reinforcement bar. pressure loss is calibrated from
time to time and after a large change in temperature and pressure. 3 to 6 measurements of
electrical resistance of the concrete and its mean value is taken for the measurement of
coefficient of permeability . this test permits the calculation of the permeability Coefficient
kT on the basis of theoretical model.
In case of dry concrete, the results in good agreement with the laboratory methods, such as
Oxygen permeability , capillary suction, chloride penetration and others .
Quality of cover concrete
Very Bad
Very Good


kT (10-16 m2 )
> 10
1.0 - 10
0.1 1.0
0.01 0.1
< 0.01

Table 2 The quality class of the cover concrete is determined from kT

The humidity, a main influence on the permeability, is compensated by additional measuring

the electrical resistance of the concrete .with kT and the quality class is obtained from a

7. Video Borescope :
Those who are familiar with maintenance procedures know that there are three types of
maintenance in any facility: preventive maintenance, corrective maintenance and predictive
maintenance. We normally follow established procedures in each of these types, since each
one targets a different aspect of maintenance. Borescope inspections are an integral part of
procedures for preventive maintenance, along with such routine tasks.

Figure 8 Video Borescope Instrument



Corrosion analyzer is based on electro chemical process to detect corrosion in the

reinforcement bar of the structure. The instrument measures the potential and the
electrical resistance between the reinforcement and the surface to evaluate the
corrosion activity as well as the actual condition for the cover layer during testing.
The electrical activity of the steel reinforcement and concrete leads them to be
considered as one half of weak battery cell with the steel acting as one electrode
and concrete as electrolyte. The name half cell surveying derives from the fact that

the one half of the battery cell is considered to be the steel reinforcing bar and the
surrounding concrete. The electric potential of a point on the surface of steel
reinforcing bar can be measured comparing its potential with that of copper copper sulphate reference electrode on the surface. In field it is achieved by
connecting a wire from one terminal of a voltmeter to the reinforcement and another
wire to the copper sulphate reference electrode.

Figure 9 Corrosion Analyser

This risk of corrosion is evaluated by means of the potential gradient obtained. The
higher the gradient, the higher risk of corrosion. ASTM C 876 prescribes a half
potential method for detection of reinforcement

corrosion. The results can be

interpreted based on the following table.

Half-cell potential (mV) relative to % chance of corrosion activity

< -200 mV
Initial Phase There is a greater than 90%
probability that corrosion activity not taking
-200mV to 350mV
Transient Phase corrosion activity
Table 3 Corrosion Evaluation



The corrosion of steel in concrete is an electro-chemical process, which generates a

flow of current and can dissolve metals. The lower the electrical resistance, the more

readily the corrosion current flows through the concrete and the greater is the
probability of corrosion. The limits of possible corrosion are related with resistivity as
under: With 12 kcm corrosion is improbable
With = 8 to 12 kcm corrosion is possible
With 8 kcm corrosion is fairly certain
where, (rho) = resistivity
Resistivity Meter is used to measure the electrical resistance of the cover concrete.
With the graphical display of the major values, it is possible to determine the spots in
the concrete structure where corrosion may occur. The combination of resistance
measurement by Resistivity Meter and potential measurement by Resistivity Meter
Corrosion Analyzing Instrument (described below) furthermore improves the
information about the corrosion condition of the rebar.

Profometer is a portable battery operated equipment used for measuring the depth of cover
concrete , location and size of the steel reinforcement embedded in concrete. The equipment
is useful for investigating the structures where drawings are not available .the equipment
consist of data logger , diameter probe and calibration blocks. The equipment has sufficient
memory store the scanned data. The meter needle is zeroed and the probe moved over the
concrete surface and rotated to obtain a maximum reading and this position correspond to the
location of reinforcement bar. It is used for (a) measuring concrete cover (b) detecting
reinforcing bar (c) determine bar size and direction .

In heavily reinforced section, however, the effect of secondary reinforcement cannot be

eliminated completely . Nevertheless, this equipment give fair idea about average thickness
of cover with maximum duration of 5 mm .

Figure 10 Using Profometer

1. Crack Detection Microscope

Figure 11 Crack Detection Microscope

This is the pocket size equipment used crack width measurement of concrete member,
masonry and other type of structures. for measurement of crack width a simple small hand-

held microscope having graduated scale marked on the lens known as "crack comparer" may
be used. where greater accuracy of measurement of crack is required. transducer or
extensometer or strain gauges can be used.
Depth of crack can be measured either by Pulse Velocity Technique (ASTM C-597) OR by
taking cores from concrete. Continuous monitoring and recording of crack movements for 24
hours maybe required for separating cracks caused due to temperature effects from that due to
o load effects.

2. Eddy Current Meter:

Eddy current metre to predominantly used in detecting the cracks in the metal structures.
availability of cracks disrupt the flow of eddy current. Availability of cracks disrupt the flow
of eddy current this disruption is measured to know the Flaws/Cracks/Voids etc. Eddy current
meter can be used in the field for detection of Flaws/Cracks/Voids in the metal structures i.e.
Steel girder bridges, FOB's etc. in the field.

Figure 12 Eddy Current Meter

3. Infrared Imagery

Figure 13 Infrared thermal imager . source:

Infrared is an energy similar to visible light but with a longer wavelength. Infrared energy is
invisible to the human eye, however, while visible light energy is emitted by objects only at a
very high temperature, infrared energy is emitted by all objects at average temperatures.

Since, thermal imagers sense infrared energy which varies with temperature of objects image
generator provider a thermal signature of these objects. this image cannot be displayed on
standard video monitor. infrared energy from object a focus by optics onto an infrared detector.
The infrared information is then passed to sensor electronics for image processing. The signal
processing circuitry translates infrared detector data into an image that can be viewed on a
standard video monitor.
The Thermographer measures the temperature of a target. you have to put the proper data into
the camera in order to get accurate temperature measurements. this means that setting up your
camera before an inspection is important.
The thermal imager uses IR Fusion technology, which simultaneously captures both a digital
photo as well as infrared image and fuses them together making it easier to identify features
and taking the mystery out of IR image analysis. simply scroll through the different viewing
modes to better identify trouble areas in full IR thermal, picture - in - picture or automatic
blend visual and thermal imagers.
Switch on the camera. Insert the 2gb memory card, allows users to save more than 3000 screen
images or 1200 IR fusion images. focus the lens at target by manually rotating lens until the
image is in focus . Press the Level and Span button to automatically set the cameras
temperatures level and span. Press the same button again to properly scale the image .press and
hold the same button until the IR fusion blend level control box appears on the display screen.
Tap the Trigger button to retain settings. Tap the Trigger button once to pause the live image.
Press and hold the trigger button for 2 seconds to save the image.

4. Acoustic Emission Technique:

Figure 14.

Acoustic Emission Technique . Source

Present system of visual inspection of bridge is not capable to detect the smaller crack and
cracks developed on hidden location of various Bridge members. Therefore, a need is felt to

develop Non Destructive Techniques which can overcome the problems. Acoustic Emission
Technique has potential to detect cracks in early stage and can monitor its growth.
Acoustic emission are elastic waves which are generated due to Rapid release of energy from
the location within the material under stress. Acoustic emission signal is recorded placing
sensors on the surface of the material. The acoustic emission signals observed on bridge
members indicate the presence of crack and analysis of signal provide the valuable information
about the location of crack and its growth.

6 channel SPARTAN 2000 systems

6 channel MISTRAS 2001 system
Sensors ranging from 30 kHz to 300 kHz
Pc and connecting cables


Sensors are fixed on which members at different location and are connected to AE

system through cables.

Running trains are used as external force to make the crack active.
AE signals are recorded in AE system for further analysis.
Different time history correlation graph are produced using AE parameters such as

amplitude, counts, rise time, energy, duration and hits.

Noise due to other sources are eliminated by using at post software.
Concentration of AE signals are observed and the required crack location and its
activity is observed using above graphs analysis.


It can detect the location of cracks in structure.

It can help in checking progressive growth of crack in bridge structure.
It can help in checking the effectiveness of retrofitting / repair to bridge.
It can help in maintaining fatigue performance of bridge structure.
It can help in checking the quality of weld and fabricated structure.



There is a large population of Concrete/ Steel bridges on Indian Railways. Sometimes it is

very difficult to measure unreachable second point of the girder length of the bridges with
the help of measuring tape. Digital Ultrasonic Measuring Tool is a measuring device that can
carry several measuring operations such as the length, surface area and volume of
unreachable surfaces with the use of ultrasonic waves. Its measuring angle is 0.6 metres to
20 metres. On switching the unit it is automatically in the operation mode "Length
Measurement" and measurements can be recorded.
During the measuring procedure ,a Laser indicated (7- point laser) is also activated, which
indicates if the unit is pointed at the desired target Surface. The laser points are arranged
circular and outline the measured surface. If the ambient light conditions are too bright , the
visibility can be increased by using the laser spectacles.

The running Period of the conical expanding Ultrasonic waves used for measurement of
distance. The respective measuring surface is Marked by the laser indicator. The
measurements can only be carried out on targets with even and smooth surface .
It can be used to measure the distance of unreachable points. It directly give the surface area
and volume of a rectangular structures by measuring the required dimensions.

Growing scarcity of Timber suitable for making wooden Bridge sleepers has prompted
Railways to explore alternative materials. It was decided to develop an alternative to the
wooden sleepers in collaboration with R&DE (Engineers)/ Pune. Prototype sleepers have
been developed and tested under static and dynamic conditions. ME during his review
meeting at R D S O on desire that impact test on FRP sleepers should be conducted to assess
its performance during derailment .
Static load test on sleeper helps in verifying the design and structural properties and the
behaviour of the sleeping under condition of static loading. The sweeper is required to
withstand applied loads without being excessively deformed/severely compressed for safety
Impact test measures the resistance of FRP sleepers to shock. This test is intended to observe
the behaviour of the sleepers under consideration which stimulate the derailment of wagons
in case of accidents. The sleeper is required to withstand such loads without being severely
damaged for safety considerations.


To assess structural integrity of sleeper.

To ensure your absence of void, dry patches, resin rich areas and de-lamination inside
Type of test performed on sleeper in B&S lab.

Static load test : To assess adequacy of design.

Performs on centre of rail on both sides of sleeper.

II. Impact test: To assess shock absorption capacity of sleeper i.e. To assess its
performance against derailment forces.


The test were carried out on both ends of three sleepers. Test sleeper was placed on test floor
under the reaction frame. A mild steel plate of 260 X 220 mm size was placed on rail seat
position of the sleeper. Another m s plate of larger size was kept over the plates projecting out
of the sleeper's width. On this plate two dial gauges were fixed on both side of the sleeper to
measure deflection under the applied load.
A remote controlled hydraulic Jack of 100 t capacity was used for application of static load
on sleeper. To ensure the accuracy of applied load, a pre-calibrated compression proving ring
was placed between the hydraulic Jack and the sleeper, the gap between the sleeper and
proving ring was filled up by cast iron blocks and steel packing plates. The centre of
hydraulic Jack, proving ring and test sleeper was aligned with the help of plumb bob, to
ensure precise application of the test load.
The maximum test load applied after 500 kN, in increment of load at 50 kN / min, starting
from 50 kN . The maximum applied load 500 kN was sustained for 5 minutes. Development
of cracks and deflection of sleepers was observed and noted after each increment of load.
Static load test was carried out on three sleepers.

Figure 16 Loading arrangement of Testing of Composite Sleeper

Acceptance criteria

No crack should be developed on the surface.

Deflection of sleeper at test locations should be minimum to extent possible.

Sleeper was placed on two nos. Bearing plates at an inclination of 30 , under a loco wheel
approx. Weight 500 kg, hanged on the test frame. The wheel was tied with one end of a wire
rope and the other end of the wire rope is attached with the lifting and pulling machine. The
lifting and pulling machine is used to keep the wheel at desired height and sudden drop of
the position of the wheel and location strike of sleeper was aligned before drop. The wheel
was position at the height of 75 cm from the edge of sleeper and drop freely by releasing the
lever of pulling machine on both ends of the sleeper at two locations i.e. 200 mm away from
sleeper end and 294 mm away from the centre line of the rail towards the centre of sleepers.
Impact test was carried out on the same three static load tested sleepers and the wheel was
dropped twice at each location tested.

Figure 17 Impact Test on FRP Sleeper

Acceptance criteria:
Only recess should form.
No cracks, splitting should appear on the surface of sleeper.


1. "Draft Provisional Specification For Composite Sleeper", page no. 13 -14,RDSO .

2. "Guidelines For Inspection, Maintenance And Rehabilitation Of Concrete Bridges", page
no. 2-10, RDSO.