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A grammar sketch of

the Bugis language


Fieldwork
David Valls
0/01/2014

I.

Abbreviations
1

first person

second person

third person

ABS

absolutive

ACC

acusative

ADJ

adjective

ART

article

COND

conditional

DEF

definite

DEM

demonstrative

DET

determiner

DIR

Directional

DL

dialectal

epenthetic

ERG

ergative

feminine

FRM

formal

FUT

future tense

LOC

locative

IM

inverse marking

IMPERF

imperfective

INF

infinitive

INFRM

informal

masculine

NEG

negation

NMZ

nominalizer

NOM

Nominative

PASS

passive

PL

plural

PREP

preposition

PRN

personal pronoun
1

II.

question marker

reduplication

REL

relative

SG

singular

VBZ

verbalizer

Orthography

Here there are the correspondences between the phonetic sound and the spelling used
in this sketch.

/b/ b
/c/ c
/d/ d
/f/ f
/g/ g
/h/ h
/j/ y
/k/ k
/l/ l
/m/ m
/n/ n
// ny
// ng
/p/ p
/r/ r
/s/ s
/t/ t
// x
// j
// tj
/w/ w
//
/a/ a
/e/ e
/i/ i
/o/ o
/u/ u
//

Contents
1.

The Bugis language: Introduction................................................................................ 5


1.1.

2.

The Lontara script................................................................................................. 6

Phonology.................................................................................................................... 8
2.1. Minimal pairs........................................................................................................... 9

3.

2.2.

Allophones.......................................................................................................... 11

2.3.

Phonological rules............................................................................................... 12

2.4.

Stress.................................................................................................................. 13

2.5.

Diphthongs.......................................................................................................... 13

2.6.

Phonotactics........................................................................................................ 14

2.7.

Phonetic gemination........................................................................................... 17

Morphosyntax............................................................................................................ 17
3.1. Language typology................................................................................................ 17

4.

3.2.

Word classes....................................................................................................... 18

3.2.

Phrases............................................................................................................... 32

3.3.

Verb phrase......................................................................................................... 36

3.4.

Non-verbal phrase............................................................................................... 38

3.5.

Adpositional phrase............................................................................................. 38

3.6.

Sentence types................................................................................................... 39

3.7.

Negation............................................................................................................. 40

3.8.

Questions............................................................................................................ 40

3.9.

Passive................................................................................................................ 41

3.10.

Clauses............................................................................................................ 41

3.11.

Adverbial clauses............................................................................................. 42

3.12.

Coordination.................................................................................................... 42

3.13.

Reduplication................................................................................................... 43

Kinship terminology................................................................................................... 44
4.1. Historical kinship................................................................................................... 47

5.

Appendix................................................................................................................... 48
5.1. Transcription text................................................................................................... 48
5.2.

6.

Glossary.............................................................................................................. 50

References................................................................................................................. 69

1. The Bugis language: Introduction


According to Ethnologue, the Bugis language belongs to the family of the Austronesian
languages and to the subfamily of the Malayo-Polynesian and South Sulawesi languages.
The language is originally spoken in the island of Sulawesi, which politically speaking
belongs to Indonesia.
Figure 1. Map of Sulawesi and Indonesia. In red where Bugis is spoken. Source: Google Maps.

Figure 2. More detailed area. Source: Google Maps.

Some of the alternate names of the language are De, Rappang Buginese, Ugi (SIL
International, 2013). The number of speakers according to Wikipedia and Ethnologue is
of 5 million speakers.
For this sketch the source of information has been a single consultant, Mr. Andi Ahmad
Yani, or just Yani, as he wishes to be called. Hes a 37 year old native Buginese studying
for one year in The Netherlands. He is able to speak Bugis, Bahasa Indonesia and
English.
Yani is a speaker of the Barru dialect, which is the one spoken in Soppeng, where hes
from. According to him, the language is not being passed down to the younger
generations. Yani declares himself as a self-conscious Bugis speaker, however he affirms
to be speaking Bahasa Indonesian to his daughter. He also admits that he has changed
this tendency, lately. The language of the school and government is Bahasa Indonesia,
even though that in recent times Bugis is been taught in schools as a subject, but it is
not the vehicular language of the school. As for now, Ethnologue (2014) states that
Bugis has a good health. Other languages spoken in the area are Makassar, Toraja,
Mandar, Enrekang and Luwu.
The data for this sketch was obtained during half an hour elicitations twice a week for
about 10 weeks.

1.1.

The Lontara script

The Lontara script is a Brahmic script traditionally used for the Bugis, Makasarese, and
Mandar languages of Sulawesi in Indonesia. It is also known as the Buginese script, as
Lontara documents written in this language are the most numerous. It was largely
replaced by the Latin alphabet during the period of Dutch colonization, though it is still
used today to a limited extent (Wikipedia, 2014). The word Lontara is derived from the
Malay name for palmyra palm, lontar, whose leaves are traditionally used for
manuscripts. In Buginese, this script is called urupu sulapa eppa which means fourcornered letters, referencing the Bugis-Makasar belief of the four elements that shaped
the universe: fire, water, air, and earth (Wikipedia, 2014).
Although the Latin alphabet has largely replaced Lontara, it is still used to a limited
extent in Bugis and Makasar. In Bugis, its usage is limited to ceremonial purposes such
as wedding ceremonies. Lontara is also used extensively in printing traditional Buginese
literature. In Makasar, Lontara is additionally used for personal documents such as
5

letters and notes. Those who are skilled in writing the script are known as palontara, or
'writing specialists (Wikipedia, 2014).
Lontara is an abugida1 with 23 basic consonant and it is written from left to right.

Figure 3. The Lontara script. Source: Omniglot

The pallawa is used to separate rhythmico-intonational groups, and has a similar


function to the full stop and comma. It can also be used to denote the doubling of a word
or its root.
Sample text in the Lontara script: (Wikipedia, 2104)

1 Abugida also called an alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which


consonantvowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant
letter, and vowel notation is secondary (Wikipedia, 2013).
6

Transliteration:
nako ngka taupasala. aja mupatalalowi pacalamu ritopasalae. pasitujuwimutowisa
asalana pacalamu. apa ikonatu nagili dewatea. nako baicumupi asalana tauwe.
muperajaisa. padatowi. nako pasalai tauwe. aja timucalai risitinajanaetosa asalana
(adapted from Wikipedias transliteration to orthography).
Translation:
If you deal with a person guilty of something, do not punish him too harshly. Always
make the punishment commensurable with the guilt, since God will be angry with you if
the person's guilt is not great and you are exaggerating it. Equally, if a person is guilty,
do not let him go without a punishment in accordance with his guilt (Wikipedia, 2014).

2. Phonology
The full inventory of Bugis phonemes are given in the following tables. The tables are
divided between consonants and vowels.
2.1.1. Bugis consonants
Figure 4. Bugis consonant.
Bilabial
Plosive
Nasal

Dental

b
m

Post
alveolar

t
n
r

Trill
Fricative

Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Affricate
Approximant
Lateral
approximant

2.1.2. Bugis vowels


7

Figure 5. Bugis vowels.

Close
Close-mid
Open

front
i
e

Primary vowels
central

back
u
o

As it can be observed in the above tables, Bugis has a total of 19 consonant sounds, 2
semi consonants and 6 vowels. The [h] phoneme it only appears in loanwords from
Bahasa Indonesian.
There are the following long vowels:

[i], [e], [a], [o]


They are not contrastive [tegi] and [te:gi] where, or [i:a] and [ia] yes.
The Austronesian languages vowel systems tend to be simple (Himmelmann & Adelaar,
2005, p. 115), in this case Bugis agrees with this statement with 6 vowels.
[] is the only vowel which is not found as a long vowel. Stressed open syllables are pronounced long as they
are heavy. In closed syllables the vowel is pronounced short, although the syllable remains heavy because of
the coda.
Consonant length is contrastive as it can be seen in 2.1. Minimal pairs. The following
consonants can be found geminate: /pp/, /tt/, /kk/, /dd/, /bb/, /ss/, /mm/, /nn/, /ll/.

2.1. Minimal pairs


The following is a list of minimal pairs or almost minimal pairs with its gloss to English.
2.1.1. Consonants:
Contrast among /t/, /d/, /g/ and //

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

[ata] slave
[ada] word
[aga] what
[aa] dont do it

Contrast between [] and []

(5) [tete] breast


(6) [tete] hour
Contrast among /s/, /d/ and /t/
8

(7) [isi] teeth


(8) [idi] you (polite)
(9) [iti] duck
Contrast between // and //

(10) [oko] this is mine


(11) [oko] bite
Contrastive stress

(12) [asu] dog


(13) [asu] to go out
Contrast among /p/, /c/, /k/ and /t/

(14) [kaca] cup


(15) [ata] slave
(16) [lt:e] lightning
(17) [pp:e] hit
(18) [kce] cold
(19) [cke] cold
Contrast among /b/, /p/, /w/, /m/ and /f/

(20) [bbua] 'stomach'


(21) [peme] 'next'
(22) [becu] 'small'
(23) [fetu] 'seven'
(24) [abio]'right hand'
(25) [balawo] 'mouse'
(26) [namo] 'mosquito'
(27) [bawi] 'pig'
(28) [menu] 'drink'
(29) [sepulo] 'ten'
Contrast among /l/, /r/ and /w/

(30) [awa] clouds


(31) [ala] to take
(32) [dara] blood
Contrast between /j/, // and /c/

(33) [kaca] 'cup'


(34) [baja] 'tomorrow'
(35) [aja] imperative
(36) [baa] goose
Contrast among short and long consonants.

(37) [baba] smart


(38) [bab:a] whip
9

(39) [poto] limit


(40) [potto] bracelet
(41) [podo] annoyed
(42) [poddo] spinach
(43) [poso] breath
(44) [posso] press
(45) [codo] piece
(46) [coddo] dab
(47) [capa] ignore
(48) [cappa] end
(49) [poko] stem
(50) [pokko] capital
2.1.2. Vowels
Contrast between /a/ and //

(51) [ama] mother


(52) [am] swallow
Contrast between /a/ and /e/

(53) [mate] die


(54) [mata] eye
Contrast between /a/ and /i/

(55) [ita] see


(56) [iti] duck
Contrast between /a/ and /u/

(57) [ana] child


(58) [anu] some one
2.2. Allophones
2.2.1. Consonants
Base consonant Allophone

/b/ voiced bilabial plosive [b] in intervocalic position and onset, free variation between
[b] and voiced bilabial fricative [].
/p/ voiceless bilabial stop [p], free variation with voiceless bilabial fricative [] or with
voiceless labiodental fricative [f].

10

The phoneme /p/ has free variation with [p], [f] and []. Roots with /p/ can be
pronounced with [], [f] or [p]. The position of the phoneme within the root (initial or
intervocalic) does not make any difference.

(59) sapeda [sape:da], [safeda] or [saeda] bycicle


(60) padar [pada:r], [fada:r] or [ada:r]
/d/ non-intervocalic position voiced alveolar stop [d], free variation in intervocalic
position voiced alveolar tap [] and voiced dental fricative or approximant [].
/g/ voiced velar plosive [g] in onset and in intervocalic position there is free variation
between [g] and voiced velar fricative [].
// voiced velar nasal [] becomes voiced bilabial nasal [m] when preceding a labial
consonant. Becomes voiced alveolar nasal [n] when preceding an alveolar consonant.
Becomes voiced palatal nasal [] when preceding a palatal.
2.2.2. Vowels
/a/ open front unrounded [a] with the allophone the fairly-open central unrounded [],
which appears only after the palatal [j]. In contact with nasals it shows the nasalized
allophone [a].
/o/ mid back rounded [o] with its nasal one [o], allophone between nasals and
preceding // at the end of word.
/u/ close back rounded [u] in free variation with voiced velarized bilabial approximant
[w]. [u] allophone between nasals..
/e/ close-mid front rounded [e], with its nasal one [e] in contact with nasals.
// mid central rounded [] with the nasal allophone [ ] in contact with nasals and
preceding //.
/i/ close front unrounded [i] which in contact with nasals has the [i] allophone. It also
has the voiced palatal approximant [j].
As seen, [j] and [w] are allophones of [i] and [u], but at the same time they are
phonemes. In Bugis, the stress is usually penultimate, in a word-final /iV/ or /uV/, they
will be stressed. However, when a suffix is attached to the root, like -ku (first person
genitive) in the examples below, stress goes to the end of the word, then is when the
allophones [j] and [w] show up.
11

(61) /wanua/ [wanua] 'village'


(62) /wanuaku/ [wanwaku] 'my village'
(63) /abio/ [abio] 'right hand'
(64) /abioku/ [abjoku] 'my right hand'
2.3. Phonological rules
Out of the previous allophones it is possible to postulate the following phonological rules.

2.3.1. /d/ [] and []


[-, +ant, +voice] [], [] / [+]____[+]
2.3.2. // [n], [m], []
[-, +back, +nasal] [n] / __ [-, +cor]
[-, +back, +nasal] [m] / __[-, +lab]
[-, +back, +nasal] [] / __[-, -back]
2.3.3. /u/, /i/ /w/, /j/
[+, +high, -stress] [-, -stress] / __[+]

2.4. Stress
In Austronesian languages, the stress is usually non-distinctive and occurs on the
penultimate syllable. (Himmelmann & Adelaar, 2005, p. 116). In general terms, Bugis
has the stress in the penultimate syllable in words with three or more syllables. The
stress is expressed by loudness. Long vowels also express where the stress is: [tai la:so]
fuck, [te:gi] where, [ao:la] his/her heart; while long consonants do not always
express stress: [tl:u] three, [ut:u] knee.
In words of two syllables, the stress can be either at the first syllable or at the last.
Stress can be contrastive, that means that by changing the stress, the meaning can be
changed. For example, [asu] dog and [asu] to go. Therefore, in words of three or
more syllables stress is predictable, but in words of two syllables it is only predictable
when the word ends in an approximant, then the stress falls into it.
The stress is also predictable when the possessive is added at the end of the word. The
stress moves to the penultimate syllable, as it becomes, at least, a three syllable word.
For example, [bo.la] house becomes [bo.la:.t:a] your house. The stress also moves to
the final syllable when the definite e is added, [asu] [asue].

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2.5. Diphthongs
Every time the definite article e is added at the end of a word and this one is preceded
by a semi consonant, a diphthong is formed.

(65) [a.su] dog [a.swe] the dog


Other diphthongs are found in the following examples:

(66) [da.wa] worm


(67) [j.i] finger
(68) [ja.sa] name
(69) [je] this
(70) [jo.o] those
(71) [kwe] here
(72) [wi.n:i] night
(73) [fwo.po] to come
In example 135 there are two vowels in separate syllables that are pronounced as a
diphthong. Examples 6613 to 133 are vowels from the same syllable.

2.6. Phonotactics
2.6.1. Syllable structure
In Austronesian languages the most common syllable structures are CV and CVC
(Himmelmann & Adelaar, 2005, p. 115). Bugis appears to share this syllable structure of
CV as a main feature. Its roots are mainly bisyllabic.
These are the syllable combinations with bisyllabic roots in Bugis:
CV [lo] want
CCV [ka] there is
CVV [dua] two
VCV [a.su] dog
VCVC [e.u] cloth
VCCV [am.ba] hit
VCCVC [am.bo] father
CVCV [me.ga] many
CVVC [da.i] older sibling
CVCCV [com.bi] vagina
13

CVCVC [me.nu] drink


CVCCVC [po.po] tree
There is some re-syllabification in cases where the -e suffix is added at the end of the
word. For example, [ma.kun.raj], becomes [ma.kun.ra.je]. Therefore, the word ending
goes from CVV to CV.VV, and the stress shifts to the end.
When adding the possessive, the initial consonant of the possessive appears as a
geminate sound and stress moves to the second syllable. For example, [bo.la] house
CV.CV changes to [bo.la:.k:u] my house CV.CVV.CCV; [bo.la:.t:a] your house
CV.CVV.CCV.
In Bugis some few trisyllabic roots can be found as well:
VCVV [a.bio] right hand
VCVCV [a.se.ra] nine
CVCCVV [beb.bua] stomach

2.6.2. Consonant clusters


Bugis has the following intervocalic clusters:

(74) /d/ [ta.dam] sorry


(75) /nr/ [kun.rai] woman
(76) /k/ [ka] there is
(77) /mb/ [am.bo] father
(78) /mp/ [um.pu] smoke
(79) /n/ [ma.kan.a] good
(80) /nd/ [in.do] mother
In Bugis is frequent to find glottal stops after the morpheme boundary; the cause is a
root which ends in a glottal stop with a suffix or enclitic that starts with a consonant
attached. The following examples are clusters not caused by morphology:

(81) /t/ [t.te] hit


(82) /p/ [sa.pise] cousin
(83) /s/ [m.t:.so] sun

2.6.3. Vowels clusters


Bugis has the following vowel clusters or hiatus:

(84) /ua/ [matua] mother/father in law


(85) /io/ [abio] right hand
(86) /eo/ [meo] cat
(87) /oa/ [matoa] old
14

2.6.4. Consonant position

(88) /p/ [apaa:tu] four hundrerd, [patapulo] forty. It appears at onset and
intervocalic position.

(89) /b/ [balawo] mouse, [kaeb] news. It appears at onset and intervocalic
position.
(90) /m/ [maidi] yellow, [umpu] smoke, [femo] again. It appears at onset,
coda and intervocalic position.

(91) /f/ [femo] again, [afi] fire. It appears at onset and intervocalic position.
(92) /s/ [sao], [assu]. It appears at onset and intervocalic position.
(93) /d/ [dua] world, [maidi] yelow, [ced:e] few. It appears at onset and
intervocalic position.

(94) /t/ [tabe] excuse me, [ata] slave. It appears at onset and intervocalic
position.
(95) /n/ [jasa] name, [unuu] age, [makunn rai] woman, [nadaa], [aln.n bo
lae] her house. It appears at onset and in nucleus position, as well as in
intervocalic position.
(96) /r/ [raba] Wednesday, [makunn rai] woman, [kartasa] paper. It appears at
onset and intervocalic position.

(97) // [jaga]. It appears at onset.


(98) // [ae] foot, [makana] good, [faelo] index finger. It appears at onset
and intervocalic position.
(99) /c/ [ced:e] few, [daucili] ears, [becu] small. It appears at onset and
intervocalic position.
// [oka] walk, [maa:] bad. It appears at onset and intervocalic

(100)

position.
// ['baa] duck. It appears at intervocalic position.
/j/ [jasa] name, [abjo] right hand, [ija] yes. It appears at onset,

(101)
(102)

coda, and intervocalic position.


/k/ [kamisi] Thursday, [oko] mine, [oko] bite, [akuro] there. It

(103)

appears at onset and intervocalic position.


/g/ [mega] many, [mgl:o:] good. It appears at onset and

(104)

intervocalic position.
(105)
// [as] name, [i] nose, [ka] there, [oko] mine. It appears
at coda and in nucleus position, as well as in intervocalic position.
/w/ [bwas] repeat, [dawa] ink, [wai] water. It appears at onset,

(106)

intervocalic, and coda position.


// [ama] mother, [oko] bite. It appears at coda and coda position.
/h/ [aha] Sunday. This phoneme belongs only to loanwords. It appears

(107)
(108)

in an intervocalic position.
/l/ [bale] fish, [laso] penis. It appears at onset, intervocalic.

(109)

15

2.6.5. Vowel position


/a/ [afi] fire, ['baa] duck.
/e/ [ae] foot, [ceiba] monkey.
/i/ [afi] fire, [iga] who.
/o/ [ao] chest, [oi] bottom, [pope] hit.
/u/ [unuu] age.
// ['ba] greed, [a] norm, [i] nose, [pa] four.

2.7. Phonetic gemination


Theres only one case of phonetic gemination, which is when a noun ends in []. Then it
geminates this sound in order to add the definite article:
(112) [meo] cat [meo:e] the cat

3. Morphosyntax
3.1. Language typology
According to Tryon (1995, p. 554), Bugis is an ergative-absolutive language and that is
the starting point of analysis for the following sections.
In Bugis word order is not rigid and different orders are found. For example, there are
some SVO constructions as it can be seen in the following examples:
(113) la dafi

na-w-nu

miong-e

ART.M 3sgERG-E-kill cat-DEF


'David kills the cat.'
(114)
ia
ma-unu-w=i
la
PRN.1sg VBZ-kill-E=3sgABS ART.M David
'I kill David.'

Dafi

However, constructions of this kind are not widely found. The vast majority of given
sentences in Bugis, word order is VOS. This is the prototypical sentence in Bugis:
(115)

na-unu-w=i

oto-e

la

dafi
16

3sgERG-kill-E=3sgABS car-DEF ART.M David


'David kills the car.'
Since the vast majority of constructions and non-marked constructions in Bugis are like
the one in (115), it can be considered as a VOS language. However, word order ends up
depending on grammatical relations such as topicalization and focalization, where the
noun phrase in order to be emphasized is placed to the front of the clause.
For a language, being ergative-absolutive means that the single argument of an
intransitive verb behaves like the object of a transitive verb, and differently from the
agent of a transitive verb. An ergative language maintains a syntactic or morphological
equivalence for the object of a transitive verb and the single core argument of an
intransitive verb, while treating the agent of a transitive verb differently. It is possible to
appreciate its ergativity in its verbal morphology and through its pronominal system and
agent-patient pronominal markings, which are all attached to the verb.
In transitive verbs, the proclitic is the ergative case which indicates the agent, and the
enclitic is absolutive case which indicates the patient. In intransitive verbs, theres only
an enclitic which is the absolutive case indicating the agent. It is shown in chapters
3.2.18. and 3.3.
Bugis is a pro-drop language. The subject of a sentence can be omitted, as opposite to
English where expressing the subject is always a must. Bugis can omit the subject
because this one it is already expressed with a verbal marker.
The head of a phrase is the element that determines the syntactic function of the whole
phrase. So, in a noun phrase the head is the noun that refers to the same entity that the
whole phrase refers to (Payne, 2010, p. 31). Some languages tend to mark the
relationship between a head and a dependent on the head, while others tend to mark
the relationship on the dependent. For example, English is predominantly a dependentmarking language. This is shown by the fact that in possessive noun phrases, the head
noun is not marked to indicate that it is possessed; rather the possessor is marked:
Leidens windmills. Bugis is a head-marking language, that means that marks the
possessed as opposite of the English language, for example.
(116)
na-anre=i
oti-na
la Dafi
3sgERG-eat=3sgABS banana-3sgGEN ART.M David
David eats his banana

3.2. Word classes


3.2.1.

Article
17

Bugis has a definite article expressed by e which does not work all the time in the
same way as in many western languages do, for example as in English. Sometimes it
just translates as the or sometimes English does not require it as it is understood, while
Bugis still needs to use it, since it is also used as a focalizer. It goes attached at the end
of nouns and adjectives as a suffix, and it takes the stress. It never goes with personal
names.
(117)
[oto] [oto-e]
car
car-DEF
car
the car
In the following example, Bugis requires the definite article e, whereas English doesnt,
as it has enough definition with that, but at the same time it works as a focalizer for
house.
(118)
Dafi
puna yoro bola-e
David have that house-DEF
David has that house
Bugis has no determiner article.
(119)
aka asu
there dog
There is a dog
(120)
asu ye (also ye asu)
dog this
this is a dog
Proper names may have and i in front if it is for a woman or a la if it is for a man.
These are articles for gender marking. For example it would be:
(121)
la Yani
/ i Amanda
ART.M Yani / ART.F Amanda
These personal articles are also definers.

3.2.2.

Pronouns

3.2.2.1. Personal pronouns


The 2nd person has informal and formal. The 3 rd person has no gender and no distinction
between human and not human.

18

Figure 6. Personal pronouns

I
you singular informal
you singular formal
He/she/it
We
You plural informal
You plural formal
They

iya
iko
iri
alena
idi maneng
iko maneng (lit. you all)
iri maneng (lit. you all)
alena maneng (lit.
he/she/it all)

Examples of use:
(122)
iya
ma-unu-w=i
yanu
PRN.1sg
VBZ-kill-E=3sgABS
someone
I want to kill someone.
(123)
iko
ma-unu-w=i
yanu
PRN.2sgINFRM VBZ-kill-E=3sgABS
someone
You want to kill someone.
(124)
iri
ma-unu-w=i
yanu
PRN.2sgFRM VBZ-kill-E=3sgABS
someone
You want to kill someone.
Example (124) is only an example of use; in real life probably it does not make sense to
treat in a formal and respectful way someone that is going to be killed.
The 3rd person alena is a lexicalization of ale body and na, 3rd person genitive, so
literally means his/her body.

3.2.2.2. Possessive pronouns


These pronouns are suffixes and appear attached to the possessed.
Figure 7. Possessive pronouns

My/mine
Your/yours formal
Your/yours informal
His/hers/their/its
our/ours

Genitive
-ku
-ta
-mu
-na
-ta

The reflexive pronouns are created with the word ale which means body where the
genitive is attached to it.

19

(125)
ale-ta
body-2sgGEN
yourself

3.2.2.3. Interrogative pronouns


Figure 8. Interrogative pronouns

What
Where
Who
When
How
Which
why

aga
teegi
iga
uppanna
maagai
yategi
magai

It is important to note that most of these pronouns have a similar root as marked in
black in the above. This g or ga derives from the question marker that is described in
chapter 3.8 as well as examples of use of the interrogative pronouns.

3.2.2.4. Demonstrative pronouns


There are two demonstrative pronouns to refer to an object close to the speaker: yaro
and ye which would translate as this. There is another pronoun to refer of an object
far from the speaker: yoro (that). When using the demonstrative with a noun, we must
use the definite article. Lets take a look at some examples:
(126)
yaro bobo-e
this book-DEF
this book
(127)
yaro yoga bobo-e
this call book-DEF
This is called book
In English, the demonstrative pronoun already defines the noun, but not in Bugis, where
the definite article is still necessary.
Demonstrative + numeral + noun:
(128)
ye pa manumanu
this four birds
These four birds
The definite article is not used in the case above, because in this case the numeral
already works as a definite.
The demonstrative can also act as determiners:
20

(129)
ye yasa
meong
DET called cat
This is called cat

3.2.3.

Nouns

In Bugis theres no difference between alienable and non-alienable nouns in terms of


using possession so, as seen above, the possessive is added after the noun:
(130)
lima-na
arm-3sgGEN
His/her arm
(131)
bola-na
House-3sgGEN
His/her house
In Bugis nouns do not show variation in terms of gender and number. However we can
find reduplication to create new meanings:
(132)
(133)
(134)

bobo book
manumanu bird (manu chicken)
anaana children (ana son/daughter)

3.2.3.1. Noun formation


From adjectives and intransitive verbs nouns are form by adding a- + adjective/verb
stem + -ang
(135)
(136)

ma-lampe long a-lampe-rang length


m(a)-anre eat (a)-anre-ang eating place

From transitive verbs we add pa-:


(137)
(138)
(139)

ma-kkaya to fish pa-kkaya fisher


ma-kkita to see pa-kkita vision
ma-rengkalinga to hear pa-rengkalinga audience

3.2.3.2. Gender and number


In Bugis theres no morpheme to express plural. They express number by using the
adjective mega, which means many.
(140)
mega asu
many dog
dogs
Another way to express plural is with numerals:
(141)
tllu anaana
three boy
three boys
21

Bugis does not have any special morpheme to express gender. In the case of kinship, for
example, the word urane (man) and makunrai (woman) is added to distinguish
gender.
(142)
amure
uncle/aunt
(143)
amure
urane
uncle/aunt man
uncle
(144)
amure
makunrai
uncle/aunt woman
aunt

3.2.3.3. Noun creation through noun


As in a similar way to English, Bugis joins two nouns in a compounding process, to create
a new noun or a compound.
(145)
fopong palm-e
tree
palm-DEF
The palm tree
(146)
mata so
eye
day
Sun

3.2.4.

Adjectives

The adjective is placed after the noun:


(147)
ceiba
fute
monkey white
white monkey
Adjectives are characterized by reduplication when one wants to express superiority or
inferiority.
(148)
becu
becu-ecu
ADJ.small ADJ.small-RED
small
smaller
becuecu ye meong-e na
ye asu-e
smaller this cat-DEF CONJ this dog-DEF
This cat is smaller than this dog
(149)
malampe malampe-lampe
ADJ.long ADJ.long-RED
long
longer
malampelampe ye oto-e
na
yoro oto-e
longer
this car-DEF CONJ that car-DEF
This car is longer than that car
22

When one wants to express an absolute value, it is used the word fom most:
(150)
ye oto-e
fom becu
this car-DEF most small
this car is the smallest

3.2.4.1. Colors
Some of the color names are the following:
Figure 9. Colors in Bugis

white
Black
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Brown

fute
bolong
cella
kudaa
gau
maridi
sikola

The word for brown is sikola chocolate which is a borrowing from Dutch.
When colors are placed in a sentence they are verbalized with the ma- prefix, so colors
are verbs and work as verbs.
(151)
sedi ma-bolong, dua ma-sikola
one
VBZ-black two VBZ-chocolate
one is black, two are brown
The literal translation for the example just seen would be: *one is blacking, two are
browning

3.2.4.2. Numerals
Bugis has a base ten numeral system:
One sedi
Two - dua
Three - tllu
Four pa
Five lima
Six - nng
Seven - feetu
Eight - arua
Nine - asera
Ten sepulo
23

Eleven sepulo sedi


Twelve sepulo dua
Thirteen sepulo tllu
Fourteen sepulo pa
Twenty dua pulo
Twenty one dua pulo sedi
Thirty tllu pulo
Thirty one tllu pulo sedi
Forty pata pulo
Fifty lima pulo
One hundred siratu
From one to ten there are nuclear units, it is impossible to see any root or any particle
that tell us about the numeral formation. From eleven to twenty, Bugis does 10+1,
10+2, etc. Then, twenty is 2x10, twenty-one is 2x10+1. Thirty is 3x10 and so on. One
hundred is siratu, again a nuclear unit impossible to break down. The word for five and
hand is the same: lima.
The similarity between dua in Bugis (a shared word with at least Indonesian/Malay) and
dva in Sanskrit is quite obvious. According to Blust (2013) loanwords from Sanskrit are
found in languages in the Philippines as well as in Indonesia and Malaysia. For example,
in Malay (and in Bahasa Indonesia) the word for first is pertama, which comes from
Sanskrit (Blust, 2013, p. 291). Once again, Blust (2013, p. 151) states that the influence
of Sanskrit over old Javanese has been enormous, which shows the influence of the
Sanskrit language over the area. In Javanese number two is loro, however as seen with
Malay and Indonesian, numbers can be borrowed, so, it might be a coincidence or not,
but certainly dua could come from Sanskrit.

3.2.5.

Adverbs

Time adverbs are placed at the end of the sentence, but they rarely can be found also at
the beginning of the sentence. Through time adverbs Bugis expresses tense.
(152)
ma-andre=ki
otti
onnaele-e
VBZ-eat=2sgFRM.ABS banana morning-DEF
You ate a banana this morning
(153)
ma-andre=ka
otti
batja
VBZ-eat=1sgABS
banana tomorrow
Tomorrow I will eat banana
24

As it is seen in the examples above, adverbs take enclitics as other words do. Here
another example:
(154)
biase=ki
usually=1plABS
We usually
Some other adverbs are: tappa (then) and femng (again).
(155)
uppanna mulesu
femng
when come back
again
When are you going to go back?
(156)
tappa akka
manu
then there is chicken pass
then a chicken passes by

3.2.6.

laalo

Verbs

In Bugis all verbs consist of stem which is completed with affixes and clitics.
As said, the basic order in a Bugis sentence is placing the verb at the beginning. The
verb may show one of the following combinations:
(157)
ma+verb+ABS
ma-andre=ka
VBZ-eat=1sgABS
I eat
(158)
verb+ABS
lo=ka
will=1sgABS
I will
(159)
ERG+Verb+ABS
mu=unu=ka
2sgERG=kill=1sgABS
He/she kills me
(160)
IMPRF+ma+verb+ABS
la-ma-kelong=i
IMPRF-VBZ-sing=3sgABS
was singing
(161)
PASS+verb+ABS
i-unu-w=i
PASS-kill-E=3sgABS
is killed
(162)
PASS+verb
i-anre
PASS-eat
25

be eaten
(163)
Verb alone
miong-e maate
cat-DEF die
the cat dies
The verb also may appear after the object in a SV order and only with transitive verbs:
(164)
iia
ma-unu-w=i
PRN.1sg VBZ-kill-E=3sgABS
I kill David

la Dafi
ART.M David

Bugis has no copulative verb. Lets take a look at some examples:


(165)
asu ye (also ye asu)
dog this
This is a dog
(166)
aka asu
there dog
there is a dog
(167)
mega asu
many dog
There are many dogs
3.2.6.1.

Ma- prefix

Bugis has verbal stems and non-verbal stems. Ma- is a verbalizer for non-verbal stems.
In English, what lexical category does book have? If we want it to be a verb we have to
add to. In Bugis, what lexical category does anre have? If we want it to be a verb we
must add ma-. This ma- may be omitted when we add an ergative proclitic to the stem
and therefore, we establish the relationship between agent and patient, then theres no
need to verbalize the stem, since the relationship between an agent and a patient can
only be established by a verb in this case.
When adding the ma- enclitic to a verb initial sentence, we are shifting the agent mark
from a proclitic position to an enclitic one. That is, since theres no ergative mark
because it is substituted by ma-, it is the absolutive mark which is in charge of
expressing the agent. This process is called inverse-marking.
Ma- is also used to establish the infinitive form ma-baca to read.
Ma- can also be applied to verbalize nouns.
(168)
ma-golo
VBZ-ball
play football

26

3.2.6.2. Transitive verbs


In example (169) we can appreciate what it is just said above: the stem takes a
verbalizer, from that moment we have action, we have a verb. The canonical way of
Bugis word order tells us the agent goes at the end, which is focalized by the definite
article. In that case, the verb does not need the absolutive to mark agent, either, since
theres no ambiguity.
In example (170) theres agreement in the verbal proclitic, where the agent is expressed
and in the enclitic, where the patient is expressed.
In transitive verbs we can have both, a proclitic and an enclitic.
(169)
ma-anre buku asu-e
VBZ-eat bone dog-DEF
The dog eats a bone
(170)
na=unu-w=i
la Dafi
oto-e
3sgERG=kill-E=3sgABS ART.M David car-DEF
The car kills David
3.2.6.3.

Intransitive verbs

The prototypical sentence with an intransitive verb is the following:


(171)
more-w=i
tomatoa
cough-E=3sgABS old man
the old man coughs

(172)
tarasi-n=i
anana-e
sneeze-PAST=3sgABS children-DEF
The children sneezed
Intransitive verbs only take enclitics which express the agent.

3.2.6.2. Tense
Bugis has 3 tenses: past, present and future. As in many languages, tense it is mainly
expressed by temporal adverbs without the need of adding any tense marker in the
verb.

3.2.6.2.1. Present tense


(173)
ma-anre=ka
oti
VBZ-eat=1sgABS banana
I eat banana
As we see, there are no special tense marks in the verb for expressing present.
27

3.2.6.2.2. Past tense


(174)
joka-taro
go-PAST
went
(175)
joka-ria
go-PAST away
went away
(176)
ma-anru-n=i
VBZ-fall down-PAST-3sgABS
He fell down
(177)
ma-anre-w=i
oti-e
VBZ-eat-E=3sgABS banana-DEF
I already ate the banana
(178)
mate-n=i
die-PAST=3sgABS
He died.
As seen in the examples above, the past is expressed by several suffixes. The n suffix is
inserted between the stem and the enclitic on examples (176) and (178). The rest of the
examples which are translated as past, the tense is given by the context and there no
special mark for it.

3.2.6.2.3. Future tense


(179)
lo=ka
ma-anre
want=3sgABS VBZ-eat
I will eat
This way of forming the future is by using the verb lo (to want) as auxiliary and adding
to it the patient mark altogether with the main clause verb.
(180)
lo-n-i
want-FUT-3sgABS die
he/she will die

mate

As it can be seen n is a mark for the future tense, as well as it is a mark for past tense.
The difference in use is that when we want to use n as a past marker, it has to be
inserted in the verb, whereas if we want it to be a future marker it has to be inserted in
the auxiliary verb lo (to want).

3.2.6.2. Aspect
A clear example of an imperfective form is the following:
28

(181)
lamakelongngi
la-ma-kelo=i
la-ma-kelo=i
IMPERF-VBZ-sing=3sgABS
He/she was singing
The example above is the only one available where the apparent mark of la as
imperfective. The rest examples, we have verbs with the ma- prefix and where the
translations fluctuate between present tense, imperfective and present continuous, all
depending on context.
(182)
ma-roki suru-e
la Dafi
VBZ-write letter-DEF ART.M David
David is writing the letter or David writes the letter
(183)
ma-roki mufi la Dafi
VBZ-write still ART.M David
David is still writing.
Theres not a special mark for the perfect tense and it is made as described in 5.6.4.2,
although again, context and adverbs help with it.
(184)
ma-anre=ka
oti
onnaele-e
VBZ-eat=1sgABS banana morning-DEF
I will eat a banana in the morning

3.2.6.2. Mood
Indicative is the non-marked mood:
(185)
ma-anre=ka
oti
VBZ-eat=1sgABS banana
I eat a banana
(186)
idi
PRN.1sg all
We kill David

maneng mu=unu-w=i
la Dafi
2sgERG=kill-E=3sgABS ART.M David

The conditional is form in the following way:


(187)
akkuia ma-anjagi
manumanu ka
lo=ka
fopong
COND VBZ-become bird
PREP want=1sgABS fly
if I was a bird, I would fly up to a tree.

luttu kiase=na
over=3sgABS tree

And to end this mood section, here it is how the imperative is formed:
(188)
unu-w=i
la Dafi
kill-E=3sgABS ART.M David
Kill David!
(189)
tulung=i
la Dafi
help=3sgABS ART.M David
29

Help David!
The formation of the imperative is with the stem with no proclitic and the absolutive
enclitic.
The prohibitive is formed from with the imperative works in the following way:
(190)
atja mu=anre
manngi roti-e
NEG 2sgABS=eat whole
bread-DEF
do not eat the whole bread!
atja is a negation adverb for the imperative.

3.2.7.

Prepositions

Some of the prepositions in Bugis are:


(191)
ko sikola-e
to school-DEF
to the school

(192)
pole popong-e
from tree-DEF
from the tree
(193)
ku bulu-e (ki in some dialects)
on hill-DEF
on the hill
Some other prepositions are: sibawa (with), jawana (under), munri (behind), siwali
(beside), jasena (on), etc.
The most interesting feature in prepositions is that ku can take enclitics as well.
(194)
ku=ka
bola-ku
at=1sgABS house-1sgGEN
Im at my home

3.2. Phrases
3.2.1. Noun phrase
The noun phrase in Bugis may be made of the following elements:
(195)
Noun
manu
chicken
(196)

Adjective+noun
30

becu kampong
small village
(197)
Noun+adjective
ceiba
fute
monkey white
white monkey
(198)
Noun+Adjective+DEF
risi bolong-e
line black-DEF
the black line
(199)
Noun+DEF
asu-e
dog-DEF
The dog

(200)
Noun+GEN
bola-na
la
Daf
house-3sgGEN ART.M David
Davids house
(201)
Noun+ABS
bola=ka
house=1sgABS
My house
(202)
Numeral+noun
tllu bola
three house
three houses

3.2.6.

Articles and demonstratives

A pragmatic issue that plays a significant role in the encoding of noun is identifiability
and referentiality. Certain noun phrases refer to entities that the speaker judges should
be identifiable by the addressee. In English, the article the is one means of expressing
identifiability. In Bugis, as said on chapter 3.2.1, it is the definite article in the suffix form
of e.
(203)
joka anan-e
ku
sikola-e
go
children-DEF PREP school-DEF
The children go to the school
The use of e in example (203) instructs the addressee that there are some specific
children that go to a specific school, which the speaker is referring to. Furthermore, if
this were a real communication situation, the speaker would probably assume that the
addressee knows who these children are and what school we are talking about. That is,
31

the speaker treats the participants in question as identifiable given the information the
speaker assumes the addressee has available. If we dont use the definite article e, we
assume that we are just talking about any children that go to just any school. Bugis has
a more extensive use of the article than English, marking the direct object, as well as
used probably due to prosodic or pragmatic reasons, for example to focalize. Therefore
there are many instances where the Bugis speaker feels the need of defining a noun,
whereas in English it is not required.
(204)
u-foy=i
ye tryang-e
1sgERG-like=2sgABS this dance-e
I like this dance
Example (204) English has enough defining dance with the demonstrative this,
therefore theres no need for an extra identifiable particle such as the, whereas Bugis
still requires the definite article to specify that we are talking about a known and
particular dance.
One added feature of e is that when added to a verb, it nominalizes it by defining it.
(205)
ma-safeda-e
VBZ-bike-DEF
the biker
The example above is quite curious; as we take a noun, we verbalize it with ma-, and
then we nominalize it back again with e to express the person who is doing the action.
As seen, Bugis has demonstrative pronouns, which are free forms. They precede the
noun. Demonstratives imply pointing to or demonstrating the object they refer to.
(206)
ye bola-e
this house-DEF
This house
(207)
yoro bola-e
that house-DEF
That house
In addition to exhibiting the features common to the pronoun system of the language
(number, gender, etc.), demonstratives often express distance with respect to the
speaker or to the hearer, this is the case of Bugis which has two degrees of distance as
seen on examples (206) and (207). Some languages make a distinction between items
close to the hearer, items close to the speaker, and items distant from both. That does
not seem to be the case of Bugis.

3.2.7.

Numerals

When counting objects, the number is placed before the noun:


32

(208)
tllu bola
three house
three houses
When theres an adjective, the order is numeral + adjective + noun:
(209)
dua tanru-na
bembe-e
two horn-3sgGEN goat-DEF
the goats two horns
To indicate the number of people who is doing the action, we must place the numeral
after the personal pronoun, and then the agent is attached to the numeral.
(210)
idi
dua=ki
PRN.1pl two=2sgABS
(the) two of us
The numeral acts as a definite article, therefore theres no need for the definite article e.
A sentence can start by a numeral, being this one the subject of a sentence.
(211)
tllu=i
na-unu
meong-e
four=3sgABS 3sgERG-kill cat-DEF
The four of us kill the cat
In (211) the numeral takes an enclitic.

3.2.8.

Possession

The full paradigm of possessive suffixes is given in chapter 3.2.2.2 in Figure 7.


Possession is expressed by a genitive enclitic.
(212)
bola-na
la David
house-3sgGEN ART.M David
Davids house
(213)
ulu-na
ambo=ko
head-3sgGEN father=3sgABS
My fathers head
Languages typically express many semantic relationships with the same formal
construction used to express ownership. So, we have possessive constructions:
(214)
ulu-ku
head-1sgGEN
My head
(215)
bola-ku
house-1sgGEN
My house
And there are constructions where even though Bugis uses a possessive, possession is
not being indicated. In these examples, family relationships are indicated:
33

(216)
anure-ku
niece-1sgGEN
My niece
(217)
silo-ku
friend-1sgGEN
my friend
Bugis has no inherence in possession.

3.2.9.

Relative clauses

The following exemple is a relative clause:


(218)
yare roti-e
foro-mull=i
iwini
This bread-DEF REL-buy=3sgABS yesterday
This is the bread that he bought yesterday
The following is the analysis of (34):
yare rotie fura- [ mulli iwini]
The head, the noun phrase modified by the clause, is yare rotie, the restricting clause is
[ mulli iwini]. The relativized noun phrase, which is the co-referent element with the
head noun, in this case is . The relativizer in Bugis is shown as a prefix attached to the
verb, foro. In this case, the verb takes the relativizer and theres no agent insertion in
between. The agent moves to the enclitic position, so theres inverse-marking.
Sometimes the Bugis language can omit that in a sentence:
(219)
ma-kare Amanda fapara=ko manumanu-e
VBZ-say Amanada like=2sgABS bird-DEF
Amanda says that you like birds (lit. Amanda say you like bird)
[[makare Amanda]main clause + [faparako manumanue]sub. clause]complex sentence

3.3. Verb phrase


As mentioned in chapter 25, verbs have patient and agent agreement, but theres no
gender agreement. In the formation of a verb phrase, the transitive verb may take an
ergative proclitic to express the agent and an absolutive enclitic to express the patient.
The intransitive verb may take an absolutive enclitic to express the agent.

34

As can be appreciated throughout the text, these are treated as clitics due to the fact
that are found in more than one lexical category: verbs, adverbs and prepositions.
Figure 10. Clitics in Bugis.

I
You/you all formal
You/you all informal
She/he/it
We/us

Ergative
ku-/utamunaki-

Absolutive
-ka
-ki
-ko
-i
-ki

(220)
lo=i
ma-nari
want=he/she VBZ-dance
he/she wants to dance
(221)
lo=ka
ma-nari
want=I VBZ-dance
I want to dance
(222)
tabena=i pire pole popong-e
fall=it
pear PREP tree-DEF
it fall a pear from the tree
In many occasions instead of having i for the 3sg absolutive, theres a wi. Theres no
difference in meaning at all. Looking at the examples it can be seen that wi always may
appear after just any vowel. This [w] is an epenthetic sound because it is only found
after a vowel, but not after a consonant, therefore it cant be an allomorph of i, as
otherwise it would appear just after any sound. So, this [w] is an epenthetic sound that
sometimes appears after a vowel and it is also used to emphasize the agent or the
patient. This epenthetic [w] also appears in front of the verb:
(223)
u-w-anre
PRN.1sgERG-E-eat
I eat
Lets take a look at the ambiguity of the following constructions, which are translated to
English with the same meaning:
(224)
na-unu-w=i
oto-e
la Dafi
3sgERG-kill-E=3sgABS car-DEF ART.M David
David kills the car
(225)
na-unu-w=i
la Dafi
oto-e
3sgERG-kill=3sgABS ART.M David car-DEF
*David kills the car

35

In an ergative language, the absolutive in a transitive verb establishes the object, and
the ergative the subject. Therefore we have na-unu-w=i

ergative-kill=absolutive or

S-kill=O.
It is important to point out the ambiguity of a no contextualized form such as:
(226)
na=unu-w=i
he/she/it=kill-E=he/she/it
The ambiguity is due to fact that these clitics give information on agent, patient, and on
person, but not on gender or if it is human or not as in the case of the example 36.
Thats why that depending on the context, examples (35) and (35) may have the same
meaning and translation. However, taking the canonical order for Bugis example (224) is
well translated and example (225) must say The car kills David.

3.4. Non-verbal phrase

Bugis allows generating sentences without any verb at all. On type of these sentences
are the ones which in many languages require a copulative verb, such as in English. In
this case, Bugis has no copulative verb, so the sentences are generated with no verb.
We have already seen examples (165), (166) and (167) on chapter 3.2.6
Another way of generating sentences with no verbs is with the existential adverb ngka,
which it is translated as there.
(227)
ngka anana
there children
There are children

3.5. Adpositional phrase


Bugis has free prepositions, therefore it has prepositional phrases. The basic order for
this kind of phrases is PREP=agent marker + O. As we can see the preposition has the
agent attached as an enclitic.
(228)
yase=na
mega-e
PREP=3sgABS table-DEF
on the table
(229)
yawa=na
mega-e
PREP=3sgABS table-DEF
under the table
36

Sometimes adpositional phrases are formed by using directional or locational particles


such as ki or ku. These particles can be combined with verbal phrases to indicate motion
as seen in the following examples:
(230)
ma-tama=ka
ku naforony-e
VBZ-enter=1sgABS DIR kitchen-DEF
I enter the kitchen
(231)
joka=i
anana-e
ku sikula-e
walk=3pABS children-DEF DIR school-DEF
The children walk to the school
In the following example there is the use of a locational, by when the location is fixed:
(232)
ma-cule anana-e
ki
olona bola-e
VBZ-play children-DEF LOC front house-DEF
The children play in front of the house
When the location is inside or in a high place, it is used the locative ki plus aln inside
or ase up. Lets take a look at an example:
(233)
aka
pir-e ki
aln=na
karanyjangng-e
there is pear-DEF inside=3sgABS basket-DEF
There is the pear inside the basket

3.6. Sentence types


3.6.1. Declarative
One

common

structure

for

declarative

sentences

with

transitive

verbs

is

Agent=verb=Patient. The proclitic is the ergative that agrees in person with the agent,
and the absolutive agrees in person with the patient.
(234)
Dafi na-anre-w=i
manumanu
David 3sgERG-eat-E=3sgABS chicken
David eats chicken
Bugis is a split ergative-absolutive language, which means that it has a double behavior.
This double behavior can be seen in the declarative sentences.
The declarative ergative-absolutive structure goes as follows:
(235)
ma-anre=ka oti=
VBZ-eat=1sgABS banana=ABS
I eat a banana
Nominative-absolutive structures:
(236)
meong ma-unu=ka
cat.NOM VBZ-kill=1sgABS
The cat kills me
37

(237)
iya
ma-unu=i
la Dafi
PRN.1sg VBZ-kill=3pABS ART.M David
In intransitive verbs theres only the enclitic, the absolutive which agrees in person with
the agent.
(238)
ma-ore-w=i
la Dafi
VBZ-cough-E=3sgABS ART.M David
David coughs

3.7. Negation
Negation is expressed by the particle de followed by the ergative.
(239)
de=u
yoka ku
bola-ku
NEG=PRN.1sgERG go
PREP house-PRN.1sg.GEN
I dont go to my house
(240)
yoro guru
de=na
ma-baca bobo
that teacher NEG=PRN.3sgERG
VBZ-read book
That teacher does not read a book

3.8. Questions
There are several ways of forming questions in Bugis. One of them is, as with many
languages, formed by a change of intonation when speaking.
Besides intonation, there are two ways of constructing questions. The first way is with an
interrogative pronoun:
(241)
yategi oto-mu?
which car-PRN.2sg.GEN
Which is your car?
(242)
teegi asu-e?
where dog-DEF
where is the dog?
And the second way is with the particle ga for yes-no questions.
(243)
asu ga ye?
dog Q this
Is this a dog?
(244)
yoro ga bola-nu?
That Q house-PRN.2sgGEN
Is that your house?
When negating a yes-no question, the question particle is reduplicated and attached as
a suffix to the negation particle.
38

(245)
de-ga ga na=joka
anana-e
ki
sikola-e
NEG-Q Q 3plERG=go children-DEF PREP school-DEF
Dont the children go to the school?

3.9. Passive
The passive voice is constructed by adding an i- at the verbal stem. Lets take a look at
some examples:
(246)
aga i-anre
what PASS-eat
what will be eaten
(247)
i-unu-w=i
la Dafi
ku
oto-e
PASS-kill-E=3sgABS ART.M David PREP car-DEF
David is killed by the car
On example (247) we can observe how the agent is placed at the end, so we have a VOS
order and there must be the absolutive mark.
Another way of forming the passive is with the prefix ri- which occurs before the
transitive and intransitive verbs:
(248)
(249)
(250)

3.10.

riasuro to be ordered
ritiwi to be taken
riagelli to be angry (in Bugis this is an intransitive verb)

Clauses

3.10.1. Possessive clauses


Languages usually employ existential and/or locational structures to express the notion
of possession, so possession it is not only expressed by a possessive pronoun but also
for a verb such as to have. This is the case in Bugis.
(251)
Dafi puna yoro bola-e
David have that house-DEF
David has that house

3.10.2. Complement clauses


A prototypical complement clause is the one that functions as an argument (subject or
object) of some other clause (Payne, 2010, p. 313).
(252)
lo=i
ma-anre-w=i
roti-e
la
want=3sgABS VBZ-eat-E=3sgABS bread-DEF ART.M Koert
Koert wants to eat the bread

Koert

39

Example (252) is an object complement clause where the constituents have the
following roles:
[loi manrewi rotie la Koert] main clause
[manrewi rotie] complement clause

3.11.

Adverbial clauses

(253)
pas
ma-jame i
Amanda ujian-e
tappa bosi
ADV VBZ-do ART.F Amanda exam-DEF then rain
Amanda was doing the exam when it started to rain
In the previous example we have a simultaneous clause. If we compare it with English,
we see that pas is the equivalent of the English when, which is the particle that allows
the simultaneity. In Bugis it goes at the beginning of the clause.
(254)
ma-jame i
Amanda ujian-e
na la-ma-kelong=i
la Yani
VBZ-do ART.F Amanda exam-DEF and IMPRF-VBZ-sing=3sgABS ART.M Yani
Amanda was doing the exam while Yani was singing
If we take the literal meaning of (254) it says: Amanda does the exam and Yani is
singing. However, we can see how the verb majame does not take any clitic to express
agent, while the verb makelong it takes the absolutive to express agent, doing inversemarking. The two sentences are linked by a conjunction, and indeed, the meaning is the
same as it infers simultaneity.

3.12.

Coordination

Lets take, again, example (254) but in this case lets have a literal translation of it.
(255)
ma-jame i
Amanda ujian-e
na la-ma-kelong=i
la Yani
VBZ-do ART.F Amanda exam-DEF and IMPRF-VBZ-sing=3sgABS ART.M Yani
Amanda does the exam and Yani is singing
As it can be seen conjunction works just as in English, which is placing na (and) in the
middle of the two clauses. In the same way works disjunction:
(256)
ma-anre jampu ato yoka ma-pasayangki
VBZ-eat fruit
or go
VBZ-kite
to eat fruit or to go to play with the kite

40

3.13.

Reduplication

Bugis uses reduplication in several ways, although some of the reduplications are
already lexicalized and most of them are no longer productive.
(257)
(258)

manu chicken manumanu bird


bola house bolabola small house (in this case reduplication acts as a

diminutive)
(259)
batu stone batubatu pebble
(260)
ana son/daughter anana children (in this case reduplication is used to
express plural, but it is lexicalized and no longer productive to create new forms of
plural).

41

4.

Kinship terminology

The following list is a compilation of kinship terms in Bugis:


Figure 11. Kinship terms in Bugis.

English
Father
Mother
Siblings
Brother
Sister
Older brother
Older sister
Younger brother
Younger sister
Middle brother
Middle sister
Grandparents
Great grandparents
Uncle
Aunt
Cousin male
Cousin female
Son
Daughter
Children
Mother in law
Father in law
Sister in law
Brother in law
Stepfather
Stepmother
Stepbrother
Stepsister
Cousins son
Cousins daughter
Cousins children
Grandfather
Grandmother
Parents
Nephew
Niece
Wife
Husband

Bugis
ambo
indo
silasuang
foorane
parakunrai
daing (urane)
daing (makunrai)
anri (urane)
anri (makunrai)
anatanga
anatanga
nene
nene utu
amue (urane)
amue (mankunrai)
sapisang (urane)
sapisang (makunrai)
ana (burane)
ana (makunrai)
ana ana
matua (urane)
matua (makunrai)
ifa (burane)
ifa (makunrai)
fura ambo
fura indo
amforo (urane)
amforo (makunrai)
anue (urane)
anue (makunrai)
anana sapisang
laato
nene
indoambo
anure (urane)
anure (makunrai)
baine
lakkai

Bugis has no gender inflection, but at the same time many of the kinship terms use the
same generic word for referring either to male and female. Unless one needs to specify,
in a regular speech gender is never specified. With no need of listing them all again,
42

some of these terms are: dain older brother/sister; matua mother/father in law; ifa
brother/sister in law; amure aunt/uncle, etc. In case of need for sex distinction it is
added the words urane man or makunrai woman, so matua could be either mother or
father in law, but then we have matua urane father in law and matua makunrai mother
in law.
Some Austronesian languages have obligatory possessive marking for kinship terms; this
is not the case for Bugis where it is just possible to name any kinship word without the
need of adding the possessive. Since kinship terms are nouns, as any other noun may
take the genitive suffix.
(261)
ambo-ku
father-1sgGEN
My father
So, as said, it is possible to just say ambo father when referring to any father, or
amboku my father when speaking of a specific father.
Bugis has specific non analyzable words for defining kinship in which other languages,
such as English, require more than one word. For example, we find the following nuclear
terms: daing older brother/sister; anri younger brother/sister; matua mother/father in
law; ifa brother/sister in law.
Some other forms are compounds, reduplications or lexicalized forms. There is the
compound form anatanga middle son/daugther where ana is son/daughter and tanga
middle. From ana, again, we have the reduplicated form anana children, literally sonson or daughter-daugther or probably since theres no gender distinction daughter-son
or vice versa.
An exception to the fact of using the same word for both gender are the lexicalized
words for brother fororane made up of foro + rane (urane) man, and sister parakunrai
made up of para + kunrai (makunrai) woman. Then, as a lexicalized form there is
amforo step brother/sister, where foro is the same root as in brother and there is no
current meaning for am.
There are some compounds such as the formation of stepfather/stepmother with the
word fura plus the word mother or father, where fura means already, so for example,
fura indo stepmother literally means already mother.
According to Blust (2013, p. 352), Proto Malayo Polinesian show traces of a possible
matrilineal

society,

these

traces

could

still

be

found

in

the

following:

nene

grandmother, nene granparents, nene utu great grandparents. In some languages,


43

such as in Catalan, the word for parents is pares (lit. fathers) and that includes the
mother and the father. In this case, in Bugis we have that the including word for both,
male and female derives from the female word. In Bugis, the word for parents is
indoambo, literally motherfather, perhaps the fact of placing first the word for mother
aslo tells us something about this possible matrilineal past.
Bugis uses the same word for nephew/niece and cousins son/daughter which is anure.
Then for cousins children uses anana sapisang, which literally means the children of
the cousin. So this last term is a descriptive one since theres not a specific form for it,
instead of being a lexicalized one or a nuclear form.
The following is a kinship matrix in order to well-establish the kinship relationship
throughout the vocabulary.
Figure 12. Kinship matrix for Bugis
Gend
er

Relative age

+old
er

+young
er

generation

Blood
relative.

kindr
ed

+2

+
1

.
0

-1

+collate
ral
+3

Ambo father
Indo -mother
Fororane
-brother
Parakunrai
-sister
Daing -Older
sibling
Anri younger
sibling
Anatanga
-Middle sibling
Nene
-grandparents
Nene utu
-greatgrandpa
rents
Amure
uncle/aunt
Sapsiang
-cousin
Ana
son/daughter
Matua
mother/father
in law
Ifa
brother/sister
in law

Fura ambo
-stepfather

+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+

+
44

Fura indo
-stepmother
Amforo
stepbrother/sis
ter
Anure cousin
son/daughter
Laato
-grandfather
Nene
-grandmother
Indoambo
-parents
Anure
nephew/niece

+
+
+

+
+

4.1. Historical kinship


From Blust (2013) data and Wikipedia (2013) it comes out the following figure:
Figure 13. Kinship in Proto-Austronesian, Proto-Malayo Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic , ProtoPolynesian and Bugis.

Kinship

person
mother
father
child
man, male
woman,
female

Proto
Austronesia
n
*Cau
*t-ina
*t-ama
*aNak
*maRuqanay
*bahi

Proto
Malayo
Polynesian
*tau
*t-ina
*t-ama
*anak
*laki, *maRuqanay
*bahi

Proto
Oceanic

Proto
Polynesian

Bugis

*taumataq
*tina
*tama
*natu
*nwaRuqan
e
*pine,
*papine

*tangata
*tinana
*tamana
*tama
*taqane

ma, tau
indo
ambo
ana ana
urane

*fafine

makunrai

Taking a look at the above it is easy to notice that Bugis shows obvious similarity with
Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo Polynesian, although that this fact is clear only in
the terms for person and child. There might be some similarity as well in the term for
father *t-ama and ambo. The most striking characteristic of the above figure is the
similarity of the word in Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo Polynesian *ma-Ruganay
and the Bugis one makunrai, similarity in form but not in meaning, as the proto form
means man and the Bugis one means woman. At the same time, in Proto-MalayoPolynesian there is an alternate form for man which is *laki, and in Bugis we find lakkai
which means husband, so in this last case it could be a semantic specialization of the
word *laki that went from the broader meaning of man to the narrower meaning in
Bugis of husband.
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian had four sibling terms:
45

1) *kaka older same sex sibling,


2) *huaji younger same sex sibling,
3) *aRa brother of a woman,
4) *betaw sister of a man
As already mentioned, Bugis has lost the sex distinction, however it does preserves
specific terms to refer to older or younger siblings, daing older and anri younger.

5.

Appendix

5.1. Transcription text


The following is a two minute story transcribed, glossed and with and approximate
translation from Bugis into English.
The text has the following format with different colors, so it makes it easier to identify
each part:
Phonetics
Phonology
Gloss
Translation

1.lok:a maceita watuku becu gampoe watuku becu iolo ufui jokanae kusaloe
l.=k:a ma-.ce..ta ua.t.ku b.cu kam.po.- a.t.ku b.cu i..lo u.f.=i jo.ka n.e
kusalo-e
will=1sgABS VBZ-tell story kid small village-DEF kid small long ago like=I go swim river-DEF
I will tell a story of when I was a small kid in a village. Long ago when I was a kid I liked to go to
swim
2. ak:a salo sidop:e bola:ku biasaka joka cam:e koo sibawa cume na na:e sibawa
.k:a s.lo si.d.p:e b.la:=k:u bi..sa=ka j.ka c.m:e k.o si.b.ua c.me n n:.e
si.b.ua

46

river-DEF theres river near house=1sgABS usually=1sgABS go bath/swim there to with


bath
to the river that theres near my home, I usually go to swim/bath there, to bath and swim with
3. siloko nacaga biasa tomatuaku joka koo saloe fanasalempo amae nap:a
si.lu=ku na.c.ga bi..sa to.m.tu.a=k:u j.ka ko. sa.lo- fa.na.sa lm.po a.ma. n.p:a
friends=1sgGEN banned usually parents=1sgGEN go there river-DEF because flood could be
then
my friends. My parents usually banned to go to the river because there could be flood then
4. maliko a:mate degamitako tapi bjesa toki joka koo
M.li.=ko a:.m.t-e de.ga m.ta.=ko ta.p bi..sa=to.ki j.ka ko.
flow=2sgABS will die no see=2sgABS but (Bahasa Indonesia) usually=1plABS(slang) go
there
you flow away youll die, nobody see you but we usually go there
5. namu nacani to:matuwat:a tatatoi joka na:eko saloe kufuaki
na.m na.ca.n= to:.ma.t.ua.=t:a ta.ta t.i j.ka na:.e.=ko sa.lo= ku.fu..ki
although banned=1plABS parents=2plABS still we go swim=3plABS river-DEF after
although it was banned by our parents we still go to swim at the river. After
6. naeko saloe biaseki joka ku bulue biaseki joka sap:a bua ampu
n.e.=ko sa.lo- bi..se=ki j.ka ku bu.lu- bi..se=ki j.ka sa.p: b.a m.pu
swim=1plABS river-DEF usually=1plABS go PREP hill-DEF usually=1plABS go look for fruit rose
apple
swim at the river we usually go to the hill, we usually go to look for rose apples
7. manre ampuato jokaki mapasajaki saloe arega jokaki mago lo koo kufuraki
mn.re m.pu .to j.ka=ki m-.pa.sa.ja.ki sa.lo- jo.ka.=k ma-.g.lo ko. ku.fu.a.=k
eat fruit or go=1sgABS VBZ-kite PREP river-DEF go=1plABS VBZ-ball there to after=1plABS
to eat them or to play with kite in the river. We go to play football there, and after we usually
take
8. cume biasatok:i joka mita fagolo kusdena joro saloe tapi falen ofui ku
c.me bi.a.s.to.=k:i j.ka m.ta fa.g.lo ku.s.d.na j.ro sa.lo- ta.p f.len o.f.=i ku
bath usually=1plABS go see people ball near that river-DEF but really like=1sgABS PREP
a bath. We go to see people playing football near that river, but I really like
9. jokaki mapasaja ku jokaki mapasaja bia:saki mebuki pasaja jokaki jolo
jo.ka =k ma- pa s.ja ku j.ka.=k ma-.pa.s.ja bi..se.=ki me.b.=ki pa.s.ja jo.ka.=k
j.lo
go VBZ-kite PREP go=1plABS VBZ-kite usually=1plABS make=1plABS kite go=1plABS
first
to go us to play with kite and we go to play kite. We usually make the kite so we go first

47

10. sap:a awo: nap:a jort: awoe nap:a joka toki mal:i kartasa sibawan:a
sa.p: a.u: na.p: jo.r.t: au.o na.p: j.ka to.=k m-.l:i kar.ta.s si.ba.a=n:a
looking for bamboo then cut=1plABS bamboo then go also=1plABS VBZ-buy paper
with=rope
to look for bamboo then we cut the bamboo, then we go to buy the paper with a rope
11. nap:a iini mebu ierobenae pasajae nap:a sibawani macule sibawalok:u
na.p: i..ni me.b ie.r.be na.- pa.sa.ja- na.p: si.ba.a=ni ma-.c.le si.ba.a l.=k:u
then we make this rope-DEF kite-DEF then with=1plABS ABS-play with friend=1sgABS
then we make the kite with the rope then I play with my friends
12. ku lapaae mapasaja biasa kuawee joro ceretaku atuku becu
ku la.pa.a. ma-.pa.s.ja bi..sa ku.a.ue.- j.ro ce.re.t.=k:u a.t.ku b.cu
PREP field VBZ-kite usually afternoon-DEF that story=1sgABS kid small
in the field with the kite usually in the afternoon. Thats the story of when I was a small kid.

5.2. Glossary
5.2.1. Bugis Catalan English

'
'baa Noun. anec; duck.

'ba Noun. cobdicia; greed.

af
aa
a
aga
aga
aha
aa
al
ama
amba
am
ana

Noun. foc; fire.


Noun. mot; word.
Noun. norma; norm.

Pronoun. que; what.

Variant: aga. Pronoun. que; what.


Noun. diumenge; Sunday.

no ho facis; don't do it.


Noun. bosc; forest.
Noun. mare; mother.
Verb. pegar; to hit.
Verb. empassar; swallow.
Noun. fill/a; son/daughter.

ana ana Variant: ananae. Noun. fills; children.


anri Noun. germa/na petit; younger sibling.
ao
Noun. pit; chest.
ass Noun. nom; name.
ass u
Variant: ass u; asu. Noun. gos; dog.
ata
Adjective. esclau; slave.
ae
Noun. peu; foot.
ana Noun. fill; son.
ba
Adverb. si; yes.
babi Noun. porc; pig.
baa Adverb. dema; tomorrow.
bajne
Noun. muller; wife.
48

bale Noun. peix; fish.


bar Noun. granger; farmer.
bau Adjective. nou; new.
batu Noun. pedra; stone.
beta
Adjective. vell; old.
bebe
Verb. caure; falling down.
bembe Noun. cabra; goat.
biti
Noun. canyella; shin.
bola Variant: bola. Noun. casa; house.
bolo
Adjective. negre; black.
boo Adjective. podrit; rotten.
bobo
Noun. llibre; book.
bua Noun. fruita; fruit.
bulu Noun. turo; hill.
bua Noun. flor; flower.
bwas
repetir; repeat.
bwana
Adverb. d'acord; okay.
ceds :e
Adjective. pocs; few.
ceiba Noun. mico; monkey.
combi
Noun. vagina; vagina.
como Adjective. gras; fat.
couki Noun. gat; cat.
cum:e
Noun. bany; bath.
daj Noun. germa/na gran; older sibling.
daj makunrai See main entry: . Noun. germana
gran; older sister.

daj uane

See main entry: . Noun. germa

gran; older brother.

dega Pronoun. ningu; nobody.


dua
Noun. canella.
aucili
Noun. orelles; ears.
awa Noun. tinta; ink.
ua Adjective. dos; two.
ua lima See main entry: . Noun. dues mans; two
hands.

golo Noun. pilota; ball.


gora Noun. crit; scream.
ia
Pronoun. jo; I.
ifa
Noun. cunyat/cunyada; sister/brother in law.
iga
Pronoun. qui; who.
iko
Noun. tu (colloquial); you sing. (colloquial).
i Noun. nas; nose.
ii
Pronoun. tu (educat); you sing. (polite).
ii
Pronoun. vosaltres (paucal); you pl. (paucal).
ii
Noun. nosaltres (paucal); we (paucal).
iss i
Noun. dents; teeth.
iss i
Noun. dents; teeth.
iti
Noun. anec; duck.
inn o ji
Noun. dit gros; big finger.
jasa Variant: jasan. Noun. nom; name.
ji ji
Noun. dits; fingers.
je
Pronoun. aquest; this.
jeso Adverb. avui; today.
jolo
Adverb. davant; in front.
joo Adjective. aquells/es; those.
joo Pronoun. aquella; that.
oka Verb. caminar; to walk.
kamisi
Noun. dijous; Thursday.
keta
Noun. lluna; moon.
kfat hi ha; there is.
kwe Adverb. aqui; here.
la:to Noun. avi; grandfather.
laso Noun. penis; penis.
lampa
Adjective. salvatge; wild.
lempo
pla; flat.
lete Noun. llamp; lightning.
lk
Noun. esquena; back.
lila
Noun. llengua; tongue.
lima Adjective. cinc; five.
lima Noun. ma; hand.
lo
Verb. voler; want.
loka See main entry: . Verb. jo vull; I want.
lutu Verb. sortir volant; fly away.
magai
Pronoun. com; how.
mata
Noun. ull; eye.
manre
Verb. menjar; to eat.
manu
Noun. pollastre; chicken.
manu manu See main entry: . Noun. ocell;
1

See main entry: e.

falen realment; really.


fau
Variant: fau. Verb. parlar; speak.
fawno
Noun. assassi; murderer.
fetu Adjective. set; seven.
femo
Adverb. un altre cop; again.
fli
Noun. galta; cheek.
fura ambo
Noun. pare adoptiu; stepfather.
fura indo
Noun. mare adoptiva;
stepmother.

fute Adjective. blanc; white.


fwole
Verb. venir; to come.

bird.

menu
mega

Verb. beure; to drink.


Variant: mega. Adverb. molts; many.

49

meo Noun. gat; cat.


mita Verb. mirar; to see.
moewi
Verb. estossegar ; cough.
muf
See main entry: kara.
nae Verb. nedar; to swim.
nap:a
llavors; then.
oto Noun. cotxe; car.
oko aixo es meu; this is mine.
oi
Noun. cul; bottom.
oko Noun. mossegada; bite.
pas
mentre; while.
popa
Noun. cuixa; lap.
pope
Verb. pegar; to hit.
popo
Noun. magia negra; black magic.
popo Noun. arbre; tree.
pupu
Adjective. desgastat; worn.
roti
Noun. pa; bread.
oki Verb. escriure; to write.
oki suue
See main entry: . Verb. ha escrit;

tasi Noun. mar; sea.


tabe Noun. em sap greu; excuse me.
tahun
Noun. any (indonesi); year
(Indonesian).

tai la:so See main entry: . Noun. cardar; fuck.


taw Noun. persona; person.
taw fawno
See main entry: . assassi;
murderer.

te:gi Variant: te:gi. Pronoun. on; where.


te:mu
Noun. boca; mouth.
tete Noun. pit; breast.
tl:u Adjective. tres; three.
tl:upulo
See main entry: . Adjective.
trenta; thirty.

tl:upulo ss ei

Adjective. trenta-u;

thirty one.

toni Adverb. sempre; always.


ul Noun. mes; month.
ul Noun. lluna; moon.
ulu
Noun. cap; head.
unuu
Noun. edat; age.
ut:u Noun. genoll; knee.
wai
Noun. aigua; water.
win:i Noun. nit; night.
ampu
Noun. poma rosa; rose apple.
1

he wrote.

umpu
Noun. fum; smoke.
salo Noun. riu; river.
saptu
Noun. dissabte; Saturday.
sao Noun. front; forehead.
ss ei Adjective. u; one.

aga
See main entry: aga2.
amatea Noun. mort; death.
asu
See main entry: ass u.
ass u
See main entry: ass u.
ana makunn rai
See main entry: . fillla;
daughter.

ana ua:ne
See main entry: . Noun. fill; son.
uapulo See main entry: . Adjective. vint; twenty.
fau
See main entry: fau.
ii man
Pronoun. nosaltres (tots); we
1

ii man

Pronoun. vosaltres (tothom);

you pl. (all of us).

jasan
See main entry: jasa.
ji taa Noun. dit del mig; middle finger.
limapulo Adjective. cinquanta; fifty.
mega
See main entry: mega.
silasout:a
See main entry:
silasouta.

te:gi
tel:u ra:tu

See main entry: te:gi.


See main entry: . Adjective. tres-

cents; three hundred.

(all of us).

A - a
a ss uk:u
See main entry: . el meu gos; my dog.
abjo Noun. ma dreta; right hand.
aua Adjective. vuit; eight.
ale:na
Pronoun. ells (paucal); they (paucal).
1

ale:na
Noun. ell/a; he/she.
ale:na man Pronoun. ells/elles (inclusiu);
2

they (all of us).

amue

Noun. oncle/tia; uncle/aunt.

50

anana sapisa

See main entry: . Noun.

fills dels cosins ; cousin's children.

anue
anue
anue
ao:la

Noun. neboda; niece.

Noun. fill/a del cosi ; cousin'


son/daughter.

Noun. nebot/da; nephew /niece.

See main entry: . el seu cor; his/her

heart.

ass u
anar-se'n; to go out.
ass um:u
See main entry: . el teu gos (colloquial);
your dog (colloquial).

ass un:a
ass ut:a

See main entry: . el seu gos; his/her dog.


See main entry: . el teu gos (educat);

your dog (polite).

awo: Noun. bambu; bamboo.


akuro
Adverb. alla; there.
ambo
Noun. pare; father.
amporo
Noun. germa/na adoptat; step sibling.
ananae See main entry: ana ana.
anataa
Noun. fill/a mitja; middle son/daughter.
anuek:u Noun. la meva neboda; my niece.
ass ea
Adjective. nou; nine.
asej
Adverb. dalt; over.
ass o Noun. dia; day.
atuku
Noun. nen; kid.
apaa:tu
See main entry: . Adjective.
quatre-cents; four hundred.

B - b
balawo
Noun. ratoli; mouse.
becu
Adjective. petit; small.
biasa Adverb. sovint; usually.
bola
See main entry: bola.
bola:k:u
See main entry: . la meva casa; my

bola:mu

See main entry: . la teva casa


(colloquial); your house (colloquial).

bola:t:a
bolan:a

bola:k:u

See main entry: . la seva casa; his/her

house.

house.

See main entry: . la teva casa (educat);

your house (polite).

bosi
Noun. pluja; rain.
bobwa Noun. estomac; stomach.
bulu Noun. muntanya; mountain.

C - c
cela

Adjective. vermell; red.

D - d
de

negacio; negation.

-
uara:tu

Adjective. dos-cents; two hundred.

E - e
e

Variant: e. Determiner. DEF; DEF.

eu

Noun. roba; cloth.

-
lu

Noun. nuvols; clouds.

n:

Variant: n. Adjective. sis; six.

51

n:pulo

See main entry: . Adjective.

seixanta; sixty.

See main entry: n:.

pa Adjective. quatre; four.

F - f
fagolo

fem
Adverb. seguent; next.
fooane Noun. germa; brother.
fura
Adverb. ja/encara; already.

Noun. jugador de futbol; football

player.

fapara
faelo

Verb. agradar; to like.


Noun. dit index; index finger.

G - g
gau Adjective. blau; blue.
gm
Noun. cabells; hair.

guu Noun. professor; teacher.

I - i
i

ijo
Adverb. si (colloquial); yes (colloguial).
iwin:i
Adverb. ahir; yesterday.
i
ell/a; he/she.
inn o
Noun. mare; mother.
indoambo Noun. pares; parents.

particle de tracte per a les dones; treatment


particle for women.

ifak:u

Noun. la meva cunyada; my sister in

law.

ija

Adverb. si (educat); yes (polite).

J - j
jasena
sobre; on.
jawana
Adverb. sota; under.
jategi Pronoun. quin; which.

jnu

See main entry: kataw. Variant: kataw.


Noun. algu; somebody.

joanane

ajuda; help.

uma:

Noun. divendres; Friday.

K - k
k:e
Pronoun. tu (formal); you (polite).
k:o
Variant: ko. tu (colloquial); you (colloquial).
k:u
Variant: ku. Pronoun. la meva/el meu; my.
ka
jo; I.
kalolo
Noun. animal; animal.
kara Variant: muf. Verb. plorar; cry.
kaeb
Noun. noticies; news.
kartasa
Noun. paper; paper.
kaeba na
Noun. noticies ell/a; news

kataw

See main entry: jnu. Variant: jnu.


Noun. algu; somebody.

kmmo
Adverb. encara; still.
kraa Noun. cistella; basket.
ki
See main entry: ku. Variant: ku. Adverb. sobre;
into / on.

kiase
Adverb. amunt; up.
kiawa Adverb. avall; down.
ko See main entry: k:o.

him/her.

52

ku

kufua
kuawe

See main entry: ki, k:u. Variant: ki. a sobre / a

dins; into / on.

kuaa

Adverb. despres; after.

tarda; afternoon.

Adjective. verd; green.

L - l
la

lalo
tot just; just.
lima:m:u See main entry: . el teu brac; your arm.
limak:u
See main entry: . el meu brac; my arm.
liman:a
See main entry: . el seu brac; his/her

particle de tracte per als homes; treatment


particle for men.

lak:aj
Noun. marit; husband.
lad
Adverb. molt; very.
laganrani Verb. ell llenca; he throws.

arm.

M - m
mabaca
Verb. llegir; to read.
macule
Verb. jugen; they play.
mafala
Adjective. calent; warm.
maa:
Adjective. dolent; bad.
makana Adjective. bo; good.
malopo
Adjective. gran; big.
man:asu Verb. cuinar; to cook.
manai
Noun. ballen; they dance.
maidi
Adjective. groc; yellow.
maoki suue See main entry: . Verb. esta
escrivint; is writing.

matinro
Verb. dormir; to sleep.
matoa
Adverb. vell; old.
matua
Noun. sogre/a ; mother/father in law.
matua ua:ne
See main entry: . Noun.
sogre; father in law.

matua makunn rai

See main entry: .

sogra; mother in law.

mawan
maame

Verb. surar; to float.


Verb. fer; do.

macoloi
Verb. es fon; it melts.
magenitu Noun. casa; house.
magolo
Verb. jugar a futbol; play football.
makeloni Verb. ell canta; he sings.
manko
nosaltres (cololquial); we (colloquial).
manki
nosaltres (formal); we (polite).
matamai Verb. entrar (la seva); enter (his).
matonowi Verb. coure; bake.
ma
Noun. persona; person.
makunn rai
Noun. dona; woman.
malumu Noun. pollastre; chicken.
mabicaa
Verb. parlar; to speak.
makce Adjective. fred; cold.
mgl:o: Adjective. bo; good.
mt: ss o See main entry: . Noun. sol; sun.
miki
Noun. mossegada; bite.
monroe
Verb. ell viu; he lives.
muf encara; still.
munri
Adverb. darrere; behind.

N - n
nafaiika
Verb. irrita; irritates.
nafoo
Noun. cuina; kitchen.
nagoai
Verb. ella ha cridat; she screamed.

nene Noun. avis; granparents.


nene Noun. avia; grandmother.
nene utu
See main entry: . Noun. besavis;
1

great grandparents.

-
ka

hi ha; there is.

53

P - p
patapulo
parakunraj

pas
mentre/sobtadament; while/suddenly.
pasaja
Noun. estel; kite.

Adjective. quaranta; forty.


Noun. germana; sister.

R - r
raba Noun. dimecres; Wednesday.

ria

Adverb. enlla; away.

iolo fa temps; long ago.

S - s

54

ss alass a
Noun. dimarts; Tuesday.
sanei
Noun. dilluns; Monday.
saai
Adverb. despus-dema; the day after tomorrow.
sapseku
sapisa Noun. cosins; cousins.
ss epulo
Adjective. deu; ten.
ss epulo ss ei
See main entry: . Adjective. onze; eleven.
satu
Adjective. cent; one hundred.
sibawa
Adposition. amb; with.
sibawa
Preposition. amb; with.
sidop:e
a prop; near.
sikola
Adjective. marro; brown.
silasu Noun. germa (terme no marcat, generic); sibling.
silasouta
Variant: silasout:a. Noun. germans, familia ; siblings, family.
siwali Adverb. costat; beside.

T - t
taben:ai See main entry: . Verb. cau; it falls.
tanru
Noun. banya; horn.
taasini Verb. ells estornuden; they sneeze.
tawe
Noun. gent; people.
tadampola
Noun. em sap greu; sorry.
telefon
Noun. telefon; telephone.
tte
Verb. pegar; to hit.
tte
Noun. hora; hour.
twa Noun. suc de coco; coconut juice.

U - u
uluna
uluku
upana
uane
ulehu

See main entry: . el seu cap; his/her head.


See main entry: . el meu cap; my head.
Pronoun. quan; when.
Noun. home; man.

de; from.

W - w

wanua
wnni

Noun. poble; village.


Noun. nit; night.

5.2.2. English Bugis


55

A - a
Adverb. kufua

age

afternoon

already

again

kuawe
Adverb. femo

always Adverb. toni

after

Noun. unuu
Adverb. fura

animal Noun. kalolo


away

Adverb. ria

blue

Adjective. gau

book

Noun. bobo

B - b
back

Noun. lk

big

bad

Adjective. maa:

big finger

bake

Verb. matonowi

ball

Noun. golo
Noun. awo:

bamboo

basket Noun. kraa


bath

Noun. cum:e

behind Adverb. munri


beside Adverb. siwali

Adjective. malopo

Noun. inn o
ji
bird
Noun. manu
manu
bite
Noun. oko
Noun. miki
black
Adjective. bolo
black magic Noun. po
po

bottom Noun. oi
bread

Noun. roti

breast

Noun. tete
Noun. foo

brother

ane
brown

Adjective. sikola

cough

Verb. moewi

C - c
car

Noun. oto

cheek

Noun. fli

Noun. ana
ana
cloth
Noun. eu
clouds Noun. lu

cat

Noun. couki
Noun. meo

chest

Noun. ao

coconut juice

children

Noun. twa

Noun. manu

chicken

Noun. malumu

cold

Adjective. makce

cousin' son/daughter
Noun. anue
Noun. a
nana sapisa
cousins
Noun. sa
pisa
cry
Verb. kara

cousin's children

D - d
ana ma
kunn rai
Noun. ass o
Noun. amatea

daughter
day
death

DEF

Determiner. e

don't do it

aa
Adverb. kiawa
Noun. 'baa
Noun. iti

do

Verb. maame

down

dog

Noun. ass u

duck

E - e
ears
eight

Noun. aucili
Adjective. aua

eleven Adjective. ss epulo

ss ei

enter (his)

eye

Noun. mata

Verb. matam

ai
excuse me

Noun. tabe

F - f
56

falling down

Verb. be

be
farmer Noun. bar
fat
Adjective. como
father Noun. ambo
father in law Noun. matua
ua:ne
few
Adjective. ceds :e
fifty
Adjective. lima
pulo
fingers Noun. ji ji

fire

Noun. af

forest

Noun. al

fish

Noun. bale

forty

Adjective. pata

five

Adjective. lima

lempo
flower Noun. bua
fly away
Verb. lutu
foot
Noun. ae
flat

football player
Noun. fagolo
Noun. sao

forehead

pulo
four

Adjective. pa

four hundred

Friday
from
fruit
fuck

Adjective. apa
a:tu
Noun. uma:
ulehu
Noun. bua
Noun. tai la:so

G - g
goat

Noun. bembe

good

Adjective. makana
Adjective. mgl:o:

grandfather

Noun. n

grandmother

great grandparents

ene
granparents

Noun. nene

greed

Noun. la:to

green

Noun. nene
utu
Noun. 'ba
Adjective. kuaa

H - h
hair

Noun. gm

hand

Noun. lima
Verb. monro

he lives

e
ni
he throws

Verb. lagan

rani
he wrote

i
head

Verb. oki

suue

his/her heart ao:la

bo
lan:a
horn
Noun. tanru
hour
Noun. tte
house Noun. bola
Noun. magenitu
how
Pronoun. magai
husband
Noun. lak:aj
his/her house

Noun. ulu

joanane
here
Adverb. kwe
hill
Noun. bulu
his/her arm liman:a
his/her dog ass un:a
his/her head uluna
help

Verb. makelo

he sings

he/she Noun. ale:na

I - i
I
I want

Pronoun. ia

ink

ka

into / on

Verb. loka

in front Adverb. jolo


index finger

Noun. fa

Noun. awa
Adverb. ki

ku
irritates

Verb. nafa

iika

Verb. maoki
suue
it falls Verb. taben:ai
it melts
Verb. macolo
i

is writing

elo

J - j
just

lalo

57

K - k
kid

Noun. atuku

Noun. nafoo

kitchen

kite

Noun. pasaja

knee

Noun. ut:u

L - l
lap

Noun. popa

Noun. lete

lightning

long ago

iolo

murderer

Noun. fawno

M - m
man

Noun. uane

many

Adverb. mega

moon

Noun. keta
Noun. ul

mother Noun. ama

middle finger

Noun. inn o

Noun. ji

taa

ma
tua makunn rai

mother in law

middle son/daughter
Noun. anata

mother/father in law

Noun. matua
Noun. sa

Monday

mountain

nei
month

mouse Noun. balawo

Noun. ceiba

monkey

Noun. bulu

mouth

Noun. te:mu

taw fawno
my
Pronoun. k:u
my arm
limak:u
my dog
a ss uk:u
my head
uluku
my house
bola:k:u
my niece
Noun. anu
ek:u
my sister in law

Noun. i

fak:u

Noun. ul

N - n
name

Noun. ass
Noun. jasa

news

Noun. a

nue
new

night

Noun. win:i
Noun. wnni

nine

Adjective. ass ea

news him/her

sidop:e
negation
de
near

nephew /niece

Noun. kaeb

next
niece

Noun. kae
ba na
Adverb. fem
Noun. anue

nobody

Pronoun. dega

norm

Noun. a

nose

Noun. i

Adjective. bau

O - o
okay

Adverb. bwana

older sibling Noun. daj

old

Adjective. beta
Adverb. matoa

older sister

older brother

on
Noun. daj

ane

one

one hundred Adjective. s

Noun. daj

makunrai
jasena
Adjective. ss ei

over

atu
Adverb. asej

P - p
paper

Noun. kartasa

parents

Noun. indo

ambo
58

penis

Noun. laso

person Noun. taw

pig

Noun. ma

people Noun. tawe

Noun. babi

play football Verb. magolo

R - r
rain

Noun. bosi

repeat

bwas

really

falen

right hand

red

Adjective. cela

river

rose apple

Noun. abjo

rotten

Noun. ampu

Adjective. boo

Noun. salo

S - s
Saturday

Noun. saptu
Noun. gora

scream
sea

Noun. tasi

seven

Adjective. fetu

she screamed
Verb. nago

ai
shin

six
sixty

small

Adjective. becu

smoke Noun. umpu


Noun. jnu
Noun. kataw

somebody

siblings, family
Noun. silaso
uta
Noun. parakun
raj

Noun.

ana
sorry

Noun. tadam

speak

pola
Verb. fau

sister/brother in law
Noun. ifa

a:ne
son/daughter

Noun. fura

ambo

Adjective. ata

Noun. ana
Noun. ana

Noun. am

poro
stepfather

slave

son

step sibling

Adjective. n:

pulo

Noun. biti

sibling Noun. silasu

sister

Adjective. n:

Noun. fura
indo
still
Adverb. kmmo
muf
stomach
Noun. bo
bwa
stone Noun. batu
sun
Noun. mt: ss o
Sunday
Noun. aha
swallow
Verb. am

stepmother

T - t
Noun. guu

teacher
teeth

they (paucal)

Noun. iss i
Noun. iss i

telephone

Noun. tele

that

Adjective. tel:

le:na
they dance

Noun. ma

u ra:tu
Thursday

nai

fon
ten

three hundred
Pronoun. a

Noun. kamis

Adjective. ss epulo

they play

Verb. macule

to come

Verb. fwole

Pronoun. joo

they sneeze

Verb. ta

to cook

Verb. ma

the day after tomorrow


Adverb. sa

ai
then
nap:a
there
Adverb. akuro
there is
kfat
ka
they (all of us)
Pronoun. a
le:na man

thirty

asini
Adjective. tl:u
pulo

n:asu
to drink
Verb. menu

thirty one
Adjective. tl:
upulo ss ei
this
Pronoun. je
this is mine oko
those Adjective. joo
three
Adjective. tl:u

to eat

Verb. manre

to float Verb. mawan

ass u
Verb. amba
Verb. pope
Verb. tte
Verb. fapara

to go out
to hit

to like

59

to read Verb. mabaca


to see

Verb. mita
Verb. ma

to sleep

tinro
to speak

Verb. mabi

caa
Verb. nae

to swim

to walk Verb. oka

Verb. oki

to write
today

Adverb. baa

tongue Noun. lila


treatment particle for men

la
treatment particle for
women
i
tree

lass a

Adverb. jeso

tomorrow

Noun. ss a

Tuesday

twenty Adjective. ua

pulo
two

Adjective. ua

two hands

Noun. ua

lima
two hundred Adjective. ua

ra:tu

Noun. popo

U - u
uncle/aunt
under

Noun. amue

Adverb. jawana

up

Adverb. kiase

usually Adverb. biasa

V - v
vagina Noun. combi

very

Adverb. lad

village Noun. wanua

W - w
want

Verb. lo

Wednesday

warm

Adjective. mafala

what

water

Noun. wai

we (all of us) Pronoun. ii

man
we (colloquial)
we (paucal)
we (polite)

manko
Noun. ii
manki

Noun. raba

who

Pronoun. iga

Pronoun. aga
Pronoun. aga

wife

Noun. bajne

wild

Adjective. lampa

when

Pronoun. upana

with

where

Pronoun. te:gi

Adposition. sibawa
Preposition. sibawa

which

Pronoun. jategi

woman

while

pas

Noun. ma
kunn rai
Noun. aa
Adjective. pupu

while/suddenly

word

white

worn

pas
Adjective. fute

Y - y

60

year (Indonesian)

Noun. tahun

yellow

Adjective. maidi

yes

Adverb. ba

yes (colloguial)

Adverb. ijo

yes (polite)

Adverb. ija

yesterday

Adverb. iwin:i

k:o
Pronoun. k:e

you (colloquial)
you (polite)

you pl. (all of us)

Pronoun. ii

you pl. (paucal)

Pronoun. ii
Noun. iko

you sing. (colloquial)


you sing. (polite)

Pronoun. ii

younger sibling

Noun. anri

your arm

man

lima:m:u

ass um:u
your dog (polite)
ass ut:a
your house (colloquial)
bola:mu
your house (polite) bola:t:a
your dog (colloquial)

5.2.3. Catalan Bugis

A - a
a prop

sidop:e

ku
agradar
Verb. fapara
ahir
Adverb. iwin:i
aigua Noun. wai
aixo s meu oko
ajuda joanane
alg
Noun. jnu
Noun. kataw
alla
Adverb. akuro

amb

Adposition. sibawa
Preposition. sibawa

aquest Pronoun. je
aqu

Adverb. kwe

amunt

Adverb. kiase

arbre

Noun. popo

a sobre / a dins

ass u
anec
Noun. 'baa
Noun. iti
animal Noun. kalolo

assass Noun. fawno

any (indonesi)

avia

anar-se'n

Noun. tahun

aquella

Pronoun. joo

aquells/es

Adjective. joo

avall
avi
avis
avui

taw fawno
Adverb. kiawa
Noun. la:to
Noun. nene
Noun. nene
Adverb. jeso

B - b
ballen

Noun. manai

besavis

bamb Noun. awo:


bany

Noun. cum:e

beure

banya

Noun. tanru

blanc
blau

Noun. nene
utu
Verb. menu
Adjective. fute
Adjective. gau

bo

Adjective. makana
Adjective. mgl:o:

boca

Noun. te:mu

bosc

Noun. al

C - c
61

cabells Noun. gm

cau

Verb. taben:ai

costat

Adverb. siwali

cabra

Noun. bembe

caure

Verb. bebe

cotxe

Noun. oto

calent

Adjective. mafala

cent

Adjective. satu

coure

Verb. matonowi

cinc

Adjective. lima

crit

Noun. gora

cuina

Noun. nafoo

cuinar

Verb. man:asu

cuixa

Noun. popa

cul

Noun. oi

Verb. oka

caminar

canella Noun. dua


Noun. biti

canyella
cap

Noun. ulu

cardar

Noun. tai

casa

la:so
Noun. bola
Noun. magenitu

Adjective. lima
pulo
cistella Noun. kraa
cobdcia
Noun. 'ba
com
Pronoun. magai
cosins Noun. sapisa

cinquanta

cunyat/cunyada

Noun. i

fa

D - d
Adverb. bwa

d'acord

na
dalt

Adverb. asej

darrere Adverb. munri


davant Adverb. jolo
de

ulehu

DEF

Determiner. e

dema

Adverb. baa

dents

Noun. iss i
Noun. iss i

desgastat

Adjective. pu

pu
Adverb. kufu

desprs

desps-dema

Adverb.

saai
deu
Adjective. ss epulo
dia
Noun. ass o
dijous Noun. kamisi
dilluns Noun. sanei
dimarts
Noun. ss a
lass a
dimecres
Noun. raba
dissabte
Noun. saptu
dit del mig
Noun. ji
taa
dit gros
Noun. inn o
ji

Noun. fa
elo
dits
Noun. ji ji
diumenge
Noun. aha
divendres
Noun. uma:
dolent Adjective. maa:
dona
Noun. makunn rai
dormir Verb. matinro
dos
Adjective. ua
dos-cents
Adjective. ua
ra:tu
dues mans
Noun. ua
lima

dit ndex

E - e
edat

Noun. unuu

el meu brac
el meu cap
el meu gos
el seu brac
el seu cap
el seu cor
el seu gos
el teu brac

limak:u
uluku
a ss uk:u
liman:a
uluna
ao:la
ass un:a
lima:m:u

el teu gos (colloquial)

ass um:u
el teu gos (educat) a
ss ut:a
ell canta
Verb. makelo
ni
ell llenca
Verb. lagan
rani

ell viu

Verb. monroe

ell/a

Noun. ale:na

encara Adverb. kmmo

muf
enlla

ella ha cridat

Adverb. ria

entrar (la seva)


Verb. nago

Verb. matam

ai

ai

ells (paucal) Pronoun. a

es fon

Verb. macoloi

le:na

esclau

Adjective. ata

ells estornuden
Verb. ta

asini
ells/elles (inclusiu)
Pronoun. a

le:na man
em sap greu Noun. tabe
Noun. tadam
pola
empassar
Verb. am

escriure

Verb. oki

esquena

Noun. lk

esta escrivint
Verb. maoki

suue
estel
Noun. pasaja
estmac
Noun. bo
bwa
62

estossegar

Verb. moew

F - f
iolo
fer
Verb. maame
fill
Noun. ana
Noun. ana u
a:ne
fill/a
Noun. ana
fill/a del cos Noun. anue
fa temps

Noun. anata
a
ana ma
kunn rai
Noun. ana ana

fill/a mitja
fillla
fills

fills dels cosins

Noun. a

nana sapisa

flor

Noun. bua

foc

Noun. af

fred

Adjective. makce

front

Noun. sao

fruita

Noun. bua

fum

Noun. umpu

G - g
galta

Noun. fli

germa/na adoptat

gat

Noun. couki
Noun. meo

genoll

Noun. ut:u

gent

Noun. tawe

Noun. daj
makunrai

poro
germa/na gran
germa/na petit
Noun. anri

germana

Noun. parak

unraj

lasu
Noun. daj

germans, famlia

Noun. daj

germa Noun. fooane


germa (terme no marcat,
generic)
Noun. si
germa gran

germana gran

Noun. am

ane

Noun. silaso
uta
gos
Noun. ass u
gran
Adjective. malopo
granger
Noun. bar
gras
Adjective. como
groc
Adjective. maidi

H - h
ha escrit

Verb. oki

hi ha

suue

kfat
ka

home

Noun. uane

hora

Noun. tte

I - i
irrita

Verb. nafaiika

J - j
ja/encara
jo

Adverb. fura

Pronoun. ia

jo vull

Verb. loka

jugar a futbol
Verb. magolo

jugador de futbol

ka

Noun. fagolo

jugen

Verb. macule

L - l
la meva casa

la:k:u

bo

la meva cunyada

fak:u

Noun. i

la meva neboda
Noun. anu

ek:u
63

la meva/el meu
Pronoun. k:u

la seva casa bolan:a


la teva casa (colloquial)

bola:mu

Noun. lila

la teva casa (educat)

llengua

bola:t:a
llamp Noun. lete
llavors nap:a
llegir
Verb. mabaca

llibre

Noun. bobo

lluna

Noun. keta
Noun. ul

M - m
ma

Noun. lima

ma dreta

Noun. abjo

magia negra Noun. po


mar
mare

po
Noun. tasi
Noun. ama
Noun. inn o

mare adoptiva
Noun. fura

indo

marit

Noun. lak:aj

molt

Adverb. lad

marr

Adjective. sikola

molts

Adverb. mega

menjar Verb. manre

mort

Noun. amatea

mentre pas

mossegada

Noun. oko
Noun. miki

mentre/sobtadament
mes
mico
mirar

pas
Noun. ul
Noun. ceiba
Verb. mita

mot

Noun. aa

muller

Noun. bajne

muntanya

Noun. bulu

N - n
nas

Noun. i

neboda

Noun. anue

nebot/da

Noun. anue

nedar

Verb. nae

negaci

de
Adjective. bolo
Noun. atuku
Pronoun. dega
Noun. win:i
Noun. wnni

negre
nen
ning
nit

aa
nom
Noun. ass
Noun. jasa
norma Noun. a
no ho facis

nosaltres (cololquial)

manko
nosaltres (formal)

manki
nosaltres (paucal)
Noun. ii

nosaltres (tots)
Pronoun. ii

man
notcies

Noun. ka

eb
notcies ell/a Noun. kae

ba na
nou

Adjective. bau
Adjective. ass ea

nvols Noun. lu

O - o
ocell

Noun. manu

oncle/tia
onze

on

manu
Pronoun. te:gi

Noun. amue

orelles Noun. aucili

Adjective. ss epulo

ss ei

P - p
pa

Noun. roti

paper

Noun. kartasa

pare

Noun. ambo

pare adoptiu Noun. fura


pares

ambo
Noun. indoambo

parlar

Verb. fau
Verb. mabicaa

particle de tracte per a les


dones
i
particle de tracte per als
homes
la
pedra

Noun. batu

pegar

Verb. amba
Verb. pope
Verb. tte

peix

Noun. bale

penis

Noun. laso

persona

Noun. taw
Noun. ma

64

petit

Adjective. becu

plorar

Verb. kara

peu

Noun. ae

pluja

Noun. bosi

pilota

Noun. golo

poble

Noun. wanua

poma rosa

pit

Noun. ao
Noun. tete

pocs

Adjective. ceds :e

porc

podrit

Adjective. boo

professor

pla

lempo

pollastre

Noun. manu

Noun. malumu
Noun. ampu

Noun. babi
Noun. guu

Q - q
quan

Pronoun. upana

quaranta

quatre-cents Adjective. apa

Adjective. pata

pulo

que

quatre Adjective. pa

a:tu
Pronoun. aga
Pronoun. aga

qui

Pronoun. iga

quin

Pronoun. jategi

roba

Noun. eu

sogre

Noun. matua

R - r
ratol

Noun. balawo

realment

falen

repetir bwas
riu

Noun. salo

S - s
salvatge

Adjective. lam

pa
seguent

Adverb. i

s (colloquial)

jo
Adverb. fem

Adjective.
n:pulo
sempre
Adverb. toni
set
Adjective. fetu
s
Adverb. ba

seixanta

s (educat)

a:ne
Adverb. ija

sis

Adjective. n:

sobre

jasena
Adverb. ki
matua ma
kunn rai

sogra

Noun. matua

sogre/a

ss o
sortir volant Verb. lutu
sota
Adverb. jawana
sovint Adverb. biasa
suc de coco Noun. twa
surar
Verb. mawan
sol

Noun. mt:

T - t
kuawe
telefon Noun. telefon
tinta
Noun. awa
tot just lalo
trenta Adjective. tl:u
pulo
tarda

Adjective. tl:
upulo ss ei
tres
Adjective. tl:u
tres-cents
Adjective. tel:
u ra:tu

trenta-u

tu (colloquial)
Noun. iko

k:o
tu (educat)

Pronoun. ii

tu (formal)

Pronoun. k:e

tur

Noun. bulu

U - u
u

Adjective. ss ei

ull

Noun. mata

un altre cop
Adverb. femo

65

V - v
vagina Noun. combi
vell

Adjective. beta
Adverb. matoa

venir

Verb. fwole

verd

Adjective. kuaa

vermell

Adjective. cela

vint

Adjective. uapulo

voler

Verb. lo

vosaltres (paucal)

Pronoun. ii

vosaltres (tothom)

Pronoun. ii

vuit

man

Adjective. aua

68

6.

References

Blust, R., 2013. The Austronesian languages. Revised edition ed. Canberra: Asia-Pacific
linguistics.
Coupe, A. R., 2003. A phonetic and phonological description of Ao: A Tibeto-Burman
language of Nagaland, north-east India. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Driem, G. V., 1997. A grammar of Limbu. s.l.:Mouton de Gruyter.
Himmelmann, N. R. & Adelaar, A., 2005. The Austonesian languages of Asia and
Madagascar. London: Routledge.
Matthew S. Dryer, M. H., 2013. The World Atlas of Language Structures online. [On line]
Available at: www.wals.info
[Last access: 15 November 2013].
Payne, T. E., 2010. Morphosyntax. 12th ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Several Authors, 2013. Wikipedia. [On line]
Available at: www.wikipedia.org
[Last access: 15 November 2013].
SIL International, 2013. Ethnologue. [On line]
Available at: http://www.ethnologue.com
[Last access: 8 12 2013].
SIL, 2004. Glossary of linguistic terms. [On line]
Available at: http://www-01.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/
[Last access: 20 November 2013].
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Studies. Part 1. Fascicle 1.. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

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