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READING STRATEGIES = Evaluate main ideas in academic texts quickly & efficiently.

OPEN QUESTION – any answer is possible / acceptable
CLOSED QUESTION – answer is usually YES or NO
STATEMENT – used as questions in informal spoken language ( expect positive answer )

Question word : What, where, when, why, who, which, how
Auxiliary verb : Do, does, is, are
Modal verb : Can
Coordinator : And, or, but
Clause : Subjec t+ Verb + other elements = Object, Complement, Adverbial
Adverb :
(a) Beginning : Indeed, Arguably, Generally, Apparently, Blatantly…
(b) Middle : …mainly, relatively, surprisingly, certainly, possibly, perhaps,…

Visual – Use sight to gather information ( emphasis on giving info orally )
Auditory – Spoken examination to expan on graphical information presented
Kinaesthetic – Learn through the hands-on activity ( enjoy movement and space )

Instruction EXPLANATION – Comparison and contrast. which may then be followed by supporting evidence using examples and reasons. Cause and effect PERSUASIVE – Persuasion.  Not necessary have to be at least 100 words per paragraph  Not necessary have background information Academic Writing         Exhibit a formal style Contains specialised vocabulary Evaluates ideas of others Makes connections between ideas States source of ideas (citations) Espresses new ideas with caution Contains long noun phrases Contains fewer verbs than nouns DESCRIPTIVE – Narrative. find the A ) Hedging . Arguament. Problem and solution Skimming : Reading quickly to get an overview of text and understand main ideas For GENERAL information ( interesting or useful ) Scanning : Reading quickly to find key information For SPECIFIC information ( identify Q.A paragraph can be defined as a unit of meaning which contains a statement about the content or organization of the paragraph (a topic sentence). Description.

definite. verbs e. look like. In other words. often.g. Different subjects prefer to do this in different ways. . certainly. perhaps.g. usually 4 Modal adverbs . 5 Modal adjectives . e. possible e. e. might. e. simply to convey facts and information. It may be possible to obtain . It might be suggested that . believe. possibility.g. possibly. 8 To-clause + . conceivably. probable. clear. appear to be.It is often believed that academic writing. It is important to develop .g. be sure.g. certain. verbs: e. frequency e. would. could 4 Adverbs of .g. 6 Modal nouns . e. clearly.g. assumption. seem. probability 7 That clauses . it is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a particular subject. indicate. probably.g.g. Language used in hedging: 1 Introductory .g.g. e. definitely. assume.g. often called "hedging" or "vague language".g. verbs: e. e. think. sometimes. However it is now recognised that an important feature of academic writing is the concept of cautious language. It could be the case that . particularly scientific writing. It is useful to study . e. may. will. must. There is every hope that . suggest 2 Certain lexical . adjective e. tend. or the strength of the claims you are making. is factual. believe. doubt. suggest 3 Certain modal .

The hotel is famous. Because the hotel wanted to gain international reputation. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.) The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel. which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example. not many people participated in the competition. however. which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region. The hotel spent a lot of money on advertising the event since it wanted to enhance its international reputation. it failed to attract many people. The hotel spent a lot of money to advertise the event.) The hotel.) . The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel.Here are some examples that illustrate the importance of connecting your ideas more effectively in writing. But not many people attended the event. (The connection of ideas is not very good. Although the event was widely advertised. wanted to promote its image around the world by hosting the latest international dancing competition. It is one of the most well-known hotels in the country.