You are on page 1of 25

ENSC 14a

Engineering Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

Chapter 10
Conduction Heat Transfer

Engr. FRANCIS M. MULIMBAYAN


BSAE / MSMSE
INSTRUCTOR 4

Department of Engineering Science


University of the Philippines Los Banos
College, Los Banos, Philippines

Conductive Heat Transfer


Introduction

Conduction
Transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a
substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of
interactions between the particles.
Requires an intervening medium
Can take place in solids, liquids or gas.
Stationary fluids: results of interaction between
molecules of different energy level
Conducting solids: energy transport by free electrons
Non-conducting solids: via lattice vibration
2

Conductive Heat Transfer


Introduction

Location of a point in different coordinate system

Conductive Heat Transfer


Introduction

Steady-State vs. Transient Heat Conduction

Conductive Heat Transfer


Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction


Based on experimental observation
Basic equation for the analysis of heat conduction
Can be expresses as,

T
Q = k n
n

Q
kn
T
n

Heat transfer rate in the n direction per


unit area in W/m2
Thermal conductivity in n direction, in W/m-K
Temperature gradient in n direction;
5

Conductive Heat Transfer


Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Temperature gradient
Slope on the T-x diagram at a
given point in the medium
Direction of heat
Always from higher to lower
temperature
Negative sign indicate that heat
transfer in the positive x direction
is a positive quantity

Conductive Heat Transfer


Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Thermal Conductivity
Measure of the ability of the
material to conduct heat
In general, = (, )
Type of material based on k
Isotropic k is the same in all
directions
Anisotropic k has strong
directional dependence

Conductive Heat Transfer


Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

In rectangular coordinates, heat conduction vector can be

expressed in terms of its components as,

= + +

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Plane Wall
Heat conduction is dominant in
one direction and negligible in
other directions
The energy balance for the thin
element shown during small time
interval is,

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

Q x Q x+x + Gelement

Eelement
=
t

The change in energy content of the

element is
Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt
= CAx Tt+t Tt

The rate of heat generation within

the element is
Gelement = gV = gAx
10

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
Tt+t Tt
Q x Q x+x + gAx = CAx
t
Dividing by Ax

1 Q x+x Q x
Tt+t Tt

+ g = C
A
x
t
Applying the definition of derivative

and Fouriers Law


Q x+x Q x Q

T
lim
=
=
kA
x0
x
x x
x
11

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
Taking the limit as 0 and

0
1
T
T
kA
+ g = C
A x
x
t
The one-dimensional, transient heat

conduction equation in plane wall


with variable thermal conductivity is

T
T
k
+ g = C
x x
t
12

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
The one-dimensional, transient heat

conduction equation in plane wall


with constant thermal conductivity
is,
2 T g 1 T
+ =
2
x
k t

where =

k
Cp

is called the thermal

diffusivity or the measure of how fast


heat propagates through a material

13

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
The one-dimensional, transient heat

conduction equation in plane wall


with constant thermal conductivity
and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0
2
+ =0
2

Transient, no heat generation

2 1
=
2

Steady-state, no heat generation

2
=0
2

14

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Cylinders
The area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is = 2
The energy balance for the thin
element shown during small time
interval is,

15

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

Q r Q r+r + Gelement

Eelement
=
t

The change in energy content of

the element is
Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt
= CAr Tt+t Tt

The rate of heat generation within

the element is
Gelement = gV = gAr
16

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
Tt+t Tt
Q r Q r+r + gAr = CAr
t
Dividing by Ar (where A=2)

1 Q r+r Q r
Tt+t Tt

+ g = C
A
r
t
Applying

the definition
derivative and Fouriers Law

of

Q r+r Q r Q
T
lim
=
=
kA
r0
r
r r
r
17

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
Taking the limit as 0 and

0
1
T
T
kA
+ g = C
A r
r
t
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with variable thermal
conductivity is,
1
T
T
rk
+ g = C
r r
r
t

18

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with constant thermal
conductivity is,
1
T
g 1 T
r
+ =
r r r
k t

where =

k
Cp

is called the thermal

diffusivity or the measure of how


fast heat propagates through a
material

19

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with constant thermal
conductivity and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0

+ =0

Transient, no heat generation


1
T
1 T
r
=
r r r
t

Steady-state, no heat generation

= 0 2 +
=0

20

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction in

Spheres
The area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is = 4 2
The one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with variable thermal
conductivity is,

1 2 T
T
r k
+ g = C
2
r r
r
t
21

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with constant thermal
conductivity is,
1 2 T
g 1 T
r
+ =
2
r r
r
k t

where =

k
Cp

is called the thermal

diffusivity or the measure of how


fast heat propagates through a
material
22

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with constant thermal
conductivity and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0

1 d 2 dT
g
r
+
=0
2
r dr
dr
k

Transient, no heat generation


1 2 T
1 T
r
=
r 2 r
r
t

Steady-state, no heat generation


d 2 dT
d2 T
dT
r
= 0 or r 2 + 2
=0
dr
dr
dr
dr
23

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations
Sample Problems:
1. Consider a steel pan placed on top of an
electric range to cook spaghetti.. Assuming a
constant thermal conductivity, write the
differential equation that describes the
variation of the temperature in the bottom
section of the pan during steady operation.
2. A 2-kW resistance heater wire is used to
boil water by immersing it in water.
Assuming the variation of the thermal
conductivity of the wire with temperature to
be negligible, obtain the differential equation
that describes the variation of the
temperature in the wire during steady
operation.
24

Conductive Heat Transfer


One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations
Sample Problems:
3. A spherical metal ball of radius R is
heated in an oven to a temperature of
600F throughout and is then taken out
of the oven and allowed to cool in
ambient air at = 75 by convection
and radiation. The thermal conductivity
of the ball material is known to vary
linearly with temperature. Assuming the
ball is cooled uniformly from the entire
surface; obtain the differential equation
that describes the variation of the
temperature in the ball during cooling.
25