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Heat Conduction Equaions

Heat Conduction Equaions

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Chapter 10

Conduction Heat Transfer

BSAE / MSMSE

INSTRUCTOR 4

University of the Philippines Los Banos

College, Los Banos, Philippines

Introduction

Conduction

Transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a

substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of

interactions between the particles.

Requires an intervening medium

Can take place in solids, liquids or gas.

Stationary fluids: results of interaction between

molecules of different energy level

Conducting solids: energy transport by free electrons

Non-conducting solids: via lattice vibration

2

Introduction

Introduction

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Based on experimental observation

Basic equation for the analysis of heat conduction

Can be expresses as,

T

Q = k n

n

Q

kn

T

n

unit area in W/m2

Thermal conductivity in n direction, in W/m-K

Temperature gradient in n direction;

5

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Temperature gradient

Slope on the T-x diagram at a

given point in the medium

Direction of heat

Always from higher to lower

temperature

Negative sign indicate that heat

transfer in the positive x direction

is a positive quantity

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Thermal Conductivity

Measure of the ability of the

material to conduct heat

In general, = (, )

Type of material based on k

Isotropic k is the same in all

directions

Anisotropic k has strong

directional dependence

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

= + +

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Plane Wall

Heat conduction is dominant in

one direction and negligible in

other directions

The energy balance for the thin

element shown during small time

interval is,

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

Q x Q x+x + Gelement

Eelement

=

t

element is

Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt

= CAx Tt+t Tt

the element is

Gelement = gV = gAx

10

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

Tt+t Tt

Q x Q x+x + gAx = CAx

t

Dividing by Ax

1 Q x+x Q x

Tt+t Tt

+ g = C

A

x

t

Applying the definition of derivative

Q x+x Q x Q

T

lim

=

=

kA

x0

x

x x

x

11

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

Taking the limit as 0 and

0

1

T

T

kA

+ g = C

A x

x

t

The one-dimensional, transient heat

with variable thermal conductivity is

T

T

k

+ g = C

x x

t

12

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

The one-dimensional, transient heat

with constant thermal conductivity

is,

2 T g 1 T

+ =

2

x

k t

where =

k

Cp

heat propagates through a material

13

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

The one-dimensional, transient heat

with constant thermal conductivity

and

Steady-state:

T

t

=0

2

+ =0

2

2 1

=

2

2

=0

2

14

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Cylinders

The area normal to the direction of

heat transfer is = 2

The energy balance for the thin

element shown during small time

interval is,

15

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

Q r Q r+r + Gelement

Eelement

=

t

the element is

Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt

= CAr Tt+t Tt

the element is

Gelement = gV = gAr

16

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

Tt+t Tt

Q r Q r+r + gAr = CAr

t

Dividing by Ar (where A=2)

1 Q r+r Q r

Tt+t Tt

+ g = C

A

r

t

Applying

the definition

derivative and Fouriers Law

of

Q r+r Q r Q

T

lim

=

=

kA

r0

r

r r

r

17

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

Taking the limit as 0 and

0

1

T

T

kA

+ g = C

A r

r

t

The

one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

cylinders with variable thermal

conductivity is,

1

T

T

rk

+ g = C

r r

r

t

18

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

The

one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

cylinders with constant thermal

conductivity is,

1

T

g 1 T

r

+ =

r r r

k t

where =

k

Cp

fast heat propagates through a

material

19

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

The

one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

cylinders with constant thermal

conductivity and

Steady-state:

T

t

=0

+ =0

1

T

1 T

r

=

r r r

t

= 0 2 +

=0

20

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction in

Spheres

The area normal to the direction of

heat transfer is = 4 2

The one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

spheres with variable thermal

conductivity is,

1 2 T

T

r k

+ g = C

2

r r

r

t

21

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres

The

one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

spheres with constant thermal

conductivity is,

1 2 T

g 1 T

r

+ =

2

r r

r

k t

where =

k

Cp

fast heat propagates through a

material

22

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres

The

one-dimensional, transient

heat conduction equation in

spheres with constant thermal

conductivity and

Steady-state:

T

t

=0

1 d 2 dT

g

r

+

=0

2

r dr

dr

k

1 2 T

1 T

r

=

r 2 r

r

t

d 2 dT

d2 T

dT

r

= 0 or r 2 + 2

=0

dr

dr

dr

dr

23

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations

Sample Problems:

1. Consider a steel pan placed on top of an

electric range to cook spaghetti.. Assuming a

constant thermal conductivity, write the

differential equation that describes the

variation of the temperature in the bottom

section of the pan during steady operation.

2. A 2-kW resistance heater wire is used to

boil water by immersing it in water.

Assuming the variation of the thermal

conductivity of the wire with temperature to

be negligible, obtain the differential equation

that describes the variation of the

temperature in the wire during steady

operation.

24

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations

Sample Problems:

3. A spherical metal ball of radius R is

heated in an oven to a temperature of

600F throughout and is then taken out

of the oven and allowed to cool in

ambient air at = 75 by convection

and radiation. The thermal conductivity

of the ball material is known to vary

linearly with temperature. Assuming the

ball is cooled uniformly from the entire

surface; obtain the differential equation

that describes the variation of the

temperature in the ball during cooling.

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