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# ENSC 14a

## Engineering Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

Chapter 10
Conduction Heat Transfer

BSAE / MSMSE
INSTRUCTOR 4

## Department of Engineering Science

University of the Philippines Los Banos
College, Los Banos, Philippines

## Conductive Heat Transfer

Introduction

Conduction
Transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a
substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of
interactions between the particles.
Requires an intervening medium
Can take place in solids, liquids or gas.
Stationary fluids: results of interaction between
molecules of different energy level
Conducting solids: energy transport by free electrons
Non-conducting solids: via lattice vibration
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Introduction

Introduction

## Conductive Heat Transfer

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

## Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Based on experimental observation
Basic equation for the analysis of heat conduction
Can be expresses as,

T
Q = k n
n

Q
kn
T
n

## Heat transfer rate in the n direction per

unit area in W/m2
Thermal conductivity in n direction, in W/m-K
Temperature gradient in n direction;
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Temperature gradient
Slope on the T-x diagram at a
given point in the medium
Direction of heat
Always from higher to lower
temperature
Negative sign indicate that heat
transfer in the positive x direction
is a positive quantity

## Conductive Heat Transfer

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

Thermal Conductivity
Measure of the ability of the
material to conduct heat
In general, = (, )
Type of material based on k
Isotropic k is the same in all
directions
Anisotropic k has strong
directional dependence

## Conductive Heat Transfer

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

= + +

## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Plane Wall
Heat conduction is dominant in
one direction and negligible in
other directions
The energy balance for the thin
element shown during small time
interval is,

## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall

Q x Q x+x + Gelement

Eelement
=
t

## The change in energy content of the

element is
Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt
= CAx Tt+t Tt

## The rate of heat generation within

the element is
Gelement = gV = gAx
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
Tt+t Tt
Q x Q x+x + gAx = CAx
t
Dividing by Ax

1 Q x+x Q x
Tt+t Tt

+ g = C
A
x
t
Applying the definition of derivative

Q x+x Q x Q

T
lim
=
=
kA
x0
x
x x
x
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
Taking the limit as 0 and

0
1
T
T
kA
+ g = C
A x
x
t
The one-dimensional, transient heat

## conduction equation in plane wall

with variable thermal conductivity is

T
T
k
+ g = C
x x
t
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
The one-dimensional, transient heat

## conduction equation in plane wall

with constant thermal conductivity
is,
2 T g 1 T
+ =
2
x
k t

where =

k
Cp

## diffusivity or the measure of how fast

heat propagates through a material

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Plane Wall
The one-dimensional, transient heat

## conduction equation in plane wall

with constant thermal conductivity
and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0
2
+ =0
2

2 1
=
2

2
=0
2

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

in Cylinders
The area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is = 2
The energy balance for the thin
element shown during small time
interval is,

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders

Q r Q r+r + Gelement

Eelement
=
t

## The change in energy content of

the element is
Eelement = Et+t Et = mC Tt+t Tt
= CAr Tt+t Tt

## The rate of heat generation within

the element is
Gelement = gV = gAr
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
Tt+t Tt
Q r Q r+r + gAr = CAr
t
Dividing by Ar (where A=2)

1 Q r+r Q r
Tt+t Tt

+ g = C
A
r
t
Applying

the definition
derivative and Fouriers Law

of

Q r+r Q r Q
T
lim
=
=
kA
r0
r
r r
r
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
Taking the limit as 0 and

0
1
T
T
kA
+ g = C
A r
r
t
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with variable thermal
conductivity is,
1
T
T
rk
+ g = C
r r
r
t

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with constant thermal
conductivity is,
1
T
g 1 T
r
+ =
r r r
k t

where =

k
Cp

## diffusivity or the measure of how

fast heat propagates through a
material

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Cylinders
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
cylinders with constant thermal
conductivity and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0

+ =0

1
T
1 T
r
=
r r r
t

= 0 2 +
=0

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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction in

Spheres
The area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is = 4 2
The one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with variable thermal
conductivity is,

1 2 T
T
r k
+ g = C
2
r r
r
t
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with constant thermal
conductivity is,
1 2 T
g 1 T
r
+ =
2
r r
r
k t

where =

k
Cp

## diffusivity or the measure of how

fast heat propagates through a
material
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations Spheres
The

one-dimensional, transient
heat conduction equation in
spheres with constant thermal
conductivity and

Steady-state:

T
t

=0

1 d 2 dT
g
r
+
=0
2
r dr
dr
k

1 2 T
1 T
r
=
r 2 r
r
t

d 2 dT
d2 T
dT
r
= 0 or r 2 + 2
=0
dr
dr
dr
dr
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations
Sample Problems:
1. Consider a steel pan placed on top of an
electric range to cook spaghetti.. Assuming a
constant thermal conductivity, write the
differential equation that describes the
variation of the temperature in the bottom
section of the pan during steady operation.
2. A 2-kW resistance heater wire is used to
boil water by immersing it in water.
Assuming the variation of the thermal
conductivity of the wire with temperature to
be negligible, obtain the differential equation
that describes the variation of the
temperature in the wire during steady
operation.
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## Conductive Heat Transfer

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equations
Sample Problems:
3. A spherical metal ball of radius R is
heated in an oven to a temperature of
600F throughout and is then taken out
of the oven and allowed to cool in
ambient air at = 75 by convection
and radiation. The thermal conductivity
of the ball material is known to vary
linearly with temperature. Assuming the
ball is cooled uniformly from the entire
surface; obtain the differential equation
that describes the variation of the
temperature in the ball during cooling.
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