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# ENSC 15

Heat Transfer by
Convection

BSAE
INSTRUCTOR 4

## University of the Philippines Los Banos

College, Los Banos, Philippines

Introduction

Convection
o
o
o
o

## occurs between a solid surface and a moving fluid

combination of heat diffusion (conduction) and bulk motion of
dominant form of heat transfer in fluids
requires presence of material medium
enhanced heat transfer due to fluid motion

## Convective Heat Transfer

Introduction

Types of Convection
o

Forced Convection
o

## occurs when fluid motion is

induced by an external means
such as pump or fan

Natural Convection
o

## brought by buoyancy forces due

to density differences caused by
temperature variations in the
fluid

Introduction

o

o

o

o
o

## Viscous flow the effect of viscosity is significant

Inviscid flow flow with zero viscosity
Internal flow through tubes or ducts in which the fluid is completely
bounded by solid surface
External flow of unbound fluid over a surface
Open-channel flow though tubes or ducts or channels in which fluid
is not completely bounded by the solid surface

o
o

## Laminar highly ordered fluid motion

Turbulent disordered fluid motion
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

Introduction

o

o

o
o
o

## fluid properties (, k, , and )

fluid velocity
geometry of the exposed surface
type of fluid flow

## Newtons Law of Cooling

=

The crux of the convection problem is to find the heat transfer coefficient for
the situation at hand.
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

## Convective Heat Transfer

Dimensionless Parameters

Nusselt Number

where:

=
=
=

## heat transfer coefficient, W/m2-K

characteristic length, m
thermal conductivity, W/m-K

## Convective Heat Transfer

Dimensionless Parameters

Reynolds Number

=
=

where:

=
=
=
=

density, kg/m3
free stream velocity, m/s
characteristic length, m
dynamic viscosity, kg/m-s

## Convective Heat Transfer

Dimensionless Parameters

Prandtl Number

= =

where:

=
=
=

## dynamic viscosity, kg/m-s

specific heat, J/kg-K
thermal conductivity, W/m-K

## Convective Heat Transfer

Dimensionless Parameters

Grashof Number

3
=
2

where:

=
=
=
=
=
=

## gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)

characteristic length, m
kinematic viscosity, m2/s
surface temperature,
fluid temperature far from the surface,
coefficient of volume expansion
=

ideal gases
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Dimensionless Parameters

Rayleigh Number, Ra

=
Correlation of Data
o

## a convenient and relatively simple relation for the correlation of

experimental data is to assume an equation of the form:

=
o

condition.

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Nature of Convection Problems

Convection
Natural

Forced

Internal

External
Flow over
Flat Plates

Flow over
spheres

Flow across
cylinders

Constant
or constant

Turbulent
or Laminar
flow

Developing
or fullydeveloped

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Natural Convection
o

## Brought by buoyancy forces due to density differences caused by

temperature variations in the fluid

Applications
o

## Found in equipment that are designed to operate without the

use of any fluid mover

o

## Temperature at which all fluid properties in natural convection

are evaluated
+
=
2
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

o

## depends on the geometry and orientation of the surface,

variation of temperature on the surface and thermo-physical
properties of the fluid.

=
= ,

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Sample Problems
1.

## The outside diameter of a horizontal steel pipe is 4.6 cm.

The pipe is located in a room where the ambient
temperature is 20C. The exterior surface temperature of
the pipe is 40C. Determine the heat transfer rate from the
pipe per unit length of the pipe.

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## Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Sample Problems
2.

## A small holding tank in a chemical plant contains a

corrosive liquid that is maintained at a temperature of
120F by means of an electrical heater. The heating element
consists of a refractory disk 2 ft in diameter situated at the
bottom of the tank. Estimate the power required, in Btu/hr
to maintain the surface of the heating element at 160F. The
properties of the corrosive liquid at 140F are: = 4.8,
= 0.023 ft2/h, = 0.4 Btu/h-ft-F and = 0.000125 R-1.
Use = 32.2 ft/s2.

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## External Forced Convection

External Forced Convection
o

Applications:
o

## Used in mechanical and thermal design of many engineering systems

such as aircraft, automobiles, buildings, electronic components and

o

=

=

## = 0.037 0.8 871 1/3

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## Flow across a single cylinder

Flow over spheres

= 2 + 0.4 1/2
+ 0.06 2/3 0.4
o

## The Nusselt equation above is valid

only if 0.71 380,
3.5 7.6 104 and 1.0

3.2.
All properties are evaluated at free
stream temperature except
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## External Forced Convection

1.

2.

Sample Problems
A small heater in the form of an electrically heated wire is
crossed back and forth in front of a fan which blows air over it at
a mean velocity of 15 ft/s. The surface temperature of the wire
should not exceed 1300F. The air temperature is 60F. The
heater is to generate 3412.3 Btu/hr. Determine the length of a
circular wire whose diameter is 1/32 inch.
The components of an electronic system are located in a 1.25-mlong horizontal duct whose cross-section is 18 cm x 18 cm. The
components in the duct are not allowed to come into direct
contact with cooling air, and thus are cooled by air at 28C
flowing over the duct with a velocity of 200 m/min. If the surface
temperature of the duct is not to exceed 72C, determine the
total power rating, in W of the electronic devices that can be
mounted into the duct.
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## External Forced Convection

3.

Sample Problems
The top surface of the passenger
car of a train moving at a velocity of
70 km/h is 2.8 m wide and 8 m
long. The top surface is absorbing
solar radiation at a rate of 200
W/m2, and the temperature of the
ambient air is 30C. Assuming the
roof of the car to be perfectly
insulated and the radiation heat
exchange with the surroundings to
be small relative to convection,
determine
the
equilibrium
temperature of the top surface of
the car.
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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o

## Involves flow through a closed conduit that is sufficiently long to

effect the desired heat transfer

Applications:
o

o
o

## Pipes has circular cross-sections

Ducts has non-circular cross-sections
Tubes pipes with small diameter

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Mean Velocity
o

## Velocity which remains

constant for incompressible
flow when the cross
sectional area of the tube is
constant

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Mean Temperature
o

## When a fluid is heated as it

flows through a tube, the
temperature of the fluid at
any cross-section changes
from at the surface of the
wall to some minimum at
the tube center.
The temperature profile will
change whenever the fluid is
heated or cooled.

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o

+
=
2

where:

=
=

## mean inlet temperature

mean outlet temperature

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Velocity Profile

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Velocity Profile
o

## Hydrodynamically developing flow

region from the tube inlet to the point at which the boundary layer
merges at the centerline

## region beyond the entrance region in which the velocity profile is

fully developed and remains unchanged
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## Internal Forced Convection

Temperature Profile

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## Internal Forced Convection

Temperature Profile
o

## Thermally Developing Flow

region of flow over which the thermal boundary layer develops and
reaches the tube center.

develops

## region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless

temperature profile expressed as remains unchanged

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## Internal Forced Convection

Fully-developed Flow
o

## region in which the flow is both hydrodynamically and

thermally developed and thus both the velocity and
dimensionless temperature profile remains unchanged.

Entry Length
o

## distance from the tube entrance where the friction coefficient

reaches within about 2% of the fully developed value.

Laminar:

= 0.05

Turbulent:

= 0.05 =
10

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o

## In the absence of work, the conservation of energy equation for

steady flow of a fluid in a tube can be expressed as:

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The

## thermal conditions at the surface can usually be

approximated with reasonable accuracy to be:
o

## Realized when a phase change process such as boiling and

condensation occurs at the outer surface of the tube

## Realized when the tube is subjected to uniform radiation or electric

resistance heating

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Constant

= =

=

ln

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Constant

= =

= +

= , = ,

, = +
, = +

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## Volume flow rate: =

Friction Factor,
For fully-developed laminar flow (or at least hydrodynamically
fully-developed) in tubes - Use Table 8-1.
For turbulent flow in tubes:
= 0.790 ln Re 1.64 2 104 < Re < 106
Pressure Drop,
2
=
2
=

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## Internal Forced Convection

Laminar Flow
Developing
flow
Use Equation 1
(constant Ts)

Turbulent Flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Developing
flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Table 8-1

See Note 1

Use Equation 2

(constant Ts and
qs)

(constant Ts and
qs)

(constant Ts and
qs)

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For

## developing, laminar flow in entrance region for circular

tube assuming constant Ts
Equation 1:

Nu = 3.66 +

## 0.065 D/L RePr

1+0.04 D/L RePr 2/3

## For fully-developed turbulent flow in smooth tubes

Equation 2:

Nu = 0.023Re4/5 Pr n

= 0.4
for heating
( > )
= 0.3
for cooling
<
Note 1: For developing, turbulent flow in smooth tubes, use
Equation 2.
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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o

## can be computed once the

Nusselt value is known,

=

## Convective Heat Transfer

o

Constant

=
o Constant
= , = ,
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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Sample Problems
1.

## Water is to be heated from 10C to 80C as it flows through

a 4-cm-internal-diameter, 18-m-long tube. The tube is
equipped with an electric resistance heater, which provides
uniform heating throughout the surface of the tube. The
outer surface of the heater is well-insulated, so that in
steady operation all the heat generated in the heater is
transferred to the water in the tube. If the system is to
provide hot water at a rate of 2.4 L/min, determine the
power rating of the resistance heater and estimate the inner
surface temperature of the pipe at the exit. Also, compute
the pressure drop in the tube.
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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## Internal Forced Convection

2.

Sample Problems
An air heater for an industrial application consists of an insulated, concentric
tube annulus, for which air flows through a thin-walled inner tube. Saturated
steam flows through the outer annulus, and condensation of the steam
maintains a uniform temperature Ts on the tube surface. Consider conditions
for which atmospheric air enters a 50-mm diameter tube at a temperature of
15C and a flow rate of = 0.03 kg/s, while saturated steam at 2.5 bars
condenses on the outer surface of the tube.
If the length of the annulus is = 5 m what is the
outlet temperature and heat gain of air? What is
the mass rate at which condensate leaves the
annulus? Also, determine the LMTD, pressure
drop and the power requirement of the pump to
overcome this pressure drop. From the
thermodynamic property table, at = 2.5 bars,
the saturation temperature and the latent heat of
fusion are 127.43C and 2181.55 J/kg, respectively
Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan