All about Convection

© All Rights Reserved

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All about Convection

© All Rights Reserved

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Heat Transfer by

Convection

BSAE

INSTRUCTOR 4

College, Los Banos, Philippines

Introduction

Convection

o

o

o

o

combination of heat diffusion (conduction) and bulk motion of

molecules (advection)

dominant form of heat transfer in fluids

requires presence of material medium

enhanced heat transfer due to fluid motion

Introduction

Types of Convection

o

Forced Convection

o

induced by an external means

such as pump or fan

Natural Convection

o

to density differences caused by

temperature variations in the

fluid

Introduction

o

o

o

o

o

Inviscid flow flow with zero viscosity

Internal flow through tubes or ducts in which the fluid is completely

bounded by solid surface

External flow of unbound fluid over a surface

Open-channel flow though tubes or ducts or channels in which fluid

is not completely bounded by the solid surface

o

o

Turbulent disordered fluid motion

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

Introduction

o

o

o

o

o

fluid velocity

geometry of the exposed surface

type of fluid flow

=

The crux of the convection problem is to find the heat transfer coefficient for

the situation at hand.

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

Dimensionless Parameters

Nusselt Number

where:

=

=

=

characteristic length, m

thermal conductivity, W/m-K

Dimensionless Parameters

Reynolds Number

=

=

where:

=

=

=

=

density, kg/m3

free stream velocity, m/s

characteristic length, m

dynamic viscosity, kg/m-s

Dimensionless Parameters

Prandtl Number

= =

where:

=

=

=

specific heat, J/kg-K

thermal conductivity, W/m-K

Dimensionless Parameters

Grashof Number

3

=

2

where:

=

=

=

=

=

=

characteristic length, m

kinematic viscosity, m2/s

surface temperature,

fluid temperature far from the surface,

coefficient of volume expansion

=

ideal gases

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

10

Dimensionless Parameters

Rayleigh Number, Ra

=

Correlation of Data

o

experimental data is to assume an equation of the form:

=

o

condition.

11

Nature of Convection Problems

Convection

Natural

Forced

Internal

External

Flow over

Flat Plates

Flow over

spheres

Flow across

cylinders

Constant

or constant

Turbulent

or Laminar

flow

Developing

or fullydeveloped

12

Natural Convection

Natural Convection

o

temperature variations in the fluid

Applications

o

use of any fluid mover

o

are evaluated

+

=

2

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

13

Natural Convection

o

variation of temperature on the surface and thermo-physical

properties of the fluid.

=

= ,

14

Natural Convection

15

Natural Convection

16

Natural Convection

17

Natural Convection

18

Natural Convection

19

Natural Convection

Sample Problems

1.

The pipe is located in a room where the ambient

temperature is 20C. The exterior surface temperature of

the pipe is 40C. Determine the heat transfer rate from the

pipe per unit length of the pipe.

20

Natural Convection

Sample Problems

2.

corrosive liquid that is maintained at a temperature of

120F by means of an electrical heater. The heating element

consists of a refractory disk 2 ft in diameter situated at the

bottom of the tank. Estimate the power required, in Btu/hr

to maintain the surface of the heating element at 160F. The

properties of the corrosive liquid at 140F are: = 4.8,

= 0.023 ft2/h, = 0.4 Btu/h-ft-F and = 0.000125 R-1.

Use = 32.2 ft/s2.

21

External Forced Convection

o

Applications:

o

such as aircraft, automobiles, buildings, electronic components and

turbine blades.

o

=

=

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

22

Flow over spheres

= 2 + 0.4 1/2

+ 0.06 2/3 0.4

o

only if 0.71 380,

3.5 7.6 104 and 1.0

3.2.

All properties are evaluated at free

stream temperature except

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

23

1.

2.

Sample Problems

A small heater in the form of an electrically heated wire is

crossed back and forth in front of a fan which blows air over it at

a mean velocity of 15 ft/s. The surface temperature of the wire

should not exceed 1300F. The air temperature is 60F. The

heater is to generate 3412.3 Btu/hr. Determine the length of a

circular wire whose diameter is 1/32 inch.

The components of an electronic system are located in a 1.25-mlong horizontal duct whose cross-section is 18 cm x 18 cm. The

components in the duct are not allowed to come into direct

contact with cooling air, and thus are cooled by air at 28C

flowing over the duct with a velocity of 200 m/min. If the surface

temperature of the duct is not to exceed 72C, determine the

total power rating, in W of the electronic devices that can be

mounted into the duct.

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

24

3.

Sample Problems

The top surface of the passenger

car of a train moving at a velocity of

70 km/h is 2.8 m wide and 8 m

long. The top surface is absorbing

solar radiation at a rate of 200

W/m2, and the temperature of the

ambient air is 30C. Assuming the

roof of the car to be perfectly

insulated and the radiation heat

exchange with the surroundings to

be small relative to convection,

determine

the

equilibrium

temperature of the top surface of

the car.

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

25

o

effect the desired heat transfer

Applications:

o

o

o

Ducts has non-circular cross-sections

Tubes pipes with small diameter

26

Mean Velocity

o

constant for incompressible

flow when the cross

sectional area of the tube is

constant

27

Mean Temperature

o

flows through a tube, the

temperature of the fluid at

any cross-section changes

from at the surface of the

wall to some minimum at

the tube center.

The temperature profile will

change whenever the fluid is

heated or cooled.

28

o

+

=

2

where:

=

=

mean outlet temperature

29

Velocity Profile

30

Velocity Profile

o

region from the tube inlet to the point at which the boundary layer

merges at the centerline

fully developed and remains unchanged

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

31

Temperature Profile

32

Temperature Profile

o

region of flow over which the thermal boundary layer develops and

reaches the tube center.

develops

temperature profile expressed as remains unchanged

33

Fully-developed Flow

o

thermally developed and thus both the velocity and

dimensionless temperature profile remains unchanged.

Entry Length

o

reaches within about 2% of the fully developed value.

Laminar:

= 0.05

Turbulent:

= 0.05 =

10

34

o

steady flow of a fluid in a tube can be expressed as:

35

The

approximated with reasonable accuracy to be:

o

condensation occurs at the outer surface of the tube

resistance heating

36

Constant

= =

=

ln

37

Constant

= =

= +

= , = ,

, = +

, = +

38

Friction Factor,

For fully-developed laminar flow (or at least hydrodynamically

fully-developed) in tubes - Use Table 8-1.

For turbulent flow in tubes:

= 0.790 ln Re 1.64 2 104 < Re < 106

Pressure Drop,

2

=

2

=

39

Laminar Flow

Developing

flow

Use Equation 1

(constant Ts)

Turbulent Flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Developing

flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Table 8-1

See Note 1

Use Equation 2

(constant Ts and

qs)

(constant Ts and

qs)

(constant Ts and

qs)

40

For

tube assuming constant Ts

Equation 1:

Nu = 3.66 +

1+0.04 D/L RePr 2/3

Equation 2:

Nu = 0.023Re4/5 Pr n

= 0.4

for heating

( > )

= 0.3

for cooling

<

Note 1: For developing, turbulent flow in smooth tubes, use

Equation 2.

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

41

o

Nusselt value is known,

=

o

Constant

=

o Constant

= , = ,

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

42

Sample Problems

1.

a 4-cm-internal-diameter, 18-m-long tube. The tube is

equipped with an electric resistance heater, which provides

uniform heating throughout the surface of the tube. The

outer surface of the heater is well-insulated, so that in

steady operation all the heat generated in the heater is

transferred to the water in the tube. If the system is to

provide hot water at a rate of 2.4 L/min, determine the

power rating of the resistance heater and estimate the inner

surface temperature of the pipe at the exit. Also, compute

the pressure drop in the tube.

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

43

2.

Sample Problems

An air heater for an industrial application consists of an insulated, concentric

tube annulus, for which air flows through a thin-walled inner tube. Saturated

steam flows through the outer annulus, and condensation of the steam

maintains a uniform temperature Ts on the tube surface. Consider conditions

for which atmospheric air enters a 50-mm diameter tube at a temperature of

15C and a flow rate of = 0.03 kg/s, while saturated steam at 2.5 bars

condenses on the outer surface of the tube.

If the length of the annulus is = 5 m what is the

outlet temperature and heat gain of air? What is

the mass rate at which condensate leaves the

annulus? Also, determine the LMTD, pressure

drop and the power requirement of the pump to

overcome this pressure drop. From the

thermodynamic property table, at = 2.5 bars,

the saturation temperature and the latent heat of

fusion are 127.43C and 2181.55 J/kg, respectively

Prepared by Engr. F. M. Mulimbayan

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