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ENSC 15

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer by
Convection

Engr. FRANCIS M. MULIMBAYAN


BSAE
INSTRUCTOR 4

Department of Engineering Science

University of the Philippines Los Banos


College, Los Banos, Philippines

Convective Heat Transfer


Introduction

Convection
o
o
o
o

occurs between a solid surface and a moving fluid


combination of heat diffusion (conduction) and bulk motion of
molecules (advection)
dominant form of heat transfer in fluids
requires presence of material medium
enhanced heat transfer due to fluid motion

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Convective Heat Transfer


Introduction

Types of Convection
o

Forced Convection
o

occurs when fluid motion is


induced by an external means
such as pump or fan

Natural Convection
o

brought by buoyancy forces due


to density differences caused by
temperature variations in the
fluid

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Convective Heat Transfer


Introduction

Classification of Fluid Flows


o

Viscous vs. Inviscid Flow


o

Internal vs. External Flow


o

o
o

Viscous flow the effect of viscosity is significant


Inviscid flow flow with zero viscosity
Internal flow through tubes or ducts in which the fluid is completely
bounded by solid surface
External flow of unbound fluid over a surface
Open-channel flow though tubes or ducts or channels in which fluid
is not completely bounded by the solid surface

Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow


o
o

Laminar highly ordered fluid motion


Turbulent disordered fluid motion
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Convective Heat Transfer


Introduction

Physical Mechanism of Convection


o

Convection strongly depends on the following:


o

o
o
o

fluid properties (, k, , and )


fluid velocity
geometry of the exposed surface
type of fluid flow

Newtons Law of Cooling


=

The crux of the convection problem is to find the heat transfer coefficient for
the situation at hand.
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Convective Heat Transfer


Dimensionless Parameters

Nusselt Number

where:

=
=
=

heat transfer coefficient, W/m2-K


characteristic length, m
thermal conductivity, W/m-K

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Convective Heat Transfer


Dimensionless Parameters

Reynolds Number


=
=

where:

=
=
=
=

density, kg/m3
free stream velocity, m/s
characteristic length, m
dynamic viscosity, kg/m-s

kinematic viscosity, m2/s =

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Convective Heat Transfer


Dimensionless Parameters

Prandtl Number


= =

where:

kinematic viscosity, m2/s =

thermal diffusivity, m2/s

=
=
=

dynamic viscosity, kg/m-s


specific heat, J/kg-K
thermal conductivity, W/m-K

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Convective Heat Transfer


Dimensionless Parameters

Grashof Number

3
=
2

where:

=
=
=
=
=
=

gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2)


characteristic length, m
kinematic viscosity, m2/s
surface temperature,
fluid temperature far from the surface,
coefficient of volume expansion
=

ideal gases
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Convective Heat Transfer


Dimensionless Parameters

Rayleigh Number, Ra

=
Correlation of Data
o

a convenient and relatively simple relation for the correlation of


experimental data is to assume an equation of the form:

=
o

where C, m and n depend on the surface geometry and the flow


condition.

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Convective Heat Transfer


Nature of Convection Problems

Convection
Natural

Forced

Internal

External
Flow over
Flat Plates

Flow over
spheres

Flow across
cylinders

Constant
or constant

Turbulent
or Laminar
flow

Developing
or fullydeveloped

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Natural Convection
o

Brought by buoyancy forces due to density differences caused by


temperature variations in the fluid

Applications
o

Found in equipment that are designed to operate without the


use of any fluid mover

Mean Film Temperature,


o

Temperature at which all fluid properties in natural convection


are evaluated
+
=
2
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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Nusselt Equations (See Table 9-1)


o

depends on the geometry and orientation of the surface,


variation of temperature on the surface and thermo-physical
properties of the fluid.

=
= ,

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Sample Problems
1.

The outside diameter of a horizontal steel pipe is 4.6 cm.


The pipe is located in a room where the ambient
temperature is 20C. The exterior surface temperature of
the pipe is 40C. Determine the heat transfer rate from the
pipe per unit length of the pipe.

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Convective Heat Transfer

Natural Convection

Sample Problems
2.

A small holding tank in a chemical plant contains a


corrosive liquid that is maintained at a temperature of
120F by means of an electrical heater. The heating element
consists of a refractory disk 2 ft in diameter situated at the
bottom of the tank. Estimate the power required, in Btu/hr
to maintain the surface of the heating element at 160F. The
properties of the corrosive liquid at 140F are: = 4.8,
= 0.023 ft2/h, = 0.4 Btu/h-ft-F and = 0.000125 R-1.
Use = 32.2 ft/s2.

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Convective Heat Transfer

External Forced Convection


External Forced Convection
o

Involves flow of unbound fluid over a surface.

Applications:
o

Used in mechanical and thermal design of many engineering systems


such as aircraft, automobiles, buildings, electronic components and
turbine blades.

Flow over Flat plates


o

Laminar: Re < 5 105


=

= 0.664 1/2 1/3

Turbulent: Re > 5 105


=

= 0.037 0.8 871 1/3


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Convective Heat Transfer

External Forced Convection

Flow across a single cylinder


Flow over spheres

= 2 + 0.4 1/2
+ 0.06 2/3 0.4
o

The Nusselt equation above is valid


only if 0.71 380,
3.5 7.6 104 and 1.0

3.2.
All properties are evaluated at free
stream temperature except
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Convective Heat Transfer

External Forced Convection

1.

2.

Sample Problems
A small heater in the form of an electrically heated wire is
crossed back and forth in front of a fan which blows air over it at
a mean velocity of 15 ft/s. The surface temperature of the wire
should not exceed 1300F. The air temperature is 60F. The
heater is to generate 3412.3 Btu/hr. Determine the length of a
circular wire whose diameter is 1/32 inch.
The components of an electronic system are located in a 1.25-mlong horizontal duct whose cross-section is 18 cm x 18 cm. The
components in the duct are not allowed to come into direct
contact with cooling air, and thus are cooled by air at 28C
flowing over the duct with a velocity of 200 m/min. If the surface
temperature of the duct is not to exceed 72C, determine the
total power rating, in W of the electronic devices that can be
mounted into the duct.
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Convective Heat Transfer

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External Forced Convection

3.

Sample Problems
The top surface of the passenger
car of a train moving at a velocity of
70 km/h is 2.8 m wide and 8 m
long. The top surface is absorbing
solar radiation at a rate of 200
W/m2, and the temperature of the
ambient air is 30C. Assuming the
roof of the car to be perfectly
insulated and the radiation heat
exchange with the surroundings to
be small relative to convection,
determine
the
equilibrium
temperature of the top surface of
the car.
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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Internal Forced Convection


o

Involves flow through a closed conduit that is sufficiently long to


effect the desired heat transfer

Applications:
o

Commonly used in heating and cooling applications

Different flow sections


o
o

Pipes has circular cross-sections


Ducts has non-circular cross-sections
Tubes pipes with small diameter

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Mean Velocity
o

Velocity which remains


constant for incompressible
flow when the cross
sectional area of the tube is
constant

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Mean Temperature
o

When a fluid is heated as it


flows through a tube, the
temperature of the fluid at
any cross-section changes
from at the surface of the
wall to some minimum at
the tube center.
The temperature profile will
change whenever the fluid is
heated or cooled.

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Bulk Mean Temperature


o

Temperature where all fluid properties in internal flow are evaluated


+
=
2

where:

=
=

mean inlet temperature


mean outlet temperature

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Velocity Profile

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Internal Forced Convection

Velocity Profile
o

Hydrodynamic entrance region

Hydrodynamic entry length,

length of the hydrodynamic region

Hydrodynamically developing flow

region from the tube inlet to the point at which the boundary layer
merges at the centerline

flow in the entrance region

Hydrodynamically fully developed region

region beyond the entrance region in which the velocity profile is


fully developed and remains unchanged
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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Temperature Profile

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Internal Forced Convection

Temperature Profile
o

Thermal entrance region

Thermal entry length,

length of thermal entrance region

Thermally Developing Flow

region of flow over which the thermal boundary layer develops and
reaches the tube center.

flow in the thermal entrance region where the temperature profile


develops

Thermally fully-developed Region

region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless



temperature profile expressed as remains unchanged

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Fully-developed Flow
o

region in which the flow is both hydrodynamically and


thermally developed and thus both the velocity and
dimensionless temperature profile remains unchanged.

Entry Length
o

distance from the tube entrance where the friction coefficient


reaches within about 2% of the fully developed value.

Laminar:

= 0.05

Turbulent:

= 0.05 =
10

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

General Thermal Analysis


o

In the absence of work, the conservation of energy equation for


steady flow of a fluid in a tube can be expressed as:

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Convective Heat Transfer

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Internal Forced Convection

The

thermal conditions at the surface can usually be


approximated with reasonable accuracy to be:
o

Constant surface temperature (constant )

Realized when a phase change process such as boiling and


condensation occurs at the outer surface of the tube

Constant surface heat flux (constant )

Realized when the tube is subjected to uniform radiation or electric


resistance heating

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Constant

= =

=

ln

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Constant

= =

= +

= , = ,

, = +
, = +

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Pumping Power Requirement

Volume flow rate: =


Friction Factor,
For fully-developed laminar flow (or at least hydrodynamically
fully-developed) in tubes - Use Table 8-1.
For turbulent flow in tubes:
= 0.790 ln Re 1.64 2 104 < Re < 106
Pressure Drop,
2
=
2
=

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Internal Forced Convection


Laminar Flow
Developing
flow
Use Equation 1
(constant Ts)

Turbulent Flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Developing
flow

Fullydeveloped flow

Table 8-1

See Note 1

Use Equation 2

(constant Ts and
qs)

(constant Ts and
qs)

(constant Ts and
qs)

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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

For

developing, laminar flow in entrance region for circular


tube assuming constant Ts
Equation 1:

Nu = 3.66 +

0.065 D/L RePr


1+0.04 D/L RePr 2/3

For fully-developed turbulent flow in smooth tubes

Equation 2:

Nu = 0.023Re4/5 Pr n

= 0.4
for heating
( > )
= 0.3
for cooling
<
Note 1: For developing, turbulent flow in smooth tubes, use
Equation 2.
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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Heat Transfer Coefficient


o

can be computed once the


Nusselt value is known,

=

Convective Heat Transfer


o

Constant

=
o Constant
= , = ,
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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

Sample Problems
1.

Water is to be heated from 10C to 80C as it flows through


a 4-cm-internal-diameter, 18-m-long tube. The tube is
equipped with an electric resistance heater, which provides
uniform heating throughout the surface of the tube. The
outer surface of the heater is well-insulated, so that in
steady operation all the heat generated in the heater is
transferred to the water in the tube. If the system is to
provide hot water at a rate of 2.4 L/min, determine the
power rating of the resistance heater and estimate the inner
surface temperature of the pipe at the exit. Also, compute
the pressure drop in the tube.
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Convective Heat Transfer

Internal Forced Convection

2.

Sample Problems
An air heater for an industrial application consists of an insulated, concentric
tube annulus, for which air flows through a thin-walled inner tube. Saturated
steam flows through the outer annulus, and condensation of the steam
maintains a uniform temperature Ts on the tube surface. Consider conditions
for which atmospheric air enters a 50-mm diameter tube at a temperature of
15C and a flow rate of = 0.03 kg/s, while saturated steam at 2.5 bars
condenses on the outer surface of the tube.
If the length of the annulus is = 5 m what is the
outlet temperature and heat gain of air? What is
the mass rate at which condensate leaves the
annulus? Also, determine the LMTD, pressure
drop and the power requirement of the pump to
overcome this pressure drop. From the
thermodynamic property table, at = 2.5 bars,
the saturation temperature and the latent heat of
fusion are 127.43C and 2181.55 J/kg, respectively
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