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Intercultural Exam Notes Chapter 6- Language and Intercultural Communication

Key Terms Metalanguage: Form of language used for the description of analysis or another language Co-Cultural Groups: Non-dominant groups that exist in a national culture (Chinese, African American) Dominant Groups: Groups that have majority of the power (whites, males, heterosexuals) Lingua Franca: A commonly shared language that is used as a medium of communication between people of different languages Translation: Involves the process of producing written texts, rather than spoken language Interpretation: Involves the process of analyzing spoken language, rather than written text Language and Perception- 3 Views Nominalist position feels that our perception is not shaped by the language we speak

Relativist position argues that our perception is determined by the language we speak (Sapir Wholf view)

Qualified relativist position argues that language influences how we perceive.

Communication Style

High- Context Communication: A style in which most of the information is contained in the contexts and nonverbal cues rather than expressed in words

Low- Context Communication: A style in which much of the information is conveyed in words rather than non-verbal contexts

Code Switching: A technical term in communication that refers to the phenomenon of changing languages, dialects or accents

Direct A direct communication style is one in which verbal messages reveal the speaker’s true intentions, needs, wants, and desires.

Indirect An indirect style is one in which the verbal message is often designed to camouflage the speaker’s true intentions, needs, wants, and desires.

Co- Cultural Communication

  • - The co-cultural communication theory, proposed by communication scholar Mark Orbe (1998), describes how language works between dominant and non-dominant groups—or co-cultural groups.

  • - Orbe has identified three general orientations: non-assertive, assertive, and aggressive.

  Within each of these orientations, co-cultural individuals may emphasize assimilation, accommodation, or separation in
Within each of these orientations, co-cultural individuals may emphasize
assimilation, accommodation, or separation in relation to the dominant group.
These two sets of orientations result in nine types of strategies

Language and Power

Co-cultural groups may use one of three orientations to dealing with dominant groups— assimilation, accommodation, or separation (page 237)

Accommodation strategies: adaptation to dominant group

Assimilation strategies: ways in which co-cultural group tries to become like the dominant groups

Separation strategies: the extent to which co-cultural groups try to remain separate from dominant groups

Translation and Interpretation Translation: Involves the process of producing written texts, rather than spoken language Interpretation: Involves the process of analyzing spoken language, rather than written text Chapter 7- Nonverbal Communication and Cultural Contexts

Key Terms

Paralinguistic: The study of vocal behaviour, and how something is said (Vocal qualities, pitch, tone, rate etc)

Proxemics: The study of how people use personal space (eye contact, contact culture)

Expectancy violations theory: The view that when someone’s nonverbal behavior violates our expectations, these violations will be perceived positively or negatively depending on the specific context and behavior.

Cultural space: The particular configuration of the communication that constructs meanings of various places.

Nonverbal Communication

  • - Nonverbal communication differs from verbal communication in two ways:

  • 1. It is more unconscious

  • 2. It is learned implicitly.

  • - It can reinforce, substitute for, or contradict verbal communication

  • - Sometimes cultural differences in nonverbal behaviors can lead to stereotyping of others and overt discrimination.

  • - Two ways of changing cultural spaces are travel and migration.

  • - Cultural space influences cultural identity and includes:

Homes: Not just a physical location, Meanings vary on cultural and individual levels

Neighborhoods: Changes over time, based on users and resident experiences/interactions

Regions: Identification based on what an area means to those who live in it Nations: Defined by a common idea of cultural references

Chapter 8- Understanding Intercultural Transitions

Key Terms

Migrant groups: An individual who leaves the primary cultural contexts in which they were raised and moves to a new culture context for an extended period

Functional Fitness:

Cognitive Dissonance:

Liminality:

Transnationalism:

Migrants

The four types of migrants are:

  • 1. Sojourners

  • 2. Immigrants: Immigrants are voluntary migrants

  • 3. Short-term refugees

  • 4. Long-term refugees

  • - Refugees are involuntary migrants

There are five modes of host–migrant relationships:

  • 1. Assimilation

  • 2. Separation

  • 3. Integration

  • 4. Marginalization

  • 5. Hybridity.

Perspectives on Adaptation- 3 Approaches

  • 1. A social science approach to adaptation emphasizes individual influences and outcomes and includes the AUM model, the transition model, and the integrative model.

3.

3. A critical approach emphasizes the contextual influences on adaptation: social institutions, and political, historical, and
3. A critical approach emphasizes the contextual influences on adaptation: social institutions, and political, historical, and
3. A critical approach emphasizes the contextual influences on adaptation: social institutions, and political, historical, and

A critical approach emphasizes the contextual influences on adaptation: social institutions, and political, historical, and economic structures.

3. A critical approach emphasizes the contextual influences on adaptation: social institutions, and political, historical, and

Chapter 9 – Pop Culture and Intercultural Communication

Key Terms

Encoding: The process of creating a message for others to understand. Decoding: The process of interpreting a message.

Hegemony:

the

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the culture of that society — the

Hegemony: the <a href=domination the culture of that society — the their ruling-class cultural norm ; worldview " id="pdf-obj-4-37" src="pdf-obj-4-37.jpg">

their ruling-class cultural

norm;

of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate

of a culturally diverse society by the <a href=ruling class , who manipulate beliefs , explanations , mores — so that perceptions , values , and becomes the worldview that is imposed and accepted as the " id="pdf-obj-4-52" src="pdf-obj-4-52.jpg">
of a culturally diverse society by the <a href=ruling class , who manipulate beliefs , explanations , mores — so that perceptions , values , and becomes the worldview that is imposed and accepted as the " id="pdf-obj-4-57" src="pdf-obj-4-57.jpg">

— so that

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becomes the worldview that is imposed and accepted as the

Stereotype: a thought that can be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of

doing things Cultural Imperialism: Domination through the spread of cultural products.

Pop Culture

  • - We learn about other cultures through popular culture.

  • - Popular culture is popular because of its wide dissemination and easy access to many people.

  • - Popular culture can serve as a public forum.

  • - Cultural texts are not the same as cultural identities.

  • - People can seek out or resist popular culture.

  • - Cultural groups are often represented in ways that can play into stereotypes.

  • - Issue of cultural imperialism must be considered