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Unit 1: Levels of Organization

Chapter 3: Cells
Worksheet

I.

Aids to Understanding Words


Define the following word parts:

II.

cyt-

iso-

endo-

mit-

hyper-

phag-

hypo-

pino-

inter-

-som

Clinical Example
Explain why cloning begins with a stem cell.

III.

3.2 Composite Cell


a. Answer the following questions about the cell membrane.
i. Chemically, the cell membrane is mainly composed of _________________________ and
__________________________.
ii. Describe the role of lipid molecules in making the cell membrane semipermeable.

b. Fill in the following table:


Structure and Function of Cellular Organelles

Organelles
Cell Membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Ribosomes

Golgi Apparatus

Structure

Function

Mitochondria

Lysosomes

Peroxisomes

Microfilaments &
Microtubules
Centrosome

Cilia & Flagella

Vesicles

Nuclear Envelope

Nucleolus

Chromatin

IV.

3.3 Movement through Cell Membranes


a. Answer the questions concerning movement through cell membranes.
i. In what direction do the molecules of solute move in diffusion?
ii. When does diffusion stop?
iii. What substances in the human body are transported by diffusion?
iv. What is dialysis? Describe how it is used in an artificial kidney.
v. Describe facilitated diffusion.
vi. How does osmosis differ from diffusion?

b.

Below are three drawings of a red blood cell in solutions of varying tonicity. Label the tonicity of
the solution in each drawing.

________________________
c.

___________________________

________________________

Answer the questions concerning the accompanying diagram.

i. What transport mechanism is illustrated here?

ii. What provides the necessary force for this


process?

iii. What is the source of this force?

iv. How are molecules transported across


the cell membrane?

v. What substances are transported by this


membrane?

d.

Answer the questions concerning active transport.


i. In active transport, molecules move from regions of ___________________________
concentration to regions of ______________________________ concentration.
ii. Compare active transport to facilitated diffusion.

e.

Answer the following questions concerning the accompanying diagram.

i. What mechanism is illustrated in this drawing?


ii. What organelles are involved?
iii. What kinds of foreign objects are transported?
iv. How is this mechanism important to cell survival?
v. What is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
V.

3.4 The Cell Cycle


a. The series of changes that a cell undergoes from its formation until its reproduction is called its
______________________________________.
b. Describe each of the following events in mitosis.
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
c. Describe the events of cytoplasmic division.
d. Answer these questions concerning cell differentiation.
i. The process by which cells develop differences in structure and function is
________________________________.
ii. Describe the role of DNA in this process.
e. Describe the press of apoptosis.