9/21/2015
Pipes of different sizes and shapes are used in many industrial applications
To Malaysia
Water pipelines
(Acknowledgement: skyscrapercity.com)
(Acknowledgement: http://www.fullsupply.co.uk/)
(Acknowledgement:www.hotshowers.com)
(Acknowledgement:www.bengreenplumbing.co.uk )
Types of Flow:
There are two types of flow in a pipe:
(a) Laminar Flow
(b) Turbulent Flow
FLOW
Laminar flow
FLOW
FLOW
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
FLOW
The criteria which ascertain the type of flow is REYNOLD NUMBER (Re)
Vd
Vd
Red
or
where =density of fluid, =dynamic viscosity, and =kinematic viscosity.
Osborne Reynolds (a British Engineering Professor) was the first to show that the
Reynolds number is the criterion for determining whether the flow is LAMINAR or
TURBULENT in a circular pipe.
Red < 2300 (LAMINAR FLOW)
Flow
Laminar Flow
Laminar
B/L
Turbulent
B/L
Turbulent Flow
ENTRANCE LENGTH
Entrance length is defined as the distance from the entrance of the pipe that the
flow needs to travel before the flow is fully developed (i.e. the velocity profile does
not change with distance).
Fully Developed
Profile
Velocity Profile
d
B
Laminar Boundary Layer
C
Laminar Flow
Le
Vd
Re d
d
LAMINAR FLOW:
Fully Developed
Profile
Velocity Profile
d
B
Laminar Boundary Layer
C
Laminar Flow
Le
0.06 Re d (LAMINAR)
d
The maximum laminar entrance length at Red,critical = 2300 is Le=138d, which is the longest
development length possible.
TURBULENT FLOW:
Laminar Boundary
Layer
Turbulent Boundary
Layer
Fully
Developed
Profile
C
(a) Turbulent Flow
In turbulent flow, the boundary layers grow faster, and Le is relatively short. Based on the
approximation
1
Le
4.4 Re d6 (TURBULENT)
d
The entrance length at various Reynolds number can be calculated as shown in the table below
Red
Le/d
4000
18
104
20
105
30
106
44
107
65
EXAMPLE:
SAE 10 oil at 20oC flows through a 3-cm diameter tube. Estimate the entrance length in cm if the volume flow rate is
(a) 0.001 m3/s and (b) 0.03 m3/s. The density () and dynamic viscosity () of SAE 10 oil are 870 kg/m3 and 0.104
kg/m.s, respectively.
Solution:
Before we can determine the entrance length, we need to determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.
d 2
V
4
4Q
V=
d 2
Re
Vd 4Q
(a) Q=0.001m3/s
Re
4(870)0.001
355
(0.104)(0.03)
4(870)0.03
10650
(0.104)(0.03)
Le 4.4Red
4.4(10650) 6 (3) 62 cm
Control
volume
p2= p1+p
r=R
d
V1
V2
L =x2-x1
z1
gR2L
z2= z1+z
p1 V12
p
V2
z1 2 2 z 2 h f
g 2g
g 2g
(P3)
NOTE:
p
h f z
(P3a)
p
h f z
(P3a)
p
h f z
(P3a)
10
From the last slide, the energy loss (or head loss) is given by
p
h f z
(P3a)
V2 V1 0
p1R 2 p 2 R 2 gR 2 L sin w 2RL m
gsin
pR 2 gR 2 L sin w 2RL 0
p1
L sin z1 z 2 z
But
p2= p1+p
V1
z1
2 L
p
z
hf w
g
gR
or
r=R
w
pR 2 gR 2 z w 2RL
or
( P 4)
2 L
p
z
hf w
g
gR
V2
L =x2-x1
gR2L
z2= z1+z
(P 4)
8 w
V 2
(P5)
By combining P4 and P5, the desired equation for pipe head loss
hf f
L V2
d 2g
(P6)
(Darcy-Weisbach Equation)
V = Average velocity
11
-dz
dx
v1
dz
p +dp
v2
dx
gr2dx
The laminar flow of an incompressible fluid under steady conditions may be completely
analysed using Newtons second law in the direction of motion..
( v 2 v1 ) 0
pr 2 (p dp)r 2 gr 2dx sin 2rdx m
sin ce v1 v 2
dpr 2 gr 2 dz 2rdx
r d
p gz
2 dx
(P6a)
du
dr
(P6b)
r d
p gz
2 dx
(P6a)
du r d
p gz
dr 2 dx
du
r d
p gz
dr 2 dx
Integrating gives
u
r2 d
p gz C1
4 dx
( P 7)
C1
R2 d
p gz
4 dx
(P8)
12
R2 d
r2 d
p gz
p gz
4 dx
4 dx
1 d
p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx
(P9)
1 d
p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx
R
r
FLOW
1 d
p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx
(P9)
R2 d
p gz
4 dx
(P10)
FLOW
dr
R
Therefore,
dQ = u.2rdr
Q u.2rdr
0
Figure P8
umax
1 d
p gz R 2 r 2 2rdr
4 dx
R 4 d
p gz
8 dx
(P11)
13
R2 d
R 4 d
1
p gz R 2
dx p gz
8 dx
4
umax
1
Q R 2 u max
2
V (average velocity)
But
Q u max
A
2
(P11a )
Similarly, shear stress (), friction factor (f) and head loss (h) can be
determined as follows
w
2
du
R d
p gz 2 R d p gz 2u max
dr r R 2 dx
R 4 dx
R
f la min ar
8
64
w2
Re d
V
(P11b)
1 d
p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx
(P12)
L V 2 128LQ
d 2g
gd 4
(P9)
(P13)
R 4 d
p gz
8 dx
dz
R 4 dp
g
dx
8 dx
(P14)
z
R 4 p
g
L
8 L
p
Assuming that the length of the pipe is L;
p=change in pressure over the length
of the pipe, and z=change of elevation.
(P15)
p1
8LQ
R 4
128LQ
d 4
(P16)
p1+p
z1
z2
Datum
14
Laminar
(PARABOLIC)
V
Turbulent
In turbulent flow, a major part of the mechanical energy in the flow goes into forming and
maintaining randomly eddying motion.
Eddying motion dissipates their kinetic energy into heat.
At a given Reynolds number, the drag of the turbulent flow is higher than the drag of a
laminar flow.
Turbulent flow is affected by surface roughness, so that increasing roughness increases the
drag.
15
Outer layer
u
y
Overlap layer
Wall
Figure P10
For turbulent flows, there are no exact solutions available for the velocity profile and
the friction factor variation with Reynolds number, and we must always rely on
experimental data.
For turbulent flow near a wall, the boundary layer can be divided into three regions.
They are the WALL LAYER, the OVERLAP LAYER and the OUTER LAYER.
Umax
Turbulent
Flow
Outer layer
R
u
y
Wall
Overlap layer
Wall layer (or viscous sublayer)
FOR THE WALL LAYER: Viscous shear (laminar) dominates. Using dimensional analysis,
Prandtl deduced in 1930 that
u
yu *
function of
u*
where y = (R-r), =kinematic viscosity of fluid, and u*=
(P17)
u (R r ) u *
u*
or
u yu *
u*
(P17)
16
Umax
Turbulent
Flow
Outer layer
R
u
y
Overlap layer
Wall layer (or viscous sublayer)
Wall
FOR THE OUTER LAYER: Turbulent shear dominates. Using dimensional analysis,
Von Karman deduced in 1933 that
U max u
y
function or
u*
R
U max u
R r
function
u*
R
(P18)
Umax-u is called the velocity defect, and equation (P18) is called VELOCITY DEFECT LAW
Umax
Turbulent
Flow
Outer layer
R
u
y
Wall
Overlap layer
FOR THE OVERLAP LAYER: Both viscous and turbulent shear dominate. C. B. Milliken in
1937 showed, using dimensional analysis, that
u 1 yu *
ln
B or
u*
u 1 (R r )u *
ln
B
u*
(P19)
where and B are constant. Experimental data show that =0.4 and B=5.0. Equation (P19) is called
the LOGARITHMIC OVERLAP LAYER
17
u 1 (R r )u *
u 1 yu *
ln
B
ln
B or
u
*
u*
=0.4
30
Viscous
sublayer
Buffer layer
(P19)
B=5.0
Overlap layer
Eqn (P17)
u/u* 20
10
Experimental data
Outer layer
0
10o
30
5
101
102
103
104
yu *
U max 1 Ru *
ln
B
u*
(P19a )
u 1 (R r )u *
B
ln
u*
(P19)
U max u 1
R
ln
u*
R r
18
(b) Relationship between mean velocity (V) and maximum velocity (umax)
for a turbulent flow in a pipe
umax
u
ur 1 R r u *
B
n
u*
No exact solutions available for the velocity profile of a smooth turbulent flow,
however experimental data follow a logarithmic relation.
ur 1 R r u *
n
B
u*
Q
A
ur .2r.dr
(P 20)
R 2
Figure P8
we get
V
1 R 1 R r u *
B 2rdr
u * n
R 2 0
(P 21)
19
To solve the above integral (P21), we can refer to the Handbook of Mathematical Formulas
and Integrals by Jeffrey Alan ( 2nd edition, Academic Press, pg 176). Relevance formulation is
reproduced here
1
2
2
n a bx xdx x
a2
1 x 2 ax
n a bx
2
2 2
b
b
V
Ru *
1.25
2.5n
u*
(P 22)
Since the maximum velocity (umax) occurs at the location where r=0. (P20) becomes
u max
Ru *
2.5n
5.0
u*
(P 23)
u max V
5.0 1.25
u*
u max
u*
1 3.75
V
V
But u*
V
Ru *
2.5n
1.25
u*
(P 22)
u max
Ru *
2.5n
5.0
u*
(P 23)
(P 24)
8
w
and f w2 , and simple manipulation gives
V
V
8
u*
f
u max
f
1 3.75
1 1.33 f
V
8
V
1
u max 1 1.33 f
(P 25)
20
1
2.0 log Re d f 0.8
f
(P 26)
4000
104
105
106
107
108
0.0399
0.0309
0.0180
0.0116
0.0081
0.0059
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
64
Re d
(P12)
0.05
f 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
103
105
104
106
107
108
f 0.316 Re d 4
4000 Re d 10 5
( P 27 )
21
L V2
h f z f
d 2g
g
p
L V2
f
g
d 2g
1.25
V1.75
1
Q d 2 V
4
Introducing
p 0.158L 4 4 d
Eqn (6)
Eqn (3a)
p 0.158L 4 4 d 4 V 4
p 0.241L 4 4 d
4.75
hf
f 0.316 Re d 4
(P 27)
1
4
p
L V2
L V2
f
0.316
g
d 2g
Vd d 2g
Eqn (27)
p 0.241L 4 4 d
4.75
Q1.75
(P28)
128LQ
d 4
128Ld 4 Q
or
(P 29)
Note:
(a) For a given Q, the pressure drop in turbulent flow decrease more quickly than in
laminar flow.
(b) The quickest way to reduce the required pumping pressure is to increase the diameter
of the pipe. Doubling the pipe reduces p by a factor of about 27.
22
TURBULENT FLOW
Pipe 1
2d
Pipe 2
P2
P1
27
23
Most of the pipes used in engineering applications such as cement pipes, cast iron pipes etc
cannot be regarded as hydraulically smooth especially at high Reynolds numbers.
In fact, they are actually behaving as hydraulically rough.
The resistance to fluid flow offered by rough boundaries is larger that for smooth boundaries
on account of formation of eddies behind rough protrusions.
For LAMINAR FLOW, all rough pipes irrespective of their roughness size and pattern offer
the same resistance as that offered by a smooth pipe under similar conditions of flow.
In fact, there is no surface which may be regarded as perfectly smooth. The term smooth
and rough are relative.
In turbulent flow, there is a thin layer very close to the boundary in which the flow exhibits
characteristics of laminar flow. This layer is call laminar sublayer
Turbulent flow
Limit of laminar
sublayer
Figure P13
recall that u*
u *
5
(P30)
w
and = kinematic viscosity of fluid
24
Figure P14
u *
70
(P31)
The regime lies between hydraulically smooth wall and hydraulically rough walls.
Figure P15
u *
70
(P32)
25
EXAMPLE:
Water at 20 oC flows in a 10 cm diameter pipe at an average velocity of 1.6 m/s. If the roughness
elements are 0.046 mm high and the friction factor is f = 0.0204, would the wall be considered rough
or smooth? Assume the kinematic viscosity of water () 10-6 m2/s.
Solution:
To find if the wall is smooth, we need to
make use of the flow criteria:
If
u *
5
u *
70
1
1
V 2 f 1000 1.6 2 0.0204 6.53Pa
8
8
w
6.53
0.0808 m / s
1000
3.7
10 6
26
Roughness elements
completely submerged
in the laminar sublayer
For hydraulically smooth pipe, the roughness elements are submerged inside
laminar boundary layer. We may use the velocity profile for a smooth pipe, i.e.
u
1
yu *
ln
5 .0
u * 0 .4
( P 33 )
Roughness elements
protrude through
laminar sublayer
Figure P16
u
1
y
ln 8.5
u * 0.4
27
u
1
y
ln B
u * 0.4
(P35)
u *
n
Figure P18
Irregular roughness
Commercial pipe
Naturally rough surfaces of commercial pipes used in engineering practices are generally
complex and irregular as shown above.
Because of this, most of the advance in understanding the parameters of pipe resistance
have been developed around experiments on artificially roughened pipes.
An German engineer, J. Nikuradse, conducted a series of systematic experiments on pipes
roughened artificially by glueing uniform sand grains as closely spaced as possible on the
inner side of the pipe wall.
28
Pipe
p
L V2
f
g
d 2g
(P27a)
p d 2g
g L V 2
x
x
x
STANTON or
MOODY DIAGRAM.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Re=Ud/
29
A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME
LAMINAR
FLOW
1
2.0 log Re d f 0.8
f
SMOOTH
PIPES
B
F
Smooth pipe
1
2.0logRed f 0.8
f
(P26)
For all the curves on the right hand side of AB (red curve), the f versus Reynolds
number relationship becomes horizontal indicating that friction factor is independent of
the Reynolds number. This region is identified as a fully rough flow, and are described
by
1
d
2.0 log
f
3.7
30
A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME
1
d
2.0 log
f
3.7
(P36)
Smooth pipe
1
2.0log Red f 0.8
f
(P26)
F
Between lines EF and AB, the friction factor is dependent on both Reynolds number as
well as the relative roughness.
Colebrook in 1939 cleverly combined the smooth wall (equation P26) and fully rough
flow (equation P36) relations into an interpolated formula.
d
1
2.51
2.0 log
f
3.7 Re d f
(P37)
A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME
1
d
2.0 log
f
3.7
(P36)
Smooth pipe
1
2.0log Red f 0.8
f
(P26)
F
An alternative formula given by Haaland is given by
6.9 d 1.11
1
1.8 log
f
Re d 3.7
(P38)
d
1
2.51
2.0 log
3
.
7
f
Re
f
d
(P37)
31
0.0125
0.0185
0.0128
The Moody Diagram is accurate to 15% for design calculations over the full
range shown in the figure. The shaded area in the Moody diagram indicates the range
where transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs. There are no reliable friction
factors in this range, 2000<Red<4000.
32
(mm)
Riveted steel
0.9-9.0
Concrete
0.3-3.0
Cast iron
0.26
Galvanised iron
0.15
0.12
0.046
Drawn tubing
Glass
0.0015
Smooth
(Acknowledgement: Rigidtools.org)
(Acknowledgement: itctubeco.com)
Circular pipes
Non-circular pipes
33
Hydraulic Diameter
DH
(P39)
Examples:
(a) Rectangular Cross-section:
H
W
DH
DH
4 WH
2H W
4 WH
4 WH
2H
2H W 2( W )
DH
4H H
H
2H H
h L Frictional Loss f
But
f la min ar
L V2
D H 2g
64
64
Re d VD H
34
Laminar
(PARABOLIC)
V
Turbulent
35
Fittings
Inlet
Bends
Valve
Outlet
Sudden
enlargement
Sudden
contraction
The minor losses are those caused by change in pipe cross-section, presence of bends,
valves, elbows, enlargements, contractions, inlets, outlets and fittings of all kinds.
A minor loss is expressed in terms of loss coefficient K, defined by
hL K
V2
2g
It is often the practice to express a loss coefficient as an equivalent length (Leq ) of the pipe.
K
Therefore
L eq V 2
V2
f
2g
D 2g
L eq K
D
f
(1)
F
(2)
E
p1A1 p' (A 2 A1 ) p 2 A 2 Qv 2 v1
since p p1
Q v 2 v1 p1 p 2 A 2
A1v1=A2v2
B
C
p1
A1
v1
z1
D
p2
A2
v2
z1
z1 2 2 z 2 h L
g 2g
g 2g
(p1 p 2 )
Q
v 2 v1
A2
v 2 v 2 v1
hL
p1 p 2 v12 v 22
g
2g
hL
v 2 v 2 v1 v12 v 22
g
2g
v1 v 2 2
2g
36
hL
v2
(1)
F
v1 v 2 2
2g
A1
v1
A2
A1v1=A2v2B
A1v1=A2v2
v1
(2)
E
D
p2
A2
v2
z1
C
p1
A1
v1
z1
A2
v2
A1
hL
v12 A1
1
2g A 2
hL
v 22 A 2
1
2g A1
(P42)
A1
Exit Loss
A2
hL
v12 A1
1
2g A 2
Large tank
A2>> A1
A1
A1
A1
0
A2
A2
v2
hL 1
2g
A2
Equivalent
hL
v12
2g
(exit loss)
37
d1
hL
V1
V2 d2
D
C
Area (A1)
(Section 1)
Area (A2)
(Section 2)
V22 A 2
V2 1
1 2 1
2g A c
2g Cc
Figure P23
h L K sc
V22
2g
h L K sc
V22
2g
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Ksc
0.5
0.45
0.38
0.28
0.14
Note:
(a) When d2/d1=1.0, there is no sudden contraction and the
pipe is a normal straight pipe, and Ksc=0.
(b) As A1 , d2/d10, the value of KSC =0.5
d1
d2
38
ENTRANCE LOSS
Square-edge
(flush)
Protrusions
V
K=0.5
(a)
(b)
Figure P24
t/d=0.02
Figure P25
Bell-mouthed
V
r
Figure P26
0.04
Rounded
Edge
Figure P27
39
GRADUAL EXPANSION
Energy loss can be considerably reduced if the pipe
transition is more gradual.
A2
V1 A1
V2
DIFFUSER
hL KL
V1 V2 2
2g
A V2
K L 1 1 1
A 2 2g
KL
A2/A1=2.25
A2/A1=4
6o
Figure P29
LOSSES IN BENDS
Secondary
flow
Flow
separation
C
A
Flow
separation
Figure P30
Loss due to flow separation + Loss due to friction on the wall + loss
due to secondary flow.
V2
2g
(P 46)
K depends on the total angle of the bend, surface roughness () and on the relative radius of
curvature R/d, where R is the radius of curvature of the pipe centreline and d is the pipe
diameter.
40
41
Type of fitting
A1
1 A
A2
A1
Sudden enlargement
1.1
90o mitre bend (without vanes)
0.2
90o mitre bend (with vanes)
=30o
0.02
=70o
0.07
General contraction
42
Q1
Q2
Q3
Friction
loss Minor loss
Figure P32
HL
V2 f L
V12 f1L1
K1,i 2 2 2 K 2,i
2g d1
i
i
2g d 2
(P47)
Or
V32 f 3 L 3
K 3,i
2g d 3
i
(P48)
43
PIPES IN PARALLEL:
1
(A)
Q1
Q2
(B)
Q
Q3
1
(A)
Q1
(B)
Q2
Q3
PA VA2
zA
g 2g
PB VB2
zB
g 2g
The steady-energy equation may be written
Figure P33
PA VA2
P
V2
zA B B zB HL
g 2g
g 2g
Therefore, all the fluid in EACH PIPE
suffer the same loss of head HL
(P49)
(P50)
BRANCHED PIPES
Tank 2
1
Q1
z1
Q2
z2
Q3
z3
Tank 3
HJ
Arbitrary datum
44
Tank 1
Q1
z1
Q2
3
z3
Tank 2
z2
Q3
Tank 3
zJ
Arbitrary datum
f L V2 f L V2
H2-H3 = HL2 + HL3 = 2 2 2 3 3 3
d 3 2g
d 2 2g
tank 1=H1,
tank 2 =H2,
tank 3=H3,
location J = HJ
P1
P2
Tank 1
Q1
z1
P3
Tank 3
Q2
z2
Q3
z3
If P1 = P2 = P3 = Patmosphere
Tank 2
HJ
Arbitrary datum
V1=V2=V3 0
If gauge pressure is used throughout, it can
be shown that
In general,
H1
P1 V12
z1
g 2g
H 1 z1
H2
P2 V22
z2
g 2g
H2 z2
H3
P3 V32
z3
g 2g
H3 z3
HJ
PJ VJ2
zJ
g 2g
HJ
PJg
g
VJ2
zJ
2g
45
Tank A
LA= 100m
DA= 120mm
QA
zA=50m
D
Tank C
Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm
QA
D
H D z C 47.365 25 22.365
Tank B
LB= 60m
DB= 75mm
Tank C
Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm
QB
But 22.365
zB=?m
0.02 x 40 xVC2
2 x 9.81x 0.06
QC
Arbitrary datum
zB=?m
Arbitrary datum
Tank A
zC=25m
QB
QC
zC=25m
zA=50m
Tank B
LB= 60m
DB= 75mm
Flow to reservoir C
Q
20 x10 3
1..768 m / s
A
2
(0.12)
4
h fA
2.655m
D A 2g
2 x9.81x 0.12
H D z A h fA 50 2.655 47.365
46
Tank A
LA= 100m
DA= 120mm
QA
zA=50m
Tank B
LB= 60m
DB= 75mm
Tank C
Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm
zC=25m
zB=?m
QB
QC
Arbitrary datum
Therefore, VB
3.78x10 3
0.855m / s
2
(0.075)
4
THE END
47