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# ANALYSIS OF PIPE FLOW

9/21/2015

Pipes of different sizes and shapes are used in many industrial applications

## Some examples of piping system in

engineering applications

To Malaysia
Water pipelines

(Acknowledgement: skyscrapercity.com)

## Water pipelines between Malaysia and Singapore

(Acknowledgement: http://www.fullsupply.co.uk/)

## Pipelines inside Honda Accord engine compartment

(Acknowledgement:www.hotshowers.com)

(Acknowledgement:www.bengreenplumbing.co.uk )

## A satisfactory analysis of pipe flow depends on the accuracy involved in

estimating the dissipation of energy incurred in maintaining the flow. This
requires the knowledge of boundary layer theory.
The following analysis relates to homogeneous fluid of constant viscosity and
density. The results are also applicable to gases provided the density
changes are small.

Types of Flow:
There are two types of flow in a pipe:
(a) Laminar Flow
(b) Turbulent Flow

## (a) Laminar Flow:

This type of flow is characterized by motion of fluids in layers or laminas,
parallel to the boundary surface.

FLOW

Laminar flow
FLOW

## (b) Turbulent Flow:

Under certain conditions, a laminar flow can become unstable and become turbulent.

FLOW

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

FLOW

## The turbulent flow is characterized by RANDOM, IRREGULAR and UNSTEADY

movement of fluid particles, making it impossible to predict the motion of a fluid
particle with respect to time and space.

The criteria which ascertain the type of flow is REYNOLD NUMBER (Re)

Vd
Vd
Red
or

where =density of fluid, =dynamic viscosity, and =kinematic viscosity.

Osborne Reynolds (a British Engineering Professor) was the first to show that the
Reynolds number is the criterion for determining whether the flow is LAMINAR or
TURBULENT in a circular pipe.
Red < 2300 (LAMINAR FLOW)

## Critical Reynolds number is very sensitive to the initial disturbances in the

fluid at the entrance.
By quieting the flow, it is possible to extend Red >50,000

## The upper limit of critical Reynolds number depends on

(a) initial disturbance of approach flow,
(b) shape of pipe entrance and
(c) roughness of pipe.

Flow

## Laminar Boundary Layer

Transitional Boundary
Layer

Laminar B/L

Laminar Flow

Laminar
B/L

Turbulent
B/L

## Very high velocity

Turbulent Flow

ENTRANCE LENGTH
Entrance length is defined as the distance from the entrance of the pipe that the
flow needs to travel before the flow is fully developed (i.e. the velocity profile does
not change with distance).
Fully Developed
Profile

Velocity Profile

d
B
Laminar Boundary Layer

C
Laminar Flow

Figure P5(a)

## The entrance length (Le) is a function of Reynolds number , i.e.

Le
Vd

Re d
d

LAMINAR FLOW:
Fully Developed
Profile

Velocity Profile

d
B
Laminar Boundary Layer

C
Laminar Flow

## The accepted correlation is

Le
0.06 Re d (LAMINAR)
d
The maximum laminar entrance length at Red,critical = 2300 is Le=138d, which is the longest
development length possible.

TURBULENT FLOW:
Laminar Boundary
Layer

Turbulent Boundary
Layer
Fully
Developed
Profile

C
(a) Turbulent Flow

## Entrance Length (Le)

In turbulent flow, the boundary layers grow faster, and Le is relatively short. Based on the
approximation
1
Le
4.4 Re d6 (TURBULENT)
d

The entrance length at various Reynolds number can be calculated as shown in the table below
Red

Le/d

4000

18

104

20

105

30

106

44

107

65

EXAMPLE:
SAE 10 oil at 20oC flows through a 3-cm diameter tube. Estimate the entrance length in cm if the volume flow rate is
(a) 0.001 m3/s and (b) 0.03 m3/s. The density () and dynamic viscosity () of SAE 10 oil are 870 kg/m3 and 0.104
kg/m.s, respectively.

Solution:
Before we can determine the entrance length, we need to determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.
d 2
V
4
4Q
V=
d 2

Re

Vd 4Q

(a) Q=0.001m3/s
Re

4(870)0.001
355
(0.104)(0.03)

Re

4(870)0.03
10650
(0.104)(0.03)

## Flow is turbulent since Re>2300.

From equation P2,

Le 4.4Red

4.4(10650) 6 (3) 62 cm

## Flow is laminar since Re<2300.

From equation P1,

gsin
p1

Control
volume

p2= p1+p

r=R

d
V1

V2

L =x2-x1
z1

gR2L

z2= z1+z

1

p1 V12
p
V2

z1 2 2 z 2 h f
g 2g
g 2g

(P3)

NOTE:

## In general, the energy equation in a pipe is given by

p1
V2
p
V2
1 1 z1 2 2 2 z 2 h f
g
2g
g
2g

1 = 2 = 2

p
h f z

(P3a)

1 = 2 1

p
h f z

(P3a)

## Using Averaged Velocity

1 = 2 = 1

p
h f z

(P3a)

10

From the last slide, the energy loss (or head loss) is given by

p
h f z

(P3a)

## Apply momentum equation to the control volume, we get

V2 V1 0
p1R 2 p 2 R 2 gR 2 L sin w 2RL m
gsin

pR 2 gR 2 L sin w 2RL 0

p1

L sin z1 z 2 z

But

p2= p1+p
V1

## Therefore, the above equation becomes

-

z1

2 L
p
z
hf w
g
gR

or

r=R
w

pR 2 gR 2 z w 2RL

or

( P 4)

2 L
p
z
hf w
g
gR

V2

L =x2-x1
gR2L

z2= z1+z

(P 4)

## Define the dimensionless parameter f (the Darcy Friction Factor)

8 w
V 2

(P5)

By combining P4 and P5, the desired equation for pipe head loss

hf f

L V2
d 2g

(P6)

(Darcy-Weisbach Equation)

V = Average velocity

## NOTE: Darcy-Weisbach Equation is valid for duct flows of any cross-section

and both laminar and turbulent flow.

11

## Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe

-dz

dx

v1

dz

p +dp
v2

dx
gr2dx

The laminar flow of an incompressible fluid under steady conditions may be completely
analysed using Newtons second law in the direction of motion..

( v 2 v1 ) 0
pr 2 (p dp)r 2 gr 2dx sin 2rdx m

sin ce v1 v 2

## dpr 2 gr 2 dx sin 2rdx

dpr 2 gr 2 dz 2rdx

r d
p gz
2 dx

(P6a)

du
dr

(P6b)

u decreases,

## Substituting (P6b) into (P6a) gives

r d
p gz
2 dx

(P6a)

du r d

p gz
dr 2 dx

du
r d

p gz
dr 2 dx
Integrating gives
u

r2 d
p gz C1
4 dx

( P 7)

## C1 is a constant that depends on the boundary condition.

Boundary condition: at r=R, u=0.
Substitute into equation (P7) gives

C1

R2 d
p gz
4 dx

(P8)

12

## After substituting (P8) into equation (P7), the

velocity distribution is given by
u

R2 d
r2 d
p gz
p gz
4 dx
4 dx

1 d

p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx

(P9)

## which is a parabolic distribution. Equation (P9) is

called the Hagen-Poiseuille Flow.

1 d

p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx

R
r

FLOW

1 d

p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx

(P9)

u max

R2 d
p gz
4 dx

(P10)

FLOW

dr
R

## We consider flow through a GREEN circular ring

Therefore,

dQ = u.2rdr
Q u.2rdr
0

Figure P8

umax

2rdr
(since dr is small)

1 d

p gz R 2 r 2 2rdr
4 dx

R 4 d

p gz
8 dx

(P11)

13

## Comparing equation (P10) and (P11), it can be seen that

Q

R2 d
R 4 d
1

p gz R 2
dx p gz
8 dx
4

umax

1
Q R 2 u max
2
V (average velocity)

But

Q u max

A
2

(P11a )

Similarly, shear stress (), friction factor (f) and head loss (h) can be
determined as follows
w

2
du
R d

p gz 2 R d p gz 2u max
dr r R 2 dx
R 4 dx
R

f la min ar

8
64
w2
Re d
V

(P11b)

1 d

p gz R 2 r 2
4 dx

(P12)

L V 2 128LQ

d 2g
gd 4

(P9)

(P13)

## Pressure Drop for a Laminar Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

From equation (P11),
Q

R 4 d

p gz
8 dx

dz
R 4 dp

g
dx
8 dx

(P14)

z
R 4 p

g
L
8 L

## If the pipe is horizontal z=0, therefore

p
Assuming that the length of the pipe is L;
p=change in pressure over the length
of the pipe, and z=change of elevation.

(P15)

## for laminar flow only

Introducing R=d/2

p1

8LQ
R 4

128LQ
d 4

(P16)

p1+p
z1

z2
Datum

14

## Turbulent Flow in a Circular Pipe

Laminar
(PARABOLIC)

V
Turbulent

In turbulent flow, a major part of the mechanical energy in the flow goes into forming and
maintaining randomly eddying motion.
Eddying motion dissipates their kinetic energy into heat.
At a given Reynolds number, the drag of the turbulent flow is higher than the drag of a
laminar flow.
Turbulent flow is affected by surface roughness, so that increasing roughness increases the
drag.

15

VELOCITY Profile
Umax
Turbulent
Flow

Outer layer

u
y

Overlap layer

Wall

## Wall layer (or viscous sub-layer)

Figure P10

For turbulent flows, there are no exact solutions available for the velocity profile and
the friction factor variation with Reynolds number, and we must always rely on
experimental data.
For turbulent flow near a wall, the boundary layer can be divided into three regions.
They are the WALL LAYER, the OVERLAP LAYER and the OUTER LAYER.

Umax
Turbulent
Flow

Outer layer

R
u
y

Wall

Overlap layer
Wall layer (or viscous sublayer)

FOR THE WALL LAYER: Viscous shear (laminar) dominates. Using dimensional analysis,
Prandtl deduced in 1930 that

u
yu *
function of

u*

where y = (R-r), =kinematic viscosity of fluid, and u*=

(P17)

## Equation (P17) is called the LAW OF THE WALL.

Experiment indicates that

u (R r ) u *

u*

or

u yu *

u*

(P17)

16

Umax
Turbulent
Flow

Outer layer

R
u
y

Overlap layer
Wall layer (or viscous sublayer)

Wall

FOR THE OUTER LAYER: Turbulent shear dominates. Using dimensional analysis,
Von Karman deduced in 1933 that

U max u
y
function or
u*
R

U max u
R r
function

u*
R

(P18)

Umax-u is called the velocity defect, and equation (P18) is called VELOCITY DEFECT LAW

Umax
Turbulent
Flow

Outer layer

R
u
y

Wall

Overlap layer

## Wall layer (or viscous sublayer)

FOR THE OVERLAP LAYER: Both viscous and turbulent shear dominate. C. B. Milliken in
1937 showed, using dimensional analysis, that

u 1 yu *
ln
B or
u*

u 1 (R r )u *
ln
B
u*

(P19)

where and B are constant. Experimental data show that =0.4 and B=5.0. Equation (P19) is called
the LOGARITHMIC OVERLAP LAYER

17

u 1 (R r )u *
u 1 yu *
ln
B
ln
B or

u
*
u*

=0.4

30

Viscous
sublayer

Buffer layer

(P19)

B=5.0

Overlap layer

Eqn (P17)

u/u* 20

10
Experimental data
Outer layer

0
10o

30

5
101

102

103

104

yu *

## A good approximation for the OUTER TURBULENT BOUNDARY OF THE PIPE

can be obtained from (P19) by setting u=Umax when r=0 because maximum velocity
occurs at the centre of the pipe, i.e.

U max 1 Ru *
ln
B

u*

(P19a )

u 1 (R r )u *
B
ln
u*

(P19)

## (P19) minus (P19a) gives

U max u 1
R
ln
u*
R r

18

(b) Relationship between mean velocity (V) and maximum velocity (umax)
for a turbulent flow in a pipe

umax
u

ur 1 R r u *
B
n
u*

No exact solutions available for the velocity profile of a smooth turbulent flow,
however experimental data follow a logarithmic relation.

ur 1 R r u *
n
B
u*

## Mean (or average velocity) V

The mean (or average velocity) V in the pipe is given by

Q
A

## where Q= volume flow rate and A is the pipe cross-sectional area

dr
R

ur .2r.dr

(P 20)

R 2

Figure P8

2rdr
(since dr is small)

## Substituting ur u * 1 n R r u * B from the above into eqn (P20a),

we get
V

1 R 1 R r u *

B 2rdr
u * n

R 2 0

(P 21)

19

To solve the above integral (P21), we can refer to the Handbook of Mathematical Formulas
and Integrals by Jeffrey Alan ( 2nd edition, Academic Press, pg 176). Relevance formulation is
reproduced here
1
2

2
n a bx xdx x

a2
1 x 2 ax
n a bx
2
2 2
b
b

1 2 Ru *
3
V u * n
2B
2

## Substituting =0.40 and B=5.0 into the above equation, we obtain

V
Ru *
1.25
2.5n
u*

(P 22)

Since the maximum velocity (umax) occurs at the location where r=0. (P20) becomes

u max
Ru *
2.5n
5.0
u*

(P 23)

## Subtract (P22) from (P23), we get

u max V
5.0 1.25
u*
u max
u*
1 3.75
V
V
But u*

V
Ru *
2.5n
1.25
u*

(P 22)

u max
Ru *
2.5n
5.0
u*

(P 23)

(P 24)

8
w
and f w2 , and simple manipulation gives

V
V
8

u*
f

u max
f
1 3.75
1 1.33 f
V
8
V
1

u max 1 1.33 f

(P 25)

20

## (c) Friction Factor

The relationship between friction factor and Reynolds number for a smooth
turbulent pipe flow is given semi-empirical as

1
2.0 log Re d f 0.8
f

(P 26)

## Which is known as PRANDTLS UNIVERSAL LAW OF FRICTION for smooth pipe

(for derivation, see Shames)
Some numerical values of equation P26 is listed below
Red

4000

104

105

106

107

108

0.0399

0.0309

0.0180

0.0116

0.0081

0.0059

Reynolds number.
f la min ar

## Graphically, equation (P26) can be plotted together with equation

(P12) for smooth pipe laminar flow as shown in the graph below

0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06

64
Re d

(P12)

64
f
Red

0.05

f 0.04
0.03

## Smooth pipe: Turbulent flow (eqn 26)

1
2 .0 log Re d f 0 .8
f

0.02

0.01
103

105

104

106

107

108

## Equation P26 is quite cumbersome to solve if Red is known and f is required.

There are many alternatives of finding f, one of which is by Blasius is

f 0.316 Re d 4

4000 Re d 10 5

( P 27 )

21

is given by

L V2
h f z f
d 2g
g

p
L V2
f
g
d 2g

1.25

V1.75

1
Q d 2 V
4

Introducing

## If the pipe is horizontal z=0

hf

p 0.158L 4 4 d

Eqn (6)

Eqn (3a)

p 0.158L 4 4 d 4 V 4

p 0.241L 4 4 d

4.75

(P28)

equation we get

hf

f 0.316 Re d 4

(P 27)

1
4

p
L V2
L V2

f
0.316

g
d 2g
Vd d 2g
Eqn (27)

p 0.241L 4 4 d

4.75

Q1.75

(P28)

horizontal pipe

128LQ
d 4

128Ld 4 Q

or

(P 29)

## For LAMINAR flow

Note:
(a) For a given Q, the pressure drop in turbulent flow decrease more quickly than in
laminar flow.
(b) The quickest way to reduce the required pumping pressure is to increase the diameter
of the pipe. Doubling the pipe reduces p by a factor of about 27.

22

TURBULENT FLOW

Pipe 1

2d

Pipe 2

P2

P1
27

## Better to transport water from Malaysia to Singapore

using a big pipe, but the cost of the pipe will go up!

A ROUGH PIPE

23

## FLOW THROUGH ROUGH PIPES

Most of the pipes used in engineering applications such as cement pipes, cast iron pipes etc
cannot be regarded as hydraulically smooth especially at high Reynolds numbers.
In fact, they are actually behaving as hydraulically rough.
The resistance to fluid flow offered by rough boundaries is larger that for smooth boundaries
on account of formation of eddies behind rough protrusions.
For LAMINAR FLOW, all rough pipes irrespective of their roughness size and pattern offer
the same resistance as that offered by a smooth pipe under similar conditions of flow.
In fact, there is no surface which may be regarded as perfectly smooth. The term smooth
and rough are relative.
In turbulent flow, there is a thin layer very close to the boundary in which the flow exhibits
characteristics of laminar flow. This layer is call laminar sublayer
Turbulent flow
Limit of laminar
sublayer

## (a)Hydraulically Smooth Walls

This occurs when the roughness elements are submerged in the laminar sublayer, and
therefore have no effects on friction

## Roughness elements completely

submerged in the laminar
sublayer

Figure P13

## Criteria for Hydraulically Smooth Walls:

recall that u*

u *
5

(P30)

w
and = kinematic viscosity of fluid

24

## (b) Hydraulically Rough Walls

This occurs when the roughness elements protrude into the main flow causing it to
break up into vortices or eddies.

## Roughness elements protrude

into the main flow

Figure P14

u *
70

(P31)

## (c) Transitional Roughness:

The regime lies between hydraulically smooth wall and hydraulically rough walls.

## Some roughness elements are

submerged and some are
protruded into the main flow

Figure P15

## Criteria for Transitional Roughness:

u *
70

(P32)

25

EXAMPLE:
Water at 20 oC flows in a 10 cm diameter pipe at an average velocity of 1.6 m/s. If the roughness
elements are 0.046 mm high and the friction factor is f = 0.0204, would the wall be considered rough
or smooth? Assume the kinematic viscosity of water () 10-6 m2/s.
Solution:
To find if the wall is smooth, we need to
make use of the flow criteria:
If

u *
5

If

u *
70

## then the wall would be rough.

1
1
V 2 f 1000 1.6 2 0.0204 6.53Pa
8
8

u*

w
6.53

0.0808 m / s

1000

thickness is

3.7

10 6

## Therefore the wall is hydraulically

smooth, even though it is physically
rough.

26

## (a) Velocity Profile in a Rough Pipe:

The velocity profiles in a rough pipe depend on whether the pipe is hydraulically smooth
or completely rough or Transitional rough.
(a) hydraulically Smooth

## Limit of laminar sublayer

Roughness elements
completely submerged
in the laminar sublayer

For hydraulically smooth pipe, the roughness elements are submerged inside
laminar boundary layer. We may use the velocity profile for a smooth pipe, i.e.

u
1
yu *

ln
5 .0
u * 0 .4

( P 33 )

## Limit of laminar sublayer

Roughness elements
protrude through
laminar sublayer

Figure P16

u
1
y

ln 8.5
u * 0.4

27

## (c) Transitional Roughness

The velocity profile is also given by

u
1
y

ln B
u * 0.4

(P35)

u *
n

Figure P18

## Acknowledgment: F.M. White:

Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition

## NIKURADSES EXPERIMENTS ON ARTIFICIALLY ROUGH PIPES

Irregular roughness

Commercial pipe
Naturally rough surfaces of commercial pipes used in engineering practices are generally
complex and irregular as shown above.
Because of this, most of the advance in understanding the parameters of pipe resistance
have been developed around experiments on artificially roughened pipes.
An German engineer, J. Nikuradse, conducted a series of systematic experiments on pipes
roughened artificially by glueing uniform sand grains as closely spaced as possible on the
inner side of the pipe wall.

28

Pipe

p
L V2
f
g
d 2g

(P27a)

p d 2g
g L V 2

x
x
x

STANTON or
MOODY DIAGRAM.
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

Re=Ud/

29

## STANTON or MOODY DIAGRAM

C

A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME

LAMINAR
FLOW

1
2.0 log Re d f 0.8
f
SMOOTH
PIPES

B
F

## STANTON or MOODY DIAGRAM

A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME

Smooth pipe
1
2.0logRed f 0.8
f

(P26)

For all the curves on the right hand side of AB (red curve), the f versus Reynolds
number relationship becomes horizontal indicating that friction factor is independent of
the Reynolds number. This region is identified as a fully rough flow, and are described
by

1
d
2.0 log

f
3.7

## (P36) (see page 163 of your notes)

30

A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME

1
d
2.0 log

f
3.7
(P36)

Smooth pipe

1
2.0log Red f 0.8
f
(P26)

F
Between lines EF and AB, the friction factor is dependent on both Reynolds number as
well as the relative roughness.
Colebrook in 1939 cleverly combined the smooth wall (equation P26) and fully rough
flow (equation P36) relations into an interpolated formula.

d
1
2.51
2.0 log

f
3.7 Re d f

(P37)

## But equation (P37) is difficult to use

A
COMPLETELY TURBULENT REGIME

1
d
2.0 log

f
3.7
(P36)

Smooth pipe

1
2.0log Red f 0.8
f
(P26)

F
An alternative formula given by Haaland is given by

6.9 d 1.11
1
1.8 log

f
Re d 3.7

(P38)

## which varies less than 2% from equation

d
1
2.51
2.0 log

3
.
7
f
Re
f
d

(P37)

31

0.0125

0.0185

0.0128

The Moody Diagram is accurate to 15% for design calculations over the full
range shown in the figure. The shaded area in the Moody diagram indicates the range
where transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs. There are no reliable friction
factors in this range, 2000<Red<4000.

32

Material (new)

(mm)

Riveted steel

0.9-9.0

Concrete

0.3-3.0

Cast iron

0.26

Galvanised iron

0.15

0.12

0.046

Drawn tubing
Glass

0.0015
Smooth

## Friction in Non-circular Pipes

Most of the pipes or conduits used in engineering applications are circular in cross-section.
On some occasions, we also use rectangular ducts and cross sections of other geometry.
We can modify many of the equations that we have derived earlier for circular cross-sections to
noncircular sections by using the concept of HYDRAULIC DIAMETER.

(Acknowledgement: Rigidtools.org)

(Acknowledgement: itctubeco.com)

Circular pipes

Non-circular pipes

33

Hydraulic Diameter
DH

## 4 x cross sec tional area

perimeter

(P39)

Examples:
(a) Rectangular Cross-section:

H
W

DH

DH

4 WH
2H W

4 WH
4 WH

2H
2H W 2( W )

## (c) If W=H (i.e. Square)

H
H
Therefore, using hydraulic diameter (DH),

DH

4H H
H
2H H

h L Frictional Loss f

But

f la min ar

L V2
D H 2g

64
64

Re d VD H

34

## HYDRAULIC DIAMETER APPROACH gives

A reasonable accurate result for turbulent flow.
But not so accurate for laminar flow.
WHY??
In laminar flow viscous action causes friction phenomenon to occur throughout the fluid.
In turbulent flow, most of the action occurs in the region close to the wall, i.e. it depends on
the wetted perimeter.

Laminar
(PARABOLIC)

V
Turbulent

## Minor Losses in Pipes

35

Fittings

Inlet

Bends
Valve

Outlet

Sudden
enlargement

Sudden
contraction

The minor losses are those caused by change in pipe cross-section, presence of bends,
valves, elbows, enlargements, contractions, inlets, outlets and fittings of all kinds.
A minor loss is expressed in terms of loss coefficient K, defined by
hL K

V2
2g

It is often the practice to express a loss coefficient as an equivalent length (Leq ) of the pipe.
K

Therefore

L eq V 2
V2
f
2g
D 2g

L eq K

D
f

## Applying momentum equation to the control

volume ABCDEF, we get

## LOSS IN SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

(1)
F

(2)
E

p1A1 p' (A 2 A1 ) p 2 A 2 Qv 2 v1

since p p1

Q v 2 v1 p1 p 2 A 2

A1v1=A2v2

B
C
p1
A1
v1
z1

D
p2
A2
v2
z1

## If the head loss due to sudden enlargement is hL, the

energy equation between sections (1) and (2) gives
p1 v12
p
v2

z1 2 2 z 2 h L
g 2g
g 2g

(p1 p 2 )

Q
v 2 v1
A2

v 2 v 2 v1

hL

p1 p 2 v12 v 22

g
2g

hL

v 2 v 2 v1 v12 v 22

g
2g

v1 v 2 2
2g

36

hL
v2

(1)
F

v1 v 2 2
2g

A1
v1
A2

A1v1=A2v2B

A1v1=A2v2
v1

(2)
E

D
p2
A2
v2
z1

C
p1
A1
v1
z1

A2
v2
A1

hL

v12 A1
1

2g A 2

hL

v 22 A 2

1
2g A1

(P42)

## The above equation was first obtained by J.C. Borda (1733-99)

and L. Carnot (1753-1823) and is frequently known as the

A1

Exit Loss

A2

hL

v12 A1
1

2g A 2

Large tank

A2>> A1
A1
A1

A1
0
A2

A2

v2
hL 1
2g

A2

Equivalent

hL

v12
2g

(exit loss)

37

Vena
Contracta
(Area=Ac)

d1

hL

V1

V2 d2
D
C

Area (A1)
(Section 1)

Area (A2)
(Section 2)

V22 A 2
V2 1

1 2 1
2g A c
2g Cc

## Where Ac represents the crosssectional area of vena contracta,

and the coefficient of contraction
Cc=Ac/A2.

Figure P23

## In general, the loss in a Sudden

Contraction can be expressed as

## Although a SUDDEN CONTRACTION is geometrically

the reverse of a SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT, it is not
possible to apply the momentum equation to a control
volume between sections (1) and (2).

h L K sc

V22
2g

## Between the vena contracta and the downstream

section (2) the flow pattern is similar to that after an
abrupt enlargement, and the loss of head is assumed
to be given by equation (P42)

h L K sc

V22
2g

## Because of the complexity of the flow, the loss coefficient Ksc is

obtained experimentally. Representative values are shown below.
d2/d1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Ksc

0.5

0.45

0.38

0.28

0.14

Note:
(a) When d2/d1=1.0, there is no sudden contraction and the
pipe is a normal straight pipe, and Ksc=0.
(b) As A1 , d2/d10, the value of KSC =0.5

d1

d2

38

ENTRANCE LOSS

Square-edge
(flush)

Protrusions
V

K=0.5
(a)

(b)
Figure P24

t/d=0.02

Figure P25

## Acknowledgment: F.M. White:

Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition

Bell-mouthed
V
r
Figure P26

0.04

Rounded
Edge

Figure P27

## Acknowledgement: F.M. White

Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition

39

Energy loss can be considerably reduced if the pipe
A2

V1 A1

V2

DIFFUSER

hL KL

V1 V2 2
2g

A V2
K L 1 1 1
A 2 2g

KL

A2/A1=2.25
A2/A1=4

6o

Figure P29

## Acknowledgement: B.S. Massey

Mechanics of Fluids, 3rd Edition

LOSSES IN BENDS

Secondary
flow

Flow
separation
C
A

Flow
separation

## Losses through a pipe bend

Figure P30

Loss due to flow separation + Loss due to friction on the wall + loss
due to secondary flow.

## The loss is expressed as K

V2
2g

(P 46)

K depends on the total angle of the bend, surface roughness () and on the relative radius of
curvature R/d, where R is the radius of curvature of the pipe centreline and d is the pipe
diameter.

40

## Note: (a) K is inclusive of frictional losses.

(b) When R/d=0 , then K 1.1

## Nominal Loss Coefficients ( K) for some pipe fittings

(turbulent Flow) are given in pages 182 to 184 of your
lecture notes

41

## Nominal Loss Coefficients ( K) (turbulent Flow)

K

Type of fitting

A1
1 A

A2

A1

Sudden enlargement

1.1
90o mitre bend (without vanes)

0.2
90o mitre bend (with vanes)

=30o

0.02

=70o

0.07

General contraction

42

## Frequently, problems of dividing pipelines are encountered in engineering practice.

These problems include looping pipes (pipe connected in parallel), branching pipes
and pipe network

## (a) Pipes connected in Series

(b) Pipes connected in Parallel
(c) Branched Pipes

Q1

## In terms of friction and minor losses in each

pipe, equation (P48) may be re-written as

Q2

Q3
Friction
loss Minor loss

Figure P32

## If one or more pipes are connected in series,

conservation of mass gives
Q = Q1 = Q2 = Q3

HL

V2 f L

V12 f1L1

K1,i 2 2 2 K 2,i
2g d1
i
i
2g d 2

(P47)

Or

V32 f 3 L 3

K 3,i
2g d 3
i

## The total head loss is the sum of the total losses in

each of the individual pipes and fittings
HL = HL1 + HL2 + HL3

(P48)

43

## At any point in the pipe, there can be only one

PIPES IN PARALLEL:
1
(A)

Q1

Q2

(B)
Q

Q3

## Similarly, at point (B),

1
(A)

Q1

(B)

Q2

Q3

PA VA2

zA
g 2g

PB VB2

zB
g 2g
The steady-energy equation may be written

Figure P33

## When two or more pipes are connected so that the

flow divides and subsequently comes together
again.

PA VA2
P
V2

zA B B zB HL
g 2g
g 2g
Therefore, all the fluid in EACH PIPE
suffer the same loss of head HL

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

(P49)

(P50)

BRANCHED PIPES

Tank 1

Tank 2

1
Q1

z1

Q2
z2

Q3
z3

Tank 3

## (a) Continuity: At a given junction,

Mass flow rate towards the junction= Mass
flow rate away from the junction.

HJ
Arbitrary datum

## (b) There can be only one energy level

(c) The friction equation must be satisfied
for each pipe.

## Another example of practical importance involving

a pipe system is when a number of pipes meeting at
a junction as shown above.

44

Tank 1

Q1

z1

Q2

3
z3

## Assuming that MINOR LOSSES are

negligible, it can be shown that

Tank 2

z2

Q3

Tank 3

d 3 2g
d1 2g

zJ
Arbitrary datum

## The energy (or head) at:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

f L V2 f L V2
H2-H3 = HL2 + HL3 = 2 2 2 3 3 3
d 3 2g
d 2 2g

tank 1=H1,
tank 2 =H2,
tank 3=H3,
location J = HJ

H1 - HJ = HL1 (head loss in pipe 1)
H2 - HJ = HL2 (head loss in pipe 2)
HJ H3 = HL3 (head loss in pipe 3)
Q3 =Q1 + Q2

P1

P2

Tank 1

Q1

z1
P3

Tank 3

## Assuming that tank 1, tank 2 and tank 3

are so large that

Q2
z2

Q3
z3

If P1 = P2 = P3 = Patmosphere

Tank 2

HJ
Arbitrary datum

V1=V2=V3 0
If gauge pressure is used throughout, it can
be shown that

In general,
H1

P1 V12

z1
g 2g

H 1 z1

H2

P2 V22

z2
g 2g

H2 z2

H3

P3 V32

z3
g 2g

H3 z3

HJ

PJ VJ2

zJ
g 2g

HJ

PJg
g

VJ2
zJ
2g

45

## EXAMPLE 4 (page 196 of your lecture note )

Water flows from reservoir A through a 100 m long pipe of diameter 120 mm to a branch point D
where it is diverted to reservoirs B and C in separate pipes as shown in the figure below. Assuming
that f =0.02 for all the pipes and neglecting all losses other than those due to friction, determine the
elevation of the reservoir B. The flow from the reservoir A is 0.02 m3/s.

Tank A
LA= 100m
DA= 120mm

QA

zA=50m

D
Tank C

Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm

## The head loss in friction between D and C is

LA= 100m
DA= 120mm

QA
D

H D z C 47.365 25 22.365

Tank B

LB= 60m
DB= 75mm

Tank C
Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm

QB

But 22.365
zB=?m

0.02 x 40 xVC2
2 x 9.81x 0.06

QC
Arbitrary datum

## The velocity of water between A and D is

V

zB=?m

Arbitrary datum

Tank A

zC=25m

QB

QC

zC=25m

zA=50m

Tank B

LB= 60m
DB= 75mm

Flow to reservoir C

4

Q
20 x10 3

1..768 m / s
A
2
(0.12)
4

h fA

## fL A VA2 0.02 x100x1.7682

2.655m
D A 2g
2 x9.81x 0.12

H D z A h fA 50 2.655 47.365

46

Tank A
LA= 100m
DA= 120mm

QA

zA=50m

Tank B

LB= 60m
DB= 75mm

Tank C
Lc= 40m
Dc= 60mm

zC=25m

zB=?m

QB

QC
Arbitrary datum

## From continuity equation,

Q B Q A Q C (0.02 0.01622)
3.78x10 3 m 3 / s

Therefore, VB

3.78x10 3
0.855m / s

2
(0.075)
4

## Head loss in friction between D and B =

0.02 x 60 x 0.8552
0.596m / s
2 x 9.81x 0.075
z B H D h fB 47.365 0.596 46.77 m

THE END

47