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Principles of turbomachinery

Flow Mechanism in the impeller of a turbomachine


Notations:
U: peripheral velocity.
C: absolute velocity

ALL VELOCITIES ARE IN m/s

W: relative velocity

Relative velocity and the path of a particle


t=t0
t=t1
t=t2
Index:
Velocity relative to an observer sitting
on the green carriage
Velocity of the green carriage itself
Absolute velocity (velocity relative to
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an observer on the ground)

Relative velocity and the path of a particle inside


the blade passage
1

21
1

2
Absolute Path

2
4

Schematic of vane congruent flow

Velocity triangle
(in case of vane congruent flows)

Velocity triangle
(in case of vane congruent flows)

Velocity triangle

Cu

Cm

INDEX:
C: absolute velocity
W: relative velocity
U: peripheral velocity of the blade
Cu: peripheral (whirl) component of
the absolute velocity
Cm: meridional component of the
absolute velocity
NOTE:
1) Angle () is measured between positive direction of W and negative
direction of U.
2) Angle () is measured between positive direction of C and positive
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direction of U

Velocity triangle
Pump/Compressor
Usually for pump/compressor, Cu1 is zero. Cu1 in this case is the prewhirl. So C1=Cm1. The velocity triangle thus looks like
Outlet
Cm2

Inlet

W1

C1=Cm1
1

U1
Velocity triangle at 1
(Suction Side)

C2

W2

2
U2

Cu2
Velocity triangle at 2
(Pressure Side)
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Velocity triangle
Turbine
Ideally Cu1 is zero for improved efficiency. Cu1 in this case is the exit
whirl. So C1=Cm1. The velocity triangle thus looks like

Cm2

Inlet

Outlet
C2

W2
2

U2
Cu2
Velocity triangle at 2
(Pressure Side)

W1

C1=Cm1
1

1
U1

Velocity triangle at 1
(Suction Side)
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Energy Transfer Equation/Eulers Energy


Equation
1. Control volume considered includes all the blade passages
responsible for the energy transfer.
2. The mass flow rate entering and leaving the control volume are equal
= Q
and is given by m
3. It is assumed that the velocity C is uniform from blade to blade, i.e.
circumferential direction and also from shroud to shroud.
Conservation of angular momentum: rate of change of angular
momentum is equal to the applied torque.

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Control Volume
2
U2
C2
W2

W1 C1
r2

U1

L1 r1
L2

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Derivation of Eulers Energy Equation

L2

L1

cos i , i 1, 2
Torque (T):
& Li ri=
=
T m (C2 L2 C1 L1 ) =

=
T m (C2 r2 cos 2 C1r1 cos 1 )
= m ( r2Cu 2 r1Cu1 )

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Eulers Energy Equation


Neglecting friction

Pbl = T
= m (r2Cu 2 rC
1 u1 )
= m (U 2Cu 2 U1Cu1 )
Specific Work:
Pbl
W=
= (U 2Cu 2 U1Cu1 )
bl
m

Eulers energy equation


(also called Eulers turbine
equation)
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Actual flow pattern


Factors causing deviation of actual flow from vane congruent flow are:

Factors affecting specific work

Factors affecting flow angle but


not specific work

Effect of vane number:


a) Non-viscous effect
i)

Pressure difference effect

ii) Relative circulation effect


b) Viscous effect

Effect of vane thickness

Actual flow pattern


Pressure difference effect

- +
- ++
-- +
- +
s

- +
- +
- +
- +

Actual flow pattern


Relative circulation effect(in radial impellers only)

Vane Congruent Flow

Circulatory Flow

Resultant actual flow in a pump/compressor

Relative circulation effect

Estimation of slip
Cu2
C2

W2

Ideal

Cu2: Slip
deviation of the actual
flow (with finite number of vanes) from
the ideal flow (with infinite number of
vanes)

U2
Pfleiderers method: an empirical formulation based on experiments.

Wbl Wbl = pWbl


Wbl
1+ p =
Wbl
p: Slip power factor

r22
p = '
Zs1

r2

where,

s1 = rds1
r1

: slip power coefficient

Estimation of slip

Special cases:
a) Radial flow impeller: ds1=dr

b) Axial flow impeller: r is constant

2 '
p=
Z

1
2
r
1 1
r2
r
p = '
Ze

Estimation of slip
is a function of 2b, the impeller type (radial/axial) and the
system at the exit of the impeller.

2b

' = k 1 +
2 b is in degrees.

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For radial and mixed flow impellers:
with guide vanes after impeller, k=0.6
with spiral casing after impeller, k=0.65 to 0.85
with vaneless diffuser after impeller, k=0.85 to 1.0,
For axial flow impellers, k=1.0 to 1.2

Stodolas Method of determining Slip


Source: Shepherd

Cu 2
Cu 2

Linear relative velocity


of this eddy is:

SLIP
S2 =

Crel =

D2
Z

d
2

where,

2U 2
=
D2
so,

From ABC,

sin 2b
U
D

2
2
sin 2b
sin 2b
Z
d = d= D2
Crel
U
=
=
2
Z
D2
Z

U 2d
Crel =
D2
SLIP

C2

Cu2

Stodolas slip factor (s)

W2

Cu' 2
Cu 2
s=
=
Cu 2 Cu 2

Ideal
U2

Thus 2 conclusions can be drawn:

Cu 2

U 2 sin 2b
= 1
Cu 2
Z

as Z , s 1
as Q increases, Cm2 increases
and s reduces

Cu 2 U 2

sin 2b

U2
sin 2b
s= 1

U 2 Cm 2 cot 2b
Z

Can you find expressions for Wbl and Wbl?

Viscous effect

Actual flow pattern

Actual flow pattern


Vane thickness effect
S2

tu2

No. of blades S =

D
Z

t
t =
& u sin
b

II
2

1
I

2b

Applying continuity across


suction edge (1)

=
V S1.1.C=
mI

1b

tu1

S1

1b
tu1

( S1 tu1 ) .1.Cm1

S1
Cm1 = CmI

S
t

1 u1

Cm1 > CmI

Actual flow pattern


Vane thickness effect
S2

Along pressure edge (2)


tu2

II
2

1
I

Cm 2

2b

S2
= CmII

S
t

2 u2

1b

Cm 2 > CmII
S1

tu1

What is the effect of changing Cm on flow directions?

Actual flow pattern


Vane thickness effect
W2

C2

W1
Cm2

Cm1
CmI

CmII

WI
I

1 > I
Suction edge

C3

U1

WII
II

2 > II
Pressure edge

2
U2

(Z)

Actual flow pattern


Combined effect of all the factors mentioned:

+ + +
C2

For pump/compressor

+ + + +

W2
2


2b

U2
Ideally flow should leave (considering direction of W2) at an angle
2b but actual flow leaves at an angle 2. The different causes for
changes in angle are as follows:

+++
: due to vane thickness

: due to viscous effect

+ + + + : due to non-viscous effects