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You are on page 1of 29

Notations:

U: peripheral velocity.

C: absolute velocity

W: relative velocity

t=t0

t=t1

t=t2

Index:

Velocity relative to an observer sitting

on the green carriage

Velocity of the green carriage itself

Absolute velocity (velocity relative to

3

an observer on the ground)

the blade passage

1

21

1

2

Absolute Path

2

4

Velocity triangle

(in case of vane congruent flows)

Velocity triangle

(in case of vane congruent flows)

Velocity triangle

Cu

Cm

INDEX:

C: absolute velocity

W: relative velocity

U: peripheral velocity of the blade

Cu: peripheral (whirl) component of

the absolute velocity

Cm: meridional component of the

absolute velocity

NOTE:

1) Angle () is measured between positive direction of W and negative

direction of U.

2) Angle () is measured between positive direction of C and positive

8

direction of U

Velocity triangle

Pump/Compressor

Usually for pump/compressor, Cu1 is zero. Cu1 in this case is the prewhirl. So C1=Cm1. The velocity triangle thus looks like

Outlet

Cm2

Inlet

W1

C1=Cm1

1

U1

Velocity triangle at 1

(Suction Side)

C2

W2

2

U2

Cu2

Velocity triangle at 2

(Pressure Side)

9

Velocity triangle

Turbine

Ideally Cu1 is zero for improved efficiency. Cu1 in this case is the exit

whirl. So C1=Cm1. The velocity triangle thus looks like

Cm2

Inlet

Outlet

C2

W2

2

U2

Cu2

Velocity triangle at 2

(Pressure Side)

W1

C1=Cm1

1

1

U1

Velocity triangle at 1

(Suction Side)

10

Equation

1. Control volume considered includes all the blade passages

responsible for the energy transfer.

2. The mass flow rate entering and leaving the control volume are equal

= Q

and is given by m

3. It is assumed that the velocity C is uniform from blade to blade, i.e.

circumferential direction and also from shroud to shroud.

Conservation of angular momentum: rate of change of angular

momentum is equal to the applied torque.

11

Control Volume

2

U2

C2

W2

W1 C1

r2

U1

L1 r1

L2

12

L2

L1

cos i , i 1, 2

Torque (T):

& Li ri=

=

T m (C2 L2 C1 L1 ) =

=

T m (C2 r2 cos 2 C1r1 cos 1 )

= m ( r2Cu 2 r1Cu1 )

13

Neglecting friction

Pbl = T

= m (r2Cu 2 rC

1 u1 )

= m (U 2Cu 2 U1Cu1 )

Specific Work:

Pbl

W=

= (U 2Cu 2 U1Cu1 )

bl

m

(also called Eulers turbine

equation)

14

Factors causing deviation of actual flow from vane congruent flow are:

not specific work

a) Non-viscous effect

i)

b) Viscous effect

Pressure difference effect

- +

- ++

-- +

- +

s

- +

- +

- +

- +

Relative circulation effect(in radial impellers only)

Circulatory Flow

Estimation of slip

Cu2

C2

W2

Ideal

Cu2: Slip

deviation of the actual

flow (with finite number of vanes) from

the ideal flow (with infinite number of

vanes)

U2

Pfleiderers method: an empirical formulation based on experiments.

Wbl

1+ p =

Wbl

p: Slip power factor

r22

p = '

Zs1

r2

where,

s1 = rds1

r1

Estimation of slip

Special cases:

a) Radial flow impeller: ds1=dr

2 '

p=

Z

1

2

r

1 1

r2

r

p = '

Ze

Estimation of slip

is a function of 2b, the impeller type (radial/axial) and the

system at the exit of the impeller.

2b

' = k 1 +

2 b is in degrees.

60

For radial and mixed flow impellers:

with guide vanes after impeller, k=0.6

with spiral casing after impeller, k=0.65 to 0.85

with vaneless diffuser after impeller, k=0.85 to 1.0,

For axial flow impellers, k=1.0 to 1.2

Source: Shepherd

Cu 2

Cu 2

of this eddy is:

SLIP

S2 =

Crel =

D2

Z

d

2

where,

2U 2

=

D2

so,

From ABC,

sin 2b

U

D

2

2

sin 2b

sin 2b

Z

d = d= D2

Crel

U

=

=

2

Z

D2

Z

U 2d

Crel =

D2

SLIP

C2

Cu2

W2

Cu' 2

Cu 2

s=

=

Cu 2 Cu 2

Ideal

U2

Cu 2

U 2 sin 2b

= 1

Cu 2

Z

as Z , s 1

as Q increases, Cm2 increases

and s reduces

Cu 2 U 2

sin 2b

U2

sin 2b

s= 1

U 2 Cm 2 cot 2b

Z

Viscous effect

Vane thickness effect

S2

tu2

No. of blades S =

D

Z

t

t =

& u sin

b

II

2

1

I

2b

suction edge (1)

=

V S1.1.C=

mI

1b

tu1

S1

1b

tu1

( S1 tu1 ) .1.Cm1

S1

Cm1 = CmI

S

t

1 u1

Vane thickness effect

S2

tu2

II

2

1

I

Cm 2

2b

S2

= CmII

S

t

2 u2

1b

Cm 2 > CmII

S1

tu1

Vane thickness effect

W2

C2

W1

Cm2

Cm1

CmI

CmII

WI

I

1 > I

Suction edge

C3

U1

WII

II

2 > II

Pressure edge

2

U2

(Z)

Combined effect of all the factors mentioned:

+ + +

C2

For pump/compressor

+ + + +

W2

2

2b

U2

Ideally flow should leave (considering direction of W2) at an angle

2b but actual flow leaves at an angle 2. The different causes for

changes in angle are as follows:

+++

: due to vane thickness

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