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# Copyright 2008-2010 Taina Maria Miller.

EDITION 1.25
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the author.
Copying permission: Permission IS granted for the teacher to reproduce this material to be used
with students, not commercial resale, by virtue of the purchase of this book. In other words, the
teacher MAY make copies of the pages to be used with students. Permission is given to make
electronic copies of the material for back-up purposes only.

Create free math worksheets at www.HomeschoolMath.net/worksheets/

Contents
Foreword ...........................................................................
Concerning Challenging Word Problems ........................

6
7

## Chapter 1: Addition, Subtraction, Graphs and

Money
Introduction ......................................................................
Adding in Columns ..........................................................
Subtraction Review .........................................................
Subtract in Columns .......................................................
Mental Math Workout and Pascal's Triangle ..............
Subtraction Terms ..........................................................
Word Problems and Models ......................................
Missing Addend Solved with Subtraction ....................
Order of Operations .......................................................
Bar Graphs .....................................................................
Line Graphs ....................................................................
Rounding .........................................................................
Estimating .......................................................................
Reviewing Money ...........................................................
Review .............................................................................

9
12
15
16
19
22
25
27
30
33
35
38
41
45
47
50

## Chapter 2: Place Value

Introduction ....................................................................
Thousands .......................................................................
At the Edge of Whole Thousands ..................................
More Thousands .............................................................
Practicing with Thousands ............................................
Place Value with Thousands ..........................................
Comparing with Thousands ..........................................

51
53
56
58
60
62
64

## Adding & Subtracting Big Numbers ............................

A Little Bit of Millions ...................................................
Multiples of 10, 100 and 1000 ........................................
Review ..............................................................................

67
72
75
77

Chapter 3: Multiplication
Introduction ....................................................................
Multiplication Concept ..................................................
Multiplication Tables Review .......................................
Scales Problems .............................................................
Multiplying by Whole Tens and Hundreds .................
Multiply in Parts ............................................................
Multiply in Parts with Money .......................................
Estimating Products .......................................................
Multiply in Columns - the Easy Way ...........................
Multiply in Columns - Standard Way ..........................
Multiply in Columns, Practice ......................................
Error of Estimation .......................................................
Order of Operations Again ...........................................
Money and Change ........................................................
So Many of the Same Thing ..........................................
Multiply by Whole Tens and Hundreds ......................
Multiplying in Parts with a 2-Digit Multiplier ...........
The Standard Multiplication Algorithm
with a 2-Digit Multiplier ..............................................
Multiplying a Three-Digit Number
by a Two-Digit Number ...............................................
Review ............................................................................

79
81
83
86
90
95
99
100
102
105
110
112
114
117
119
122
124
128
131
133

## Chapter 4: Time and Measuring

Introduction ....................................................................
Time Units ......................................................................
The 24-Hour Clock ........................................................
Elapsed Time or How Much Time Passes ...................
Temperature 1 ...............................................................
Temperature 2 ...............................................................
Remember Fractions? ...................................................
Measuring Length .........................................................
More of Measuring Length ...........................................
Inches, Feet, Yards and Miles ......................................
Metric Units For Measuring Length ...........................
Measuring Weight .........................................................
Measuring Weight in the Metric System .....................
Customary Units of Volume .........................................
Metric Units of Volume .................................................
Review ............................................................................

136
138
143
145
150
153
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156
159
161
163
165
167
169
171
173

Foreword
Math Mammoth Grade 4-A and Grade 4-B worktexts comprise a complete math curriculum for the fourth
In the fourth grade, students focus on multidigit multiplication and division, learning to use bigger
numbers, solving multi-step word problems that involve several operations, and get started in studying
fractions and decimals. This is of course accompanied by studies in geometry and measuring.
The year starts out with review of addition and subtraction, graphs, and money. We illustrate word
problems with bar diagrams and study finding missing addends, which teaches algebraic thinking.
Children also learn addition and subtraction terminology, the order of operations, and statistical graphs.
Next come large numbers -- up to millions, and the place value concept. At first the student reviews
thousands and some mental math with them. Next are presented numbers till one million, calculations
with them, place value concept and comparing. In the end of the chapter we find more about millions and
an introduction to multiples of 10, 100, and 1000.
The third chapter is all about multiplication. After briefly reviewing the concept and the times tables, the
focus is on learning multidigit multiplication (multiplication algorithm). The children also learn why it
works when they work on multiplying in parts. We also study the order of operations again, touch on
proportional reasoning, and do more money and change related word problems.
The last chapter in part A is about time, temperature, length, weight, and volume. Students will learn to
solve more complex problems using various measuring units and to convert between measuring units.
In part B, we first study division. The focus is on learning long division and using division in word
problems. The geometry chapter introduces students to measuring angles, and we do lots of drawing of
different shapes and circles. Area and perimeter are other important topics in geometry.
Fractions and decimals are presented last in the school year. These two chapters practice only some of the
basic operations with fractions and decimals. The focus is still on the conceptual understanding, building
a good foundation towards 5th grade math, where fractions and decimals will be in focus.
When you use these books as your only or main mathematics curriculum, they can be like a framework,
but you do have some liberty in organizing the study schedule. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 should be studied in
this order, but you can be flexible with chapters 4 (Time and Measuring) and 6 (Geometry) and schedule
them somewhat earlier or later if you so wish. Chapter 3 (Multiplication) needs to be studied before long
division in Chapter 5. Many topics from chapters 7 and 8 (Fractions and Decimals) can also be studied
earlier in the school year; however finding parts with division should naturally be studied only after
mastering division.
This product also includes an HTML page that you can use to make extra practice worksheets for
computation.
I wish you success in your math teaching!
Maria Miller, the author

## Concerning Challenging Word Problems

I would heartily recommend supplementing this program with regular practice of challenging word
problems and puzzles. You could do that once a week to once every two weeks. The goal of challenging
story problems and puzzles is to simply develop children's logical and abstract thinking and mental
discipline. Fourth grade is a good place to start such a practice because students are able to read the
problems on their own and have developed mathematical knowledge in many different areas. Of course I
am not discouraging people from doing such in earlier grades, either.
I have made lots of word problems for the Math Mammoth curriculum. Those are for the most part multistep word problems. I have included several lessons that utilize the bar model for solving problems and
tried to vary the problems.
Even so, the problems I've created are usually tied to a specific concept or concepts. I feel children can
also benefit from problem solving practice where the problems require out of the box thinking, or are
puzzle-type in nature, or are just different from the ones I have made. Additionally, I feel others are more
capable of making very different, very challenging problems.
So I'd like for you to use one or several of the resources below for some different problems and puzzles.
Choose something that fits your budget (most of these are free) and that you will like using.
Math Kangaroo Problem Database
Easily made worksheets of challenging math problems based on actual past Math Kangaroo competition
problems.
http://www.kangurusa.com/clark/pdb/
Primary Grade Challenge Math by Edward Zaccaro
The book is organized into chapters, with each chapter presenting a type of problem and the ways to think
about that problem. And then there is a series of related story problems to solve, divided into 4 levels.
\$25, ISBN 978-0967991535
You can find this at Amazon.com or various other bookstores.
Problem Solving Decks from North Carolina public schools
Includes a deck of problem cards for grades 1-8, student sheets, and solutions. Many of these problems
are best solved with calculators. All of these problems lend themselves to students telling and writing
http://community.learnnc.org/dpi/math/archives/2005/06/problem_solving.php
Math Stars Problem Solving Newsletter (grades 1-8)
These newsletters are a fantastic, printable resource for problems to solve and their solutions.
http://community.learnnc.org/dpi/math/archives/2005/06/math_stars_news.php

## Mathematics Enrichment - nrich.maths.org

Open-ended, investigative math challenges for all levels from the UK. Find the past issues box down in
the left sidebar. Use Stage 2, 1-star or 2-star problems for 4th grade.
http://nrich.maths.org/public/
http://nrich.maths.org/public/themes.php lets you find problems organized by mathematical themes.
Figure This! Math Challenges for Families
Word problems related to real life. They don't always have all the information but you have to estimate
and think. For each problem, there is a hint, other related problems, and interesting trivia. Website
supported by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
http://www.figurethis.org/
MathStories.com
Over 12,000 interactive and non-interactive NCTM compliant math word problems, available in both
English and Spanish. Helps elementary and middle school children boost their math problem solving and
critical-thinking skills. A membership site.
http://www.mathstories.com/
Problem of the Week (POWs)
Problem of the week contests are excellent for finding challenging problems and for motivation. There
exist several:
z

## Math Forum: Problem of the Week

Five weekly problem projects for various levels of math. Mentoring available.
http://mathforum.org/pow/
Math Contest at Columbus State University
Elementary, middle, algebra, and general levels.
http://www.colstate.edu/mathcontest/
Aunty Math
Math challenges in a form of short stories for K-5 learners posted bi-weekly. Parent/Teacher Tips
for the current challenge explains what kind of reasoning the problem requires and how to possibly
help children solve it.
http://www.auntymath.com/
Grace Church School's ABACUS International Math Challenge
This is open to any child in three different age groups.
http://www.gcschool.org/pages/program/Abacus.html
MathCounts Problem of the Week Archive
Browse the archives to find problems to solve. You can find the link to the current problem on the
http://mathcounts.org/Page.aspx?pid=355
Math League's Homeschool Contests
Challenge your children with the same interesting math contests used in schools. Contests for
grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Algebra Course 1, and High School are available in a non-competitive format
for the homeschoolers. The goal is to encourage student interest and confidence in mathematics
through solving worthwhile problems and build important critical thinking skills. By subscription
only.
http://www.mathleague.com/homeschool.htm

## Chapter 1: Addition, Subtraction,

Graphs and Money
Introduction
The first chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers addition and subtraction topics, word
problems, graphs, and money problems.
At first, we review the technical aspects of adding and subtracting: mental math techniques plus adding and
subtracting in columns. If these are fairly easy for your student(s), you can choose to skip some problems.
Going beyond those, the chapter includes lessons in addition and subtraction terminology. These lessons are already
preparing your child for algebraic thinking.
In the next lessons, the student reviews the addition/subtraction connection, and solves word problems with the help
of bar models. Next, we solve simple missing addend equations using subtraction, such as x + 20 = 60. We use bar
models to illustrate these and connect them with fact families.
The lesson on the order of operations contains some review but it goes beyond that. In many of the problems, the
student builds the mathematical expression (calculation) needed for a certain real-life situation.
Going towards applications of math, the chapter contains lessons on bar graphs, line graphs, rounding, estimating,
and money problems.

page

span

3 pages

15

1 pages

16

3 pages

19

3 pages

## Mental Math Workout and

Pascal's Triangle ......................................................

22

3 pages

25

2 pages

27

3 pages

30

4 pages

33

2 pages

35

3 pages

## Line Graphs .......................................................

38

3 pages

Rounding .................................................................

41

4 pages

Estimating ................................................................

45

2 pages

## Reviewing Money .............................................. 47

3 pages

Review ...............................................................

1 page

50

## Helpful Resources on the Internet

Calculator Chaos
Most of the keys have fallen off the calculator but you have to make certain numbers using the keys that
are left.
http://www.mathplayground.com/calculator_chaos.html
ArithmeTiles
Use the four operations and numbers on neighboring tiles to make target numbers.
http://www.primarygames.com/math/arithmetiles/index.htm
Choose Math Operation
Choose the mathematical operation(s) so that the number sentence is true. Practice the role of zero and
one in basic operations or operations with negative numbers. Helps develop number sense and logical
thinking.
http://www.homeschoolmath.net/operation-game.php
MathCar Racing
Keep ahead of the computer car by thinking logically, and practice any of the four operations at the same
time.
http://www.funbrain.com/osa/index.html
Fill and Pour
Fill and pour liquid with two containers until you get the target amount. A logical thinking puzzle.
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_273_g_2_t_4.html
Scroll down the page to find this quiz plus some others. Fast loading.
http://www.quiz-tree.com/Math_Practice_main.html
Mental Addition and Subtraction
A factsheet, quiz, game, and worksheet about basic mental addition and subtraction.
Shop 'Til You Drop
Get as many items as you can and be left with the least amount of change, and practices your addition
skills. The prices are in English pounds and pennies.
http://www.channel4.com/learning/microsites/P/puzzlemaths/shop.shtml
Change Maker
Determine how many of each denomination you need to make the exact change. Good and clear
pictures! Playable in US, Canadian, Mexican, UK, or Australian money.
http://www.funbrain.com/cashreg/index.html
Cash Out
Give correct change by clicking on the bills and coins.
http://www.mrnussbaum.com/cashd.htm

10

Piggy bank
When coins fall from the top of the screen, choose those that add up to the given amount, and the piggy
bank fills.
http://fen.com/studentactivities/Piggybank/piggybank.html
Bar Chart Virtual Manipulative
Build your bar chart online using this interactive tool.
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_190_g_1_t_1.html?from=category_g_1_t_1.html
An Interactive Bar Grapher
Graph data sets in bar graphs. The color, thickness and scale of the graph are adjustable. You can put in
your own data, or you can use or alter pre-made data sets.
http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=63

11

## You can write any number

as a SUM of the different units such as whole thousands,
whole hundreds, whole tens, and ones.

thousands

hundreds

tens

## Add in any order:

56 + 124

7 + 90 + 91 + 3

= 100 + 50 + 20 + 6 + 4

= 7 + 3 + 90 + 91

= 100 + 70 + 10 = 180

= 10 + 90 + 91 = 191

ones

## Trick: add first a bigger

number, then subtract
to correct the error:

76 + 89
= 76 + 90 1
= 166 1 = 165

1. Add mentally. You can add in parts (tens and ones separately).
a. 70 + 80 = ___

b. 140 + 50 = ___

c. 50 + 60 = ___

d. 80 + 90 = ___

77 + 80 = ___

141 + 50 = ___

54 + 65 = ___

82 + 93 = ___

77 + 82 = ___

144 + 55 = ___

58 + 62 = ___

88 + 91 = ___

2. Write the numbers as a sum of whole thousands, whole hundreds, whole tens, and ones.
a. 487 =

b. 2,103 =

c. 8,045 =

d. 650 =

## 3. Solve the problems.

a. Two of the addends are 56 and 90. The sum is 190.
What is the third addend?
b. Four of the addends equal 70 and five other addends equal 80.
What is the sum?

12

4. Add and compare the results. The addition problems are related!
a. 7 + 8 = ___

b. 4 + 9 = ___

c. 6 + 8 = ___

57 + 8 = ___

34 + 9 = ___

16 + 8 = ___

70 + 80 = ____

40 + 90 = ____

240 + 90 = ____

560 + 80 = ____

## 5. Write here four different addition problems

that are related to the problem 5 + 8 = 13.
See examples above!

6. Add in parts.
a. 80 + 5 + 2 + 30 + 4 + 44

b. 127 + 500 + 4 + 3 + 9 + 90

## 7. Explain an easy to way to add 99 to any number. For example,

explain how to do easily 56 + 99 and 487 + 99.
8. Add in parts, or use other tricks.
a. 71 + 82 = ____

b. 42 + 47 = ____

c. 89 + 92 = ____

37 + 42 = ____

64 + 64 = ____

82 + 19 = ____

57 + 64 = ____

12 + 99 = ____

51 + 98 = ____

a. 600

b. 900

c. 100

d. 500

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

13

## 10. Double and halve the numbers.

Half the number

10
20

Number

90

110

120

480

500

900

1,600

4,010

788

950

999

40

Its double

11. a. There are five people in the Brill family and they
went to a concert. Children's tickets were \$20 each
and the two parents' tickets were \$28 a piece.
What was the total cost of the tickets for the family?

## b. In another concert, adult ticket cost \$30 and

children's tickets were half that price.
What was the total cost for the Brill family?

## 12. Fill in the table - add 999 each time.

56

69

125

156

287

569

n + 999

John is writing very simple missing addend problems for first graders.
For example, he wrote the problem 2 + ___ = 8. The first addend is
given, and the second addend is missing.
John uses whole numbers from 0 on up to the number that is the sum.
a. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 8?
b. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 10?
c. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 20?
d. You should see a pattern in the above answers. Now use the pattern to solve this:
How many such problems could he write when the sum is 100 (for second-graders)?

14

1. Add in columns. Check by adding the numbers in each column in different order
(for example from down up).
a.

b.

384
2912
2008
209
+ 26

c.

\$1.8 2
4 0.5 9
9.9 7
1 0.2 9
1.0 9
+ 0.4 3

245
139
30
2931
594
9593
+ 526

2. Write the numbers under each other carefully, and add in columns.
a. 5,609 + 1,388 + 89 + 402
b. \$8.05 + \$0.29 + \$38.40 + \$293 + \$203.20 + \$46.49 + \$94

## 3. The map shows some Kentucky cities

and distances between them. For example,
from Louisville to Frankfort is 54 miles.
The one distance not marked is written
below the map: from Frankfort to
Lexington is 28 miles.
Calculate the total driving distance, if
a family goes on a field trip like this:
a. Covington - Lexington - Paducah - Lexington - Covington
b. A round trip from Lexington via Covington, Louisville, and Frankfort,
and back to Lexington.

15

d.

1738
2390
1078
364
2803
211
+ 99

Subtraction Review
Marie: I subtract in parts: first to
the previous whole ten, then the rest.
Compare the
methods.

35 7
= (35 5) 2
=

30 2 = 28

## John: I use a helping problem.

15 7 = 8 is the helping problem
for 35 7.
The answer to 35 7 also ends in
8 and is in the previous ten (the
twenties). So, 35 7 is 28.

a.

b.

c.

d.

100 2 = ____

200 4 = ____

500 5 = ____

400 7 = ____

100 20 = ____

200 40 = ____

500 50 = ____

400 70 = ____

100 22 = ____

200 45 = ____

500 56 = ____

400 71 = ____

a.

b.

c.

d.

13 7 = ____

15 9 = ____

12 6 = ____

16 8 = ____

63 7 = ____

150 90 = ____

82 6 = ____

## 1,600 800 = ____

3. Subtract and compare the results. The problems are related can you see how?
a. 12 8 = ____

b. 15 9 = ____

c. 13 7 = ____

42 8 = ____

75 9 = ____

73 7 = ____

120 80 = ______

150 90 = ______

520 80 = ______

650 90 = ______

430 70 = ______

## 4. Write here four different subtraction problems

that are related to the problem 14 8 = 6.
See the examples above!

16

705 99
Trick: subtract first a bigger number,
then add back some to correct the error:

140 88

= 705 100 + 1

= 140 90 + 2

= 605 + 1 = 606

= 50 + 2 = 52

125

293

346

404

487

510

640

849

n 99

## Strategy: Add up to find the difference of two numbers.

To solve 93 28, start
at 28 and add until
you reach 93. However
much you added is the
difference.

+ 2
28

+ 60
30

+ 3
90

+ 40
93

93 28 = (2 + 60 + 3) = 65

16 0

+ 200
2 00

+ 20
4 00

4 20

## 420 160 = (40 + 200 + 20) = 260

6. Subtract in parts, use a helping problem, add up to find the difference, or use other tricks.
a. 91 82 = ______

b. 100 82 = ______

c. 56 29 = ______

42 37 = ______

100 56 = ______

61 39 = ______

77 64 = ______

96 48 = ______

84 38 = ______

## e. 1,000 555 = ______

f. 500 82 = ______

## 440 390 = ______

1,000 56 = ______

612 70 = ______

540 48 = ______

120

140

160

180

200

n 27

17

## 8. Subtract the same number repeatedly. Multiplication tables can help!

a. 240

b. 1600

c. 540

40 =

200

200 = ______

60 = ______

d. 490
70 = ______

40 =

160

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

The table of 4
has a similar pattern.

## The table of ____

has a similar pattern.

## The table of ____

has a similar pattern.

## The table of ____

has a similar pattern.

## Repeated Subtraction Game!

Jane and Jim are playing a repeated subtraction game. Each player has various number cards. A player
pairs his cards together, two by two. With each two cards, the player subtracts the smaller number as
many times as possible from the bigger number.
For example, Jane pairs together cards 20 and 4. Jane subtracts 20 4 4 4 4 4 = 0.
Jim pairs the cards 45 and 11, and subtracts 45 11 11 11 11 = 1. He can't subtract any more.
Each player gets as many points as is the remainder number (the final difference).
Above, Jane got 0 points and Jim got 1. The player who first accumulates 25 points loses the game.
Write the subtractions that Jane does with these cards:

a.

b.

With four cards, you need to choose which two will make a pair. Pair the cards for subtractions
so that you will get the least possible points. Then write the subtractions.

c.

d.

e. Play the game yourself! Try number cards from 2-30 for an easier game. Try numbers from 2 to 60
for a challenge. Give each player 4-8 cards, depending on the difficulty level you wish to have.

18

Subtract in Columns
1. This is review. Subtract in columns. Check by adding!
a.

519
346

b.

728
519

+ 346

c.

1350
782

+ 519

+ 782

## It is time to review borrowing over zeros!

You can't subtract 3 from 0.
You can't borrow a ten
- there are none!

## First borrow one hundred.

You get 10 tens in the tens
column.

## Then borrow 1 ten

into the ones column.
Now you can subtract.
9
7 10 10

7 10

8 0 0
2 5 3

8 0 0
2 5 3

8 0 0
2 5 3
5 4 7

## You can't borrow from the tens

nor from the hundreds. So
borrow 1 thousand.

## Next, borrow one hundred

into the tens column.

## Then borrow one ten into

the ones column. You're

9
6 10 10

6 10

7 0 0 2
4 9 3 3

9 9
6 10 10 12

7 0 0 2
4 9 3 3

7 0 0 2
4 9 3 3
2 0 6 9

a.

700
356

+ 356

b.

5000
1236

+ 1236

19

c.

6004
678

+ 678

a.

506
289

+ 289

d.

5070
2356

4090
3785

9000
3420

+ 3420

f.

\$80.00
56.70 +

h.

c.

+ 3785

e.

g.

4005
2391

b.

\$600.00
230.50 +

i.

\$400.00
198.99 +

## 4. Look again at the Kentucky map.

How many miles longer is
a. a round trip from Lexington to Ashland
and back than a round trip from
Lexington to Covington and back?
b. a trip from Lexington to Paducah and back
than a triangular trip from Lexington via
Covington, Louisville, Frankfort,
and back to Lexington?

20

\$109.40
78.65 +

7 10 11 10

8 1 2 0
2 6 5 3

## When subtracting two numbers,

you can continue the subtraction
and all the numbers you
subtracted.

Check:

5 4 6 7
7 5 4

4 7 1 3
7 5 4
+2 6 5 3

4 7 1 3

8 1 2 0

5. Write the numbers under each other carefully, and subtract in columns.
a. 4,400 2,745 493
b. 5,604 592 87
c. \$45.60 \$12.36 \$1.69

## 6. You can solve the problem 5,200 592 87 345 99

by subtracting the numbers one at a time. That means
four separate subtractions. Can you find a quicker way?

## Little Hannah has almost learned to read

the (analog) clock, but she can't remember
which hand is the hour hand and which is
the minute hand. So when the time is 1:15, she might say, It is 3:05,
mixing the hours and the minutes.
One day mom was lying in bed, sick, and she asked Hannah what time it was. Hannah
said, It is 2:20. Just a few minutes later mom asked again for the time. Hannah claimed
it was now 4:25.
Remembering that each time Hannah either tells the time right, or mixes the hour and
minute hands, mom was able to figure out what time it was in reality. Can you?

21

## Mental Math Workout and Pascal's Triangle

1. Fill in the table - add 29 each time.

18

27

36

45

54

480

420

n + 29
2. Fill in the table - subtract 39 each time.

660

600

540

n 39
3. Subtract - and be careful!
a.

b.

c.

d.

500 3 =

600 2 =

300 3 =

1,000 7 =

500 30 =

600 20 =

400 40 =

1,000 70 =

500 300 =

600 200 =

500 5 =

1,000 700 =

500 33 =

600 22 =

600 60 =

1,000 77 =

500 303 =

600 202 =

700 7 =

1,000 707 =

1000

28

51

74

____

____

__

____

900

810

730

660

____

____

____

22

____

____

## 5. Continue the patterns.

+ 300

3,000

+ 300

___

400

10,000

+ 300

___
400

___

____

____

____

____

____

400

___

____

____

____

____

____

___

___

6. This will be a Pascal's triangle but you need to fill it in. On the left and right sides are ones.
Any other number is gotten by adding the two numbers right above it (slightly to the right and to
the left). For example, the colored number 3 comes from adding the 1 and 2 above it.

23

7. a. After filling the triangle, add the numbers in each row and make a list. For example, the first row
just has 1. In the second row, add 1 + 1 = 2. In the third row, add 1 + 2 + 1 = 4.
The row sums are: 1, 2, 4, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____.
What do you notice about these numbers?
b. Can you find a diagonal with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7?
c. Can you find a diagonal with triangular numbers?
(Triangular numbers start like this:)

## Read more about Pascal's triangle and its patterns at http://ptri1.tripod.com/

Below you will find an empty Pascal's triangle to explore with. You can fill it with some other number
on all the sides, such as 2, 3, or 20.

24

Subtraction Terms
Remember subtraction terms?
Just like m comes before s in the alphabet,
the minuend comes before the subtrahend.

1. The minuend is missing! Find a general idea that always works to solve these kind of problems.
a. ____ 8 = 7

____ 4 = 20

b. ____ 15 = 17

____ 24 = 48

c. ____ 22 7 = 70

## ____ 300 50 = 125

2. The subtrahend is missing! Find a general idea that always works to solve these kind of problems.
a. 20 ____ = 12

6 ____ = 5

b. 55 ____ = 34

100 ____ = 72

## 3. a. Write three subtraction problems where the difference is 10.

b. The subtrahend is 12 and the difference is 58. What is the minuend?
c. The minuend is 55 and the difference is 17. What is the subtrahend?
4. Explain an easy to way to subtract 999 from any number mentally.
For example, explain how to do easily 1,446 999.

5. The difference of two numbers is 20, and one of the numbers is 25.
What can the other number be?

25

## 899 ____ = 342

Subtraction is used:
z

several parts.

## 6. Solve the problems. You will need addition AND subtraction.

a. A package of cheese costs \$6 and a package of ham costs \$2 less.
How much do the two cost together?
b. One alarm clock costs \$11 and another costs \$8 more.
How much would the two cost together?
c. Of the 45 students, 18 are girls. How many are boys?
How many more boys are there than girls?
d. Jack gave the clerk \$50 for his purchases, and got \$13 as his change.
How much did his purchases cost?
e. It rained five days in June and six days in July.
How many non-rainy days did those two months have?
f. Amy is 134 cm tall and her mom is 162 cm tall.
What is the difference in their heights?
g. Jack bicycled his favorite 28 km route on Tuesday and on Wednesday.
On Thursday and Saturday he bicycled along a route that was 6 km shorter.
How many kilometers did he bicycle all totalled?

## Find the missing numbers.

a. 200 45 ____ 70 = 25
b. _____ 5 55 120 = 40

26

## Word Problems and Bar Models

Bar models help you see how the numbers in a problem relate to each other. Whenever you get
stumped by a word problem, try drawing a bar model.
On Monday, Dad drove 277 miles, and
on Tuesday he drove 25 miles more
than he did on Monday. How many
miles did he drive in the two days?

Monday
Tuesday

## On Tuesday he drove 277 + 25 = 302 miles.

Altogether he drove 277 + 302 = 579 miles.

## The bracket } means addition or the total

of the two bars. We do not know the total
or the sum of the two days' journey, so it
is marked with a question mark.

## After driving 20 miles, Dad says, I still have 15

more miles to go to the half-way point. How long
is the trip?
20 mi + 15 mi = 35 miles, and that is the first half
of the trip. So, the total trip is 2 35 = 70 miles.

## We do not know the total length,

so it is marked with ?.

Mark the numbers given in the problem in the diagram. Mark what is asked with ?.
Then solve the problem.
1. Jake worked for 56 days on a farm, and
Ed worked for 14 days less.
How many days did Ed work?

## 2. Of his paycheck, Dad paid \$250 on taxes, and spent

\$660 on other bills and purchases. Then, half of his
paycheck was gone. How much was his paycheck?

## 3. Dad bought two hammers. One cost \$18

and the other cost \$28 more.
What was his total bill?

27

## Angi and Rebecca split a \$100 paycheck so that

Angi got \$10 more than Rebecca.
How much did each one get?
The bar diagram shows the situation. Angi got \$10 more
than Rebecca, and together they earned \$100.
To solve it, you can think this way. If you took away (subtracted) the additional \$10, then the total
would be \$90, and we would only have the two equal parts (the two green parts). So, \$90 2 = \$45
gives us the amount Rebecca got, and then Angi got \$45 + \$10 = \$55.
Here's another way of looking at the same situation.
We draw just one bar for the paycheck, and divide it
into two halves in the middle (the dashed line). Then
we draw half of the \$10, or \$5, on either side of that
middle line.
We can then see Angi got \$50 + \$5 = \$55 and Rebecca got \$50 \$5 = \$45.

Mark the numbers given in the problem in the diagram. Mark what is asked with ?.
Then solve the problem.
4. Mary and Luisa bought a \$46 gift together.
Mary spent \$6 more on it than Luisa.
How many dollars did each spend?

## 5. Henry bought two circular saws. One

saw was \$100 cheaper than the other.
His total bill was \$590. What did each saw cost?

6. Eric and Angela did yard work together. They earned \$80
and split it so that Eric got \$12 more
than Angela. How much did each one get?
Draw a bar diagram.

28

You can solve the rest of the problems any way you like best.
7. Mark bought four towels for \$7 each, and a blanket for \$17.
He paid, and the clerk handed him back \$5.
What denomination was the bill Mark used to pay?

## 8. One plain yogurt costs \$2.40, strawberry yogurt

costs \$0.15 less than plain yogurt, and plum yogurt
costs \$0.30 more than plain yogurt.
What is your total bill if you buy all three?

## 9. Erica was 132 cm tall when she was 9 years old.

In the next year, she grew 6 cm, and the next year 2 cm
less than the previous year. How tall was she at the age of 11?

10. John's monthly phone service bill is \$48. John said that with
the money he earned on his summer job, he could pay his
phone service for two months, spend \$120 for a bike,
and still have half his money left. How much did he earn?

## 11. Melissa found a nice shirt for \$11.50, another

for \$2.55 less, and yet another for \$2 less.
If she buys all three, what will her total bill be?

29

## Missing Addend Solved with Subtraction

From this simple diagram, we can write
two addition and two subtraction sentences.
Those four form a fact family.
x stands for a number, too. We just don't know it yet.
Which fact in the family makes it easy to
find the value of x?

x + 15 = 56

56 x = 15

15 + x = 56

56 15 = x

## You can solve it by subtracting

the one part (769) from the total (1,510):

769 + x = 1,510.

x = 1,510 769
= 741

## 1. The missing addend is solved with subtraction. Solve.

a. 78 + x = 145

x = 145 78 = _____

b. 128 + x = 400

c. x + 385 = 999

## x = ____ ____ = _____

2. Write a missing addend sentence using x, and a subtraction sentence to solve it.
a. A car costs \$1,200 and dad has \$890.
How much more does he need?

## b. The school has 547 students, of which

265 are girls. How many are boys?

30

## 3. a. Write a fact family using these

three numbers: x, 59, 124.
(Remember, x stands for a number too.)
b. Solve for x.

## 4. Write a missing addend sentence with x. Solve.

a. A school's teachers and students
filled a 450-seat auditorium. If
the school had 43 teachers,
how many students did it have?

## students + teachers = total

______ + ______ = ______
x=

## b. Mom went shopping with \$250

and came back home with \$78.
How much did she spend?

## spent + left = had originally

______ + ______ =
______
x=

## c. Janet had \$200. She bought an item

for \$54 and another for \$78.
How much is left?

## item 1 + item 2 + left = total

______ + ______ + ______ = ______
x=

## d. Jean bought one item for \$23 and

another for \$29, and she had
\$125 left. How much did she have
initially?

x=

## 5. Which number sentence fits the problem? Find x.

a. Jane had \$15. Dad gave Jane her allowance (x) and afterwards Jane had \$22.
\$15 + x = \$22

OR

## b. Mike had many drawings. He put 24 of

them in the trash. Then he had 125 left.

\$15 + \$22 = x

125 24 = x

## c. Jill had 120 marbles, but some of them

got lost. Now she has 89 left.
120 x = 89

OR

OR

x 24 = 125

## d. Dave gave 67 of his stickers to a friend

and now he has 150 left.

120 + 89 = x

150 67 = x

31

OR

x 67 = 150

6. Pick a number sentence that you can use to find x. Then solve for x.
a. Problem: 253 + x = 2056
2056 253 = x

OR

## b. Problem: x + 148 = 397

x 253 = 2056

148 397 = x

c. Problem: x 23 = 45
45 23 = x

OR

OR

397 148 = x

d. Problem: 120 x = 55
45 + 23 = x

120 55 = x

OR

120 + 55 = x

7. Solve for x.
b. 23 + 56 + x = 110

x
1,750
| 4,900 |
a.

8. Write the numbers and x to the picture. Write a missing addend sentence. Solve.
a. The Jones' family had traveled 420 miles
of their 1,200-mile journey. How many
miles were left to travel?

## b. The store is expecting a shipment of 4,000

blank CDs. Two boxes of 500 arrived.
How many are still to come?

|||

||||

## c. A 250 cm board is divided into three parts:

two 20 cm parts at the ends and a part in
the middle. How long is the middle part?

## d. After traveling 56 miles, Dad said,

We have 118 miles left.
How long is the journey?

||||

|||

32

Order of Operations
1. Do operations within ( ) first.
2. Then multiply & divide, from left to right.

30 6 11 + 5
= 24 11 + 5
= 13 + 5 = 18

4 + 3 (6 2)
= 4 + 3 4
= 4 + 12 = 16

7+35
= 7 + 15 = 22

70 + (80 5)
= 70 + 75 = 145

## 3. Then add & subtract, from left to right.

Make sure you understand
the examples on the right.

a. 500 30 30 =

500 30 + 30 =

## 2. Calculate in the right order.

a. 2 (5 + 3) =

b. 2 5 + 3 1 =

c. 2 5 + 3 0 =

20 3 3 =

(10 3) 3 + 1 =

(20 16) 3 + 2 =

50 1 2 10 =

50 1 7 + 2 3 =

2 (2 + 2) 3 =

3. Match the description with the right number sentence. Then calculate.
First multiply 5 times 10 and subtract from the result 7.

5 (10 7)

5 10 7

(100 20) + 10
90 20 + 20

## 4. You cut off two 20-cm pieces of a 90-cm piece of wood.

Which calculation tells you the piece that is left?

90 2 20
(90 20) 2

33

5. A clerk in the store rings up all the items the customer buys, gets the customer's money,
and figures out the change.
a. Which of the calculations on the right
best matches figuring out the change?

## i. \$50 \$1.26 \$6.55 \$0.22 \$5

ii. \$50 + \$1.26 + \$6.55 + \$0.22 + \$5

## b. Which calculation of the three would give

you the wrong answer for the change?

## a. \$10 + \$2.10 + \$45

b. 4 \$1.20

c. \$10 4 \$1.20

7. Put operation symbols +, , or into the number sentences so that they become true.
b.

a.

8 = 12

50

10 = 0

100

10
(15

c.

2 = 14
17)

1 = 68

(2

5)

3=6
2 = 14

8. Every day, James feeds the kennel dogs 5 kg of dog food. He bought a 100-kg bag of dog food.
How many kilograms are left after four days? Write a single number sentence to solve that.

9. Parking costs \$2 per hour during the day and \$3 per hour during the night. Write a single
number sentence that tells you the cost of parking a car for 5 daytime hours and
2 nighttime hours. Solve it.

10. Write a single number sentence that tells you the change if you buy a book for \$7, a ball for \$5,
and pay with a \$20 bill.

## See also the Choose Two Operations game at http://www.homeschoolmath.net/operation-game.php

34

Bar Graphs
1. Beverly asked her classmates how many hours they watch the TV each day.
The results are below; she already organized them in order.
001111111111122223333444556
Each number above is someone's answer to Beverly's question. So two people answered that
they watched TV for 0 hours. Quite a few answered that they watch TV about 1 hour per day.
With such a bunch of numbers, we need to make first a frequency table. In a frequency
table, we count how frequently or how often a certain number was in our list of data. After
counting all that, we can make a bar graph.
In Beverly's data above, the number zero (0 hours TV) appeared two times. The number two
(2 hours TV) appeared four times. Finish the frequency table and the bar graph.

Hours of TV Frequency

0h

1h
2h

## b. How many classmates did Beverly question?

c. What was the most common response to Beverly's question?
d. How many of these kids watch TV 1 hour or less?
e. How many kids watch TV 3 hours or more?
f. Are there more kids who watch TV 3 hours a day than kids who watch TV 2 hours a day?
g. Are there more kids watching TV 2 hours or more, than kids watching TV less than 2 hours?

35

2. a. Beverly also asked some people about their favorite color. Make a bar graph.
Color Frequency
red

orange

yellow

green

blue

purple

black

white

## b. How many people did Beverly question?

c. Were the warm colors or the cold colors more popular?
(Warm colors are red, orange, and yellow. Cold colors are green, blue, and purple.)
3. The numbers are students' quiz scores. 1 3 5 3 6 4 9 8 6 4 8 7 5 3 9 8 6 2 1 8 9 10 2 9 7 6
a. Make a frequency table and a bar graph.
Test score Frequency

## d. How many students got a score from 5 to 8?

e. How many students did excellent (got a score of 9 or 10)?
f. The teacher said after the test, Anyone with a score of 4 or less will need to retake the
test, and anyone with a score of 5 or 6 will get extra homework.
How many students need to do the test again? How many will get extra homework?

36

## 4. a. Make a bar graph

out of the data
in the frequency table
on the right.

120...129

160...169

95

130...139

10

170...179

61

140...149

41

180...189

39

150...159

82

190...199

## b. How many people were short (less than 140 cm tall)?

c. How many were very tall (180 cm or taller)?
d. Most adults are 160 cm tall or taller. Use this fact to guess (estimate) how many children
and how many adults were in this group.
e. Could this data come from
z

## a group of elderly women in an old people's home?

37

Line Graphs
A line graph shows how something changes
over time, such as over several hours, days,
weeks, months, or years.
The data values are often drawn as dots.
Then the dots are connected with lines.
The x-axis and the y-axis are the
two lines that frame the picture. The time
units are written under the x-axis.
To read a line graph, look up from the time
unit until you find the dot. Then draw an
imaginary line from that dot to the y-axis
For example, in July Amy had saved \$90.
1. Look at the line graph about Amy's savings.
a. How many dollars had Amy saved in May?
b. How many dollars had Amy saved in August?
c. How many dollars had Amy saved in September?
d. In which month had she saved up \$75?
e. In September Amy used up her savings to buy a used bike. How much did the bike cost?
2. The graph shows a puppy's weight
for 10 days after birth.
Notice how the two axes are
named as day and grams.
a. About how many grams
did the puppy weigh
on day 1? ________
Day 2? ________
Day 3? ________
Day 4? ________

b. What is the first day that the puppy weighed 600 g or more?
c. What is the first day that the puppy weighed 700 g or more?

38

3. Look at the graph about the monthly retail prices of strawberries in 2004, given in dollars per
pound. The retail price is the price you see in a grocery store or the price the customers pay.

## a. Describe the price changes as the year progresses.

Do you know why the price is lower in the summer?
b. Find the highest price per pound and the lowest price per pound.
What is the difference of these two?
c. How much did it cost to buy 2 lb of strawberries in August?
In November?

4. Becca's mom wrote down an x mark for every bad behavior she did during the day.
The table shows the list of her x-marks.
a. Make a line graph. Remember to name one axis as days and the other as x-marks.
b. Did Becca's behavior improve?

Day

x-marks

Mon

10

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

39

Month

Price
(\$ per lb)

Jan

2.48

Feb

2.33

Mar

2.12

Apr

1.66

May

1.67

Jun

1.85

Jul

1.63

Aug

1.82

Sep

1.84

Oct

2.60

Nov

3.19

Dec

3.60

## 5. The table gives the average

maximum temperatures
for each month in New York.

Month

Max.
Temp.

Month

Max.
Temp.

Month

Max.
Temp.

Jan

3C

May

20C

Sep

26C

Feb

3C

Jun

25C

Oct

21C

Mar

7C

Jul

28C

Nov

11C

Apr

14C

Aug

27C

Dec

5C

a. Make a line graph. Three values are already done for you.
b. What are the coldest months?
c. What are the warmest months?
d. What is the difference in maximum temperature between the coldest and the
warmest month?

6. Do a line graph from some data that you gather yourself! Just remember, it has to be something
that changes over time. You can also make up data from your own head. Here are some
ideas:
z

## your savings in the past 6 months, or an imaginary child's savings in 6 or 8 or 12 months

how many hours of schoolwork (or housework or playing etc.) you do each day of the week

how many pages of a book you read each day of the week

## your height from year 0 to year 9 of your life

You can also use this neat online tool for creating your graph: http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/
To use it, you need to have your data ready. It will not give you any data. It just draws the graph.

40

Rounding
When you are rounding to the nearest ten,
look at the ONES DIGIT.
z
z
z

## If the ones digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, then round down.

If the ones digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.
If you round up, the tens digit increases by one.

## When the number is exactly in

the middle, round up. 85 90.

## (This is just a convention.)

You can draw a line after the digit whose place you are rounding to. The digit or digits after the line
will become zeros.
25 6 26 0 (up)

8 4 8 0 (down)

## 9,85 4 9,85 0 (down)

Notice carefully: If you are rounding up, and the tens digit is already 9, look at the two digits
just before your line, and increase that number by one:
3,29 7 3,30 0 (up)
It is as if the 29 formed by the hundreds and
tens changes into 30 - exactly one more.
(In reality it is 29 tens changing to 30 tens.)

79 5 80 0 (up)

## 3,09 8 3,10 0 (up)

The 79
changes to 80.

The 09
changes to 10.

1. Round the numbers to the nearest ten. The number line can help.

a. 294 ______

b. 315 ______

c. 278 ______

d. 285 ______

e. 315 ______

f. 296 ______

g. 304 ______

h. 207 ______

## 2. Round these numbers to the nearest ten.

a. 526 ______

d. 197 ______

g.

b. 34 ______

e. 705 ______

h. 5,971 ______

k. 2,282 ______

c. 181 ______

f. 392 ______

i. 9,568 ______

l. 4,003 ______

41

440 ______

j. 4,061 ______

Find the whole hundred that is nearest to 539. Rounded to the nearest hundred, 539 _________.
When you are rounding to the nearest hundred, look at the TENS DIGIT.
z
z
z
z

## If the tens digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, then round down.

If the tens digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.
The rounded result is a whole hundred so it ends in two zeros.
The hundreds digit changes by one if you round up.

You can draw a line after the digit whose place you are rounding to.
The digits after the line will become zeros.
5 62 6 00

2 48 2 00 (down)

## 5,4 28 5,4 00 (down)

Notice carefully: If you are rounding up, and the hundreds digit is already 9, look at the two digits
just before your line, and increase that number by one:
5,9 92 5,5 00 (up)
It is as if the 59 formed by the thousands and
hundreds changes into 60 - exactly one more.

The 69
changes to 70.

The 29
changes to 30.

a. 3,520 ______

b. 3,709 ______

c. 3,935 ______

d. 3,541 ______

e. 3,962 ______

f. 3,425 ______

g. 3,847 ______

h. 3,656 ______

a. 526 ______

d. 197 ______

g. 2,907 ______

j. 3,032 ______

b. 54 ______

e. 706 ______

h. 5,971 ______

k. 2,959 ______

c. 761 ______

f. 365 ______

i. 7,543 ______

l. 4,014 ______

42

## Rounded to the nearest thousand, 4,772 ________.

When you are rounding to the nearest thousand, look at the HUNDREDS DIGIT.
z
z
z
z

## If the hundreds digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, then round down.

If the hundreds digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.
The rounded result is a whole thousand so it ends in three zeros.
The thousands digit changes by one if you round up.

You can draw a line after the thousands digit. The digits after the line will become zeros.
2, 723 3,000 (up)

457 0 (down)

a. 3,520 ______

b. 6,709 ______

c. 5,499 ______

d. 7,230 ______

e. 2,800 ______

f. 4,087 ______

g. 3,602 ______

h. 4,555 ______

## 6. Round these numbers to the nearest thousand.

a. 526 ______

d. 4,197 ______

g. 2,907 ______

j. 9,605 ______

b. 54 ______

e. 5,672 ______

h. 5,502 ______

k. 2,553 ______

c. 761 ______

f. 3,099 ______

i. 9,397 ______

l. 1,047 ______

7. Round these numbers to the nearest ten, nearest hundred, and nearest thousand.

55

2,602

9,829

3,199

rounded to
nearest 10
rounded to
nearest 100
rounded to
nearest 1000

43

495

709

5,328

The rounding rules remain the same even with money amounts.
Rounding to the nearest dollar, look at
the ten-cents DIGIT (tenth of a dollar).
z
z
z

## Rounding to the nearest ten dollars,

look at the dollars DIGIT (ones digit).

## If it is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, then round down.

If it is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.
The rounded result is in whole dollars
so omit the decimal point and the cents.

z
z
z

## If it is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, then round down.

If it is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.
The ones digit becomes zero.
Omit the decimal point and the cents.

\$12. 72 \$13

\$59. 92 \$60

\$4 7.26 \$50

## \$56 2.94 \$560

\$452. 34 \$452

\$3,480. 55 \$3,481

## 8. Round these numbers to the nearest dollar.

a. \$3.17 ______

b. \$97.99 ______

c. \$3.29 ______

d. \$1,680.25 ______

e. \$47.38 _____

f. \$125.59 ______

g. \$13.70 ______

h. \$977.50 ______

## 9. Round these numbers to the nearest ten dollars.

a. \$45.70 ______

b. \$7.99 ______

c. \$73.78 ______

d. \$6,289.40 ______

e. \$43.27 ______

f. \$169.49 ______

g. \$255.55 ______

h. \$564.00 ______

10. Round these numbers to the nearest one, nearest ten, and nearest hundred.
n

\$129.78

\$455.09

\$69.42

\$591.95

rounded to
nearest dollar
rounded to
nearest
ten dollars
rounded to
nearest
hundred dollars

11. Round the prices, and use the rounded prices to estimate the total bill.
a. pencils \$2.28, paper \$5.90, notebook \$4.76, books \$12.75.
b. Chairs \$126.70, table \$195.99, bed \$256, mattresses \$346.60.

44

\$1,285.38

\$6,089.90

Estimating
You can estimate the result of a calculation. Round the numbers, and then calculate (add or subtract)
using the rounded numbers. Your result is not exact. That is why it's called an estimate.
Use the symbol (is approximately) instead of equality = when you change from exact numbers
to rounded numbers.

567 + 89 413

## 600 + 100 400 = 300.

\$4 + \$28 + \$6 = \$38.

1. First estimate by rounding the numbers to the nearest hundred. Then find the exact answer.
a. 967 + 231 + 4,792
Estimation:

Estimation:

Estimation:

## d. 3,492 1,540 211

Estimation:

2. The table lists the costs of running the student recess time snack bar.
Estimate the total cost over these five weeks by rounding
the numbers to the nearest ten.
Week 37 Week 38 Week 39 Week 40 Week 41
\$147

\$164

\$182

\$129

\$131

45

## 3. Mary's family is going to rent an apartment for a 3-week vacation.

They have two choices: one apartment costs \$289 per week,
and the other costs \$327 per week.
a. Estimate the cost of each one.
b. How much approximately would the family
save by choosing the cheaper rental?

4. Solve these problems with estimation. You don't need to find the exact answer!
a. Each bus can take 47 passengers.
About how many passengers are
in four buses?

## b. A gallon of gas is \$2.87. How many

gallons can you get with \$20?

## c. A book is \$4.87 and another is \$6.95.

What is the total approximately?

## d. You have \$10. How many ice creams

could you buy that cost \$1.97 each?

5. The chart lists the number of loans that Charleston library had
on the weeks of May and June. From this chart, you cannot
read the exact numbers of loans, but you can find the
approximate numbers of loans. Estimate to the nearest ten,
the total number of loans for a) weeks 18-21 b) weeks 22-25.

46

Reviewing Money
1. Write the dollar amounts as cents or vice versa.
a. \$0.25 = _____

b. \$0.70 = ______

c. \$1.25 = _______

d. \$5.60 = ______

e. \$31.55 = ______

f. \$_______ = 76

g. \$_______ = 20

h. \$______ = 154

i. \$_______ = 859

j. \$______ = 419

k. \$80.34 = _______

l. \$_______ = 104

## 2. Round to the nearest dollar.

a. \$1.05 ______

b. \$7.72 ______

c. \$35.17 ______

d. \$165.83 _______

e. \$94.90 ______

f. \$99.09 ______

g. \$99.90 ______

h. \$100.56 _______

3. You bought items for \$1.50, \$12, and for \$2.20. You paid with a 20-dollar bill.
How much was your total?
How much was your change?
4. Make change. Mark how many of each bill/coin you need.
Item
cost

Money
given

a. \$56

\$70

b. \$29

\$50

c. \$78

\$100

d. \$129

\$200

Change
needed

\$5 bill

\$20 bill

\$50 bill

\$1 bill

5. Make change. Mark how many of each bill or coin you need.
Item cost

Money Change
given needed

a. \$2.56

\$5

b. \$8.94

\$10

c. \$7.08

\$10

d. \$3.37

\$10

\$5 bill

\$1 bill

47

25

10

## 6. Solve. Write a number sentence for each problem.

a. Mike had \$99. He spent \$34 , and he has \$56 left.

## b. Dad had ______. He spent \$250, and has \$170 left.

b.

c. Mom had \$280. She spent \$45, and now has ______ left.

c.

## d. Greg bought a \$45-tool and now he has \$15 left.

Originally he had _______.

d.

## e. Alice had \$12. She bought an item, and now

she has \$3.56. The item cost ________.

e.

7. Match the situations (a), (b), and (c) with number sentences (i), (ii), and (iii).
Then solve for the unknown number x in each situation.
a. Andy had \$60 and he bought a tool set for \$48.
How much does he have left?

i. \$60 x = \$48

b. Elisa bought food for \$60 and now has \$48 left.
How much money did she have initially?

## c. Greg had \$60 when he went to the store. He came

back home with \$48. How much did he spend?

## 8. Solve the word problems.

a. Mike had \$38, and after Grandma's
How much did Grandma give him?

## b. Ashley spent half of her \$88 in town.

How much does she have now?

## c. Greg bought two \$15 books with his

birthday money (\$60).
How much did he have left?

## d. Jill bought three \$4 magazines with her

birthday money, and now she has \$28.
How much was the birthday money?

## e. You bought 4,000 marker pens at \$0.98 each,

and 1,000 whiteboard erasers at \$1.02 each,
Estimate the total using rounded numbers.

## f. Dad bought a \$0.60 ice cream cone for each

of the three kids, and an \$0.80 ice cream cone
for himself. How much was the total?
What was his change from \$10?

48

Discounts
Often the store lowers the price of an item. That is called discounting the item.
If a shirt first costs \$10, and the store then puts a new price of \$9 on it, the shirt is discounted by \$1.
The discount is how many dollars the price changed. This time the discount was \$1.
A TV costs \$650.
Now it is discounted by \$100.

## A flower vase was discounted

by \$2.10. The new price is \$6.

## Add to find the original price, which is

of course higher: \$6 + \$2.10 = \$8.10

9. How much is the discount, the new price, or the original price?

a.
Old price \$5.25
New price \$4.50
Discount ______

b.
Old price \$1.56
New price \$1.32
Discount ______

## e. A jacket cost \$54.99 at first;

the new price is \$47.95.
How much is the discount?

c.
Before \$500 / month
Now _____ / month
Discount \$23

d.
Before \$______
Now \$29.50
Discount \$5.50

## f. A \$1,199 TV-set has

a \$200 discount.
What is the new price?

10. The chart lists some Disney World ticket prices. For each ticket there is an adult and
child price, normal (gate) price and discount price.
Ticket type Normal price Discount price

\$235

\$225.31

4 day Child

\$200

\$193.38

\$221

\$218.73

3 day Child

\$189

\$186.81

\$165

\$162.20

2 day Child

\$143

\$141.70

\$103

\$103

1 Day Child

\$92

\$92

## For 4 Day Adult ticket, the discount is __________.

For 4 Day Child ticket, the discount is __________.
For _________________ and _________________
tickets, there is no discount.

## 11. You're a family of 2 adults and 2 children.

a. How much would it cost for your family to spend 2 days
in Disney World using the discount tickets?
b. Can you spend three days there if you can afford to spend \$800 at the most?

49

Review
1. a. Write a subtraction problem where
the difference is 15 and the minuend is 100.
b. Write an addition problem where
one addend is 339 and the sum is 2,193
2. Solve x + 283 = 1,394.

## 3. Amanda and Abigail weeded a garden together, and shared

the pay so that Amanda got \$50 more than Abigail, because
she spent more time in weeding it. If their total pay was \$300,
how much did Amanda get and how much did Abigail get?

a. 5 (2 + 4)

(50 20) 2 + 10

b. 120 20 2 0

53+27

10 (4 + 4) 4

3 \$13 \$2

## 5. Which expression matches the problem?

Find the cost of three \$13-hammers when
they are discounted by \$2.

\$13 3 \$2
(\$13 \$2) 3

## 6. How many feet do ten dogs and 20 chickens have in total?

Write a single number sentence to solve.

## 7. After spending \$15.20 on food and \$34.60 on gasoline,

Mom had \$70.20 left in her purse.
How much did she have originally?

## 8. Alberto bought two pairs of skis; one cost \$48.90

and the other cost \$25 more. What was his total cost?

50

## Chapter 2: Place Value

Introduction
The second chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers large numbers (up to 9
digits) and place value concepts with those.
The first lessons only deal with thousands or numbers with a maximum of four digits. These are for
review and for deepening the student's understanding of place value. It is crucial that the student
understands place value with these numbers before moving on to larger numbers. Yet again, these larger
numbers can be very easy as long as the student understands the basics of how our place value system
works.
Besides the concept of place value, the chapter contains lessons on comparing numbers, adding and
subtracting in columns, mental math problems, and the idea of multiples.

## The Lessons in Chapter 2

page

span

Thousands .......................................................

53

3 pages

56

2 pages

58

2 pages

60

2 pages

62

2 pages

64

3 pages

5 pages

72

3 pages

## Multiples of 10, 100 and 1000 ........................

75

2 pages

Review ...........................................................

77

2 pages

51

## Helpful Resources on the Internet

Place Value Payoff
Match numbers written in standard form with numbers written in expanded form in this game.
http://www.quia.com/mc/279741.html
Megapenny Project
Visualizes big numbers with pictures of pennies.
http://www.kokogiak.com/megapenny/default.asp
Keep My Place
Fill in the big numbers to this cross-number puzzle.
http://www.mathsyear2000.org/magnet/kaleidoscope2/Crossnumber/index.html
Place value puzzler
Place value or rounding game. Click on the asked place value in a number, or type in the rounded version
of the number.
http://www.funbrain.com/tens/index.html
Estimation at AAA Math
Exercises about rounding whole numbers and decimals, front-end estimation, estimating sums and
differences. Each page has an explanation, interactive practice, and games.
http://www.aaamath.com/B/est.htm
Can you say really big numbers?
Enter a really big number, try say it out loud, and see it written.
http://www.mathcats.com/explore/reallybignumbers.htm

52

Thousands
one (o)

z
z

ten (t)

## ones go to a ten? ____

tens go to a hundred? ____
hundreds go to a thousand? ____

## That is why our way of writing numbers

is called the base ten system.
hundred (h)

thousand (th)

th h t o 7,284 has

7 thousands, 2 hundreds,
7 2 8 4 8 tens, and 4 ones.

## Writing the number 5,608 in expanded form means we write

out the number as a sum of whole thousands, whole
hundreds, whole tens, and ones. You see all of it right from
the number:
z

## It has 6 hundreds = 600

It has 0 tens = 0.

It has 8 ones = 8.

## 1. Write the numbers in expanded form.

a. 8,325 = 8000 + 300 + 20 + 5

b. 4,935 =

c. 4,039 =

d. 3,002

e. 2,090 =

f. 9,405

## 2. Write in normal form.

a. 4000 + 500 + 90 + 3

b. 2000 + 90

c. 3000 + 200

d. 8000 + 5

e. 1000 + 80 + 7

f. 5000 + 600 + 9

g. 6 hundred 4 thousand

h. 8 tens 4 thousand

## j. 4 hundred 5 ones 1 thousand

k. fifty, 7 thousand

l. 4 thousand, 5

m. 9, sixty, 4 thousand

n. 8 hundred, 3 thousand, 9

53

## The 7, 2, 8, and 4 are called digits of the number 7,284.

But 7 in the number 7,284 actually means seven thousand. The value of the digit 7 is 7,000.
The 2 in the number 7,284 actually means two hundred. The value of the digit 2 is 200.
The value of the digit 8 is eighty or 80.
The value of the digit 4 is four.
The value of the digit depends on WHERE it is in the number.
Look where NINE is in these numbers:
690

## The value of the digit 9 is 90.

9 is in tens place.

9,055 9 in 9,055 means nine thousand The value of the digit 9 is 9,000. 9 is in thousands place.
419

## The value of the digit 9 is 9.

1,970 9 in 1,970 means nine hundred. The value of the digit 9 is 900.

9 is in ones place.
9 is in hundreds place.

In other words, the value of the digit 9 depends on where it's at, or where its place is.
That is why this system of writing numbers is called the place value system.
If nine is in the hundreds' place, then its value is 900 (for example in number 5,900).
If nine is in the tens place, then its value is 90 (for example in number 498).
3. What is the value of the digit 5 in the following numbers?
a. 3,859 fifty

b. 65

c. 549

d. 2,506

e. 5,012

f. 3,050

## 4. Write the value of the underlined digit.

a. 509 five hundred

b. 9,843

c. 940

d. 2,088

e. 1,200

f. 4,002

g. 7,008

h. 405

i. 4,400

j. 90

5. a. What is the largest possible number you can build by using the digits 2, 5, 8, and 4?
b. What is the least possible number you can build by using them?
6. What is the difference between the largest and the least possible
number you can build using the digits 6, 9, and 1?

54

## What is 4,769 + 10?

4,769 has 6 tens. One ten more means there will be 7 tens: 4,779.

## What is 2,958 + 100?

2,958 has nine hundreds. One hundred more means there will be 10 hundreds, but that makes a
thousand. Our answer number will have 3 thousands, with no hundreds: 3,058.

7. Fill in the table - add 10, 100, or 1000. If in doubt, you can add in columns.

1,056

2,508

342

4,009

59

6,980

723

n + 10
n + 100
n + 1000
8. What is missing?

## a. 4,036 = 4000 + ____ + 30

b. 483 = 80 + 3 + ______

## c. 9,328 = 300 + 9,000 + ____ + 20

d. 8,005 = 5 + ______

## f. 7,609 = 9 + ______ + 7,000

9. If you add 1 thousand, 1 hundred, 1 ten, and 1 to this number, it becomes 9,000.
What is the number?

For the digits given, build the largest and the least possible
number you can. Then find their difference. In which
multiplication table can you find each of the differences?
a. 7 and 5

b. 2 and 9

c. 4 and 5

d. 8 and 3

75 and 57
difference: 18
Do the same as above, but now with three digits. For each difference you find, add its
digits. If you then get a two-digit number, add its digits as well. What do you notice?
e. 7,1, 5

f. 9, 4, 7

g. 8, 9, 7

## 751 and 157

difference 594
5 + 9 + 4 = 18
1+8=9
You can also try the same with four digits!

55

h. 4, 1, 8

8,299

## At the Edge of Whole Thousands

Just one is missing
from thousand:

Ten is missing
from thousand:

999 + 1 = 1,000

990 + 10 = 1,000

## 2. We have 900-something. Complete a thousand.

a. 999 + 1 = 1,000

56

## 4. Subtract from whole thousands.

a. 2,000 1 = 1,999

b. 5,000 3 = ______

c. 6,000 50 = ______

2,000 4 = ______

4,000 10 = ______

9,000 30 = ______

2,000 7 = ______

7,000 20 = ______

## 10,000 100 = ______

Mental math trick: Add up to find the difference to the next whole thousand.
First fill the next whole ten, the next whole hundred, and then the next whole thousand.
+ 8

6,7 82

+ 10

6,7 90

+ 200

6,8 00

+ 50

7,0 00

5,7 50

+ 200

5, 800

6,0 00

## 5,750 + 250 = 6,000

5. Round the numbers to the nearest thousand, and write down the rounding error.
That is the difference between the number and the rounded number.
Number Rounded number Rounding error

## Number Rounded number Rounding error

4,993

8,029

7,890

5,113

9,880

2,810

6. Solve. Use the top problem to help you in the bottom ones.
a. 2,000 100 = ______

## 7. Mark bought a computer for \$1997 and a monitor for \$995.

a. Estimate his total bill in whole thousand dollars.
b. How many dollars short of that estimate is the exact bill?
8. What is the rounding error, if the sum 1,982 + 3,950 is rounded to 6,000?

57

More Thousands

On this number line you see whole thousands from one thousand till fifteen thousand.
7 8,0 0 0

## The colored digits are the thousands period and count as

the whole thousands. Read the numbers is as if you say
the word thousand for the comma.

1 5 3,0 0 0

8 0 2,0 0 0

## We continue with whole thousands

until reaching a thousand thousands.

9 9 0,0 0 0

9 9 9,0 0 0

= 1 million

1 7,5 4 4
6 0 9,2 3 0
7 0,0 8 0
9 0 2,0 0 5

## The rest of the digits tell us our

hundreds, tens, and ones
just like you have learned.

## Read: 17 thousand 544

Read: 609 thousand two hundred thirty
Read: seventy thousand eighty
Read: 902 thousand five

## 1. Place a comma into the number. Fill in missing parts.

a. 1 6 4 0 0 0

b. 9 2 0 0 0

c. 3 0 9 0 0 0

d. 3 4 0 0 0

e. 7 8 0 0 0 0

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

2. Place a comma into the number. Fill in missing parts. Read numbers aloud.
a. 1 6 4,4 5 3

b. 9 2 9 0 8

c. 3 2 9 0 3 3

d. 1 4 0 0 4

e. 5 5 0 0 5 3

f. 7 2 0 0 1

g. 8 0 0 0 0 4

h. 3 0 0 3 6

58

a. 456,098

b. 950,050

c. 23,090

d. 560,008

e. 78,304

f. 266,894

g. 219,513

h. 306,700

## 4. Think in whole thousands and add!

a. 30,000 + 5,000 =

b. 200,000 + 1,000 =

## think: 30 thousand + 5 thousand

c. 400,000 + 30,000 =

d. 710,000 + 40,000 =

e. 300,000 + 600,000 =

f. 700,000 + 70,000 =

## 5. Add and subtract, thinking in whole thousands.

a. 35,000 + 5,000 =

b. 210,000 + 10,000 =

c. 420,000 + 30,000 =

d. 711,000 + 10,000 =

e. 300,000 60,000 =

f. 700,000 70,000 =

g. 30,000 5,000 =

h. 200,000 6,000 =

i. 723,000 400,000 =

j. 500,000 1,000 =

6. On the number line below, 510,000 and 520,000 are marked (at the posts).
Write the numbers that correspond to the dots.

7. Make a number line from 320,000 to 340,000 with tick-marks at every whole thousand, similar
to the one above. Then mark the following numbers on the number line:
323,000 328,000 335,000 329,000 330,000

59

## Practicing with Thousands

35 thousand 4
35,004
thousands H T O

There are no
hundreds nor tens.

There are no
hundreds nor ones.

## 203 thousand sixty

203,060

So we put 0 in the
hundreds and tens
place.

So we put 0 in the
hundreds and ones
place.

thousands H T O

1. Break these numbers down to whole thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones.
a. 49,015

b. 206,090

c. 107,802

d. 88,030

e. 790,302

f. 903,000

g. 250,067

h. 300,070

a. 20 thousand
4 ones

7 hundreds

## d. 540 thousand 4 ones

e. 230 thousand
7 tens

f. 9 thousand 6 hundred
7 ones

## g. 873 thousand 5 tens

h. 40 thousand 4 hundred

60

3 hundred

i. 59 thousand
5 ones

6 tens

## 3. Write the numbers. It's all mixed up, be careful!

Remember, after thousands are three more digits!
a. 4 tens 25 thousand
7 ones 3 hundred

## b. 2 tens 700 thousand

6 hundred 4 ones

c. 8 hundred 1 thousand
60 thousand 8 ones

d. 50 thousand 6 tens
3 thousand

e. 42 thousand
7 ones 8 tens

## f. 9 thousand 600 thousand

50 thousand 4 tens

g. 90 thousand 4 tens
200 thousand

h. 20 thousand 9 hundred
7 thousand 5 ones

i. 500 thousand
4 thousand 8 ones

## 4. Continue the patterns.

a.

b.

45,000

134,000

c.
800,000

d.
400,000

45,500

134,200

750,000

390,000

46,000

134,400

700,000

380,000

a. 30,000 + 50

b. 254,000 + 300 + 5

c. 133,000 + 200 + 50

d. 77,000 + 4

e. 2 + 60,000

f. 120,000 + 3 + 60

g. 5,000 + 10,000 + 20

h. 4,000 + 6 + 20,000

i. 300 + 30,000 + 90

j. 400 + 86,000 + 70 + 1

61

728 thousand 401
hth tth th h

## Each of the six digits has its own place

(box in the picture).

7 2 8, 4 5 1
z
z
z
z
z
z

In the charts:
hth means hundred thousands
tth means ten thousands
th means thousands

## 7 is in the hundred thousands place. The value of 7 is seven hundred thousand.

2 is in the ten thousands place. The value of 2 is twenty thousand.
8 is in the thousands place. The value of 8 is eight thousand.
4 is in the hundreds place. The value of 4 is four hundred.
5 is in the tens place. The value of 5 is fifty.
1 is in the ones place. The value of 1 is one.

hth tth th h

7 2 8, 4 5 1
7 0 0, 0
2 0, 0
8, 0
4

0
0
0
0
5

0
0
0
0
0
1

hth tth th h

5 0 1, 0 2 9
5 0 0, 0 0 0
1, 0 0 0
2 0
9

## 501,029 in expanded form is

500,000 + 1,000 + 20 + 9

a.

hth tth th h

8 7, 0 1 5

b.

hth tth th h

c.

4 0 3, 2 8 0

hth tth th h

6 9 2, 0 0 4

62

d.

hth tth th h

7 0 0, 2 0 4

## 3. Write the numbers in expanded form.

a. 32,493
b. 172,392
c. 25,600
d. 109,020
e. 220,000
f. 900,701
4. Find the missing number. It's all mixed!
a. 26,290 = 90 + _______ + 200

## e. 778,090 = 90 + 8,000 + _______ + 700,000

f. 917,500 = 900,000 + 500 + 10,000 + __________
g. 30,239 = 9 + 200 + 30 + ___________
5. What is the value of the digit 5 in the following numbers?

b. 400,065

c. 700,549

d. 59,906

a. 1,209

b. 19,843

c. 89,605

d. 208,000

e. 302,600

f. 300,027

g. 210,408

h. 5,425

i. 921,993

j. 300,094

## 7. What are these numbers?

a. 8 is in tens place, 5 is in hundred thousands place, and 7 is in ones place.
b. 4 is in hundreds place, 8 is in tens place, and 2 is in ten thousands place.

63

## Comparing with Thousands

Which is more, 399,393 or 393,939?
You are used to comparing small numbers. When comparing big numbers, use the same principles:
z

Check if one number contains bigger place value units (or is longer).
For example, 675,000 > 95,239 because 95,239 does not have any hundred thousands, but
675,000 does.

If the numbers have the same amount of digits (are equally long), then you need to compare
the digits in the different places. Compare the digits starting from the BIGGEST place value.
Though you don't have to use them, place value charts can help.
t.th th

h.th t.th th

3
3

2 7 0 4 5
2 7 0 5 4

9 9 3 9 3
9 3 9 3 9

## Start at the hundred thousands place. The

digits are the same (3). Both numbers have
300,000.
At the ten thousands place, the digits are
the same. Both numbers have 90,000
At the thousands place, one number has 9,
the other has 3. The upper number has
9,000 while the other has only 3,000!

## Start at the ten thousands place. The digits

are the same (2). Both numbers have
20,000.
At the thousands place, the digits are the
same. Both numbers have 7,000.
At the hundreds place, the digits are the
same.
At the tens place, one number has 4, the
other has 5.

## Therefore 27,045 < 27,054

1. Write < or > between the numbers. These are fairly easy!

a. 45,200

54,000

b. 18,700

d. 78,111

77,001

e. 5,605

g. 1,788

17,880

h. 392,000

191,000
605,000
365,000

## 2. Write the numbers in order from smallest to greatest.

a. 18,309; 81,390; 8,039; 818,039
b. 52,000; 5,020; 250,000; 520,000

64

c. 22,029

202,000

f. 34,092

43,200

i. 493,239

521,000

## 3. Find the largest number.

45,500

a.
54,000

52,400

134,000

d.
144,000

143,400

7,887

b.
8,708

7,708

c.
10,101 11,001

5,606

e.
5,556

5,599

f.
8,099 8,909

11,101
8,009

4. Write < or > between the numbers. Use the place value chart now if you need to.

a. 78,187

77,817

b. 21,089

21,098

c. 23,392

23,293

d. 349,309

343,909

e. 493,605

465,093

f. 199,909

20,900

g. 545,055

545,405

h. 909,808

908,809

i. 200,189

200,210

5. Look at the number lines and mark the following numbers (approximately!) there with a little circle.

15,090

15,131

15,678

15,430

15,878

15,923

16,050

34,896

34,950

35,254

35,599

35,020

34,631

35,117

6. a. Make a number line from 67,000 till 68,000 with tick marks at every whole hundred.

## b. Mark these numbers (approximately!) on your number line.

67,250 67,030 67,510 67,780 67,940 67,370 67,049

67,703

## c. Write the above numbers in order on the lines below.

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

65

7. Find the largest number. It helps to place the comma that separates the thousands in the numbers.

383800

49830

a.
39903
d.
93024

398039

110293

290290

3420

b.
92022
e.
301481

99029

c.
600606 606660

606066

30420

f.
379444 390200

390002

a. 500 5,600
5,406

5,505

1,500 1,459

b. 87,600

8,708

78,777

## 78,707 77,988 7,800

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

## 9. Find the number that fits in place of x.

a. 400,000 + x = 500,000

b. x + 30,000 = 100,000

c. x + x = 10,000

d. 500,000 x = 300,000

a.
81,400

b.
162,400

c.
1,000,000

d.
600

81,950

168,600

880,000

1,200

82,500

174,800

760,000

2,400
4,800

66

## Adding and Subtracting Big Numbers

1. Adding in columns happens exactly the same way as with smaller numbers. See how well you can do!

905,091
+ 40,510

b.

d.

608,781
+ 230,911

e.

g.

289,300
120,000
+ 409,436

h.

a.

c.

78,402
+ 13,770

321,866
+ 34,770

f.

60,066
+ 477,770

89,502
45,987
13,770

i.

560,421
340,060
+ 4,987

29,313
407,616

## 2. Continue the patterns. Use mental math.

480,000

29,100

906,500

162,700

485,000

29,300

916,600

172,700

490,000

29,500

926,700

182,700

67

9
7 10

9 9
7 10 10 10

7 10 10

800,000
510,065
Borrow over zeros...

800,000
513,065

800,000
510,065

Subtraction happens
the same way as with
smaller numbers.
Just be careful with
lots of borrowing!

3. Subtract.
a.

120,091
34,510

b.

199,136
79,160

c.

670,000
1,300

d.

234,688
167,991

e.

65,570
23,677

f.

90,080
5,025

g.

554,600
128,000

e.

600,000
223,065

i.

400,000
18,344

a.

b.

419,000 + 1,000

150,000 + 40,000

500,000 3,000

140,000 + 70,000

500 + 36,000

20,000 + 400,000

189,000 80,000

97,000 + 400,000

189,000 + 1,000

36,100 + 400

40,600 500

20,000 + 20,100

40,500 + 500

180,000 2,000

250,000 40,000

100,000 + 9,000

177,300 + 700

36,000 + 5,000

77,700 7,000

100,000 29,300

68

134,607
+ 3,065

134,607
+
3,065

457,934
37 ,921
+
24

457,934
37,921
+
24

## THIS IS OFF! (sloppy

writing, numbers not lined up)

This is good!

## 5. Calculate. Line up all the place values carefully.

a. 300,145 + 2,399 + 345

b. 560,073 + 81,400 + 98

13,000

78,000

154,000

n + 1,000
n + 10,000
n + 100,000

69

275,000

500,000

640,500

509,032
219

509,032

219

245,032
37,921

245,032
37,921

118 111
THIS IS OFF!
This is good!

## (Complete the problem)

(errors in borrowing)

7. Calculate.
a. 509,788 82,345

b. 30,760 2,906

c. 26,509 1,208

d. 984,044 329

8. If the two expressions (calculations) are equal, put an equal sign = into the box between them.
If they are NOT equal, put a not equal sign "" between them.
a. 660,000 + 30,000

620,000 + 40,000

d.

b. 499,000 + 2,000

501,000 1,000

e.

c. 125,000 4,000

119,000 + 2,000

f. 10,000 1,200

70

1,990 + 11
5,000 300

1,999 + 2
6000 1,300
6,000 + 2,500

## 9. Both anatomy and astronomy often contain big numbers!

If you travel around the earth one time on the equator, your trip is 24,900 miles long!
If you laid out an adult human's blood vessels, they'd go for 93,200 miles!
The Moon lies at an average distance of 238,857 miles from the earth.
a. How many whole loops around the earth would
those blood vessels go? (You can use estimation.)

## b. How many adults' blood vessels would you need

to lay out to reach from the Earth to the moon?

## c. About 10,000 average-sized human cells can fit

on the head of a pin. About how many would be
on ten pinheads? On twenty? On thirty?

## d. One cubic milliliter of blood (TINY TINY amount)

normally has between 4,000 and 10,000 white
blood cells, and between 150,000 and 400,000 platelets.
Suppose someone has 50,000 white blood cells
and 10,000 platelets in that amount of blood.
Their white blood cell count is (high/low) and
their platelet count is (high/low).
Would that be normal or is the person
sick with something?

## e. There are 100,000 hairs on the top of your head.

You lose 100 of them when you brush your hair.
How many do you have now? Should you worry
about getting to be bald if this continues for a while?

71

## A Little Bit of Millions

If you count by whole
thousands...

994,000
995,000
996,000
997,000
998,000
999,000

1,0 0 0,0 0 0
...what comes after
999 thousand?

A thousand
thousands!
It is called ONE
MILLION.

The little comma separates the millions places (digits) from the rest.
5,0 0 0,0 0 0

6 9,0 0 0,0 0 0

9 6 7,0 0 0,0 0 0

## Read: 967 million

Every number listed above has 6 zeros - they are whole millions!
After the millions, the rest of the number is read just like you have learned before.
3 4 7,5 0 0,0 0 0

1 9,0 2 0,0 0 0

3 4 7,0 4 0,3 2 6

## 347 million 500 thousand

19 million 20 thousand

## 347 million 40 thousand 326

Simply read the word million at the first comma, and thousand at the second comma.

1. Place two commas into the number: one to separate the thousands' places,
and another to separate the millions.
a. 7 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

b. 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

c. 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

______ million

______ million

______ million

d. 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

e. 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0

c. 8 3 4 5 0 0 0

______ million

______ million

## ______ million _____ thousand

g. 2 2 9 0 6 0 0 0

h. 5 1 4 3 1 0 0 0 0

i. 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

a. 18 million

b. 906 million

## c. 2 million 400 thousand

d. 70 million 90 thousand

72

3. Place commas into the number. Fill in missing parts. Read the numbers aloud.
a. 7 7 9,4 5 3,2 3 0

b. 9 2 9 0 8 0 7

## _____ million _____ thousand _____

c. 5 2 9 0 7 0 3 3

d. 5 5 0 0 1 4 5 3

## _____ million _____ thousand _____

e. 7 2 0 2 5 0 9 0

f. 2 2 8 0 1 0 2 0 0

## _____ million _____ thousand _____

In the following, there are NO thousands - so we don't even say the word thousand.
g. 1 0 7 0 0 0 4 5 3

h. 7 2 0 0 0 0 9 0

## _____million __ thousand ______

i. 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 6

j. 37 0 0 0 0 018

## 4. Write the numbers.

a. 41 million 456 thousand 200

b. 80 million 80 thousand 80

a.

b.

c.

d.

900,000
910,000

300,000
400,000

999,990
999,991

999,200
999,300

73

## 6. Compare and write < or > between the numbers.

a.

6,111,050

5,990,099

b.

d. 18,000,0000

181,000

g.

6,090,045

6,009,056

2,223,020

2,222,322

c. 192,130,659

192,130,961

e. 13,395,090

13,539,099

f.

2,367,496

988,482

h.

1,001,000

i.

17,199,066

1,000,999

71,857,102

7. Find five large numbers in a newspaper with the help of an adult. Write the numbers here.

8. A project with large numbers. Choose one of the options below, or one of your own. Use an
encyclopedia, internet, or some other similar source, and make a list in descending order - that is,
the one with largest number first, and then towards the smallest ones in order.
a. of United States Western states and their populations;
b. of Asian countries and their populations;
c. of the amount of distinct animal species in the seven continents.
d. of United States Midwest states and their land areas.

z

## How many times does

100 fit into 1,000?
How many times does
1000 fit into 10,000?

## How many times does

10,000 fit into 100,000?
How many times does
100,000 fit into 1,000,000?

## Jack and Mary were investigating big numbers. Suddenly

Jack blurted out, Hey, I just noticed something! The
number (10 10) goes into (100 100) the same number
of times as the number (100 100) goes into (1,000 1,000)!
Was Jack right?
Would this same idea work also with these numbers?
z
z

## (1 1) and (10 10) ?

(2 2) and (20 20) ?

z
z

74

## (3 3) and (30 30) ?

(4 4) and (40 40) ?

70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

= 7 10
= 8 10
= 9 10
= 10 10
= 11 10
= 12 10
= 13 10
= 14 10
= 15 10

500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

= 5 100
= 6 100
= 7 100
= 8 100
= 9 100
= 10 100
= 11 100
= 12 100
= 13 100

8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000

= 8 1000
= 9 1000
= 10 1000
= 11 1000
= 12 1000
= 13 1000
= 14 1000
= 15 1000
= 16 1000

...because you
These are
get them if you
multiples
multiply some
of 10...
number by 10.

...because you
These are
get them if you
multiples
multiply some
of 100...
number by 100.

...because you
These are
get them if you
multiples
multiply some
of 1,0000...
number by 1,000.

## 850 is also a multiple of ten,

because 850 = 85 10.

## 4,000 is also a multiple of 100,

because 4,000 = 40 100.

## 56,000 is also a multiple of 1,000,

because 56,000 = 56 1,000.

## 3,480 is also a multiple of ten,

because 3,480 = 348 10.

## 7,600 is also a multiple of 100,

because 7,600 = 76 100.

## Do you notice a similarity?

ALL multiples of 10 end
in a zero!

in two zeros!

## 392,000 is also a multiple of

1,000, because
392,000 = 392 1,000.
ALL multiples of 1000 end
in three zeros!

## 1. a. Write four distinct multiples of ten, different from those above.

Write also what number times 10 they are.
b. Write four distinct multiples of 100, different from those above.
Write also what number times 100 they are.
c. Write four distinct multiples of 1,000, different from those above.
Write also what number times 1,000 they are.
2. Multiply.
a. 11 100 = ________

b. 19 10 = ________

29 100 = ________

70 10 = ________

73 1,000 = ________

50 100 = ________

99 10 = ________

## 124 100 = ________

100 10 = ________

50 1,000 = ________

75

c. 6 1,000 = ________

## 3. Write these using numbers.

a. 49 thousands __________

b. 20 tens __________

c. 37 tens __________

49 hundreds __________

20 hundreds __________

37 hundreds __________

49 tens __________

20 thousands __________

37 thousands __________

## 4. Write number expressions with numbers inside parenthesis.

a. Columbus landed in America in fourteen hundred ninety two. (__________)
b. Andrew's car cost twenty-five hundred dollars (__________) when he got it
but he is going to sell it for twelve hundred (__________).
c. My great-great-grandfather was born in the year nineteen hundred (__________),
and died in the year nineteen hundred sixty (__________).
5. Write with numbers. What do we usually call...
a. 10 tens __________

b. 10 hundreds __________

## c. 100 thousands __________

1,000 thousands __________

## 6. a. How many dollars do you have in a stack of forty 100-dollar bills?

b. How many dollars do you have in a stack of fifty 10-dollar bills?

In division problems, ask How many times does the divisor go into the dividend?
8,000 1000 = ?

720 10 = ?

4,500 100 = 45

2,000 100 = 20

## How many times does

1,000 go into 8,000?
8 times.

10 go into 720?
72 times.

## How many times does

100 fit into 4,500?

## How many times does

100 fit into 2,000?

a.

b.

c.

90 10 = ______

100 10 = ______

700 10 = ______

340 10 = ______

## 1,000 1,000 = ______

76

Review
1. Write the numbers.
a. 13 thousand 4 ones
9 tens

6 thousand

c. 1 million

6 thousand

## 2. Write the numbers.

a. 78 million 50 thousand 3 hundred

a. 213,047

b. 94,032

c. 5,300,049

d. 93,229,255

78

5,367

558

4,409

2,603

rounded to
nearest 100
rounded to
nearest 1000

## 5. Round these money amounts...

a. to the nearest ten dollars:

\$34.69 ______

\$4.92 ______

## c. to the nearest hundred dollars:

\$3,156.50 ______

6. First estimate the result of 5,076 2,845 675 by rounding the numbers to the nearest
hundred. Then find the exact answer.
Estimation:

77

3,359

## 7. Find the missing number.

a. 40,505 = 5 + _______ + 40,000

## c.. 4,605,506 = 500 + 5,000 + 4,000,000 + 6 + _________________

8. Write < or > between the numbers.
a. 5,406

5,604

b. 49530

49553

c. 605748

5,905,544

95,695

495,644

496,455 145,900

590,554

## 10. Calculate. Line up all of the place values carefully.

b. 490,213 45,344

## 11. At a certain point while counting the votes that people

votes. The last 48,388 votes had not yet been counted.
If all of those last votes were for Candidate B, would he win?

## 12. A grocery store pays monthly \$145,600 in salaries and

\$12,390 in other expenses. Will its total costs for June,
July, and August exceed half a million dollars?

78

60584

Chapter 3: Multiplication
Introduction
The third chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers multi-digit multiplication and
some related topics.
While the first lessons briefly review the multiplication concept and the times tables, the focus in fourth
grade is on multi-digit multiplication (also called algorithm of multiplication, or multiplying in columns).
We start out by multiplying by whole tens and hundreds. After this is mastered, comes the very important
concept of multiplying in parts. This essentially means that 4 63 is done in two parts: 4 60 and 4 3,
and the results are added.
The whole algorithm of multiplication is based on this principle, so it is important to master it. I don't
want kids to multiply in columns blindly, without understanding what is going on with that algorithm.
Before showing the traditional form of multiplying in columns, the lesson Multiply in Columns - the Easy
Way shows a simplified form of the same, which is essentially just multiplying in parts. You may skip that
lesson at your discretion or skim through it quickly if your child is ready to understand the standard form
of the algorithm, which comes next.
Other lessons in this chapter practice estimation and the order of operations, and multiplying with money.
Many kinds of word problems abound.
The lesson So Many of the Same Thing could be entitled Proportional Reasoning but I wanted to
avoid scaring parents and children with such a high-sounding phrase. The idea in that lesson is really
simple, but it does prepare for proportions as they are taught in 7th grade and in algebra.
After that, we multiply by whole hundreds in order to prepare for double-digit multiplier problems, and to
understand the algorithm of multiplication with more digits.

page

span

2 pages

83

3 pages

86

4 pages

90

5 pages

95

4 pages

99

1 pages

2 pages

3 pages

5 pages

2 pages

79

2 pages

3 pages

2 pages

3 pages

2 pages

## Multiplying in Parts with

a 2-Digit Multiplier .......................................... 124

4 pages

## The Standard Multiplication Algorithm

with a 2-Digit Number Multiplier .................... 128

3 pages

## Multiplying a Three-Digit Number by a

Two-Digit Number ........................................... 131

2 pages

3 pages

## Helpful Resources on the Internet

Math Playground
Learn how to think algebraically with these clever weighing scales.
http://www.mathplayground.com/algebraic_reasoning.html
Thinking Blocks
Thinking Blocks is an engaging, interactive math tool that helps students learn how to solve multistep
word problems. Scroll down to Multiplication and Division.
http://www.mathplayground.com/thinkingblocks.html
Rectangle Multiplication
An interactive tool that illustrates multiplying in parts using the area model. Choose the common option
for multiplying in parts.
http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_192_g_2_t_1.html
Interactive Pan Balance
Each of the four shapes is assigned a certain weight. Place shapes on either side of the pan balance and
figure out their relationships.
http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=131
Scales Problems from Math Kangaroo Problem Database
http://www.kangurusa.com/clark/pdb/quiz.pl?
dir=./kangur/output&y1=2002&l1=0304&i1=10&y2=2004&l2=0304&i2=10&y3=2005&l3=02&i3=19&n
Multiplication Games
A list of times tables games and activities to practice multiplication facts.
http://www.homeschoolmath.net/math_resources_2.php#multiplication

80

Multiplication Concept
z

Multiplication has to do with many groups of the same size: 3 5 means three groups of 5.
You can find the total by adding: 3 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15.

## The order in which you multiply does not matter:

3 6 and 6 3 are both 18.

3 groups of 6 or
6 groups of 3.

Multiplication terms
The numbers being multiplied are factors.
The result is called a product.
There may be more than 2 factors. For example, in
4 5 2 = 40, the numbers 4, 5, and 2 are all factors.

## 1. Write the addition sentences as multiplication, or vice versa. Solve.

a. 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = ______ = ____

b. 80 + 80 + 80 = ______ = ____

20 + 20 + 20 + 20 = ______ = ____

8 + 8 + 8 = ______ = ____

c. ___________________ = 4 5 = ___

d. _________________ = 2 12 = ___

___________________ = 4 50 = ___

## 2. Write two multiplications!

b. ___ rows, ___ columns: ___ ___ =
___

## a. ___ rows, ___ columns: ___ ___ = ___

___ rows, ___ columns: ___ ___ = ___

___

3. Solve.
a. 8 2

807

b. 3 5

c. 2 8

125

222
81

d. 3 10

333

a. 2 24

d. 2 150

g. 4 1,000

j. 2 34

b. 14 0

e. 3 2,000

h. 5 200

k. 3 21

c. 16 1

f. 4 3,000

i. 3 211

l. 4 50

## 5. Solve the problems. Write a multiplication fact for each.

a. Seven children have _____ toes.

## f. Nine cars have _____wheels.

6. a. Write
the terms.

2 23 = 46

___________ ___________

## b. Write a multiplication problem

with factors 4 and 8.

## c. What happens if one of the factors is zero? The ______________ is _____.

d. In one multiplication problem, two factors are 2 and 6. The product is 60.
What is the third factor?
7. Write a single calculation to solve these problems. Your
calculation will use several operations, not just one.
a. Mom had three dozen eggs in cartons and five in a bowl.
How many eggs did she have in all?
b. Jack bought six packages of magazines. Each had 10 magazines.
He opened one package and gave three magazines to his friend.
How many magazines does Jack have left?
c. Anna put crayons into boxes. Into four of the boxes,
she put 10 crayons each, and into three boxes
she put only six. How many crayons were there in all?
d. Ernest bought three books for \$11 each, and paid with \$50.
What was his change?

82

## Multiplication Tables Review

So WHY is it important to learn your multiplication tables? Why couldn't you just use
addition or other ways to find what is 6 9 or 7 8 or 4 7 ?
The reason is, the knowledge of multiplication tables is also needed in the opposite
sense. You need to know them so you can divide quickly problems such as 54 6
or 56 7 or 48 8. You need to know those in order to do long division.
Also, a little later when you study fractions, you need to be able to immediately notice that
in the fraction

56
, both numbers you see are in the table of 8. When you see
64

28
, you need
49

to immediately see that both numbers are in the table of 7. Without that, fraction
operations such as addition and fraction simplification will be a pain to do.

## 1. Fill in the multiplication tables below and answer the questions.

15=
25=
35=
45=
55=
65=

75=
85=
95=
10 5 =
11 5 =
12 5 =

1 10 =
2 10 =
3 10 =
4 10 =
5 10 =
6 10 =

7 10 =
8 10 =
9 10 =
10 10 =
11 10 =
12 10 =

1 11 =
2 11 =
3 11 =
4 11 =
5 11 =
6 11 =

To find a number times 5, first multiply that number by 10, and take
half of that. So for 7 5, first go 7 10 = 70 and take half of that.

7 11 =
8 11 =
9 11 =
10 11 =
11 11 =
12 11 =

Elevens are as
easy as a pie!

12=
22=
32=
42=
52=
62=

72=
82=
92=
10 2 =
11 2 =
12 2 =

## What same answers (products)

do you find in the tables of
2, 4, and 8?

14=
24=
34=
44=
54=
64=

74=
84=
94=
10 4 =
11 4 =
12 4 =

## To find a number times 4,

you can double twice:
7 4 = ??
Double 7 is 14, then just
double that to get 28.

83

18=
28=
38=
48=
58=
68=

78=
88=
98=
10 8 =
11 8 =
12 8 =

## Here you can double thrice:

6 8 = ?? Take double 6,
and double that, and double that.
5, 6, 7, 8 - fifty-six is 7 times 8.
Color ones digits one color
and tens digits another. You
will see a pattern.

13=
23=
33=
43=
53=
63=

73=
83=
93=
10 3 =
11 3 =
12 3 =

16=
26=
36=
46=
56=
66=

76=
86=
96=
10 6 =
11 6 =
12 6 =

19=
29=
39=
49=
59=
69=

79=
89=
99=
10 9 =
11 9 =
12 9 =

## To find a number times 6, you can double

the corresponding one from table of 3:

## Color all the ones digits

yellow (of the answers).
Color all the tens digits
red (of the answers).

## Add the digits of each answer.

What do you notice?

## These are harder ones...

but remember you can change
the order of multiplication.
8 7 is the same as 7 8,
which is 56.

17=
27=
37=
47=
57=
67=

77=
87=
97=
10 7 =
11 7 =
12 7 =

1 12 =
2 12 =
3 12 =
4 12 =
5 12 =
6 12 =

7 12 =
8 12 =
9 12 =
10 12 =
11 12 =
12 12 =

a. ____ 7 = 49

b. ____ 6 = 48

c. ____ 8 = 64

d. ____ 9 = 72

____ 7 = 28

____ 6 = 30

____ 8 = 48

____ 9 = 54

____ 7 = 56

____ 6 = 54

____ 8 = 56

____ 9 = 63

e. ____ 5 = 45

f. ____ 3 = 27

g. ____ 4 = 28

h. ____ 2 = 18

____ 5 = 35

____ 3 = 18

____ 4 = 36

____ 2 = 16

____ 4 = 32

____ 2 = 12

____ 5 = 40
i. ____ 7 = 35

____ 3 = 21
j. ____ 5 = 60

k. ____ 6 = 36

l. ____ 8 = 72

____ 7 = 63

____ 5 = 25

____ 6 = 72

____ 8 = 16

____ 7 = 21

____ 5 = 30

____ 6 = 42

____ 8 = 32

84

## 4. Fill in the table.

10

11

12

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

5. A school hired 8 minivans that take 7 passengers each and one bus to take all 90 students to
a swimming pool. If all minivans were full, how many students went in the bus?
6. Let's practice the order of operations again.
a. 4 7 + 5 = ____

c. 4 (7 5) = ____

e. (4 + 5) (5 + 2) = ____

b. 2 (5 + 6) + 4 = ____

d. 100 5 6 = ____

f. 70 (5 + 6) 4 = ____

7. Fill in the missing numbers so that both sides of the equal sign = have the same value.
Example: 2 12 = 8 3
because

24 = 24

c. 3 10 = 6 ____

a. 2 6 = 4 ____

b. 6 6 = 4 ____

12 = 12
d. 2 20 = 10 ____

85

e. 5 12 = 6 ____

Scales Problems
This is a pan balance or scales. Things
go into the two pans, and the heavier
pan will go down, like in a seesaw.
If the two things weigh the same,
the balance stays balanced.

1. Solve how much each geometric shape weighs. You can use either pounds or kilograms.

86

## If there are unknown shapes

on both sides, use this trick:
Take away the same amount of
unknown shapes from both sides.
The scale WILL continue to
stay balanced!

## Take away two diamonds from both sides.

Then we see that three diamonds weigh 15.

2. Solve.

## d. One triangle weighs _____

3. Solve. These are trickier. Use both balances to figure out the two unknown shapes.

87

## In mathematics, the equal sign = is like a scales

that is balanced. Something is on the right side,
and something is on the left side, and they are
equal or balanced
5+7=26

## 5. Find the unknown number that goes on the empty line.

a. 78 + ____ = 148

b. 7 + 6 + 6 = ____ 10

c. 2 50 = 40 + ____

160 = ____ + 90

5 + 5 + 5 + ____ = 2
12

7 6 = 2 ____

50 ____ = 32

16 + 19 = 2 ____ + 1

4 6 7 = 2 ____ + 1

On the next page you will find empty scales pictures. You can print out the page and devise your own problems. But be
careful! If you just make random problems, the solutions are likely to be fractions. See also:
http://www.mathplayground.com/algebraic_reasoning.html - weighing scales game that practices algebraic reasoning
http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=33 - an interactive pan balance with shapes.

88

89

## Multiplying by Whole Tens and Hundreds

1. a. Ten tens make a hundred.
How about 20 tens or more?

## b. Ten hundreds make a thousand.

How about 20 hundreds or more?

10 tens = 10 10 = ____

## 10 hundreds = 10 100 = ____

13 tens = 13 10 = ____

## 12 hundreds = 12 100 = ____

20 tens = 20 10 = ____

## 15 hundreds = 15 100 = ____

21 tens = 21 10 = ____

## 18 hundreds = 18 100 = ____

37 tens = 37 10 = ____

## 56 10 is the same as 10 56. Both are 560.

92 100 is the same as 100 92. Both are 9,200.
To multiply a number by 10, just tag a zero in the end.
To multiply a number by 100, just tag two zeros in the end.

10 56 = 560

100 47 = 4700

10 481 = 4,810

## 100 2,043 = 204,300

Note especially what happens when the number you multiply already ends in a zero.
The rule works the same; you still have to tag a zero or two zeros.

10 60 = 600

100 20 = 2,000

10 500 = 5,000

## 100 3,400 = 340,000

2. Multiply.
a. 10 315 = ____

b. 100 62 = ____

c. 10 25,000 = ____

3,560 10 = ____

10 1,200 = ____

35 100 = ____

10 5,060 = ____

90

What is 20 14?

## Imagine the problem without the zero.

Then it becomes 2 14 = 28. Then, just
tag a zero to the end result: 20 14 = 280.

## Imagine the problem without the zeros.

Then it becomes 2 31 = 62. Then, just tag
two zeros to the result: 200 31 = 6,200.

## Why does that work? It is based on

the fact that 20 = 10 2. For example,

## Why does that work? It is based on the

fact that 200 = 100 2. For example,

20 14 = 10 2 14

200 31 = 100 2 31

## In that problem, first multiply

2 14 = 28. Then multiply by ten:

## In that problem, you can multiply first

2 31 = 62. Then multiply by a hundred:

10 (2 14) = 10 28 = 280.

## 3. Multiply by 20 and 200.

a. 20 8 = ____

b. 200 7 = ____

c. 20 12 = ____

d. 20 16 = ____

4 20 = ____

5 200 = ____

35 20 = ____

42 200 = ____

20 5 = ____

11 200 = ____

200 9 = ____

54 20 = ____

The same principle works if you multiply by 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90. You can
imagine multiplying by 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, and then tag a zero into the end result.
Similarly, if you multiply by some whole hundred, imagine multiplying without
those two zeros, and tag the two zeros to the end result.
50 8 = 400

90 11 = 990

300 8 = 2,400

12 800 = 9,600

4. Multiply.
a. 40 3 = ____

8 20 = ____
e. 200 9 = ____

7 400 = ____

b. 70 6 = ____

c. 80 9 = ____

50 11 = ____
f. 700 6 = ____

600 11 = ____

30 15 = ____

12 40 = ____

g. 200 12 = ____

h. 3 1100 = ____

15 300 = ____

91

d. 60 11 = ____

8 900 = ____

5. Multiply.

a. 20 90 =

## 4 7, and tag two zeros to the result:

b. 60 80 =

70 300 =

30 900 =

c. 400 50 =

d. 80 800 =

40 70 = 2,800
In a problem 600 40 you can multiply
6 4, and tag three zeros to the result:

200 200 =

200 500 =

e. 100 100 =

f. 800 300 =

600 40 = 24,000
In a problem 700 800 you can multiply
7 8, and tag four zeros to the result.

40 30 =

## 700 800 = 560,000

90 1100 =

6. Write different factors for these products, using whole tens and whole hundreds.
Have you noticed?

## b. ___ ___ = 350 and

7 80 = 560 and
70 8 = 560 !!
c. ___ ___ = 280 and

## ___ ___ = 280

Have you noticed?

## 6 400 = 2,400 and

60 40 = 2,400 and
600 4 = 2,400 !!

60 ___ = 420
d. ___ ___ = 400 and

## ___ ___ = 400

f. 2 ___ = 1,800 and

## ___ ___ = 350

e. ___ ___ = 990 and

## ___ ___ = 990

g. ___ ____ = 5,400 and

## ____ ___ = 3,600

92

7. Find the missing factor. Think backwards of how many zeros you need.
a. ____ 3 = 360

b. 40 ____ = 320

____ 50 = 450

5 ____= 600

d. ____ 30 = 4,800

e. 40 ____ = 2,000

## ____ 200 = 1,800

c. ____ 40 = 400

____ 2 = 180
f. ____ 800 = 56,000

6 ____= 4,200

____ 20 = 12,000

8. Here is another method for finding ten times a number. We will find 10 88 in steps,
and start out by finding 2 88.

Find 9 88 by adding 88
to your previous result.

## Find 2 88 by adding: 88 + 88 = _____

Find 4 88 by doubling the previous result.

9 88 = _____

4 88 = _____
Find 8 88 by doubling the previous result.

Find 10 88 by adding 88
to your previous result.

8 88 = _____

10 88 = _____

## Did you get 880?

Do you prefer using the shortcut?

9. These questions help you find how to multiply money amounts by 10.
a. What is 10 40 in dollars?

d. What is 10 80 in dollars?

b. What is 10 \$2?

e. What is 10 \$11?

## f. What is, therefore, 10 \$11.80?

g. What is 10 6 in cents?

k. What is 10 5 in cents?

h. What is 10 20 in dollars?

l. What is 10 10 in dollars?

i. What is 10 \$8?

m. What is 10 \$13?

## n. What is, therefore, 10 \$13.15?

Based on the questions above, can you discover a shortcut for multiplying money amounts by 10?
It is found on the next page.

93

To multiply a money amount by 10, move the decimal point by one digit.
Tag one zero so you have two digits to show the cents.

10 \$2.40 is \$24.00

10 \$45.30 is \$453.00

10 \$1.56 is \$15.60

10 \$17.82 is \$178.20

## Make sure your whole dollar amounts were multiplied by 10.

For example, if you have \$3 first, after multiplying by 10 you need to have \$30:

10 \$3.42 is \$34.20.

a. 10 \$2.20

b. 10 \$35.10

c. 10 \$1.87

d. 10 \$22.45

e. 10 \$45

f. 10 \$167.50

g. 10 \$9.16

h. 10 \$299.99

## 11. a. Mark bought 10 pairs of socks for \$3.70 each,

and 10 pairs of mittens for \$5.50 each.
What was his total bill?
b. Mike bought ten pencils for 89 cents each,
and paid his purchases with a \$10 bill.
What was his change?
c. Which is cheaper, to buy a 10-pack of cans of juice for \$9.99,
or to buy ten individual cans of juice for \$0.99 each?
What is the price difference?

## John wanted to prove that 40 70 is indeed 2,800 by breaking

the multiplication into smaller parts. He wrote 40 as 4 10
and 70 as 7 10, and then multiplied in a different order:
40 70 = 4 10 7 10
= 10 10 (4 7) = 100 28 = 2,800.
You do the same, and prove that 60 50 is indeed 3,000.

94

Multiply in Parts
Multiply 3 46
Break 46 into two parts: 40 and 6.
Then multiply those two parts separately by 3:
3 40 is 120, and 3 6 is 18.
Then add these two partial results: 120 + 18 = 138.
Here is another way of showing the same thing, using ten-bundles.

3 40 = 120

3 6 = 18

46

46

46

3 46

120
+ 18
138

## Study these examples. Multiply tens and ones separately:

8 13
(10 + 3)

5 24

7 68

(20 + 4)

(60 + 8)

8 10 and 8 3

5 20 and 5 4

7 60 and 7 8

80 and 24
= 104

100 and 20
= 120

420 and 56
= 476

1. Multiply tens and ones separately. Then add to get the final answer.

a. 6 27
(20 + 7)

b. 5 83
(

c. 9 34
)

## ____ and ____

= _____

= _____

= _____

95

2. Break the second factor into tens and ones. Multiply separately, and add.
a. 6 19

6 10 =
69 =

60
+ 54

b. 3 73

3 ___
3 ___

c. 4 67

114
d. 5 92

e. 9 33

f. 7 47

3. Multiply in parts. You can write the partial products under the problems, if you wish.
a. 5 13 = ____

b. 9 15 = ____

c. 5 33 = ____

d. 8 21 = ____

e. 4 22 = ____

f. 4 36 = ____

g. 6 42 = ____

h. 7 51 = ____

i. 5 25 = ____

## 4. Solve. Write a number sentence for each problem.

a. How many seconds are there in one hour?
b. Jack bought 8 shirts for \$14 each. What was his total bill?
c. Mary and Harry set up nine rows of seats in the school
auditorium, with 14 seats in each row. After that, they
had 56 seats unused. How many seats were there in all?
d. A package of small spoons costs \$13. A whole silverware set is
four times as expensive. How much do both items cost together?

96

## Then multiply those parts separately by 7:

7 300 is 2,100, and 7 20 is 140, and 7 9 = 63.
the partial results:

2,100
140
+ 63
2,303

5. Multiply hundreds, tens, and ones separately. Then add to get the final answer.
a. 3 127
(100 + 20 + 7)

b. 5 243
(

= _____

= _____

c. 7 314
(

d. 4 607
(

## ____ and ____ and ____

= _____

= _____

6. Break the second number (factor) into hundreds, tens and ones. Multiply separately, and add.
a. 4 128

4 100 =
4 20 =
43=

b. 8 151

400
80
+ 12

d. 6 317

c. 3 452

e. 8 212

f. 6 198

97

## a. Katie prepares crafts for a craft club that has 23 kids.

For the upcoming club meeting she needs to get at least
10 cm of string, 3 sheets of paper, and two toilet paper
rolls for each kid. Write down her list of needed supplies.

b. A guitar class costs \$18. Ernest paid for eight classes from
the \$200 that he has saved. How much does he have left?

## c. Susie orders roses for her flower shop in bunches of

six dozen (72 flowers) at a time. She needs a new batch
once a week. How many roses will Susie order in 5 weeks?

## d. One batch of six dozen roses costs her \$70.

How much will the roses she orders in five weeks cost her?

8. Compare. Write < , > , or = in the boxes between the number expressions.
a.

10 10

d. 100 26

9 11

b.

6 12

5 14

c. 8 22

5 27

40 70

e. 5 + 195

40 5

f. 4 72

300

## 9. The expressions are supposed to be equal, but something is missing.

Fill in the missing numbers.
a. 6 6 = 9 ___

b. ___ 10 = 5 24

c. 20 + ___ = 4 10

d. 6,000 = 30 _____

e. 120 75 = 5 ____

## The equal sign = means

that whatever is on the left
side and on the right side of the
sign are supposed to be equal:

10 + 10 = 5 + 15
26=34

18 3 = 5 3

98

## Multiply in Parts with Money

Break money amounts in parts, and multiply the parts separately.
When multiplying cent-amounts, remember to change them to dollar-amounts.

3 \$1.70

8 \$4.28

\$32.00
\$0.64
+ \$1.60

4 \$15.22
\$60

(4 \$15)

\$0.88 = \$60.88

\$34.24

(4 \$0.22)

## 1. Multiply cent-amounts. Write the answers as dollar-amounts.

a. 6 30 = 180 = \$1.80

b. 5 50 = _____ = \$______

c. 8 70 = _____ = \$______

d. 3 90 = _____ = \$______

e. 5 18 = _____ = \$______

f. 6 41 = _____ = \$______

2. Break the money-amount into dollars and cents. Multiply separately, and add.
a. 6 \$2.80

b. 5 \$4.70

______ + ______ =

______ + ______ =

(6 \$2)

(5 \$4)

(6 \$0.80)

c. 4 \$12.50

(5 \$0.70)

d. 7 \$5.61

e. 6 \$6.75

f. 7 \$14.09

g. 6 \$11.85

h. 5 \$2.93

i. 11 \$9.45

6 \$11
6 \$0.80
6 \$0.05

99

Estimating Products
If you don't need an exact result, you can estimate. To estimate a product (= an answer to a
multiplication problem), round the factors so that they become easy to multiply mentally.
There are no hard and fast rules as to how exactly you should round.
Just so that your new rounded numbers are easy to multiply in your head.
Estimate 8 189.

Estimate 42 78.

Estimate 7 \$4.56.

## 189 can be rounded to 200.

The estimated product is
8 200 = 1,600.

42 40 and 78 80.
The estimated product is
40 80 = 3,200.

## \$4.56 \$4.50. Multiply in parts:

7 \$4 = \$28 and 7 50 = \$3.50.
7 \$4.50 = \$31.50.

1. Estimate the products by rounding a factor or both factors to the nearest ten.
Don't round both if you can calculate in your head just by rounding one factor!
a. 5 69

b. 11 58

c. 119 8

d. 27 52

e. 7 \$4.15

f. 8 \$11.79

g. 25 \$42.50

h. 9 17

i. 63 897

b. 512 Popsicles
at 19 each

## c. 210 yards of wire

at \$1.29 per yard

## 2. Estimate the cost.

a. 24 chairs at
\$44.95 per chair

3. Solve.
a. Estimate the cost of six tennis balls that cost \$3.37 each
and two rackets that cost \$11.90 each.
b. A can of beans costs \$0.29. A bag of lentils costs \$0.42.
Estimate which is cheaper: to buy 8 cans of beans
or to buy 5 bags of lentils.
c. Jackie needs to buy 8 ft of string for each of
the 28 students in the craft class.
The string costs \$0.22 per foot. Estimate her total cost.

100

## How many times does it fit? Use estimation.

Many word problems can be solved using multiplication and estimation. Study the examples.
If each bus can seat 57 passengers, how many buses do you need to seat 450 people?
One bus seats 57 passengers.
Two buses seat 114 passengers.

## Ten buses seat 570 passengers.

Eight buses seat 8 57 passengers.

With how many buses will your answer be 450 or a little more?
This problem could be solved by division (450 57) but instead, you can estimate using
multiplication. Round the number 57 to 60, and quickly calculate:
7 60 = 420 and 8 60 = 480. It looks like 8 buses are needed.
However we need to check it using the exact number 57:
8 57 = 400 + 56 = 456, so yes, eight buses is the answer.
A sticker collection costs \$2.39. How many collections can Jill buy if she can afford to spend \$70?
First round the price to \$2.40. Two collections cost \$4.80. TEN collections cost \$24. Twenty
collections cost \$48, and thirty cost \$72. Twenty-nine collections would cost a little less than \$70
(\$72 \$2.40) so that is how many she can afford.
However, we used the rounded price \$2.40 to find that. The difference between \$2.40 and the real
price \$2.39 is 1 penny. For 30 collections we make an error of 30 cents. This is not big enough to
throw off the estimation (in reality 30 collections cost only 30 cents less than what we estimated).
4. Solve the word problems using estimation.
a. How many \$0.79 pens can you buy with \$5?

## b. An advertisement in a newspaper costs \$349.

How many ads can Bill buy with \$2000?

## c. Renting skates at a skating rink costs \$2.85 per hour.

How many whole hours can Sandra skate for \$25?

d. You earned \$6.50 for weeding the vegetable garden. How many
times do you need to weed before you can afford a paint set
that costs \$38.90?

101

38
6

Let's multiply
6 38 in parts,
writing the
numbers under
each other.

38
6

38
6

38
6

48

48
180

48
+180

First multiply
6 8.

Multiply 9 2.

Multiply 9 80.

82
9

82
9

18

18
720

228

## Then multiply 6 30 and

write the result under the 48.
Remember, the "3" is in the
tens' place in the number 38
so it actually means 30.

Multiply 3 7.

Multiply 3 40.

82
9

47
3

47
3

47
3

18
+720

21

21
120

21
+120

738

141

1. Multiply.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

102

## Multiplying a 3-digit number happens in a similar way. You multiply in parts:

first the ones, then the tens, then the hundreds. Lastly, add.
Ones:
76

tens:
7 20

hundreds:
7 500

Ones:
98

tens:
90

hundreds:
9 200

526
7

526
7

526
7

526
7

208
9

208
9

208
9

42

42
140

42
140
3500

42
140
+3500

72

72
0

72
0
1800

3682

208
9

72
0
+1800
1872

2. Multiply.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

a. 58 5 + 291

b. 1,000 3 145

103

## You can also multiply

money amounts in parts.

\$23.57

\$5.18

4
4 0.08 (cents)
4 0.10 (ten-cents)
4 \$5 (dollars)

## Multiply first the

individual cents,
then whole ten-cents,
then whole dollars,
and so on.

3 0.07
3 0.50
3 \$3
3 \$20

0.32
0.40
+ 20.00
\$20.72

0.21
1.50
9.00
+ 60.00
\$70.71

4. Multiply.
a.

b.

d.

c.

## 5. a. You bought two notebooks for

\$1.45 each and two packs of
crayons for \$2.85 each.
What was the total cost?

## b. Jennie has 55 marbles and

Sue has four times as many.
How many marbles do the
girls have together?

a.

b.

1 4
4 9 0
+ 7 0 0

c.

9
8 1

2 0 0
+1 2 0 0

+6 3 0 0

1 4 3 2

6 3 8 1

104

## Multiplying in Columns, Standard Way

Here we learn the standard algorithm of multiplication. It is based on the same principle of
multiplying in parts: you simply multiply ones and tens separately, and add. In the standard algorithm
the adding is done at the same time as multiplying. The calculation looks more compact and takes
less space.

63
4

63
4

63
4

252

## Multiply the ones first.

4 3 = 12
Place 2 under the line at
the ones place, but the tens
digit (1) is written above
the tens column as a little
memory note. This is called
carrying to tens.

12
+ 240

## Then multiply the tens, and

add the 1 ten that was
carried over.
4 6 + 1 = 25
There is a total of 25 tens,
which actually signifies 250.
Write the 25 in front of
the ones digit (2).

252
Compare to the method of
multiplying in parts that
you learned previously,
where the adding is done
separately.

(In the calculation 4 6 + 1 = 25, the 6 and the 1 are actually tens.
So in reality we calculate 4 60 + 10 = 250.)

Look at other examples. In each case, some tens are carried as a result of multiplying the ones.
2

27
4

27
4

69
7

69
7

54
6

54
6

108

483

324

4 7 = 28

83
9

93=

4 2 + 2 = 10

83
9

98+2=

7 9 = 63

7 6 + 6 = 48

77
7

77
7

77=

105

6 4 = 24

38
5

5 6 + 2 = 32

38
5

## Compare the earlier method with the one in this lesson:

75
8

40
+560

75
8

75
8

600

5 8 = 40,
4 is carried.

78+4=
56 + 4 = 60

OR

600

You can choose which one you use. Discuss it with your teacher.
1. Multiply. Be careful with the carrying.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

q.

r.

s.

t.

106

With a 3-digit number you might have to carry twice, to tens and to hundreds.
1 3

1 3

238
4

238
4

238
4

52

952

## Multiply the ones first.

4 8 = 32
Place 2 under the line
and carry the tens digit
(3) to the tens' column.

## Then multiply the tens' digit,

and add the 3 tens that were
carried over.
4 3 + 3 = 15
Place the 5 in the tens' place and
carry the 1 into the hundreds'
column.

## Then multiply the hundreds

digit, and add the 1 hundred
that was carried over.
42 + 1=9
Place the 9 in the hundreds'
place.

## Look at other examples. Compare to the earlier method of multiplying in parts.

1 2

1 2

127
4

127
4

127
4

08

508

4 7 = 28

4 2 + 2 = 10

127
4
28
80
+ 400

41+1=5

508

4 3

4 3

496
5

496
5

496
5

496
5

80

2480

5 6 = 30

5 9 + 3 = 48

5 4 + 4 = 24

729
4
_
multiply ones

729
4

729
4

_
multiply tens and
add what was carried

## multiply hundreds and

add what was carried

107

30
450
+2000
2480
729
4
36
80
+2800

2. Multiply.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

108

3. Solve the word problems. Write a number sentence for each one.
a. The school has 304 students. To go to the museum,
they hired buses which can each seat 43 passengers.
How many buses did they need?

## b. The school also has 24 teachers. How many

seats were left empty when all of the students
and all of the teachers joined the trip?

## c. Each package of paper contains 250 sheets.

Marie needed 1300 sheets. How many
packages did she need to buy?

## d. Mick earned \$345 from strawberry picking,

and Jeanine earned three times as much.
How much did they earn in all?

## e. Emily solved 17 crossword puzzles, and

Elaine solved three times as many.
How many more did Elaine solve than Emily?

4
4 6 8

7
9

8 7 0

109

3
6

9
3

## Multiplying in Columns, Practice

before you actually calculate.
If the estimated answer
is very different
from the calculated
suspect an error.

Estimation:

Estimation:

5 45

45

5 50 = 250

2025

7 400 = 2,800

## The estimated answer 250

is VERY different from the
There must be an error!

7 418

418

7
2926

## The estimated answer 2,800

and the calculated answer 2,926
are fairly close. This does not prove
the answer is correct though, but if
there is an error, it is a smaller one.

1. Estimate the products, and then multiply to find the exact result.
a. Estimation:

b. Estimation:

c. Estimation:

d. Estimation:

43
9

72
8

68
3

89

e. Estimation:

f. Estimation:

g. Estimation:

h. Estimation:

72
5

126
6

771
3

808

9 40 = 360

## 2. a. A first grade math book has 187 pages,

and an 8th grade math book is three times
as long. How many pages does it have?
b. If it takes three hours to drive 180 km,
how many hours would it take to drive 600 km?

110

3. Solve where the kids go wrong. Find out the right answers, too.
4

a. Look at Minnie's
calculations. Figure out
what error she is doing
every time she multiplies.

## b. This is Andy's math work.

Where did he go wrong?

4 2

78
3

38
9

133
4

252

297

811

28
3

45
5

25
3

624

2025

615

wrong, too. How?

48
7

48
8

239
3

286

484

697

## 4. The expressions are supposed to be equal, but something is missing.

Fill in the missing numbers.
a. 5,400 = 90 _____

b. ___ 20 = 8 40

c. 7 49 + ____ = 8 49

## d. 24,000 = 300 _____

e. 7 13 = 5 13 + ____

## Fill in the missing numbers in these multiplications:

3
3 1 5

3 7 0 2

111

8
4

4
5
7

Error of Estimation
Let's estimate 8 78.
78 80 and 8 80 = 640.

## Let's estimate 6 \$4.35.

\$4.35 4.50 and 6 4.50 = \$27.

## The difference between these two results is

640 624 = 16. That is the error of
estimation.

## The difference between these two results is

\$27 \$26.10 = \$0.90. That is the error of
estimation.

The error of estimation is the difference between the estimated result and the exact result.
The error tells you how much off you were.

1. First estimate the products, then calculate the exact result, and then find the error of estimation.
a. Estimation:

4 91
4 90 = 360
Error of estimation 4
c. Estimation:

6 34

b. Estimation:

Exact:

5 67

91
4
364

9 68

Exact:

d. Estimation:

7 59

34
6

8 242

Exact:

59
7

f. Estimation:

Exact:

9 113

68
9

g. Estimation:

67
5

e. Estimation:

Exact:

Exact:

113
9

Exact:

h. Estimation:

5 693

242
8

## Error of estimation _____

112

Exact:

693
5

2. First estimate the total cost. Then find the total cost exactly. Then, find the error of estimation.
a. Jack bought two train sets for \$56.55 each.

b. Elisa bought for her mom three books for \$11.58 each.

## c. Angi bought 9 candles for \$0.58 each.

You can estimate even if there are many operations. The goal is to round
the numbers in such a way that you can then calculate mentally.
You can also round numbers up to the middle 5 if you can calculate mentally with it.

1,124 2 243

7 \$14.85 + \$41.95
7 \$15 + \$42 = \$105 + \$42 = \$147.

## 1,100 2 250 = 600

3. Estimate first, then find the exact result. Remember multiplications are done before
a. 6 78 + 129

b. 1,754 5 139

c. 2 \$4.85 + 3 0.73

4. a. Calculate.

6 800 = _____

____ 4 = 360

____ 60 = 480

50 90 = _____

70 ____ = 2,800

5 ____ = 450

300 8 = _____

7 ____ = 490

90 ____ = 18,000

400 20 = _____

____ 50 = 4,000

8 ____ = 5,600

113

## Order of Operations Again

1. Calculate anything within parentheses ( ).

20 2 5 + 9

(20 2) 5 + 9

= 20 10 + 9

= 18 5 + 9

= 10 + 9 = 19.

= 90 + 9 = 99

## 1. The following calculation has four operations.

In which order are they done?

## 1. First calculate the sum ____ + ____.

2. Next multiply that sum by ____.

## 3. Subtract that result from ______.

4. Then, add ____ to the subtraction result.

## 2. Multiply in any order. Try to find the easiest, of course.

a. 2 3 300 =

b. 6 5 7 =

10 5 3 =

c. 40 10 8 =

d. 20 70 2 =

10 0 40 =

70 4 20 =

5 8 50 =

3. Solve mentally.
a. 500 2 200 =

b. 70 30 + 2,000 =

c. 60 10 + 20 20 =

500 + 2 200 =

70 30 2,000 =

30 40 40 20 =

e. 90 + 15 + 2 7 =

f. 500 7 70 10 =

## d. 8 200 200 500 =

800 2 20 + 100 =

90 10 + 120 40 =

10 7 5 + 100 + 250 =

## 4. Some more with parentheses.

a. (500 200) 2 =

b. 70 (30 + 20) =

(500 + 200) 2 =

70 (30 20) =

c. 60 (10 + 20) 2 =

30 (40 40) 2 =

## (800 200) 20 + 100 =

e. 90 + (15 + 5) 7 =

## f. (500 50 50) 7 100 =

90 (10 + 20) 40 =

## 10 7 (50 + 30) + 200 =

114

5. Solve for N.
a. 5 N = 150

N = ____

b. 3 N 3 = 27

c. 20 3 N = 180

N = ____

d. N 2 100 = 2,400

N = ____

N = _____

## 6. Write with numbers and solve.

a. the sum of ten, a hundred,
and a hundred and forty

a. 5 98 2 87

## b. 2819 4 (28 + 138)

c. 8 (281 133) 4 15

8. Find a matching number sentence (expression) for each problem and solve.

4 (\$2 + \$3)
a. Lisa bought four cards for \$2 each and three shirts for \$3 each.
What was her total bill?

4 \$2 + 3 \$3
4 \$3 + \$2

b. Mom bought for each of the four children crayons for \$2 and a
book for \$3. What was her total bill?

## c. Mark bought five packs of paper clips for \$3 each and

five pens for \$2 each. What was his change from \$50?

115

4 \$3 2
\$50 5 \$3 + \$2
\$50 5 \$3 2
\$50 5 \$3 5 \$2

## 9. Write a number sentence (expression) for each problem and solve.

a. Elisa bought seven packs of needles for \$2.55 each.
What was her change from \$30?

## b. What is the total weight of eight 3-kg bags of strawberries

and fifteen 2-kg bags of blueberries?

## c. The distance from Dad's job to his home is 24 km.

He drives to work and back every day, five days a week.
How many kilometers does he drive in a 5-day work week?

## d. An apartment house is nine stories high; each story

is 9 feet tall. Another apartment house is three times
as tall as that one. How tall is the second house?

## e. What is the total cost of buying six books

for \$4.25 each and three books for 8.50 each?

## f. Which is more costly, to buy five meters of material

for \$3.60 per meter, or to buy four meters of
material for \$4.80 per meter?

## Put operation symbols +, , or into the boxes and add

parentheses ( ) so that the calculations become true.
a. 7

8 = 70

b. 80

10

116

5 = 55

c. 4

20 = 40

## Money and Change

Multiplying with money amounts happen
the same way as multiplying whole numbers.

Estimation:
8 \$3.59
8 \$4 = \$32

## Just add a decimal point and

a dollar sign (\$) in the answer.

4 7

\$3 . 5 9
8

\$2 8 . 7 2

## 1. Multiply with money amounts. Estimate first.

a. Estimation:
4 _____ _____

\$4 . 5 5

b. Estimation:
___ _____ _____

c. Estimation:
___ _____ _____

\$9 . 7 0

\$3 . 9 1

d. Estimation:
___ _____ _____

\$0 . 8 2

2. Study the charts. Solve. Write a number sentence under the chart in c.
a. Jill bought three baskets for \$7.20 each.
She paid with \$50. What was her change?

## 3 \$7.20 + change = \$50

b. James bought four wheels for \$29 each,
and afterwards he had \$51 left.
How much did he have originally?

## 4 \$______ + \$_______ = original amount

c. Jack had \$30, and then he bought five
screwdrivers for \$3.08 apiece.
How much did he have left?

117

3. Now we have a bunch of word problems to solve. Just remember, in real life you will deal with money
a lot, so it is an important topic to master! You can draw charts to help.
a. If you buy 20 cans of fish for \$1.29
each, what is your change from \$30?
(Hint: multiply dollars and cents separately!)

## b. Mom paid \$11.50 per meal for five meals.

She now has \$12.50 left. How much
did she have originally?

## c. A teacher bought 20 pencils for \$0.15

and 30 notebooks for \$1.09.
What was the total cost?

## d. Roger has been saving \$45 each week to buy

himself a laptop for \$399. How many weeks will it take?
How much will he have left over after buying it?

## e. The \$135-wheelbarrows were discounted by \$20.

A construction company bought eight.
What was their total bill?

## f. How many \$0.13 erasers can you buy with \$10?

Guess and then check, until you know for sure.

## g. Paul bought four computer mice for \$9.80 each

and a hard drive for \$65, and had \$25.80 left.
How much money did Paul have initially?

## h. A pack of four juice bottles costs \$2.76.

You want 20 bottles. What is your total cost?

118

## So Many of the Same Thing

1. Fill in these tables.
a. A bus is traveling 45 miles per hour. Fill in the table with how many miles it
can travel in the given numbers of hours.
Miles

45

Hours

10

10

10

12

14

16

18

20

80

90

100

Dollars

\$5.10

Meters

## c. Two cans of beans costs \$3.00. Fill the table.

Dollars

\$3.00

Cans

d. You can get four buckets of paint for \$60. Fill the table.
Dollars

\$60

Buckets

10

e. An earthworm can travel at the speed of 240 feet per hour. Fill the table.
Feet
Minutes

10

20

## g. Ernie can patch four

bicycle tires in an hour.
Tires

Minutes

30

40

50

60

## g. Maria can knit three

scarves in nine days.
Days

Scarves

70

in five hours.
Hours

12

15

18

119

Dollars

## Two sacks of the same size contain

12 kg of potatoes. How many of
that size of sack would you need
to get 30 kg of potatoes?
To solve the problem, make up
a little table as on the right:

1 sack

____kg

2 sacks

12 kg

3 sacks

3 6 kg = 18 kg

____ sacks

____ 6 kg = 30 kg

## First find out how many in ONE box:

The total number of chocolates in
five identical boxes was 30.
How many chocolates would
there be in two boxes?

1 box

____ chocolates

2 boxes

____ chocolates

5 boxes

30 chocolates

2. Solve the problems using tables. First find out the numbers for ONE of the things.
a. Six flowers cost \$18.
How much would
five flowers cost?

1 flower
5 flowers
6 flowers

\$18

4 cans

800 g

3 lures

\$6

## b. Four cans of peas weigh 800 g.

How much would three
cans weigh?

## c. A package of three fishing lures

costs \$6. How much would
seven lures cost?

## d. Mark can watch three episodes

of the Animal Farm series in
90 minutes. How long would
it take for him to watch
5 episodes?

## e. Mark did five situps in ten

seconds. How many could
he do in one minute if he
maintains the same speed?

120

## f. Ten notebooks cost \$20.

What would seven cost?

## g. Ann read 120 pages in four days.

At that rate, how many days
would it take her to read a
300-page book?

## h. Six pairs of socks cost \$4.50.

What do 30 pairs of socks cost?

## 3. These problems are more challenging.

a. Five collectible cars cost \$35.50.
What would four cars cost?

## b. Margie can weed five rows of strawberry

plants in one and a half hours. How long
would it take her to weed nine rows?

## c. Elaina can run four times around a running

track in an hour. Today though, she only
ran around three times, and then walked
through the track the fourth time. All in all,
this took her 10 minutes longer than on
her normal days. How many minutes did
it take her to walk around the track?

121

## Multiply by Whole Tens and Hundreds

Something to ponder:
5

58
7
406

Something to ponder:
5

7 58 = 406.
What would 70 58 be?

16 9 = 144.

16
9 What would 160 90 be?
144

## Can you guess?

Don't read more until you think about the questions above!
70 58

160 90

= 10 (7 58)

= 10 (16 9) 10

## so the result to 70 58 is ten times

the result to 7 58.

## so the result to 160 90 is 10 10 or

a hundred times the result to 16 9.

Just tag a zero!

## Since 16 9 = 144, then 160 90 is 14,400.

Just tag two zeros!

## Similarly, 700 58 would be 40,600.

We tagged two zeros!

## Similarly, 160 900 = 144,000.

We tag three zeros!

## 1. Use the above method to multiply these:

a. 60 87
b. 20 820
c. 510 400
d. 56 3,000
2. Solve the problems.
a. A crate of apples weighs 20 kg.
How much does 65 crates weigh?
b. One crate contains apples laid out in four layers.
There are 25 apples in each layer.
How many apples are in a crate?
c. A store owner sold 60 kg of apples to one customer.
How many apples did the customer get?
122

## See the zero in 70? You can

write a zero in the ones
place
in the answer before
calculating. Then just
multiply 7 58 normally.

58
70
4060

160
90
14400

## See the zero in 160 and another in

90?
You can write two zeros in the ones
and tens places in the answer before
calculating. Then, just multiply 9 16
normally.

3. Multiply. Place a zero in the ones place in the answer before multiplying.
a.

46
80

b.

27
60

c.

805
30

d.

179
40

e.

549
20

0
4. Multiply. Place a zero in the ones place and in the tens place in the answer before multiplying.
a.

40
80

b.

415
300

c.

120
70

d.

231
800

00
5. The bus driver Mr. Hendrickson drives about 250 km each day on his route.
How many kilometers does he drive in his 5-day work week?
How about in his total of 300 workdays a year?
6. One side of farmer Greg's square-shaped field measures 200 m.
He jogs around it seven times. How long is his jogging track?
7. Calculate. Use a notebook if needed.
a. 80 560 + 15,000
b. 65,000 50 430
c. 20 (85 + 126) + 2,333

If 382 29 = 11,078,
then what is 3,820 29,000?

123

e.

658
700

## Multiplying in Parts with a 2-Digit Multiplier

You've learned to do 7 82 in parts: first multiply 7 80 and then 7 2.
This same idea works even when we have two 2-digit numbers.
Let's look at 25 34. To find 25 times some number we can find 20 times the number and 5 times the
number, and then add those two. So we break 25 34 into two parts: 20 34 and 5 34.
To find 78 47, break the 78 into two parts (70 and 8) and multiply by both: it is 70 47 and 8 47.
25 34 in parts:
20 34

5 34

78 47 in parts:
the parts.

70 47

8 47

the parts.

34
20

34
5

680
+ 170

47
70

47
8

3290
+ 376

680

170

850

3290

376

3666

Study more examples. Note you have three separate calculations to do.
34 16
Do 30 16.

Then do

Don't forget
the extra zero.

4 16.

29 35

Do 20 35.
Remember
the extra zero.

Then do

9 35
4

16
30

16
4

64
+ 480

35
20

35
9

315
+ 700

480

64

544

700

315

1015

1. Break the multiplications into two parts. You don't have to find the final product (answer).
a. 28 16 = 20 16 and 8 16

124

## 2. Find the final answers for the problems in (1).

a. 28 16

b. 48 73

c. 19 42

f. 28 39

g. 15 27

d. 55 89

e. 46 41

h. 93 16

3. Solve.
a. Mary's Internet bill is \$35 per month.
How much does Mary pay in a year?
b. Find the product of 1 2 3 4 5 6.
c. A store sells large 15-kg boxes of apples
for \$35 a box. If you buy twelve boxes,
what is their total weight?

125

Let's do the same when one number has two digits, and the other has three.
To find 57 314. you break 57 into two parts: 50 and 7, and multiply 314 by them both. So we break
57 314 into two parts: 50 314 and 7 314.
57 314 in parts:
50 314

62 180 in parts:

7 314

the parts.

60 180

2 180

the parts.

314

50

314

15700
+ 2198

180

60

180
2

10800
+ 360

15700

2198

17898

10800

360

11160

4. Try your skills. Break each calculation into two multiplications, and then add.
a. 28 315 = 20 315 and 8 315

b. 65 135

c. 19 472

d. 45 683

e. 73 394

f. 56 602

126

5. Solve.
a. 45 83
b. 72 865
c. 32 118
d. 7 8 9 10

## e. There are 365 days in a year.

How many hours are in a year?

## f. A baby sleeps 12 hours each night, and Annie sleeps eight.

How many more hours does the baby sleep in a year than Annie?

## Multiplying a two-digit number by a two-digit number can be

broken down into four parts:
26 89 is first of all 6 89 and 20 89.
6 89 is 6 80 and 6 9.

20 89 is 20 80 and 20 9.

## So all total, 26 89 is... 20 80 and 20 9 and 6 80 and 6 9 is four parts.

The area of a rectangle is side times side. Where are those four parts represented in this picture?
Can you explain why?

127

## The Standard Multiplication Algorithm

with a 2-Digit Multiplier
You have learned to calculate multiplications such as 67 54 in parts.
You did two multiplications and then added. It took three separate calculations.
In the usual, traditional way of multiplying there are also three separate calculations.
But this time ALL three calculations appear together.

67 54
2

3 2

54
67

54
67

54
67

378
3240

378
+3240

378
First multiply 7 54.
(Pretend the 6 of
the 67 is not there.)

3618

## Then multiply 60 54 - but put the result

underneath the 378. Remember the zero.
Pretend the 7 of the 67 is not there.

Study these examples, too. Note the extra zero needed in the ones place on the second line!
5 34

20 34

4 63

90 63

34
25

34
25

34
25

63
94

63
94

63
94

170

170
680

170
+ 680

252

252
5670

252
+5670

850

5922

## 1. Fill in the missing digits and complete the calculation.

a.

b.

c.

128

d.

2. Multiply.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

q.

r.

s.

t.

129

3. Solve the word problems. Write a number sentence for each one.
a. How many eggs are in 15 dozen eggs?

## b. The 455 pupils in a school are going

to a zoo by bus. One bus can seat
39 passengers. Are 11 buses enough to
take them all? (Use multiplication!)

## c. There are 60 minutes in each hour.

How many minutes are there in 15 hours?

## d. Each month, Brenda earns \$21 from

watering the neighbor's flowers.
How much does she earn in a year?

## e. Andrew gets paid \$25 weekly.

How much does he earn in a year?
(There are 52 weeks in a year.)

## f. Who earns more, in one year,

Brenda or Andrew?
How much more?

## h. If Andrew wants to buy a radio that

costs \$78, how many months does
he have to save for that?

130

## Multiplying a Three-Digit Number

by a Two-Digit Number
You multiply the same way if one number has three digits. It is done in parts.
1

735
42

1470
First
multiply
2 735.

121

46

735
42

\$6.9 1
57

\$6.9 1
57

\$6.9 1
57

1470
29400

1470
+ 29400

4 8.3 7

4 8.3 7
3 4 5.5 0

4 8.3 7
+ 3 4 5.5 0

Then
multiply
40 735.

30870

First
multiply
7 \$6.91.

Then
multiply
50 \$6.91.

\$3 9 3.8 7

735
42

a.

b.

c.

d.

2. Multiply.
a.

e.

b.

c.

f.

g.

131

d.

h.

## 3. Solve the word problems.

a. There are 365 days in a year.
How many hours are there in a year?

## b. Two cans of butter cost \$8.80.

What would 32 cans cost?

4. A store did inventory. The workers filled the table with numbers.
a. First fill in the Total count column.
b. Calculate what goes to the total value column.
Use a notebook for calculations if you need more space.
c. Fill the two empty boxes in the TOTALS row.

In boxes

On shelf

Total count

unit
price

Total value

Cereal A

3 50

13

163

\$2.87

## 163 \$2.87 = \$467.81

Cereal B

2 40

25

\$3.00

Granola A

3 25

\$4.38

Granola B

2 25

27

\$4.90

Product

TOTALS

Find a. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
b. 9 10 7 4 0 6 2 1

132

Review
1. Multiply in parts.
a. 5 43 = ____

b. 8 13 = ____

c. 7 57 = ____

a. 4 30 = ____ 3

Roses

Estimated price

\$0.90

Exact price

\$0.88

## 4. Solve the word problems using estimation.

a. How many \$0.59 toy cars can you buy with \$8?
b. If you earn \$515 weekly, in how many weeks will
you have earned more than \$4000?

5. First estimate the products, then calculate the exact result, and then find the error of estimation.
a. Estimation:

7 48

b. Estimation:

Exact:

Exact:

6 83

48
7

83
6

6. Multiply.
a. 400 3 = ____

9 20 = ____

b. 70 60 = ____

300 11 = ____

133

c. 90 900 = ____

## 100 400 = ____

7. Find the missing factor. Think of how many zeros you need.
a. ____ 50 = 4,000

____ 50 = 350

b. 70 ____ = 280

c. ____ 40 = 12,000

7 ____= 2,800

## ____ 800 = 64,000

8. Multiply.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

9. Solve mentally.
a. (1,500 1,000) 4 =

## d. 200 (500 400) =

b. (76 + 34) 2 0 =

## e. 200 (20 + 20) + 4,000 =

c. 80 2 (30 + 20) =

a. 2 98 8 17

## b. 6 (342 + 125) 769

134

11. Solve.
a. A store owner bought 50 boxes of shirts,
with 20 shirts in each box, and each shirt
costs \$2. What was his total bill?

## b. Dad bought 15 boxes of nails for \$2.30 a box.

What was his change from \$50?

## c. Charlene bought five ice cream cones for

\$1.50 each. She has \$12.50 left.
How much did she have originally?

## d. Jan bought six coconuts for \$1.28 each

and seven pineapples for \$2.15 each.
What was her total bill?

## e. Jack paid for seven hours of housework,

\$8.20 per hour, with \$100.
What was his change?

## f. A gazelle can run 9 miles in 15 minutes.

How far could it run in 10 minutes?

## g. Which weighs more, four boxes that are

44 pounds each, or five boxes that
are 32 pounds each?
How much more?

## h. A huge roll of wrapping paper costs \$140

but it was discounted by \$20.
How much do five rolls cost?

## i. Two sheets of wrapping paper cost \$3.20.

What would six sheets cost?

135

## Chapter 4: Time and Measuring

Introduction
The fourth chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext includes time, temperature, length,
weight, and volume related lessons.
The focus on fourth grade is no longer the actual act of measuring, but calculations that involve
conversions between different measuring units.
In time lessons, the student gets to do fairly complex calculations concerning hours and minutes. In
temperature, the student is introduced to negative numbers and gets to do a few simple calculations even.
The lessons concerning measuring units usually include a table that lists the units and the conversion
factors.
For metric units, those tables always include all of the units, even when they are not in common usage.
For example, when studying metric units of volume, the chart looks like this:
10
10
10

liter

deciliter

dl

centiliter

cl

milliliter

## ml for small amounts of volume

Only milliliters and liters are dealt with in the lesson. But the chart shows the two other units as well in
order to get the student used to two basic ideas of metric measuring units:
1. How the units always differ by a factor of ten,
2. How the units are named consistently, with always the same prefixes such as milli-, centi-, deci-,
deca-, hecto-, and kilo-. These prefixes and their meanings are NOT yet studied in detail in fourth
grade; but I wanted to include the charts to familiarize the students with the terms and the ideas.
You may, of course, at your discretion, explain it all to the student.

page

span

5 pages

2 pages

## Elapsed Time or How Much

Time Passes ...................................................... 145

5 pages

2 pages

2 pages

1 pages

3 pages

136

159

2 pages

161

2 pages

163

2 pages

165

2 pages

167

2 pages

169

2 pages

171

2 pages

2 pages

## Helpful Resources on the Internet

Calculating Time from BBC SkillsWise
Fact sheets, worksheets, and an online game to practice time calculations.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/numbers/measuring/time/calculatingtime/
A Dictionary of Units of Measurement
Explains the common measuring systems and has lots of background info of their history.
http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/
Measure It!
Practice measuring lines with either centimeters or inches. Multiple choice questions.
http://onlineintervention.funbrain.com/measure/index.html
Measures
Activities, revision bites, and quizzes about measuring time, weight, and capacity (in metric units).
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/maths/shape_space_measures.shtml
Measurements
Online lessons with interactive exercises on metric prefixes, symbols, number values, metric mass, length,
volume, US length and volume, and temperature conversions.
http://www.aaamath.com/B/mea.htm
Units of Measurement Quizzes
Quizzes for area, distance, volume, and mass - both metric and English systems.
http://www.quiz-tree.com/Units_of_Measurement_main.html
Metric Measurement Matching Game
Match metric terms and prefixes with the correct match
http://www.quia.com/mc/4177.html
Reading a tape measure worksheets
Worksheet generator - you can choose to which accuracy to measure, inches, or inches & feet.

137

Time Units
60 seconds = 1 minute

## Pay close attention and memorize

all these time units, if you
don't know them yet.

12 months = 1 year

60 minutes = 1 hour

24 hours = 1 day

7 days = 1 week

## 1. Fill in the tables. Use your multiplication skills you've learned!

Minutes

Seconds
Years

Hours
1

Months
Years

Days

Days
2. Solve the problems.
a. Brian puts \$120 into his savings each month.
After saving for a year, he bought a keyboard
for \$799. How much does he have left of his
savings?
b. How much money do you use if you buy
a candy bar for \$2 every day of the year?
c. Joan finished the foot race in exactly two
minutes, and Jean was 24 seconds faster.
What was Jean's finishing time?
d. John was given an antibiotic for three
whole days following his surgery.
How many hours is that?
e. Write a multiplication expression to find
the number of seconds in one year.
Use a calculator to find the product.

138

## 3. Convert minutes to hours and minutes and vice versa.

a. 70 min = ____ h _____ min

## b. 60 min = ____ hour

c. 5 h = ____ min

## 4. Solve the problems.

a. Jennie helped her aunt on her strawberry farm during one busy week.
She kept track of her working hours:
Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

## 4 h 45 min 2 h 30 min 5 h 20 min

Thursday

Friday

5 h 15 min

3h

Saturday

Sunday

2 h 30 min 3 h 40 min

## How much time did she work total?

She got paid \$6 an hour. How much did she earn?
b. It takes about 40 minutes to drive to town from Raymond's home.
The family is going to spend about 3 hours shopping, and come back.
What is the total amount of time they will be gone on their shopping trip?

## c. Raymond's family's shopping trip didn't go as planned, as they also

stopped for a visit at a friend's house for 1 hour and 10 minutes.
How much time did they take for everything?

## d. The batteries on a portable CD player last for 8 hours.

You plan to use it every day while walking your dog,
which takes about 25 minutes each day.
How many days will the batteries last?

## e. As a teacher, Raymond gives five 45-minute lessons each day.

How many hours/minutes does he teach in a day?
In a five-day week?

139

## How many days are there in a month?

Either 31, 30, 29, or 28 days.
February has 28 days but on leap years February has 29.
The rest of them have 30 or 31.See the chart.
In calculations, use 30 days for one month unless it is a specific calendar
month and you can know how many days it has.
Here's another little mnemonic:
Look at the knuckles of your fists.
Count the months using both
knuckles and the valleys
between them, starting from
the little finger's knuckle.
The months on the knuckles have
31 days. The months on the
valleys between have 30 days, except February which has 28 or 29.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Notice that months 7 and 8 (July and August) both are on a knuckle,
so both have 31 days.
How many days are there from March 13th till July 5th, including the starting and ending days?
March 13 ... March 31 is 19 days
April: 30 days
May: 31 days

June: 30 days
July 1st ... July 5th: 5 days

## Total: 115 days

5. Solve the problems. Both the starting and ending days are included.
a. How many days are from June 12th till September 6th?
b. How many days are from January 5th till October 5th?
c. How many days are from your birthday till December 31st?
d. An advertisement starts running on October 6th and
runs for 120 days. When is the last day that the advertisement runs?
e. The month of June has ____days, ____ ____hours, ____ ____ ____ minutes,
and ____ ____ ____ ____ seconds = _______ seconds. (Use a calculator.)

140

31
28
31
30
31
30
31
31
30
31
30
31

## How many weeks are in a year?

We commonly say there are 52 weeks in a year, but that is not exact: 52 7 days = 364 days
The whole year is normally 365 days so there is a one-day difference.
That is why if your birthday is on Monday one year, the next year it is on the next weekday
(unless it was a leap year, and then it would jump two weekdays).
6. Solve the problems.
a. Jane watches TV about 7 hours a week. She
swims about 6 hours a week, and does chores
about two hours a day. How many hours
in a year does she spend with each activity?

## b. Hewitt's family homeschools all but 12 weeks of

the year, five days a week, about four hours a day.
How many hours do they do school in a year?

## It is a year that is one day longer than

normal years. A leap year is 366 days
long. On a leap year, February gets
an extra day (29 days long).

## Because the time our earth takes to go around the sun

is not exactly 365 days. It is about 365 1/4 days.
That is why in four years we get off one day
and need to add that to the calendar.

## Leap years occur every fourth year, except

not when the year number ends in two zeros.
For example, the years 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996 were leap years. 2000 was not.
The years 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 and so on are leap years

7. a. How many days were in the years from 1997 till 2000?
b. How many days were in the years from 2001 till 2005?
c. Find your age in days. Remember that some years have been leap years.

## d. Find how many days there are in a century (= 100 years).

The right answer is NOT just 100 365 = 36,500.

141

Below you see a 2007 school calendar for New York City schools.
The whole year from September 4th till September 3rd is of course 365 days.
How many days of that do the kids spend in school and how many days off school?
Remember a school week is from Monday thru Friday and not seven days.
School Calendar
September 4

School begins

October 8

November 12

## Veterans day (no school)

November 22-23

Thanksgiving Recess

January 15

March 21

## Good Friday (no school)

April 21 - April 25

Spring Recess

May 26

Summer Vacation

142

## The 24-Hour Clock

As you know, the hour hand goes around the entire
12-hour clock face two times in one day.
A day has 2 12 hours = 24 hours.
Instead of using a.m. and p.m. to indicate which round we are
on, we can use the 24-hour clock. The hours are simply
numbered from 0 till 23 (or sometimes from 1 till 24). The
afternoon hours are those from 13 till 24.
The 24-hour time is commonly called the military time or
astronomical time in the United States. In most countries of the
world it is the dominant system used for bus, school, or TV
schedules.
How do we change a time expressed in the 12-hour clock
to the 24-hour clock?
z

## The other way around, to change 24-hour clock times to 12-hour

clock times, you subtract 12 hours from the afternoon times.

3:50 a.m.

3:50

noon

12:00

5:54 p.m.

17:54

10 p.m.

22:00

midnight

24:00

a. 5:40 a.m.

___ : ____
e. 12:30 p.m.

___ : ____

b. 8:00 p.m.

c. 6:15 p.m.

___ : ____

___ : ____

f. 4:35 p.m.

g. 11:55 p.m.

___ : ____

___ : ____

d. 11:04 a.m.

___ : ____
h. 7:05 p.m.

___ : ____

a. 15:00

## ___ : ___ p.m.

e. 14:30

___ : ____

b. 17:29

c. 4:23

___ : ____

___ : ____

f. 10:45

g. 16:00

___ : ____

___ : ____
143

d. 23:55

___ : ____
h. 21:15

___ : ____

3. Study the bus schedule below. The times are given as (hours minutes) in the 24-clock time.
Each column represents a bus that leaves at York Mills at a certain time, and arrives in
Newmarket. There are a total of 12 different buses.
Stops:
York Mills
Bus Terminal
Yonge Street
Finch GO
Bus Terminal
Thornhill
Richmond Hill Hillcrest Mall
Richmond Hill Yonge & Bernard
Oak Ridges
Aurora
Newmarket
Bus Terminal

Bus 1

Bus 2

Bus 3

Bus 4

Bus 5

Bus 6

Bus 7

Bus 8

Bus 9

15 10

15 35

15 50

16 05

16 17

16 29

16 41

16 53

17 05

17 20

17 35

17 50

15 17

15 42

15 57

16 12

16 24

16 36

16 48

17 00

17 12

17 27

17 42

17 57

15 28

15 53

16 08

16 23

16 35

16 47

16 59

17 11

17 23

17 38

17 53

18 08

15 42

16 07

16 22

16 37

16 49

17 01

17 13

17 25

17 37

17 52

18 07

18 22

15 50

16 15

16 30

16 45

16 57

17 09

17 21

17 33

17 45

18 00

18 15

18 30

16 02

16 27

16 42

16 57

17 09

17 21

17 33

17 45

17 57

18 12

18 27

18 42

16 09
16 15

16 34
16 40

16 49
16 55

17 04
17 10

17 16
17 22

17 28
17 34

17 40
17 46

17 52
17 58

18 04
18 10

18 19
18 25

18 34
18 40

18 49
18 55

16 30

16 55

17 10

17 25

17 37

17 49

18 01

18 13

18 25

18 40

18 55

19 10

## a. If you need to be at Newmarket by 5 p.m.,

which bus should you take from York Mills?
b. If you need to be at Newmarket by 6 p.m.,
which bus should you take from York Mills?
c. Each bus takes the exact same amount of time
to travel from York Mills to Newmarket.
How much time is that?
d. Jack was going from Oak Ridges to Newmarket.
He came to the bus stop at half past five and caught
the first bus that came. When was he in Newmarket?
e. How many minutes does it take to travel in
a bus from Thornhill to Aurora?
f. How many minutes does it take to travel
from Yonge Street to Oak Ridges?
g. Mark lives in Thornhill and he goes to an art class in
Newmarket that starts at 6:30 p.m. He has to walk for
15 minutes from the Newmarket bus stop to the art class.
Which bus should he take from Thornhill?

144

## Elapsed Time or How Much Time Passes

When finding out how much time passes between two different times,
we are dealing with the difference.
You can find the difference by starting from the earlier time and
adding up the elapsing time until the latter time. Imagine
turning the hand of a clock from the starting time on, and
keeping track of how much time passes.
How long was an airplane flight if the plane
took off at 12:45 p.m. and landed at 5:10 p.m. ?

From 1 till 5

4h

10 min

Total 4 h 25 min

## Time differences can also be found using subtraction.

Subtract the hours and minutes separately in their own columns.
How much time passes between 2:10 a.m. and 8:43 a.m.?

8 h 43 m
2 h 10 m
6 h 33 m

How much time passes between 4:46 p.m. and 7:13 p.m.?
Notice you can't subtract 46 minutes from 13 minutes.
Before you even start, you need to borrow 1 hour
from the hours column. 1 hour is 60 minutes so add
that to the minutes you have in the minutes column.
Do NOT borrow 10 or 100 minutes.
How much time passes between 9:42 p.m. and 2:45 a.m.?
Here the p.m. changes to a.m. It is safer to figure this
in two parts: first from 9:42 p.m. to midnight, and
then from midnight to 2:45 a.m.
If you subtract the two numbers, you get the time difference
the other way around: From 2:45 to 9:42, which is not
the right answer. (Of course, knowing that you can figure out
the other by subtracting the answer from 12 hours.)

6 h 73 m

7 h 13 m
4 h 46 m
2 h 27 m
9:42 p.m....10 p.m. = 18 min
10 p.m....midnight = 2 hours
Midnight...2:45 a.m. = 2 h 45 min

18 m
2h 0m
+ 2 h 45 m
4 h 63 m
=5h3m

## 1. How much time passes? Solve mentally.

a. From 12:30 p.m. till 2 p.m.
____h ____ min
d. From 9:30 a.m. till 2:10 p.m.
____h ____ min

## b. From 4:35 p.m. till 6:15 p.m.

____h ____ min
e. From 7.58 p.m. till midnight
____h ____ min

145

## c. From 5:19 a.m. till noon

____h ____ min
f. From 11:05 p.m. till 6:35 a.m.
____h ____ min

## 2. How much time passes? Use subtraction.

a. From 4:53 p.m. till 8:26 p.m.

8 h 26 m
4 h 53 m

## 3. How much time passes? Do it in two parts.

a. From 8:27 p.m. till 2:12 a.m.

## 4. How much time passes? Use the 24-hour clock.

a. From 8:27 till 13:45

## 5. Solve the problems.

a. Workers in a factory work in three shifts.
How long is each shift?

## Shift 1 6:00 a.m. - 2:30 p.m.

Shift 2 2:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.
Shift 3 9:30 p.m. - 6:30 a.m.

## How many minutes is the overlap between two shifts?

b. Make a schedule for a doctor. He assigns 30 minutes for each patient, and after three patients,
he has a 20-minute break. Use the 24-hour clock.
Time
Patient 1 8:00 - 8:30
Patient 2
Patient 3
break
Patient 4
Patient 5
Patient 6
break

Time
Patient 7
Patient 8
Patient 9
break
Patient 10
Patient 11
Patient 12

c. Make a class schedule. Each class is 50 minutes, with 5 minutes between them.
146

Class

Time

Class

Time

Lunch

Math

History

Science

P.E.

English

## When will it end?

The meeting starts at 2:30 p.m. and lasts for 1 hour 15 minutes.
Simply add the hours to the clock time hours, and minutes to the clock time minutes:
2 hours + 1 hour = 3 hours.
30 minutes + 15 minutes = 45 minutes.
Answer: The meeting ends at 3:45 p.m.
Jake started playing at 3:35 p.m. and played for 45 minutes.
You can still add like you did above and get 3 hours 80 minutes, but 80 minutes is more than one
hour! We need to see the 80 minutes as 60 + 20, where 60 minutes makes one hour.
Therefore the final answer is 4 hours and 20 minutes, or 4:20 p.m.
The other way is to add the starting time and the elapsing time.
If it started raining at 10:53 and it rained for 4 hours and 40 minutes, when did the
rain end?

10 h 53 m
+ 4 h 40 m
14 h 93 m

Add the minutes and the hours separately. Note the minutes go over 60, so we need
to change the 93 minutes to 1 hour and 33 minutes. The final answer is 15:33 or
3:33 p.m.

= 15 h 33 m

## 6. When will it end?

a. Guests came at 3:40 p.m. and stayed for 2 hours and 30 minutes.
b. Making pizza takes 1 hour and 40 minutes. Mom starts at 13:45.
c. The pool opens at 8 a.m. and is open for 10 1/2 hours. When does it close?
d. Jen's exam lasted for 2 1/2 hours, starting at 8:45.
e. The airplane takes off at 18:08 and flies for 3 hours and 55 minutes.
f. The food went into the oven at 5:47 p.m. and baked for 35 minutes.

147

## When did it start?

One more possible problem is that you know when something ends and how long it lasted.
The airplane landed at 4:30 p.m. The flight lasted for 3 hours and 40 minutes.
When did the plane take off?
You need to go backwards from the ending time. Start at 4:30 and let the minute
hand travel in your mind backwards 3 full rounds, and then 40 minutes. Where do
you end up?
Alternatively, subtract in columns. You will again need to borrow an hour = 60
minutes. The answer 50 minutes would mean the clock time 12:50 p.m.

3h 90 m

4 h 30 m
3 h 40 m
50 m

## Mental math is always good!

A 55-minute class ended at 21:10. When did it start?
If it had lasted 1 hour, it would have started at 20:10.
But it was 5 minutes shorter and therefore started 5 minutes later, or at 20:15.
A TV show lasted 1 h and 35 min, ending at 11:20 p.m. When did it start?
Subtract in columns or think it through mentally. Again you'd need to borrow.
It started at 9:45 p.m.

10 h 80 m

11 h 20 m
1 h 35 m
9 h 45 m

## 7. Find the starting time.

a. From ____:_____ p.m. till 2:00 p.m.
is 40 minutes.

is 30 minutes.

## c. From ____:_____ a.m. till 4:15 a.m.

is 1 hour 30 minutes.

## d. From ____:_____ p.m. till 7:34 p.m.

is 4 hours10 minutes.

## e. From ____:_____ a.m. till 5:00 p.m.

is 6 hours 20 minutes.

## f. From ____:_____ a.m. till 6:54 a.m.

is 5 hours 32 minutes.

is 45 minutes.

## h. From ____:_____ p.m. till 16:30 p.m.

is 2 hours 40 minutes.

## 8. Solve the problems.

a. The Johnson family arrived in the city at 10:30 after a 3-hour, 15-minute car ride.
When did they leave home?
b. When should the family leave the city to make it home by 20:00?
(assuming the driving time back home is the same)?

148

## c. Shannon runs through a path

in the woods, and times himself.
Here is the chart he made up.
Fill in the chart with how much
time he spent running each day.

Start:
End:
Running time:

Mo Wd Th
Fr
Sa
17:15 17:03 17:05 17:45 17:12
18:20 18:05 18:12 18:39 18:15

## d. Find Shannon's total running time during the week.

e. Gordon works from 8:30 till 17:15 each day. He has a 30-minute lunch break,
and two 15-minute coffee breaks. How many hours/minutes does he actually work?

f. Pete went to sleep at 22:15, and woke up at 7:00. But he also woke up at 3:30 and
couldn't sleep till 5:10. How many hours/minutes did he actually sleep during the night?

g. The air conditioner is kept running from 7:30 a.m. till 9 p.m.
How many hours does it run in a week?

h. An airplane is scheduled to take off at 3:40 p.m. and land at 5:10 p.m.
The flight is delayed so that it leaves at 3:55 p.m. instead. When will it land?

149

Temperature 1
In the Celsius scale, zero degrees is the freezing point of water. Below that
temperature, water turns to ice. Rain falls as snow. When the temperature
drops below 0 degrees, we use negative numbers. The temperature just 1
degree below zero is minus one degree Celsius or -1C.
When reading negative numbers on a thermometer, you read it sort of
backwards. The line just under 0 degrees matches -1C. The line below that
is -2C, and so on. The temperature in the picture on the right is -4C.
The example on the left shows
the temperature of -16C.
The table lists some benchmark
figures for the Celsius scale.
Water boiling

100C

37C

20-25C

Water freezing

0C

a. -5C

b. -8C

c. -12C

## 2. Describe a situation where you might have a temperature of ...

a. 12C
b. -5C
c. 31C
d. -23C

150

d. -19C

e. -23C

3. Read the thermometer and write down the the temperature the thermometer shows.

a. _____C

b. _____C

c. _____C

d. _____C

e. _____C

4. First write down the the temperature the thermometer shows. Then the temperature changes
as indicated. Color the empty thermometer to show the new temperature

rises 3C

a. _____C

falls 5C

_____C

b. _____C

_____C

## 5. The temperature rises or falls, write the new temperature.

temperature
After
rises 1C
______
a. -9C

temperature
After
falls 1C
______
b. -9C

temperature
After
rises 3C
______
d. -13C

temperature
After
falls 5C
______
e. -7C

f. 2C

temperature
After
rises 5C
______
g. -5C

temperature
After
falls 5C
______
h. 2C

temperature
After
falls 3C
______
i. -13C

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

151

temperature
After
rises 3C
______
c. -1C
Now

Now

Now

temperature
falls 4C

After
______

Fahrenheit scale
In the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is not
zero but 32F. Anything below 32F means that ice forms.
The Fahrenheit scale does have a zero as well, and below it
we again use negative numbers.
The table lists some benchmark figures:
Water boiling

212F

## Normal body temperature 98.7F

Nice inside temperature

70-78F

Water freezing

32F

## Notice: The temperature where water

freezes is 0C = 32F.
6. Describe a situation to fit these temperatures.
a. 33F
b. -12F
c. 102F

7. Write the temperature the thermometer shows. Notice the scale carefully!

a. 12F

b. 76F

c. 54F
152

d. 88F

e. 104F

Temperature 2
1. Read the chart and fill in the table, as best as you can.
Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Max Temperature

## a. What is the hottest month?

b. What is the coldest month?
c. Find two months that have the same temperature.
d. What is the difference in the maximum temperatures between May and June?
e. How about between June and July?
f. What is the difference in the maximum temperature between the coldest and hottest months?

153

Dec

Month

Minimum
Temperature

Month

Minimum
Temperature

Jan

-10

Jul

Feb

-9

Aug

Mar

-8

Sep

Apr

-2

Oct

-4

May

-1

Nov

-5

Jun

Dec

-7

## a. Which month is colder, January or March?

b. What is the difference in the minimum temperature between May and June?
c. How about between October and November?
d. How many degrees does the minimum temperature change from January to June?

154

Remember Fractions?
One-half of the rectangle is colored.

1
2

3
4

a.

1
3

1
4

b.

c.

3
5

d.

5
8

## 2. Write the colored part as a fraction.

a.

b.

c.

d.

3. The fractions are equal because there is the same amount! Write the fractions.

1
2
2
4

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

4. Are the fractions equal or not? The diagrams above can help.
a.

1
1
and
2
3

b.

1
2
and
2
4

c.

155

2
1
and
8
4

d.

3
5
and
4
8

Measuring Length
Remember? This ruler measures in inches. The three lines between each two numbers on the ruler
divide each inch into four parts, which are fourth parts of an inch.

The 2/4 mark is also the 1/2 mark. We normally use 1/2 instead of 2/4.
This ruler measures in centimeters. The
numbers signify whole centimeters. All the
little lines between those are for
millimeters.
There are 10 millimeters in each
centimeter.
10 mm = 1 cm
1. Measure the lines to the nearest fourth of an inch.
Also measure them using a centimeter-ruler.
a. ________ in. or _____ cm _____ mm

## e. ________ in. or _____ cm _____ mm

156

In the ruler below, each inch is divided into eight parts, which are eighth parts of an inch.
Usually, the lines that show 1/2 inches are longer than other lines.

Compare it to the ruler below it, which shows fourth parts of an inch only.
Notice that 2/8 inch = 1/4 inch, 4/8 inch = 1/2 inch, and 6/8 inch = 3/4 inch.
This line is 1/8 inch long

b. ________ in.

a. _________ in.

c. _______ in.

d. _________ in.

e. ________ in.

f. ________ in.

157

## 3. Draw lines using a ruler.

a. 3 1/8 inches long
b. 4 1/4 inches long
c. 5 7/8 inches long
d. 9 5/8 inches long
e. 7 1/2 inches long
4. Draw lines using a ruler.
a. 5 cm 3 mm
b. 12 cm 1 mm
c. 4 cm 4 mm
d. 25 cm 7 mm
e. 19 cm 9 mm
5. Practice measuring small items (such as pencils, pens, pins, erasers, the width of books) using a
ruler that measures in 1/8th parts of an inch. If you don't have a ruler, cut out the ruler from the
bottom of this page. Measuring tapes used for sewing often have a 1/8-inch scale on them, also.
Item

Length/width

158

## More of Measuring Length

1. Spread one hand wide open and let someone measure the distance from your thumb tip to your
pinky tip. This distance is the definition for the measure span. So your span is _____ inches.
(The official span is 9 inches.)

Now use your span to measure the height of a table (or chair): Table height = ____ spans.
Now, use that to estimate the height of the table in inches. Height estimate = _____ in.
Lastly measure with a measuring tape to check. Height: ______in.
You can repeat this for other objects.
2. Find five small things. BEFORE you measure, make a guess of the length or width.
Then, measure them in inches and centimeters both.
Item

Guess (in.)

Reality (in.)

Guess (cm)

Reality (cm)

## 3. a. Measure all the sides of this figure to the nearest eighth-inch.

b. Measure its sides also in centimeters and millimeters.
c. Figure out the perimeter (the distance all the way around), in centimeters and millimeters.

159

4. Use your measuring tools, maybe even draw lines, to find out which is a longer distance:
a. 3 cm or 1 inch

b. 2 inches or 7 cm

c. 15 cm or 6 inches

## 5. Change between centimeters and millimeters.

a.

b.

c.

4 cm = ____ mm

6 cm 1 mm = _____ mm

4 cm 5 mm = _____ mm

17 cm = ____ mm

9 cm 9 mm = _____ mm

40 cm 8 mm = _____ mm

55 cm = ____ mm

12 cm 8 mm = _____ mm

100 cm = _____ mm

## 6. Change between millimeters and centimeters.

a.

b.

c.

70 mm = ____ cm

21 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

## 453 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

430 mm = ____ cm

78 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

## 390 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

1,200 mm = ____ cm

## 5,000 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

7. Draw here a triangle so that its one side measures 4 1/4 in. and another side 3 3/8 in.
Measure its third side. Find the perimeter.

160

## Inches, Feet, Yards, and Miles

Remember? 12 inches equal 1 foot. 12 in = 1 ft.

## Three feet make up one yard. 3 ft = 1 yd.

1. Draw a long line on the yard and mark on it 1 ft, 2 ft, 3 ft, etc. marks up until at least 20 ft.
Walk along your line. First, try to take 1-foot steps. Then, try to take 2-foot steps.
Then, try to take 1-yard steps.
Which kind of steps were the most comfortable and easiest steps for you to take?
After practicing the 2-foot steps, measure some distances using your steps. For example,
measure how wide a street is, or how long a room is. Count your steps, and then figure out
the distance in feet.

## 2. Measure out the length and width of two rooms

in your house using feet and inches.

## 3. Convert. You will need your multiplication skills!

a. 6 ft = ____ in.
11 ft = ____ in.
d. 36 in. = ____ ft
50 in. = ____ ft ____ in.
g. 6 yd = ____ ft
13 yd = ____ ft

## b. 2 ft 5 in. = ____ in.

7 ft 8 in. = ____ in.
e. 27 in. = ____ ft
100 in. = ____ ft ____ in.

## c. 13 ft 7 in. = ____ in.

24 ft = ____ in.
f. 64 in. = ____ ft
85 in. = ____ ft ____ in.

h. 2 yd 2 ft = ____ ft

i. 24 ft = ____ yd

5 yd 1 ft = ____ ft

42 ft = ____ yd

j. 13 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

k. 22 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

l. 32 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

17 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

29 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

40 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

161

How much is 3 2 ft 7 in? Multiply the feet and the inches separately:
3 2 ft = 6 ft and 3 7 in = 21 in. Then add those. But first you need to
convert the 21 inches into 1 ft 9 in: 6 ft + 1 ft 9 in = 7 ft 9 in.

4. Multiply.
a. 7 5 in = ____ ft ____ in

c. 8 3 ft 5 in = ____ ft ____ in

b. 4 4 ft 4 in = ____ ft ____ in

d. 7 2 ft 9 in = ____ ft ____ in

## a. The long sides are 6 ft 4 in,

The short sides are 2 ft 10 in.
P = ___ ft ___ in

## b. Each side is 8 in.

P = ___ ft ___ in

P = ___ft ___ in

## d. A rectangle's long sides are 5 ft 6 in,

and its perimeter 16 ft 10 in.
How long are the shorter sides?

## A mile is used to measure long distances. 1 mile = 5,280 feet.

Mile originates from the Roman measure mille passus, or thousand paces.
(A pace is a double-step.) The Roman mile was exactly 5,000 Roman feet.
Read here how the 5,000-foot mile became a 5,280-foot mile around the year 1300:
http://www.sizes.com/units/mile.htm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furlong

## 6. a. Which is a longer distance, 2 mi 300 ft or 13,000 ft?

b. An airplane flies at the height of 21,000 feet. About how many miles is that?
c. How many feet is four miles?
d. About how many miles tall is Mt. Everest (elevation 29,029 ft)?
e. Andrew can walk 300 feet in one minute.
How many whole miles can he walk in an hour?
162

## Metric Units for Measuring Length

The basic unit in the metric system is the meter.
All of the other metric units for measuring length
have the word meter in them.

10

## The conversion factors in the metric system are

based on 10. That is why you will use either
10, 100, or 1,000 when changing one metric
unit of length to another.

10

## 10 millimeters makes 1 centimeter.

10 centimeters makes 1 decimeter.
10 decimeters makes 1 meter. And so on.

10

10
10
10

hectometer

hm

(not used)

decameter

dam

(not used)

meter
decimeter

dm

## centimeter cm look at your ruler!

millimeter mm look at your ruler!

Remember that 1 meter is very close to 1 yard. 1 meter is a tiny bit longer than 1 yard.

1. Outside, or in a long corridor or room, draw two lines that start at the same place.
a. Using a measuring tape,
mark on the one line
1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and
4 m. Can you take
hops 1 meter long?

1 meter

1 meter

1 meter

1 meter

## b. Mark on the second line marks from 1 foot to 13 feet.

Make 1-yard hops.
Compare: do the two kinds of hops feel about the same?

## 2. Measure how tall you and other people are in centimeters.

Write it also using whole meters and centimeters.
Name

How tall
_____ cm = 1 m ____ cm.

163

## Conversions between units

Remember what millimeters look like on your ruler. 10 mm = 1 cm.
Decimeters aren't usually marked on rulers.10 centimeters make 1 decimeter.
10 decimeters end up being 100 centimeters, and that is 1 meter.
1 km = 1,000 m

1 m = 100 cm

1 cm = 10 mm

## 3. Convert between meters, centimeters, and millimeters.

a. 5 m = _______ cm

b. 4 m 6 cm = _______ cm

c. 800 cm = _______ m

12 m = _______ cm

10 m 80 cm = _______ cm

## 239 cm = ___ m ____ cm

6 m 20 cm = _______ cm

9 m 9 cm = _______ cm

## 407 cm = ___ m ____ cm

d. 58 mm = ___ cm ___ mm

e. 5 km = ________ m

f. 2 km 800 m = _______ m

78 cm = _____ mm

57 km = _________ m

6 km 50 m = _______ m

## 234 mm = ____cm ___ mm

5,000 m = _____ km

60,000 m = _______ km

## 4. Calculate. Give your answer using kilometers and meters.

a. 5 km 200 m + 8 km 900 m

b. 3 2 km 800 m

c. 1,500 m + 2 km

d. 6 700 m

## 5. Solve the problems.

a. How many millimeters are in a meter?
b. Mary can walk 1 km in 10 minutes. How far can she walk in 34 minutes?
c. John jogs through a track 1 km 800 m long twice a day, five days a week.
How long a distance does he jog in a week?
d. A 10-meter wall is divided into five segments
(not of equal length). Four of the segments
are 1 m 20 cm each; how long is the fifth segment?
e. Kathy's wallpaper has butterflies that are 80
mm wide. She will put the wallpaper in her
room. How many complete butterflies can
she have on a wall 3 meters long?

164

Measuring Weight
Units of weight in the customary system
2,000

(short) ton

16

pound

ounce

## oz to measure light things

1. Choose the right weight for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.
a. a sparrow
10 oz

b. a book

1 oz 16 oz

1 lb

d. a car
2T

2 oz

## c. a 3-year old boy

20 oz

22 lb

e. a magazine

3,500 lb 300 lb

5 oz

2 lb

f. a healthy woman

1 lb

1 lb = 16 oz

44 lb 66 lb

80 lb

130 lb 60 lb

1 T = 2,000 lb

6 lb 4 oz = 6 16 oz + 4 oz = 100 oz

17 T = 17 2,000 lb = 34,000 lb

4 lb 9 oz + 1 lb 7 oz = 5 lb 16 oz = 6 lb

Pounds

2 1/2

10

Ounces

Tons

15

80

5 1/2

480

10

Pounds

14,000

25

41

40,000

## 3. Convert pounds and ounces.

a. 7 lb 7 oz = ______ oz

b. 33 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

2 lb 14 oz = ______ oz

c. 7 lb 7 oz = ______ oz
42 lb 14 oz = ______ oz

52 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

a. 1500 lb

1 1/2 T

b.

3T

4000 lb

165

c.

64 oz

3 lb 6 oz

Week Weight
0

6 lb 14 oz

6 lb 12 oz

6 lb 14 oz

7 lb

7 lb 2 oz

7 lb 4 oz

7lb 6oz

7lb 7oz

## You can add pounds to pounds and ounces to ounces.

Afterwards, figure out if the total ounces actually
make some whole pounds.
In the example on the right, 33 oz needs changed
to 2 lb 1 oz before giving the final answer 5 lb 1 oz.

## 6. Solve the problems.

a. Jose's packages and letters for the week weighed
2 oz, 6 oz, 5 oz, 1 lb 1 oz, and 1 lb 4 oz.
What was their total weight?
b. The cocoa powder on the scales weighs 2 lb 5 oz.
Janet puts some in a bag, and then the scales shows 1 lb 8 oz.
How much cocoa powder did she put in the bag?
c. How many more bags can Janet make of the same size
from the 1 lb 8 oz she still has unbagged?
d. Farmer Smith's red apples weigh about 4 oz each.
How many apples are in 5 lb of apples?
e. An ounce of rice costs \$0.09.
Find the price for 2 pounds of rice.
f. A bag of split peas weighs 1 lb 4 oz.
How much do ten bags weigh?

166

9 oz
1 lb 11 oz
+ 2 lb 13 oz
3 lb 33 oz
= 5 lb 1 oz

## Measuring Weight in the Metric System

Units of weight in the metric system
10
1 kg = 1,000 g

10
10

kilogram

hectogram

hg

decagram

gram

(not used)

## 1. Fill in the table.

kilograms

2 1/2

3 1/2

10

grams

7,000

9,500

20,000

2. Convert.
a. 5 kg 400 g = ______ g

## b. 2,500 g = ____ kg ______ g

c. 60 kg = ______ g

32 kg 40 g = ______ g

## 20,250 g = ____ kg ______ g

8 1/2 kg = ______ g

5000
3650
+ 490
can change them all to grams first.
9140

## You can also add kilograms to

kilograms and grams to grams.
Remember that 1,000 grams
makes a kilogram.

5 kg + 3 kg 650 g + 490 g

4 kg 250 g + 5 kg 800 g

## When some weights are given in

kilograms and some in grams, you

## = 5,000 g + 3,650 g + 490 g

or 9 kg 140 g

= 9 kg 1,050 g = 10 kg 50 g

3. a. Jeremy received in the mail, packages that weighed 700 g, 350 g, 4 kg 400 g, and 1 kg 900 g.
What was the total weight of the packages?
b. Angi bought three 1 1/2 kg packages and seven 400-gram packages of buckwheat flour.
What is the weight of the flour she got?
c. You need 2 kg of flour to make bread. The scale shows you already have 1,050 g.
How many more grams of flour do you need?
d. A 200-gram bag of millet costs \$1.69.
How many bags do you need for 1 kg of millet?
What is the total cost?
167

## 4. Circle the heaviest amount.

a. 3 kg 300 g

3,030 g

b. 6 kg 400 g

640 g

c. 10 kg

5,000 g

5. a. Fill in the table how much weight Greg gained during each year.
b. When did he grow the fastest?
c. How can you see the 'fast' growth periods on the chart?

## AGE WEIGHT Weight gain from

(yrs)
(kg)
previous year
0

3 kg 300 g

10 kg 200 g 6 kg 900 g

12 kg 300g

14 kg 600 g

16 kg 700 g

18 kg 700 g

20 kg 700 g

22 kg 900 g

25 kg 300 g

28 kg 100 g

(yrs)
(kg)
previous year

168

10

31 kg 400 g

11

32 kg 200 g

12

37 kg

13

40 kg 900 g

14

47 kg

15

52 kg 600 g

16

58 kg

17

62 kg 700 g

18

65 kg

## Customary Units of Volume

Units of volume in the customary system
gallon for large amounts of liquid (gal)
4

pint

cup

cups

3 1/2

ounces
gallons

24

96

4 1/2

quarts

6
22

Cups

64

160

## 2. More, less, or the same amount? Write >, <, or =.

a. A spoonful

a cup.

b. A glass of milk
c. A bucket of water

d. A quart of juice
e. Three cups of flour

a pint.
2 quarts.

## f. 1 1/2 cups of tea

fourth of a gallon.
a quart.
a pint.

3. The measuring cup can hold 2 cups when full. Draw to fill it.

a. 1 1/2 cups

b. 3/4 cups

c. 1/4 cups

169

d. 1 1/4 cups

4. Choose the right volume for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.
a. a cup of coffee
1 oz

4 oz 6 oz

b. a bucket

c. a paint can

4 qt 12 gal 4 gal

d. a shampoo bottle
14 c 14 oz 2 qt

12 gal

e. a cooking pot
2 pt

2qt

4 qt

2 gal

## f. a car's gasoline tank

10 oz

20 gal

70 gal

100 gal

5. Which is more?
a. 12 qt
d. 3 qt 3 c

2 gal

b. 14 fl. oz.

5 pt

e. 1 gal

2 cups
144 oz

c. 1 pint

20 oz

f. 5 qt

1 gal 1 pt

6. Convert.
a. 1 pt = _____ oz

b. 2 qt = ____ C

1/2 qt = ____ C

c. 1 qt 1 C = ___ oz

12 C = ___ qt

## 7. Solve the word problems.

a. A full water cooler contains 2 gallons of cold water.
How many 6-ounce servings can you dispense?
b. If you serve 8-oz servings of juice for 30 people,
how many whole gallons of juice do you need?
c. Mom buys a 1/2-gallon jug of milk, and uses 2 cups
of it for baking. How many cups of milk are left?
d. The washer uses about 14 gallons of water for a load
of laundry. If you run the washer three times a week,
how much water do you use in a year?
e. Mom was making applesauce in 2-gallon batches
and canning it in 1-quart jars. After 9 batches,
how many jars of applesauce had she made?
f. A 4-ounce serving of coffee costs \$1.20.
What would a 1-ounce serving cost?
A 6-ounce serving? A 5-ounce serving?
g. Mark drinks three 5-ounce servings of coffee a day.
Find how much coffee he drinks in a month.
Give your answer in meaningful units (not in plain ounces).

170

d. 12 pt = ___ qt
11 C = ___ qt ___ C

## Metric Units of Volume

The most often used units of volume in the metric system are
called liters and milliliters.
A liter is very close to a quart -- just a little bit more.
Milliliters are thousandth parts of a liter. In other words,
1,000 milliliters make one liter.
A milliliter is abbreviated ml. A liter is usually abbreviated
L but sometimes you may see just a lowercase l.
Most 2-cup measuring cups also have a milliliter scale.
2 cups is about 500 ml. 4 cups is about 1 L.

liter

deciliter

dl

centiliter

cl

milliliter

## for small amounts of volume

10
1 L = 1,000 ml

10
10

1. The measuring cup can hold 500 ml when full. Color the cup to fill it to the correct measurement.

a. 300 ml

b. 120 ml

c. 440 ml

d. 280 ml

L
ml

2 1/2

5
3,000

50
8,500

171

12,000

## 3. Underline the correct amount.

a. A nose dropper can hold (5/500) milliliters.

a.

b.

c.

## 41,200 ml = ____ L _____ ml

1 L 80 ml = ______ ml

## 7,065 ml = ____ L _____ ml

4 L 400 ml = _______ ml

3 L 8 ml = _______ ml

a.

b.

## 6. Solve the problems.

a. Jeanine drank 250 ml of a 1-liter jug of juice.
How much is left?
b. Mark filled four 200-ml glasses out of a 2-liter bottle
of juice. How much is left now?
c. Ed drank 1/2 liter out of a full 2-liter water bottle. The rest of it
was poured into 250-ml glasses. How many glasses were filled?
d. Jeanine bought five 250-ml cans of juice, two 2-liter bottles
of water, and three 350-ml bottles of juice.
Find the total amount of liquid in liters and milliliters.
e. How many 200-ml glasses can you fill out of a 5-liter water cooler?
f. A 250-ml cup of yogurt costs \$0.80 and a 170-ml cup of yogurt costs \$0.65.
To compare the prices, imagine buying four bigger cups of yogurt, or six smaller ones.
How much yogurt is in four bigger cups?
In six smaller ones?
How much would the total cost of each be?
Which yogurt seems to be cheaper?
172

Review
1. How much time passes?
a. From 11:15 p.m. till 6:07 a.m.
b. From 10:55 till 21:35.
2. A flight that lasts 4 hours 20 minutes is landing at 1:10 p.m.
When did it take off?
3. Describe a situation to fit these temperatures.
a. 25F
b. 25C
4. Draw here a line that is ...
a. 2 3/8 in. long
b. 36 mm long
5. Convert between the different measuring units.
a.

b.

c.

15 cm = ____ mm

4 yd 2 ft = _____ ft

4 m 25 cm = _____ cm

6 cm 8 mm = ____ mm

## 76 in. = _____ ft _____ in.

8 km = _________ m

150 mm = ____ cm

36 ft = ______ yd

## 6. A rectangle's sides measure 2 ft 8 in. and 5 ft 9 in.

What is its perimeter?
7. The distance from Sarah's home to the community center
is 1 km 400 m. If Sarah goes there twice a week,
how long a distance does she walk all in all?
8. Choose the right weight for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.
a. a 5-year old child

b. a thick dictionary

16 kg

8 oz

12 lb

34 lb

2 kg 12 oz

173

c. a letter
2 lb

2 oz 20 oz

## 9. Convert between the units of weight.

b.

a.

c.

5 lb 11 oz = ______ oz

3 T 200 lb = _______ lb

## 5,400 lb = ____T _____ lb

56 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

7 kg 500 g = ______ g

## 10. At his doctor visit, Matthew weighed 23 kg 200 g.

He had gained 2 kg 350 g since his last visit.
What did he weigh at his previous visit?
11. Mary gives her cat 6 oz of catfood every day.
How many days will the 4-lb sack of catfood last her?

a. 3 gal

11 qt

b. 21 fl. oz.

3 cups

c. 3 pints

44 fl. oz.

a.

b.

c.

## 14. How many 6-ounce servings can

you get from 1 gallon of juice?

## 15. A special medicinal honey costs \$1.90 per fluid ounce,

and Samantha bought a quart.
How much did she pay?

## 16. If 400 ml of shampoo costs \$4.20,

how much would a liter cost?

174