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workbook

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You are on page 1of 174

EDITION 1.25

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without

permission in writing from the author.

Copying permission: Permission IS granted for the teacher to reproduce this material to be used

with students, not commercial resale, by virtue of the purchase of this book. In other words, the

teacher MAY make copies of the pages to be used with students. Permission is given to make

electronic copies of the material for back-up purposes only.

Please visit www.MathMammoth.com for more information about Maria Miller's math books.

Create free math worksheets at www.HomeschoolMath.net/worksheets/

Contents

Foreword ...........................................................................

Concerning Challenging Word Problems ........................

6

7

Money

Introduction ......................................................................

Addition Review ...............................................................

Adding in Columns ..........................................................

Subtraction Review .........................................................

Subtract in Columns .......................................................

Mental Math Workout and Pascal's Triangle ..............

Subtraction Terms ..........................................................

Word Problems and Models ......................................

Missing Addend Solved with Subtraction ....................

Order of Operations .......................................................

Bar Graphs .....................................................................

Line Graphs ....................................................................

Rounding .........................................................................

Estimating .......................................................................

Reviewing Money ...........................................................

Review .............................................................................

9

12

15

16

19

22

25

27

30

33

35

38

41

45

47

50

Introduction ....................................................................

Thousands .......................................................................

At the Edge of Whole Thousands ..................................

More Thousands .............................................................

Practicing with Thousands ............................................

Place Value with Thousands ..........................................

Comparing with Thousands ..........................................

51

53

56

58

60

62

64

A Little Bit of Millions ...................................................

Multiples of 10, 100 and 1000 ........................................

Review ..............................................................................

67

72

75

77

Chapter 3: Multiplication

Introduction ....................................................................

Multiplication Concept ..................................................

Multiplication Tables Review .......................................

Scales Problems .............................................................

Multiplying by Whole Tens and Hundreds .................

Multiply in Parts ............................................................

Multiply in Parts with Money .......................................

Estimating Products .......................................................

Multiply in Columns - the Easy Way ...........................

Multiply in Columns - Standard Way ..........................

Multiply in Columns, Practice ......................................

Error of Estimation .......................................................

Order of Operations Again ...........................................

Money and Change ........................................................

So Many of the Same Thing ..........................................

Multiply by Whole Tens and Hundreds ......................

Multiplying in Parts with a 2-Digit Multiplier ...........

The Standard Multiplication Algorithm

with a 2-Digit Multiplier ..............................................

Multiplying a Three-Digit Number

by a Two-Digit Number ...............................................

Review ............................................................................

79

81

83

86

90

95

99

100

102

105

110

112

114

117

119

122

124

128

131

133

Introduction ....................................................................

Time Units ......................................................................

The 24-Hour Clock ........................................................

Elapsed Time or How Much Time Passes ...................

Temperature 1 ...............................................................

Temperature 2 ...............................................................

Remember Fractions? ...................................................

Measuring Length .........................................................

More of Measuring Length ...........................................

Inches, Feet, Yards and Miles ......................................

Metric Units For Measuring Length ...........................

Measuring Weight .........................................................

Measuring Weight in the Metric System .....................

Customary Units of Volume .........................................

Metric Units of Volume .................................................

Review ............................................................................

136

138

143

145

150

153

155

156

159

161

163

165

167

169

171

173

Foreword

Math Mammoth Grade 4-A and Grade 4-B worktexts comprise a complete math curriculum for the fourth

grade mathematics studies.

In the fourth grade, students focus on multidigit multiplication and division, learning to use bigger

numbers, solving multi-step word problems that involve several operations, and get started in studying

fractions and decimals. This is of course accompanied by studies in geometry and measuring.

The year starts out with review of addition and subtraction, graphs, and money. We illustrate word

problems with bar diagrams and study finding missing addends, which teaches algebraic thinking.

Children also learn addition and subtraction terminology, the order of operations, and statistical graphs.

Next come large numbers -- up to millions, and the place value concept. At first the student reviews

thousands and some mental math with them. Next are presented numbers till one million, calculations

with them, place value concept and comparing. In the end of the chapter we find more about millions and

an introduction to multiples of 10, 100, and 1000.

The third chapter is all about multiplication. After briefly reviewing the concept and the times tables, the

focus is on learning multidigit multiplication (multiplication algorithm). The children also learn why it

works when they work on multiplying in parts. We also study the order of operations again, touch on

proportional reasoning, and do more money and change related word problems.

The last chapter in part A is about time, temperature, length, weight, and volume. Students will learn to

solve more complex problems using various measuring units and to convert between measuring units.

In part B, we first study division. The focus is on learning long division and using division in word

problems. The geometry chapter introduces students to measuring angles, and we do lots of drawing of

different shapes and circles. Area and perimeter are other important topics in geometry.

Fractions and decimals are presented last in the school year. These two chapters practice only some of the

basic operations with fractions and decimals. The focus is still on the conceptual understanding, building

a good foundation towards 5th grade math, where fractions and decimals will be in focus.

When you use these books as your only or main mathematics curriculum, they can be like a framework,

but you do have some liberty in organizing the study schedule. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 should be studied in

this order, but you can be flexible with chapters 4 (Time and Measuring) and 6 (Geometry) and schedule

them somewhat earlier or later if you so wish. Chapter 3 (Multiplication) needs to be studied before long

division in Chapter 5. Many topics from chapters 7 and 8 (Fractions and Decimals) can also be studied

earlier in the school year; however finding parts with division should naturally be studied only after

mastering division.

This product also includes an HTML page that you can use to make extra practice worksheets for

computation.

I wish you success in your math teaching!

Maria Miller, the author

I would heartily recommend supplementing this program with regular practice of challenging word

problems and puzzles. You could do that once a week to once every two weeks. The goal of challenging

story problems and puzzles is to simply develop children's logical and abstract thinking and mental

discipline. Fourth grade is a good place to start such a practice because students are able to read the

problems on their own and have developed mathematical knowledge in many different areas. Of course I

am not discouraging people from doing such in earlier grades, either.

I have made lots of word problems for the Math Mammoth curriculum. Those are for the most part multistep word problems. I have included several lessons that utilize the bar model for solving problems and

tried to vary the problems.

Even so, the problems I've created are usually tied to a specific concept or concepts. I feel children can

also benefit from problem solving practice where the problems require out of the box thinking, or are

puzzle-type in nature, or are just different from the ones I have made. Additionally, I feel others are more

capable of making very different, very challenging problems.

So I'd like for you to use one or several of the resources below for some different problems and puzzles.

Choose something that fits your budget (most of these are free) and that you will like using.

Math Kangaroo Problem Database

Easily made worksheets of challenging math problems based on actual past Math Kangaroo competition

problems.

http://www.kangurusa.com/clark/pdb/

Primary Grade Challenge Math by Edward Zaccaro

The book is organized into chapters, with each chapter presenting a type of problem and the ways to think

about that problem. And then there is a series of related story problems to solve, divided into 4 levels.

$25, ISBN 978-0967991535

You can find this at Amazon.com or various other bookstores.

http://www.amazon.com/Primary-Grade-Challenge-Edward-Zaccaro/dp/0967991536/

Problem Solving Decks from North Carolina public schools

Includes a deck of problem cards for grades 1-8, student sheets, and solutions. Many of these problems

are best solved with calculators. All of these problems lend themselves to students telling and writing

about their thinking.

http://community.learnnc.org/dpi/math/archives/2005/06/problem_solving.php

Math Stars Problem Solving Newsletter (grades 1-8)

These newsletters are a fantastic, printable resource for problems to solve and their solutions.

http://community.learnnc.org/dpi/math/archives/2005/06/math_stars_news.php

Open-ended, investigative math challenges for all levels from the UK. Find the past issues box down in

the left sidebar. Use Stage 2, 1-star or 2-star problems for 4th grade.

http://nrich.maths.org/public/

http://nrich.maths.org/public/themes.php lets you find problems organized by mathematical themes.

Figure This! Math Challenges for Families

Word problems related to real life. They don't always have all the information but you have to estimate

and think. For each problem, there is a hint, other related problems, and interesting trivia. Website

supported by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

http://www.figurethis.org/

MathStories.com

Over 12,000 interactive and non-interactive NCTM compliant math word problems, available in both

English and Spanish. Helps elementary and middle school children boost their math problem solving and

critical-thinking skills. A membership site.

http://www.mathstories.com/

Problem of the Week (POWs)

Problem of the week contests are excellent for finding challenging problems and for motivation. There

exist several:

z

Five weekly problem projects for various levels of math. Mentoring available.

http://mathforum.org/pow/

Math Contest at Columbus State University

Elementary, middle, algebra, and general levels.

http://www.colstate.edu/mathcontest/

Aunty Math

Math challenges in a form of short stories for K-5 learners posted bi-weekly. Parent/Teacher Tips

for the current challenge explains what kind of reasoning the problem requires and how to possibly

help children solve it.

http://www.auntymath.com/

Grace Church School's ABACUS International Math Challenge

This is open to any child in three different age groups.

http://www.gcschool.org/pages/program/Abacus.html

MathCounts Problem of the Week Archive

Browse the archives to find problems to solve. You can find the link to the current problem on the

home page.

http://mathcounts.org/Page.aspx?pid=355

Math League's Homeschool Contests

Challenge your children with the same interesting math contests used in schools. Contests for

grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Algebra Course 1, and High School are available in a non-competitive format

for the homeschoolers. The goal is to encourage student interest and confidence in mathematics

through solving worthwhile problems and build important critical thinking skills. By subscription

only.

http://www.mathleague.com/homeschool.htm

Graphs and Money

Introduction

The first chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers addition and subtraction topics, word

problems, graphs, and money problems.

At first, we review the technical aspects of adding and subtracting: mental math techniques plus adding and

subtracting in columns. If these are fairly easy for your student(s), you can choose to skip some problems.

Going beyond those, the chapter includes lessons in addition and subtraction terminology. These lessons are already

preparing your child for algebraic thinking.

In the next lessons, the student reviews the addition/subtraction connection, and solves word problems with the help

of bar models. Next, we solve simple missing addend equations using subtraction, such as x + 20 = 60. We use bar

models to illustrate these and connect them with fact families.

The lesson on the order of operations contains some review but it goes beyond that. In many of the problems, the

student builds the mathematical expression (calculation) needed for a certain real-life situation.

Going towards applications of math, the chapter contains lessons on bar graphs, line graphs, rounding, estimating,

and money problems.

page

span

3 pages

15

1 pages

16

3 pages

19

3 pages

Pascal's Triangle ......................................................

22

3 pages

25

2 pages

27

3 pages

30

4 pages

33

2 pages

35

3 pages

38

3 pages

Rounding .................................................................

41

4 pages

Estimating ................................................................

45

2 pages

3 pages

Review ...............................................................

1 page

50

Calculator Chaos

Most of the keys have fallen off the calculator but you have to make certain numbers using the keys that

are left.

http://www.mathplayground.com/calculator_chaos.html

ArithmeTiles

Use the four operations and numbers on neighboring tiles to make target numbers.

http://www.primarygames.com/math/arithmetiles/index.htm

Choose Math Operation

Choose the mathematical operation(s) so that the number sentence is true. Practice the role of zero and

one in basic operations or operations with negative numbers. Helps develop number sense and logical

thinking.

http://www.homeschoolmath.net/operation-game.php

MathCar Racing

Keep ahead of the computer car by thinking logically, and practice any of the four operations at the same

time.

http://www.funbrain.com/osa/index.html

Fill and Pour

Fill and pour liquid with two containers until you get the target amount. A logical thinking puzzle.

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_273_g_2_t_4.html

Estimate Addition Quiz

Scroll down the page to find this quiz plus some others. Fast loading.

http://www.quiz-tree.com/Math_Practice_main.html

Mental Addition and Subtraction

A factsheet, quiz, game, and worksheet about basic mental addition and subtraction.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/numbers/wholenumbers/addsubtract/mental/

Shop 'Til You Drop

Get as many items as you can and be left with the least amount of change, and practices your addition

skills. The prices are in English pounds and pennies.

http://www.channel4.com/learning/microsites/P/puzzlemaths/shop.shtml

Change Maker

Determine how many of each denomination you need to make the exact change. Good and clear

pictures! Playable in US, Canadian, Mexican, UK, or Australian money.

http://www.funbrain.com/cashreg/index.html

Cash Out

Give correct change by clicking on the bills and coins.

http://www.mrnussbaum.com/cashd.htm

10

Piggy bank

When coins fall from the top of the screen, choose those that add up to the given amount, and the piggy

bank fills.

http://fen.com/studentactivities/Piggybank/piggybank.html

Bar Chart Virtual Manipulative

Build your bar chart online using this interactive tool.

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_190_g_1_t_1.html?from=category_g_1_t_1.html

An Interactive Bar Grapher

Graph data sets in bar graphs. The color, thickness and scale of the graph are adjustable. You can put in

your own data, or you can use or alter pre-made data sets.

http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=63

11

Addition Review

Remember addition?

as a SUM of the different units such as whole thousands,

whole hundreds, whole tens, and ones.

thousands

hundreds

tens

56 + 124

7 + 90 + 91 + 3

= 100 + 50 + 20 + 6 + 4

= 7 + 3 + 90 + 91

= 100 + 70 + 10 = 180

= 10 + 90 + 91 = 191

ones

number, then subtract

to correct the error:

76 + 89

= 76 + 90 1

= 166 1 = 165

1. Add mentally. You can add in parts (tens and ones separately).

a. 70 + 80 = ___

b. 140 + 50 = ___

c. 50 + 60 = ___

d. 80 + 90 = ___

77 + 80 = ___

141 + 50 = ___

54 + 65 = ___

82 + 93 = ___

77 + 82 = ___

144 + 55 = ___

58 + 62 = ___

88 + 91 = ___

2. Write the numbers as a sum of whole thousands, whole hundreds, whole tens, and ones.

a. 487 =

b. 2,103 =

c. 8,045 =

d. 650 =

a. Two of the addends are 56 and 90. The sum is 190.

What is the third addend?

b. Four of the addends equal 70 and five other addends equal 80.

What is the sum?

12

4. Add and compare the results. The addition problems are related!

a. 7 + 8 = ___

b. 4 + 9 = ___

c. 6 + 8 = ___

57 + 8 = ___

34 + 9 = ___

16 + 8 = ___

70 + 80 = ____

40 + 90 = ____

240 + 90 = ____

560 + 80 = ____

that are related to the problem 5 + 8 = 13.

See examples above!

6. Add in parts.

a. 80 + 5 + 2 + 30 + 4 + 44

b. 127 + 500 + 4 + 3 + 9 + 90

explain how to do easily 56 + 99 and 487 + 99.

8. Add in parts, or use other tricks.

a. 71 + 82 = ____

b. 42 + 47 = ____

c. 89 + 92 = ____

37 + 42 = ____

64 + 64 = ____

82 + 19 = ____

57 + 64 = ____

12 + 99 = ____

51 + 98 = ____

a. 600

b. 900

c. 100

d. 500

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

+ 600 =____

+ 900 =____

+ 75 =____

+ 45 =____

13

Half the number

10

20

Number

90

110

120

480

500

900

1,600

4,010

788

950

999

40

Its double

11. a. There are five people in the Brill family and they

went to a concert. Children's tickets were $20 each

and the two parents' tickets were $28 a piece.

What was the total cost of the tickets for the family?

children's tickets were half that price.

What was the total cost for the Brill family?

56

69

125

156

287

569

n + 999

John is writing very simple missing addend problems for first graders.

For example, he wrote the problem 2 + ___ = 8. The first addend is

given, and the second addend is missing.

John uses whole numbers from 0 on up to the number that is the sum.

a. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 8?

b. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 10?

c. How many such problems can he write when the sum is 20?

d. You should see a pattern in the above answers. Now use the pattern to solve this:

How many such problems could he write when the sum is 100 (for second-graders)?

14

Adding in Columns

1. Add in columns. Check by adding the numbers in each column in different order

(for example from down up).

a.

b.

384

2912

2008

209

+ 26

c.

$1.8 2

4 0.5 9

9.9 7

1 0.2 9

1.0 9

+ 0.4 3

245

139

30

2931

594

9593

+ 526

2. Write the numbers under each other carefully, and add in columns.

a. 5,609 + 1,388 + 89 + 402

b. $8.05 + $0.29 + $38.40 + $293 + $203.20 + $46.49 + $94

and distances between them. For example,

from Louisville to Frankfort is 54 miles.

The one distance not marked is written

below the map: from Frankfort to

Lexington is 28 miles.

Calculate the total driving distance, if

a family goes on a field trip like this:

a. Covington - Lexington - Paducah - Lexington - Covington

b. A round trip from Lexington via Covington, Louisville, and Frankfort,

and back to Lexington.

15

d.

1738

2390

1078

364

2803

211

+ 99

Subtraction Review

Marie: I subtract in parts: first to

the previous whole ten, then the rest.

Compare the

methods.

35 7

= (35 5) 2

=

30 2 = 28

15 7 = 8 is the helping problem

for 35 7.

The answer to 35 7 also ends in

8 and is in the previous ten (the

twenties). So, 35 7 is 28.

a.

b.

c.

d.

100 2 = ____

200 4 = ____

500 5 = ____

400 7 = ____

100 20 = ____

200 40 = ____

500 50 = ____

400 70 = ____

100 22 = ____

200 45 = ____

500 56 = ____

400 71 = ____

a.

b.

c.

d.

13 7 = ____

15 9 = ____

12 6 = ____

16 8 = ____

63 7 = ____

150 90 = ____

82 6 = ____

3. Subtract and compare the results. The problems are related can you see how?

a. 12 8 = ____

b. 15 9 = ____

c. 13 7 = ____

42 8 = ____

75 9 = ____

73 7 = ____

120 80 = ______

150 90 = ______

520 80 = ______

650 90 = ______

430 70 = ______

that are related to the problem 14 8 = 6.

See the examples above!

16

705 99

Trick: subtract first a bigger number,

then add back some to correct the error:

140 88

= 705 100 + 1

= 140 90 + 2

= 605 + 1 = 606

= 50 + 2 = 52

125

293

346

404

487

510

640

849

n 99

To solve 93 28, start

at 28 and add until

you reach 93. However

much you added is the

difference.

+ 2

28

+ 60

30

+ 3

90

+ 40

93

93 28 = (2 + 60 + 3) = 65

16 0

+ 200

2 00

+ 20

4 00

4 20

6. Subtract in parts, use a helping problem, add up to find the difference, or use other tricks.

a. 91 82 = ______

b. 100 82 = ______

c. 56 29 = ______

42 37 = ______

100 56 = ______

61 39 = ______

77 64 = ______

96 48 = ______

84 38 = ______

f. 500 82 = ______

1,000 56 = ______

612 70 = ______

540 48 = ______

120

140

160

180

200

n 27

17

a. 240

b. 1600

c. 540

40 =

200

200 = ______

60 = ______

d. 490

70 = ______

40 =

160

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

40 = ______

200 = ______

60 = ______

70 = ______

The table of 4

has a similar pattern.

has a similar pattern.

has a similar pattern.

has a similar pattern.

Jane and Jim are playing a repeated subtraction game. Each player has various number cards. A player

pairs his cards together, two by two. With each two cards, the player subtracts the smaller number as

many times as possible from the bigger number.

For example, Jane pairs together cards 20 and 4. Jane subtracts 20 4 4 4 4 4 = 0.

Jim pairs the cards 45 and 11, and subtracts 45 11 11 11 11 = 1. He can't subtract any more.

Each player gets as many points as is the remainder number (the final difference).

Above, Jane got 0 points and Jim got 1. The player who first accumulates 25 points loses the game.

Write the subtractions that Jane does with these cards:

a.

b.

With four cards, you need to choose which two will make a pair. Pair the cards for subtractions

so that you will get the least possible points. Then write the subtractions.

c.

d.

e. Play the game yourself! Try number cards from 2-30 for an easier game. Try numbers from 2 to 60

for a challenge. Give each player 4-8 cards, depending on the difficulty level you wish to have.

18

Subtract in Columns

1. This is review. Subtract in columns. Check by adding!

a.

Add to check:

519

346

b.

Add to check:

728

519

+ 346

c.

Add to check:

1350

782

+ 519

+ 782

You can't subtract 3 from 0.

You can't borrow a ten

- there are none!

You get 10 tens in the tens

column.

into the ones column.

Now you can subtract.

9

7 10 10

7 10

8 0 0

2 5 3

8 0 0

2 5 3

8 0 0

2 5 3

5 4 7

nor from the hundreds. So

borrow 1 thousand.

into the tens column.

the ones column. You're

ready to subtract!

9

6 10 10

6 10

7 0 0 2

4 9 3 3

9 9

6 10 10 12

7 0 0 2

4 9 3 3

7 0 0 2

4 9 3 3

2 0 6 9

a.

Add to check:

700

356

+ 356

b.

Add to check:

5000

1236

+ 1236

19

c.

Add to check:

6004

678

+ 678

a.

Add to check:

506

289

+ 289

d.

5070

2356

Add to check:

4090

3785

9000

3420

Add to check:

+ 3420

f.

$80.00

56.70 +

h.

c.

+ 3785

e.

g.

4005

2391

b.

$600.00

230.50 +

i.

$400.00

198.99 +

How many miles longer is

a. a round trip from Lexington to Ashland

and back than a round trip from

Lexington to Covington and back?

b. a trip from Lexington to Paducah and back

than a triangular trip from Lexington via

Covington, Louisville, Frankfort,

and back to Lexington?

20

$109.40

78.65 +

7 10 11 10

8 1 2 0

2 6 5 3

you can continue the subtraction

under your first answer.

Check by adding the answer

and all the numbers you

subtracted.

Check:

5 4 6 7

7 5 4

4 7 1 3

7 5 4

+2 6 5 3

4 7 1 3

8 1 2 0

5. Write the numbers under each other carefully, and subtract in columns.

a. 4,400 2,745 493

b. 5,604 592 87

c. $45.60 $12.36 $1.69

by subtracting the numbers one at a time. That means

four separate subtractions. Can you find a quicker way?

the (analog) clock, but she can't remember

which hand is the hour hand and which is

the minute hand. So when the time is 1:15, she might say, It is 3:05,

mixing the hours and the minutes.

One day mom was lying in bed, sick, and she asked Hannah what time it was. Hannah

said, It is 2:20. Just a few minutes later mom asked again for the time. Hannah claimed

it was now 4:25.

Remembering that each time Hannah either tells the time right, or mixes the hour and

minute hands, mom was able to figure out what time it was in reality. Can you?

21

1. Fill in the table - add 29 each time.

18

27

36

45

54

480

420

n + 29

2. Fill in the table - subtract 39 each time.

660

600

540

n 39

3. Subtract - and be careful!

a.

b.

c.

d.

500 3 =

600 2 =

300 3 =

1,000 7 =

500 30 =

600 20 =

400 40 =

1,000 70 =

500 300 =

600 200 =

500 5 =

1,000 700 =

500 33 =

600 22 =

600 60 =

1,000 77 =

500 303 =

600 202 =

700 7 =

1,000 707 =

1000

28

51

74

____

____

__

____

900

810

730

660

____

____

____

22

____

____

+ 300

3,000

+ 300

___

400

10,000

+ 300

___

400

___

____

____

____

____

____

400

___

____

____

____

____

____

___

___

6. This will be a Pascal's triangle but you need to fill it in. On the left and right sides are ones.

Any other number is gotten by adding the two numbers right above it (slightly to the right and to

the left). For example, the colored number 3 comes from adding the 1 and 2 above it.

23

7. a. After filling the triangle, add the numbers in each row and make a list. For example, the first row

just has 1. In the second row, add 1 + 1 = 2. In the third row, add 1 + 2 + 1 = 4.

The row sums are: 1, 2, 4, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____.

What do you notice about these numbers?

b. Can you find a diagonal with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7?

c. Can you find a diagonal with triangular numbers?

(Triangular numbers start like this:)

Below you will find an empty Pascal's triangle to explore with. You can fill it with some other number

on all the sides, such as 2, 3, or 20.

24

Subtraction Terms

Remember subtraction terms?

Just like m comes before s in the alphabet,

the minuend comes before the subtrahend.

1. The minuend is missing! Find a general idea that always works to solve these kind of problems.

a. ____ 8 = 7

____ 4 = 20

b. ____ 15 = 17

____ 24 = 48

c. ____ 22 7 = 70

2. The subtrahend is missing! Find a general idea that always works to solve these kind of problems.

a. 20 ____ = 12

6 ____ = 5

b. 55 ____ = 34

100 ____ = 72

b. The subtrahend is 12 and the difference is 58. What is the minuend?

c. The minuend is 55 and the difference is 17. What is the subtrahend?

4. Explain an easy to way to subtract 999 from any number mentally.

For example, explain how to do easily 1,446 999.

5. The difference of two numbers is 20, and one of the numbers is 25.

What can the other number be?

25

Subtraction is used:

z

several parts.

a. A package of cheese costs $6 and a package of ham costs $2 less.

How much do the two cost together?

b. One alarm clock costs $11 and another costs $8 more.

How much would the two cost together?

c. Of the 45 students, 18 are girls. How many are boys?

How many more boys are there than girls?

d. Jack gave the clerk $50 for his purchases, and got $13 as his change.

How much did his purchases cost?

e. It rained five days in June and six days in July.

How many non-rainy days did those two months have?

f. Amy is 134 cm tall and her mom is 162 cm tall.

What is the difference in their heights?

g. Jack bicycled his favorite 28 km route on Tuesday and on Wednesday.

On Thursday and Saturday he bicycled along a route that was 6 km shorter.

How many kilometers did he bicycle all totalled?

a. 200 45 ____ 70 = 25

b. _____ 5 55 120 = 40

26

Bar models help you see how the numbers in a problem relate to each other. Whenever you get

stumped by a word problem, try drawing a bar model.

On Monday, Dad drove 277 miles, and

on Tuesday he drove 25 miles more

than he did on Monday. How many

miles did he drive in the two days?

Monday

Tuesday

Altogether he drove 277 + 302 = 579 miles.

of the two bars. We do not know the total

or the sum of the two days' journey, so it

is marked with a question mark.

more miles to go to the half-way point. How long

is the trip?

20 mi + 15 mi = 35 miles, and that is the first half

of the trip. So, the total trip is 2 35 = 70 miles.

so it is marked with ?.

Mark the numbers given in the problem in the diagram. Mark what is asked with ?.

Then solve the problem.

1. Jake worked for 56 days on a farm, and

Ed worked for 14 days less.

How many days did Ed work?

$660 on other bills and purchases. Then, half of his

paycheck was gone. How much was his paycheck?

and the other cost $28 more.

What was his total bill?

27

Angi got $10 more than Rebecca.

How much did each one get?

The bar diagram shows the situation. Angi got $10 more

than Rebecca, and together they earned $100.

To solve it, you can think this way. If you took away (subtracted) the additional $10, then the total

would be $90, and we would only have the two equal parts (the two green parts). So, $90 2 = $45

gives us the amount Rebecca got, and then Angi got $45 + $10 = $55.

Here's another way of looking at the same situation.

We draw just one bar for the paycheck, and divide it

into two halves in the middle (the dashed line). Then

we draw half of the $10, or $5, on either side of that

middle line.

We can then see Angi got $50 + $5 = $55 and Rebecca got $50 $5 = $45.

Mark the numbers given in the problem in the diagram. Mark what is asked with ?.

Then solve the problem.

4. Mary and Luisa bought a $46 gift together.

Mary spent $6 more on it than Luisa.

How many dollars did each spend?

saw was $100 cheaper than the other.

His total bill was $590. What did each saw cost?

6. Eric and Angela did yard work together. They earned $80

and split it so that Eric got $12 more

than Angela. How much did each one get?

Draw a bar diagram.

28

You can solve the rest of the problems any way you like best.

7. Mark bought four towels for $7 each, and a blanket for $17.

He paid, and the clerk handed him back $5.

What denomination was the bill Mark used to pay?

costs $0.15 less than plain yogurt, and plum yogurt

costs $0.30 more than plain yogurt.

What is your total bill if you buy all three?

In the next year, she grew 6 cm, and the next year 2 cm

less than the previous year. How tall was she at the age of 11?

10. John's monthly phone service bill is $48. John said that with

the money he earned on his summer job, he could pay his

phone service for two months, spend $120 for a bike,

and still have half his money left. How much did he earn?

for $2.55 less, and yet another for $2 less.

If she buys all three, what will her total bill be?

29

From this simple diagram, we can write

two addition and two subtraction sentences.

Those four form a fact family.

x stands for a number, too. We just don't know it yet.

Which fact in the family makes it easy to

find the value of x?

x + 15 = 56

56 x = 15

15 + x = 56

56 15 = x

the one part (769) from the total (1,510):

769 + x = 1,510.

x = 1,510 769

= 741

a. 78 + x = 145

x = 145 78 = _____

b. 128 + x = 400

c. x + 385 = 999

2. Write a missing addend sentence using x, and a subtraction sentence to solve it.

a. A car costs $1,200 and dad has $890.

How much more does he need?

265 are girls. How many are boys?

30

three numbers: x, 59, 124.

(Remember, x stands for a number too.)

b. Solve for x.

a. A school's teachers and students

filled a 450-seat auditorium. If

the school had 43 teachers,

how many students did it have?

______ + ______ = ______

x=

and came back home with $78.

How much did she spend?

______ + ______ =

______

x=

for $54 and another for $78.

How much is left?

______ + ______ + ______ = ______

x=

another for $29, and she had

$125 left. How much did she have

initially?

x=

a. Jane had $15. Dad gave Jane her allowance (x) and afterwards Jane had $22.

$15 + x = $22

OR

them in the trash. Then he had 125 left.

$15 + $22 = x

125 24 = x

got lost. Now she has 89 left.

120 x = 89

OR

OR

x 24 = 125

and now he has 150 left.

120 + 89 = x

150 67 = x

31

OR

x 67 = 150

6. Pick a number sentence that you can use to find x. Then solve for x.

a. Problem: 253 + x = 2056

2056 253 = x

OR

x 253 = 2056

148 397 = x

c. Problem: x 23 = 45

45 23 = x

OR

OR

397 148 = x

d. Problem: 120 x = 55

45 + 23 = x

120 55 = x

OR

120 + 55 = x

7. Solve for x.

b. 23 + 56 + x = 110

x

1,750

| 4,900 |

a.

8. Write the numbers and x to the picture. Write a missing addend sentence. Solve.

a. The Jones' family had traveled 420 miles

of their 1,200-mile journey. How many

miles were left to travel?

blank CDs. Two boxes of 500 arrived.

How many are still to come?

|||

||||

two 20 cm parts at the ends and a part in

the middle. How long is the middle part?

We have 118 miles left.

How long is the journey?

||||

|||

32

Order of Operations

1. Do operations within ( ) first.

2. Then multiply & divide, from left to right.

30 6 11 + 5

= 24 11 + 5

= 13 + 5 = 18

4 + 3 (6 2)

= 4 + 3 4

= 4 + 12 = 16

7+35

= 7 + 15 = 22

70 + (80 5)

= 70 + 75 = 145

Make sure you understand

the examples on the right.

a. 500 30 30 =

500 30 + 30 =

a. 2 (5 + 3) =

b. 2 5 + 3 1 =

c. 2 5 + 3 0 =

20 3 3 =

(10 3) 3 + 1 =

(20 16) 3 + 2 =

50 1 2 10 =

50 1 7 + 2 3 =

2 (2 + 2) 3 =

3. Match the description with the right number sentence. Then calculate.

First multiply 5 times 10 and subtract from the result 7.

5 (10 7)

5 10 7

(100 20) + 10

90 20 + 20

Which calculation tells you the piece that is left?

90 2 20

(90 20) 2

33

5. A clerk in the store rings up all the items the customer buys, gets the customer's money,

and figures out the change.

a. Which of the calculations on the right

best matches figuring out the change?

ii. $50 + $1.26 + $6.55 + $0.22 + $5

you the wrong answer for the change?

b. 4 $1.20

c. $10 4 $1.20

7. Put operation symbols +, , or into the number sentences so that they become true.

b.

a.

8 = 12

50

10 = 0

100

10

(15

c.

2 = 14

17)

1 = 68

(2

5)

3=6

2 = 14

8. Every day, James feeds the kennel dogs 5 kg of dog food. He bought a 100-kg bag of dog food.

How many kilograms are left after four days? Write a single number sentence to solve that.

9. Parking costs $2 per hour during the day and $3 per hour during the night. Write a single

number sentence that tells you the cost of parking a car for 5 daytime hours and

2 nighttime hours. Solve it.

10. Write a single number sentence that tells you the change if you buy a book for $7, a ball for $5,

and pay with a $20 bill.

34

Bar Graphs

1. Beverly asked her classmates how many hours they watch the TV each day.

The results are below; she already organized them in order.

001111111111122223333444556

Each number above is someone's answer to Beverly's question. So two people answered that

they watched TV for 0 hours. Quite a few answered that they watch TV about 1 hour per day.

With such a bunch of numbers, we need to make first a frequency table. In a frequency

table, we count how frequently or how often a certain number was in our list of data. After

counting all that, we can make a bar graph.

In Beverly's data above, the number zero (0 hours TV) appeared two times. The number two

(2 hours TV) appeared four times. Finish the frequency table and the bar graph.

Hours of TV Frequency

0h

1h

2h

c. What was the most common response to Beverly's question?

d. How many of these kids watch TV 1 hour or less?

e. How many kids watch TV 3 hours or more?

f. Are there more kids who watch TV 3 hours a day than kids who watch TV 2 hours a day?

g. Are there more kids watching TV 2 hours or more, than kids watching TV less than 2 hours?

35

2. a. Beverly also asked some people about their favorite color. Make a bar graph.

Color Frequency

red

orange

yellow

green

blue

purple

black

white

c. Were the warm colors or the cold colors more popular?

(Warm colors are red, orange, and yellow. Cold colors are green, blue, and purple.)

3. The numbers are students' quiz scores. 1 3 5 3 6 4 9 8 6 4 8 7 5 3 9 8 6 2 1 8 9 10 2 9 7 6

a. Make a frequency table and a bar graph.

Test score Frequency

e. How many students did excellent (got a score of 9 or 10)?

f. The teacher said after the test, Anyone with a score of 4 or less will need to retake the

test, and anyone with a score of 5 or 6 will get extra homework.

How many students need to do the test again? How many will get extra homework?

36

out of the data

in the frequency table

on the right.

120...129

160...169

95

130...139

10

170...179

61

140...149

41

180...189

39

150...159

82

190...199

c. How many were very tall (180 cm or taller)?

d. Most adults are 160 cm tall or taller. Use this fact to guess (estimate) how many children

and how many adults were in this group.

e. Could this data come from

z

Explain your reasoning.

37

Line Graphs

A line graph shows how something changes

over time, such as over several hours, days,

weeks, months, or years.

The data values are often drawn as dots.

Then the dots are connected with lines.

The x-axis and the y-axis are the

two lines that frame the picture. The time

units are written under the x-axis.

To read a line graph, look up from the time

unit until you find the dot. Then draw an

imaginary line from that dot to the y-axis

For example, in July Amy had saved $90.

1. Look at the line graph about Amy's savings.

a. How many dollars had Amy saved in May?

b. How many dollars had Amy saved in August?

c. How many dollars had Amy saved in September?

d. In which month had she saved up $75?

e. In September Amy used up her savings to buy a used bike. How much did the bike cost?

2. The graph shows a puppy's weight

for 10 days after birth.

Notice how the two axes are

named as day and grams.

a. About how many grams

did the puppy weigh

on day 1? ________

Day 2? ________

Day 3? ________

Day 4? ________

b. What is the first day that the puppy weighed 600 g or more?

c. What is the first day that the puppy weighed 700 g or more?

38

3. Look at the graph about the monthly retail prices of strawberries in 2004, given in dollars per

pound. The retail price is the price you see in a grocery store or the price the customers pay.

Do you know why the price is lower in the summer?

b. Find the highest price per pound and the lowest price per pound.

What is the difference of these two?

c. How much did it cost to buy 2 lb of strawberries in August?

In November?

4. Becca's mom wrote down an x mark for every bad behavior she did during the day.

The table shows the list of her x-marks.

a. Make a line graph. Remember to name one axis as days and the other as x-marks.

b. Did Becca's behavior improve?

Day

x-marks

Mon

10

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

39

Month

Price

($ per lb)

Jan

2.48

Feb

2.33

Mar

2.12

Apr

1.66

May

1.67

Jun

1.85

Jul

1.63

Aug

1.82

Sep

1.84

Oct

2.60

Nov

3.19

Dec

3.60

maximum temperatures

for each month in New York.

Month

Max.

Temp.

Month

Max.

Temp.

Month

Max.

Temp.

Jan

3C

May

20C

Sep

26C

Feb

3C

Jun

25C

Oct

21C

Mar

7C

Jul

28C

Nov

11C

Apr

14C

Aug

27C

Dec

5C

a. Make a line graph. Three values are already done for you.

b. What are the coldest months?

c. What are the warmest months?

d. What is the difference in maximum temperature between the coldest and the

warmest month?

6. Do a line graph from some data that you gather yourself! Just remember, it has to be something

that changes over time. You can also make up data from your own head. Here are some

ideas:

z

how many hours of schoolwork (or housework or playing etc.) you do each day of the week

how many pages of a book you read each day of the week

You can also use this neat online tool for creating your graph: http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/

To use it, you need to have your data ready. It will not give you any data. It just draws the graph.

40

Rounding

When you are rounding to the nearest ten,

look at the ONES DIGIT.

z

z

z

If the ones digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.

If you round up, the tens digit increases by one.

the middle, round up. 85 90.

You can draw a line after the digit whose place you are rounding to. The digit or digits after the line

will become zeros.

25 6 26 0 (up)

8 4 8 0 (down)

Notice carefully: If you are rounding up, and the tens digit is already 9, look at the two digits

just before your line, and increase that number by one:

3,29 7 3,30 0 (up)

It is as if the 29 formed by the hundreds and

tens changes into 30 - exactly one more.

(In reality it is 29 tens changing to 30 tens.)

79 5 80 0 (up)

The 79

changes to 80.

The 09

changes to 10.

1. Round the numbers to the nearest ten. The number line can help.

a. 294 ______

b. 315 ______

c. 278 ______

d. 285 ______

e. 315 ______

f. 296 ______

g. 304 ______

h. 207 ______

a. 526 ______

d. 197 ______

g.

b. 34 ______

e. 705 ______

h. 5,971 ______

k. 2,282 ______

c. 181 ______

f. 392 ______

i. 9,568 ______

l. 4,003 ______

41

440 ______

j. 4,061 ______

Find the whole hundred that is nearest to 539. Rounded to the nearest hundred, 539 _________.

When you are rounding to the nearest hundred, look at the TENS DIGIT.

z

z

z

z

If the tens digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.

The rounded result is a whole hundred so it ends in two zeros.

The hundreds digit changes by one if you round up.

You can draw a line after the digit whose place you are rounding to.

The digits after the line will become zeros.

5 62 6 00

2 48 2 00 (down)

Notice carefully: If you are rounding up, and the hundreds digit is already 9, look at the two digits

just before your line, and increase that number by one:

5,9 92 5,5 00 (up)

It is as if the 59 formed by the thousands and

hundreds changes into 60 - exactly one more.

The 69

changes to 70.

The 29

changes to 30.

a. 3,520 ______

b. 3,709 ______

c. 3,935 ______

d. 3,541 ______

e. 3,962 ______

f. 3,425 ______

g. 3,847 ______

h. 3,656 ______

a. 526 ______

d. 197 ______

g. 2,907 ______

j. 3,032 ______

b. 54 ______

e. 706 ______

h. 5,971 ______

k. 2,959 ______

c. 761 ______

f. 365 ______

i. 7,543 ______

l. 4,014 ______

42

When you are rounding to the nearest thousand, look at the HUNDREDS DIGIT.

z

z

z

z

If the hundreds digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.

The rounded result is a whole thousand so it ends in three zeros.

The thousands digit changes by one if you round up.

You can draw a line after the thousands digit. The digits after the line will become zeros.

2, 723 3,000 (up)

457 0 (down)

a. 3,520 ______

b. 6,709 ______

c. 5,499 ______

d. 7,230 ______

e. 2,800 ______

f. 4,087 ______

g. 3,602 ______

h. 4,555 ______

a. 526 ______

d. 4,197 ______

g. 2,907 ______

j. 9,605 ______

b. 54 ______

e. 5,672 ______

h. 5,502 ______

k. 2,553 ______

c. 761 ______

f. 3,099 ______

i. 9,397 ______

l. 1,047 ______

7. Round these numbers to the nearest ten, nearest hundred, and nearest thousand.

55

2,602

9,829

3,199

rounded to

nearest 10

rounded to

nearest 100

rounded to

nearest 1000

43

495

709

5,328

The rounding rules remain the same even with money amounts.

Rounding to the nearest dollar, look at

the ten-cents DIGIT (tenth of a dollar).

z

z

z

look at the dollars DIGIT (ones digit).

If it is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.

The rounded result is in whole dollars

so omit the decimal point and the cents.

z

z

z

If it is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, then round up.

The ones digit becomes zero.

Omit the decimal point and the cents.

$12. 72 $13

$59. 92 $60

$4 7.26 $50

$452. 34 $452

$3,480. 55 $3,481

a. $3.17 ______

b. $97.99 ______

c. $3.29 ______

d. $1,680.25 ______

e. $47.38 _____

f. $125.59 ______

g. $13.70 ______

h. $977.50 ______

a. $45.70 ______

b. $7.99 ______

c. $73.78 ______

d. $6,289.40 ______

e. $43.27 ______

f. $169.49 ______

g. $255.55 ______

h. $564.00 ______

10. Round these numbers to the nearest one, nearest ten, and nearest hundred.

n

$129.78

$455.09

$69.42

$591.95

rounded to

nearest dollar

rounded to

nearest

ten dollars

rounded to

nearest

hundred dollars

11. Round the prices, and use the rounded prices to estimate the total bill.

a. pencils $2.28, paper $5.90, notebook $4.76, books $12.75.

b. Chairs $126.70, table $195.99, bed $256, mattresses $346.60.

44

$1,285.38

$6,089.90

Estimating

You can estimate the result of a calculation. Round the numbers, and then calculate (add or subtract)

using the rounded numbers. Your result is not exact. That is why it's called an estimate.

Use the symbol (is approximately) instead of equality = when you change from exact numbers

to rounded numbers.

567 + 89 413

$4 + $28 + $6 = $38.

1. First estimate by rounding the numbers to the nearest hundred. Then find the exact answer.

a. 967 + 231 + 4,792

Estimation:

Estimation:

Estimation:

Estimation:

2. The table lists the costs of running the student recess time snack bar.

Estimate the total cost over these five weeks by rounding

the numbers to the nearest ten.

Week 37 Week 38 Week 39 Week 40 Week 41

$147

$164

$182

$129

$131

45

They have two choices: one apartment costs $289 per week,

and the other costs $327 per week.

a. Estimate the cost of each one.

b. How much approximately would the family

save by choosing the cheaper rental?

4. Solve these problems with estimation. You don't need to find the exact answer!

a. Each bus can take 47 passengers.

About how many passengers are

in four buses?

gallons can you get with $20?

What is the total approximately?

could you buy that cost $1.97 each?

5. The chart lists the number of loans that Charleston library had

on the weeks of May and June. From this chart, you cannot

read the exact numbers of loans, but you can find the

approximate numbers of loans. Estimate to the nearest ten,

the total number of loans for a) weeks 18-21 b) weeks 22-25.

46

Reviewing Money

1. Write the dollar amounts as cents or vice versa.

a. $0.25 = _____

b. $0.70 = ______

c. $1.25 = _______

d. $5.60 = ______

e. $31.55 = ______

f. $_______ = 76

g. $_______ = 20

h. $______ = 154

i. $_______ = 859

j. $______ = 419

k. $80.34 = _______

l. $_______ = 104

a. $1.05 ______

b. $7.72 ______

c. $35.17 ______

d. $165.83 _______

e. $94.90 ______

f. $99.09 ______

g. $99.90 ______

h. $100.56 _______

3. You bought items for $1.50, $12, and for $2.20. You paid with a 20-dollar bill.

How much was your total?

How much was your change?

4. Make change. Mark how many of each bill/coin you need.

Item

cost

Money

given

a. $56

$70

b. $29

$50

c. $78

$100

d. $129

$200

Change

needed

$5 bill

$20 bill

$50 bill

$1 bill

5. Make change. Mark how many of each bill or coin you need.

Item cost

Money Change

given needed

a. $2.56

$5

b. $8.94

$10

c. $7.08

$10

d. $3.37

$10

$5 bill

$1 bill

47

25

10

a. Mike had $99. He spent $34 , and he has $56 left.

b.

c. Mom had $280. She spent $45, and now has ______ left.

c.

Originally he had _______.

d.

she has $3.56. The item cost ________.

e.

7. Match the situations (a), (b), and (c) with number sentences (i), (ii), and (iii).

Then solve for the unknown number x in each situation.

a. Andy had $60 and he bought a tool set for $48.

How much does he have left?

i. $60 x = $48

b. Elisa bought food for $60 and now has $48 left.

How much money did she have initially?

back home with $48. How much did he spend?

a. Mike had $38, and after Grandma's

gift, he had $158.

How much did Grandma give him?

How much does she have now?

birthday money ($60).

How much did he have left?

birthday money, and now she has $28.

How much was the birthday money?

and 1,000 whiteboard erasers at $1.02 each,

Estimate the total using rounded numbers.

of the three kids, and an $0.80 ice cream cone

for himself. How much was the total?

What was his change from $10?

48

Discounts

Often the store lowers the price of an item. That is called discounting the item.

If a shirt first costs $10, and the store then puts a new price of $9 on it, the shirt is discounted by $1.

The discount is how many dollars the price changed. This time the discount was $1.

A TV costs $650.

Now it is discounted by $100.

by $2.10. The new price is $6.

of course higher: $6 + $2.10 = $8.10

9. How much is the discount, the new price, or the original price?

a.

Old price $5.25

New price $4.50

Discount ______

b.

Old price $1.56

New price $1.32

Discount ______

the new price is $47.95.

How much is the discount?

c.

Before $500 / month

Now _____ / month

Discount $23

d.

Before $______

Now $29.50

Discount $5.50

a $200 discount.

What is the new price?

10. The chart lists some Disney World ticket prices. For each ticket there is an adult and

child price, normal (gate) price and discount price.

Ticket type Normal price Discount price

4 day Adult

$235

$225.31

4 day Child

$200

$193.38

3 day Adult

$221

$218.73

3 day Child

$189

$186.81

2 day Adult

$165

$162.20

2 day Child

$143

$141.70

1 Day Adult

$103

$103

1 Day Child

$92

$92

For 4 Day Child ticket, the discount is __________.

For _________________ and _________________

tickets, there is no discount.

a. How much would it cost for your family to spend 2 days

in Disney World using the discount tickets?

b. Can you spend three days there if you can afford to spend $800 at the most?

49

Review

1. a. Write a subtraction problem where

the difference is 15 and the minuend is 100.

b. Write an addition problem where

one addend is 339 and the sum is 2,193

2. Solve x + 283 = 1,394.

the pay so that Amanda got $50 more than Abigail, because

she spent more time in weeding it. If their total pay was $300,

how much did Amanda get and how much did Abigail get?

a. 5 (2 + 4)

(50 20) 2 + 10

b. 120 20 2 0

53+27

10 (4 + 4) 4

3 $13 $2

Find the cost of three $13-hammers when

they are discounted by $2.

$13 3 $2

($13 $2) 3

Write a single number sentence to solve.

Mom had $70.20 left in her purse.

How much did she have originally?

and the other cost $25 more. What was his total cost?

50

Introduction

The second chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers large numbers (up to 9

digits) and place value concepts with those.

The first lessons only deal with thousands or numbers with a maximum of four digits. These are for

review and for deepening the student's understanding of place value. It is crucial that the student

understands place value with these numbers before moving on to larger numbers. Yet again, these larger

numbers can be very easy as long as the student understands the basics of how our place value system

works.

Besides the concept of place value, the chapter contains lessons on comparing numbers, adding and

subtracting in columns, mental math problems, and the idea of multiples.

page

span

Thousands .......................................................

53

3 pages

56

2 pages

58

2 pages

60

2 pages

62

2 pages

64

3 pages

5 pages

72

3 pages

75

2 pages

Review ...........................................................

77

2 pages

51

Place Value Payoff

Match numbers written in standard form with numbers written in expanded form in this game.

http://www.quia.com/mc/279741.html

Megapenny Project

Visualizes big numbers with pictures of pennies.

http://www.kokogiak.com/megapenny/default.asp

Keep My Place

Fill in the big numbers to this cross-number puzzle.

http://www.mathsyear2000.org/magnet/kaleidoscope2/Crossnumber/index.html

Place value puzzler

Place value or rounding game. Click on the asked place value in a number, or type in the rounded version

of the number.

http://www.funbrain.com/tens/index.html

Estimation at AAA Math

Exercises about rounding whole numbers and decimals, front-end estimation, estimating sums and

differences. Each page has an explanation, interactive practice, and games.

http://www.aaamath.com/B/est.htm

Can you say really big numbers?

Enter a really big number, try say it out loud, and see it written.

http://www.mathcats.com/explore/reallybignumbers.htm

52

Thousands

one (o)

z

z

ten (t)

tens go to a hundred? ____

hundreds go to a thousand? ____

is called the base ten system.

hundred (h)

thousand (th)

th h t o 7,284 has

7 thousands, 2 hundreds,

7 2 8 4 8 tens, and 4 ones.

out the number as a sum of whole thousands, whole

hundreds, whole tens, and ones. You see all of it right from

the number:

z

It has 0 tens = 0.

It has 8 ones = 8.

a. 8,325 = 8000 + 300 + 20 + 5

b. 4,935 =

c. 4,039 =

d. 3,002

e. 2,090 =

f. 9,405

a. 4000 + 500 + 90 + 3

b. 2000 + 90

c. 3000 + 200

d. 8000 + 5

e. 1000 + 80 + 7

f. 5000 + 600 + 9

g. 6 hundred 4 thousand

h. 8 tens 4 thousand

k. fifty, 7 thousand

l. 4 thousand, 5

m. 9, sixty, 4 thousand

n. 8 hundred, 3 thousand, 9

53

But 7 in the number 7,284 actually means seven thousand. The value of the digit 7 is 7,000.

The 2 in the number 7,284 actually means two hundred. The value of the digit 2 is 200.

The value of the digit 8 is eighty or 80.

The value of the digit 4 is four.

The value of the digit depends on WHERE it is in the number.

Look where NINE is in these numbers:

690

9 is in tens place.

9,055 9 in 9,055 means nine thousand The value of the digit 9 is 9,000. 9 is in thousands place.

419

1,970 9 in 1,970 means nine hundred. The value of the digit 9 is 900.

9 is in ones place.

9 is in hundreds place.

In other words, the value of the digit 9 depends on where it's at, or where its place is.

That is why this system of writing numbers is called the place value system.

If nine is in the hundreds' place, then its value is 900 (for example in number 5,900).

If nine is in the tens place, then its value is 90 (for example in number 498).

3. What is the value of the digit 5 in the following numbers?

a. 3,859 fifty

b. 65

c. 549

d. 2,506

e. 5,012

f. 3,050

a. 509 five hundred

b. 9,843

c. 940

d. 2,088

e. 1,200

f. 4,002

g. 7,008

h. 405

i. 4,400

j. 90

5. a. What is the largest possible number you can build by using the digits 2, 5, 8, and 4?

b. What is the least possible number you can build by using them?

6. What is the difference between the largest and the least possible

number you can build using the digits 6, 9, and 1?

54

4,769 has 6 tens. One ten more means there will be 7 tens: 4,779.

2,958 has nine hundreds. One hundred more means there will be 10 hundreds, but that makes a

thousand. Our answer number will have 3 thousands, with no hundreds: 3,058.

7. Fill in the table - add 10, 100, or 1000. If in doubt, you can add in columns.

1,056

2,508

342

4,009

59

6,980

723

n + 10

n + 100

n + 1000

8. What is missing?

b. 483 = 80 + 3 + ______

d. 8,005 = 5 + ______

9. If you add 1 thousand, 1 hundred, 1 ten, and 1 to this number, it becomes 9,000.

What is the number?

For the digits given, build the largest and the least possible

number you can. Then find their difference. In which

multiplication table can you find each of the differences?

a. 7 and 5

b. 2 and 9

c. 4 and 5

d. 8 and 3

75 and 57

difference: 18

Do the same as above, but now with three digits. For each difference you find, add its

digits. If you then get a two-digit number, add its digits as well. What do you notice?

e. 7,1, 5

f. 9, 4, 7

g. 8, 9, 7

difference 594

5 + 9 + 4 = 18

1+8=9

You can also try the same with four digits!

55

h. 4, 1, 8

8,299

Just one is missing

from thousand:

Ten is missing

from thousand:

999 + 1 = 1,000

990 + 10 = 1,000

a. 999 + 1 = 1,000

56

a. 2,000 1 = 1,999

b. 5,000 3 = ______

c. 6,000 50 = ______

2,000 4 = ______

4,000 10 = ______

9,000 30 = ______

2,000 7 = ______

7,000 20 = ______

Mental math trick: Add up to find the difference to the next whole thousand.

First fill the next whole ten, the next whole hundred, and then the next whole thousand.

+ 8

6,7 82

+ 10

6,7 90

+ 200

6,8 00

+ 50

7,0 00

5,7 50

+ 200

5, 800

6,0 00

5. Round the numbers to the nearest thousand, and write down the rounding error.

That is the difference between the number and the rounded number.

Number Rounded number Rounding error

4,993

8,029

7,890

5,113

9,880

2,810

6. Solve. Use the top problem to help you in the bottom ones.

a. 2,000 100 = ______

a. Estimate his total bill in whole thousand dollars.

b. How many dollars short of that estimate is the exact bill?

8. What is the rounding error, if the sum 1,982 + 3,950 is rounded to 6,000?

57

More Thousands

On this number line you see whole thousands from one thousand till fifteen thousand.

7 8,0 0 0

Read: 78 thousand

the whole thousands. Read the numbers is as if you say

the word thousand for the comma.

1 5 3,0 0 0

8 0 2,0 0 0

until reaching a thousand thousands.

9 9 0,0 0 0

9 9 9,0 0 0

= 1 million

1 7,5 4 4

6 0 9,2 3 0

7 0,0 8 0

9 0 2,0 0 5

hundreds, tens, and ones

just like you have learned.

Read: 609 thousand two hundred thirty

Read: seventy thousand eighty

Read: 902 thousand five

a. 1 6 4 0 0 0

b. 9 2 0 0 0

c. 3 0 9 0 0 0

d. 3 4 0 0 0

e. 7 8 0 0 0 0

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

____ thousand

2. Place a comma into the number. Fill in missing parts. Read numbers aloud.

a. 1 6 4,4 5 3

b. 9 2 9 0 8

c. 3 2 9 0 3 3

d. 1 4 0 0 4

e. 5 5 0 0 5 3

f. 7 2 0 0 1

g. 8 0 0 0 0 4

h. 3 0 0 3 6

58

a. 456,098

b. 950,050

c. 23,090

d. 560,008

e. 78,304

f. 266,894

g. 219,513

h. 306,700

a. 30,000 + 5,000 =

b. 200,000 + 1,000 =

c. 400,000 + 30,000 =

d. 710,000 + 40,000 =

e. 300,000 + 600,000 =

f. 700,000 + 70,000 =

a. 35,000 + 5,000 =

b. 210,000 + 10,000 =

c. 420,000 + 30,000 =

d. 711,000 + 10,000 =

e. 300,000 60,000 =

f. 700,000 70,000 =

g. 30,000 5,000 =

h. 200,000 6,000 =

i. 723,000 400,000 =

j. 500,000 1,000 =

6. On the number line below, 510,000 and 520,000 are marked (at the posts).

Write the numbers that correspond to the dots.

7. Make a number line from 320,000 to 340,000 with tick-marks at every whole thousand, similar

to the one above. Then mark the following numbers on the number line:

323,000 328,000 335,000 329,000 330,000

59

35 thousand 4

35,004

thousands H T O

There are no

hundreds nor tens.

There are no

hundreds nor ones.

203,060

So we put 0 in the

hundreds and tens

place.

So we put 0 in the

hundreds and ones

place.

thousands H T O

1. Break these numbers down to whole thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones.

a. 49,015

b. 206,090

c. 107,802

d. 88,030

e. 790,302

f. 903,000

g. 250,067

h. 300,070

a. 20 thousand

4 ones

7 hundreds

e. 230 thousand

7 tens

f. 9 thousand 6 hundred

7 ones

h. 40 thousand 4 hundred

60

3 hundred

i. 59 thousand

5 ones

6 tens

Remember, after thousands are three more digits!

a. 4 tens 25 thousand

7 ones 3 hundred

6 hundred 4 ones

c. 8 hundred 1 thousand

60 thousand 8 ones

d. 50 thousand 6 tens

3 thousand

e. 42 thousand

7 ones 8 tens

50 thousand 4 tens

g. 90 thousand 4 tens

200 thousand

h. 20 thousand 9 hundred

7 thousand 5 ones

i. 500 thousand

4 thousand 8 ones

a.

b.

45,000

134,000

c.

800,000

d.

400,000

45,500

134,200

750,000

390,000

46,000

134,400

700,000

380,000

5. Add.

a. 30,000 + 50

b. 254,000 + 300 + 5

c. 133,000 + 200 + 50

d. 77,000 + 4

e. 2 + 60,000

f. 120,000 + 3 + 60

g. 5,000 + 10,000 + 20

h. 4,000 + 6 + 20,000

i. 300 + 30,000 + 90

j. 400 + 86,000 + 70 + 1

61

728 thousand 401

hth tth th h

(box in the picture).

7 2 8, 4 5 1

z

z

z

z

z

z

In the charts:

hth means hundred thousands

tth means ten thousands

th means thousands

2 is in the ten thousands place. The value of 2 is twenty thousand.

8 is in the thousands place. The value of 8 is eight thousand.

4 is in the hundreds place. The value of 4 is four hundred.

5 is in the tens place. The value of 5 is fifty.

1 is in the ones place. The value of 1 is one.

hth tth th h

7 2 8, 4 5 1

7 0 0, 0

2 0, 0

8, 0

4

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

hth tth th h

5 0 1, 0 2 9

5 0 0, 0 0 0

1, 0 0 0

2 0

9

500,000 + 1,000 + 20 + 9

a.

hth tth th h

8 7, 0 1 5

b.

hth tth th h

c.

4 0 3, 2 8 0

hth tth th h

6 9 2, 0 0 4

62

d.

hth tth th h

7 0 0, 2 0 4

a. 32,493

b. 172,392

c. 25,600

d. 109,020

e. 220,000

f. 900,701

4. Find the missing number. It's all mixed!

a. 26,290 = 90 + _______ + 200

f. 917,500 = 900,000 + 500 + 10,000 + __________

g. 30,239 = 9 + 200 + 30 + ___________

5. What is the value of the digit 5 in the following numbers?

b. 400,065

c. 700,549

d. 59,906

a. 1,209

b. 19,843

c. 89,605

d. 208,000

e. 302,600

f. 300,027

g. 210,408

h. 5,425

i. 921,993

j. 300,094

a. 8 is in tens place, 5 is in hundred thousands place, and 7 is in ones place.

b. 4 is in hundreds place, 8 is in tens place, and 2 is in ten thousands place.

63

Which is more, 399,393 or 393,939?

You are used to comparing small numbers. When comparing big numbers, use the same principles:

z

Check if one number contains bigger place value units (or is longer).

For example, 675,000 > 95,239 because 95,239 does not have any hundred thousands, but

675,000 does.

If the numbers have the same amount of digits (are equally long), then you need to compare

the digits in the different places. Compare the digits starting from the BIGGEST place value.

Though you don't have to use them, place value charts can help.

t.th th

h.th t.th th

3

3

2 7 0 4 5

2 7 0 5 4

9 9 3 9 3

9 3 9 3 9

digits are the same (3). Both numbers have

300,000.

At the ten thousands place, the digits are

the same. Both numbers have 90,000

At the thousands place, one number has 9,

the other has 3. The upper number has

9,000 while the other has only 3,000!

are the same (2). Both numbers have

20,000.

At the thousands place, the digits are the

same. Both numbers have 7,000.

At the hundreds place, the digits are the

same.

At the tens place, one number has 4, the

other has 5.

1. Write < or > between the numbers. These are fairly easy!

a. 45,200

54,000

b. 18,700

d. 78,111

77,001

e. 5,605

g. 1,788

17,880

h. 392,000

191,000

605,000

365,000

a. 18,309; 81,390; 8,039; 818,039

b. 52,000; 5,020; 250,000; 520,000

64

c. 22,029

202,000

f. 34,092

43,200

i. 493,239

521,000

45,500

a.

54,000

52,400

134,000

d.

144,000

143,400

7,887

b.

8,708

7,708

c.

10,101 11,001

5,606

e.

5,556

5,599

f.

8,099 8,909

11,101

8,009

4. Write < or > between the numbers. Use the place value chart now if you need to.

a. 78,187

77,817

b. 21,089

21,098

c. 23,392

23,293

d. 349,309

343,909

e. 493,605

465,093

f. 199,909

20,900

g. 545,055

545,405

h. 909,808

908,809

i. 200,189

200,210

5. Look at the number lines and mark the following numbers (approximately!) there with a little circle.

15,090

15,131

15,678

15,430

15,878

15,923

16,050

34,896

34,950

35,254

35,599

35,020

34,631

35,117

6. a. Make a number line from 67,000 till 68,000 with tick marks at every whole hundred.

67,250 67,030 67,510 67,780 67,940 67,370 67,049

67,703

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

65

7. Find the largest number. It helps to place the comma that separates the thousands in the numbers.

383800

49830

a.

39903

d.

93024

398039

110293

290290

3420

b.

92022

e.

301481

99029

c.

600606 606660

606066

30420

f.

379444 390200

390002

a. 500 5,600

5,406

5,505

1,500 1,459

b. 87,600

8,708

78,777

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

_______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______ < _______

a. 400,000 + x = 500,000

b. x + 30,000 = 100,000

c. x + x = 10,000

d. 500,000 x = 300,000

a.

81,400

b.

162,400

c.

1,000,000

d.

600

81,950

168,600

880,000

1,200

82,500

174,800

760,000

2,400

4,800

66

1. Adding in columns happens exactly the same way as with smaller numbers. See how well you can do!

905,091

+ 40,510

b.

d.

608,781

+ 230,911

e.

g.

289,300

120,000

+ 409,436

h.

a.

c.

78,402

+ 13,770

321,866

+ 34,770

f.

60,066

+ 477,770

89,502

45,987

13,770

i.

560,421

340,060

+ 4,987

29,313

407,616

480,000

29,100

906,500

162,700

485,000

29,300

916,600

172,700

490,000

29,500

926,700

182,700

67

9

7 10

9 9

7 10 10 10

7 10 10

800,000

510,065

Borrow over zeros...

800,000

513,065

800,000

510,065

Subtraction happens

the same way as with

smaller numbers.

Just be careful with

lots of borrowing!

3. Subtract.

a.

120,091

34,510

b.

199,136

79,160

c.

670,000

1,300

d.

234,688

167,991

e.

65,570

23,677

f.

90,080

5,025

g.

554,600

128,000

e.

600,000

223,065

i.

400,000

18,344

a.

b.

419,000 + 1,000

150,000 + 40,000

500,000 3,000

140,000 + 70,000

500 + 36,000

20,000 + 400,000

189,000 80,000

97,000 + 400,000

189,000 + 1,000

36,100 + 400

40,600 500

20,000 + 20,100

40,500 + 500

180,000 2,000

250,000 40,000

100,000 + 9,000

177,300 + 700

36,000 + 5,000

77,700 7,000

100,000 29,300

68

134,607

+ 3,065

134,607

+

3,065

457,934

37 ,921

+

24

457,934

37,921

+

24

writing, numbers not lined up)

This is good!

a. 300,145 + 2,399 + 345

b. 560,073 + 81,400 + 98

13,000

78,000

154,000

n + 1,000

n + 10,000

n + 100,000

69

275,000

500,000

640,500

509,032

219

509,032

219

245,032

37,921

245,032

37,921

118 111

THIS IS OFF!

This is good!

(errors in borrowing)

7. Calculate.

a. 509,788 82,345

b. 30,760 2,906

c. 26,509 1,208

d. 984,044 329

8. If the two expressions (calculations) are equal, put an equal sign = into the box between them.

If they are NOT equal, put a not equal sign "" between them.

a. 660,000 + 30,000

620,000 + 40,000

d.

b. 499,000 + 2,000

501,000 1,000

e.

c. 125,000 4,000

119,000 + 2,000

f. 10,000 1,200

70

1,990 + 11

5,000 300

1,999 + 2

6000 1,300

6,000 + 2,500

If you travel around the earth one time on the equator, your trip is 24,900 miles long!

If you laid out an adult human's blood vessels, they'd go for 93,200 miles!

The Moon lies at an average distance of 238,857 miles from the earth.

a. How many whole loops around the earth would

those blood vessels go? (You can use estimation.)

to lay out to reach from the Earth to the moon?

on the head of a pin. About how many would be

on ten pinheads? On twenty? On thirty?

normally has between 4,000 and 10,000 white

blood cells, and between 150,000 and 400,000 platelets.

Suppose someone has 50,000 white blood cells

and 10,000 platelets in that amount of blood.

Their white blood cell count is (high/low) and

their platelet count is (high/low).

Would that be normal or is the person

sick with something?

You lose 100 of them when you brush your hair.

How many do you have now? Should you worry

about getting to be bald if this continues for a while?

71

If you count by whole

thousands...

(read aloud)

994,000

995,000

996,000

997,000

998,000

999,000

1,0 0 0,0 0 0

...what comes after

999 thousand?

A thousand

thousands!

It is called ONE

MILLION.

The little comma separates the millions places (digits) from the rest.

5,0 0 0,0 0 0

6 9,0 0 0,0 0 0

9 6 7,0 0 0,0 0 0

Read: 5 million

Read: 69 million

Every number listed above has 6 zeros - they are whole millions!

After the millions, the rest of the number is read just like you have learned before.

3 4 7,5 0 0,0 0 0

1 9,0 2 0,0 0 0

3 4 7,0 4 0,3 2 6

19 million 20 thousand

Simply read the word million at the first comma, and thousand at the second comma.

1. Place two commas into the number: one to separate the thousands' places,

and another to separate the millions.

a. 7 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

b. 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

c. 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

______ million

______ million

______ million

d. 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

e. 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0

c. 8 3 4 5 0 0 0

______ million

______ million

g. 2 2 9 0 6 0 0 0

h. 5 1 4 3 1 0 0 0 0

i. 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

a. 18 million

b. 906 million

d. 70 million 90 thousand

72

3. Place commas into the number. Fill in missing parts. Read the numbers aloud.

a. 7 7 9,4 5 3,2 3 0

b. 9 2 9 0 8 0 7

c. 5 2 9 0 7 0 3 3

d. 5 5 0 0 1 4 5 3

e. 7 2 0 2 5 0 9 0

f. 2 2 8 0 1 0 2 0 0

In the following, there are NO thousands - so we don't even say the word thousand.

g. 1 0 7 0 0 0 4 5 3

h. 7 2 0 0 0 0 9 0

i. 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 6

j. 37 0 0 0 0 018

a. 41 million 456 thousand 200

b. 80 million 80 thousand 80

a.

b.

c.

d.

900,000

910,000

300,000

400,000

999,990

999,991

999,200

999,300

73

a.

6,111,050

5,990,099

b.

d. 18,000,0000

181,000

g.

6,090,045

6,009,056

2,223,020

2,222,322

c. 192,130,659

192,130,961

e. 13,395,090

13,539,099

f.

2,367,496

988,482

h.

1,001,000

i.

17,199,066

1,000,999

71,857,102

7. Find five large numbers in a newspaper with the help of an adult. Write the numbers here.

8. A project with large numbers. Choose one of the options below, or one of your own. Use an

encyclopedia, internet, or some other similar source, and make a list in descending order - that is,

the one with largest number first, and then towards the smallest ones in order.

a. of United States Western states and their populations;

b. of Asian countries and their populations;

c. of the amount of distinct animal species in the seven continents.

d. of United States Midwest states and their land areas.

z

100 fit into 1,000?

How many times does

1000 fit into 10,000?

10,000 fit into 100,000?

How many times does

100,000 fit into 1,000,000?

Jack blurted out, Hey, I just noticed something! The

number (10 10) goes into (100 100) the same number

of times as the number (100 100) goes into (1,000 1,000)!

Was Jack right?

Would this same idea work also with these numbers?

z

z

(2 2) and (20 20) ?

z

z

74

(4 4) and (40 40) ?

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

= 7 10

= 8 10

= 9 10

= 10 10

= 11 10

= 12 10

= 13 10

= 14 10

= 15 10

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

= 5 100

= 6 100

= 7 100

= 8 100

= 9 100

= 10 100

= 11 100

= 12 100

= 13 100

8,000

9,000

10,000

11,000

12,000

13,000

14,000

15,000

16,000

= 8 1000

= 9 1000

= 10 1000

= 11 1000

= 12 1000

= 13 1000

= 14 1000

= 15 1000

= 16 1000

...because you

These are

get them if you

multiples

multiply some

of 10...

number by 10.

...because you

These are

get them if you

multiples

multiply some

of 100...

number by 100.

...because you

These are

get them if you

multiples

multiply some

of 1,0000...

number by 1,000.

because 850 = 85 10.

because 4,000 = 40 100.

because 56,000 = 56 1,000.

because 3,480 = 348 10.

because 7,600 = 76 100.

ALL multiples of 10 end

in a zero!

in two zeros!

1,000, because

392,000 = 392 1,000.

ALL multiples of 1000 end

in three zeros!

Write also what number times 10 they are.

b. Write four distinct multiples of 100, different from those above.

Write also what number times 100 they are.

c. Write four distinct multiples of 1,000, different from those above.

Write also what number times 1,000 they are.

2. Multiply.

a. 11 100 = ________

b. 19 10 = ________

29 100 = ________

70 10 = ________

73 1,000 = ________

50 100 = ________

99 10 = ________

100 10 = ________

50 1,000 = ________

75

c. 6 1,000 = ________

a. 49 thousands __________

b. 20 tens __________

c. 37 tens __________

49 hundreds __________

20 hundreds __________

37 hundreds __________

49 tens __________

20 thousands __________

37 thousands __________

a. Columbus landed in America in fourteen hundred ninety two. (__________)

b. Andrew's car cost twenty-five hundred dollars (__________) when he got it

but he is going to sell it for twelve hundred (__________).

c. My great-great-grandfather was born in the year nineteen hundred (__________),

and died in the year nineteen hundred sixty (__________).

5. Write with numbers. What do we usually call...

a. 10 tens __________

b. 10 hundreds __________

1,000 thousands __________

b. How many dollars do you have in a stack of fifty 10-dollar bills?

In division problems, ask How many times does the divisor go into the dividend?

8,000 1000 = ?

720 10 = ?

4,500 100 = 45

2,000 100 = 20

1,000 go into 8,000?

8 times.

10 go into 720?

72 times.

100 fit into 4,500?

100 fit into 2,000?

a.

b.

c.

90 10 = ______

100 10 = ______

700 10 = ______

340 10 = ______

76

Review

1. Write the numbers.

a. 13 thousand 4 ones

9 tens

6 thousand

c. 1 million

6 thousand

a. 78 million 50 thousand 3 hundred

a. 213,047

b. 94,032

c. 5,300,049

d. 93,229,255

78

5,367

558

4,409

2,603

rounded to

nearest 100

rounded to

nearest 1000

a. to the nearest ten dollars:

$34.69 ______

$4.92 ______

$3,156.50 ______

6. First estimate the result of 5,076 2,845 675 by rounding the numbers to the nearest

hundred. Then find the exact answer.

Estimation:

Exact answer:

77

3,359

a. 40,505 = 5 + _______ + 40,000

8. Write < or > between the numbers.

a. 5,406

5,604

b. 49530

49553

c. 605748

5,905,544

95,695

495,644

496,455 145,900

590,554

b. 490,213 45,344

had cast in an election, Candidate A had received

638,344 votes and Candidate B had received 584,042

votes. The last 48,388 votes had not yet been counted.

If all of those last votes were for Candidate B, would he win?

$12,390 in other expenses. Will its total costs for June,

July, and August exceed half a million dollars?

78

60584

Chapter 3: Multiplication

Introduction

The third chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext covers multi-digit multiplication and

some related topics.

While the first lessons briefly review the multiplication concept and the times tables, the focus in fourth

grade is on multi-digit multiplication (also called algorithm of multiplication, or multiplying in columns).

We start out by multiplying by whole tens and hundreds. After this is mastered, comes the very important

concept of multiplying in parts. This essentially means that 4 63 is done in two parts: 4 60 and 4 3,

and the results are added.

The whole algorithm of multiplication is based on this principle, so it is important to master it. I don't

want kids to multiply in columns blindly, without understanding what is going on with that algorithm.

Before showing the traditional form of multiplying in columns, the lesson Multiply in Columns - the Easy

Way shows a simplified form of the same, which is essentially just multiplying in parts. You may skip that

lesson at your discretion or skim through it quickly if your child is ready to understand the standard form

of the algorithm, which comes next.

Other lessons in this chapter practice estimation and the order of operations, and multiplying with money.

Many kinds of word problems abound.

The lesson So Many of the Same Thing could be entitled Proportional Reasoning but I wanted to

avoid scaring parents and children with such a high-sounding phrase. The idea in that lesson is really

simple, but it does prepare for proportions as they are taught in 7th grade and in algebra.

After that, we multiply by whole hundreds in order to prepare for double-digit multiplier problems, and to

understand the algorithm of multiplication with more digits.

page

span

2 pages

83

3 pages

86

4 pages

90

5 pages

95

4 pages

99

1 pages

2 pages

3 pages

5 pages

2 pages

79

2 pages

3 pages

2 pages

3 pages

2 pages

a 2-Digit Multiplier .......................................... 124

4 pages

with a 2-Digit Number Multiplier .................... 128

3 pages

Two-Digit Number ........................................... 131

2 pages

3 pages

Math Playground

Learn how to think algebraically with these clever weighing scales.

http://www.mathplayground.com/algebraic_reasoning.html

Thinking Blocks

Thinking Blocks is an engaging, interactive math tool that helps students learn how to solve multistep

word problems. Scroll down to Multiplication and Division.

http://www.mathplayground.com/thinkingblocks.html

Rectangle Multiplication

An interactive tool that illustrates multiplying in parts using the area model. Choose the common option

for multiplying in parts.

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_192_g_2_t_1.html

Interactive Pan Balance

Each of the four shapes is assigned a certain weight. Place shapes on either side of the pan balance and

figure out their relationships.

http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=131

Scales Problems from Math Kangaroo Problem Database

http://www.kangurusa.com/clark/pdb/quiz.pl?

dir=./kangur/output&y1=2002&l1=0304&i1=10&y2=2004&l2=0304&i2=10&y3=2005&l3=02&i3=19&n

Multiplication Games

A list of times tables games and activities to practice multiplication facts.

http://www.homeschoolmath.net/math_resources_2.php#multiplication

80

Multiplication Concept

z

Multiplication has to do with many groups of the same size: 3 5 means three groups of 5.

You can find the total by adding: 3 5 = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15.

3 6 and 6 3 are both 18.

3 groups of 6 or

6 groups of 3.

Multiplication terms

The numbers being multiplied are factors.

The result is called a product.

There may be more than 2 factors. For example, in

4 5 2 = 40, the numbers 4, 5, and 2 are all factors.

a. 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = ______ = ____

b. 80 + 80 + 80 = ______ = ____

20 + 20 + 20 + 20 = ______ = ____

8 + 8 + 8 = ______ = ____

c. ___________________ = 4 5 = ___

d. _________________ = 2 12 = ___

___________________ = 4 50 = ___

b. ___ rows, ___ columns: ___ ___ =

___

___ rows, ___ columns: ___ ___ = ___

___

3. Solve.

a. 8 2

807

b. 3 5

c. 2 8

125

222

81

d. 3 10

333

a. 2 24

d. 2 150

g. 4 1,000

j. 2 34

b. 14 0

e. 3 2,000

h. 5 200

k. 3 21

c. 16 1

f. 4 3,000

i. 3 211

l. 4 50

a. Seven children have _____ toes.

6. a. Write

the terms.

2 23 = 46

___________ ___________

with factors 4 and 8.

d. In one multiplication problem, two factors are 2 and 6. The product is 60.

What is the third factor?

7. Write a single calculation to solve these problems. Your

calculation will use several operations, not just one.

a. Mom had three dozen eggs in cartons and five in a bowl.

How many eggs did she have in all?

b. Jack bought six packages of magazines. Each had 10 magazines.

He opened one package and gave three magazines to his friend.

How many magazines does Jack have left?

c. Anna put crayons into boxes. Into four of the boxes,

she put 10 crayons each, and into three boxes

she put only six. How many crayons were there in all?

d. Ernest bought three books for $11 each, and paid with $50.

What was his change?

82

So WHY is it important to learn your multiplication tables? Why couldn't you just use

addition or other ways to find what is 6 9 or 7 8 or 4 7 ?

The reason is, the knowledge of multiplication tables is also needed in the opposite

sense. You need to know them so you can divide quickly problems such as 54 6

or 56 7 or 48 8. You need to know those in order to do long division.

Also, a little later when you study fractions, you need to be able to immediately notice that

in the fraction

56

, both numbers you see are in the table of 8. When you see

64

28

, you need

49

to immediately see that both numbers are in the table of 7. Without that, fraction

operations such as addition and fraction simplification will be a pain to do.

15=

25=

35=

45=

55=

65=

75=

85=

95=

10 5 =

11 5 =

12 5 =

1 10 =

2 10 =

3 10 =

4 10 =

5 10 =

6 10 =

7 10 =

8 10 =

9 10 =

10 10 =

11 10 =

12 10 =

1 11 =

2 11 =

3 11 =

4 11 =

5 11 =

6 11 =

To find a number times 5, first multiply that number by 10, and take

half of that. So for 7 5, first go 7 10 = 70 and take half of that.

7 11 =

8 11 =

9 11 =

10 11 =

11 11 =

12 11 =

Elevens are as

easy as a pie!

12=

22=

32=

42=

52=

62=

72=

82=

92=

10 2 =

11 2 =

12 2 =

do you find in the tables of

2, 4, and 8?

14=

24=

34=

44=

54=

64=

74=

84=

94=

10 4 =

11 4 =

12 4 =

you can double twice:

7 4 = ??

Double 7 is 14, then just

double that to get 28.

83

18=

28=

38=

48=

58=

68=

78=

88=

98=

10 8 =

11 8 =

12 8 =

6 8 = ?? Take double 6,

and double that, and double that.

5, 6, 7, 8 - fifty-six is 7 times 8.

Color ones digits one color

and tens digits another. You

will see a pattern.

13=

23=

33=

43=

53=

63=

73=

83=

93=

10 3 =

11 3 =

12 3 =

16=

26=

36=

46=

56=

66=

76=

86=

96=

10 6 =

11 6 =

12 6 =

19=

29=

39=

49=

59=

69=

79=

89=

99=

10 9 =

11 9 =

12 9 =

the corresponding one from table of 3:

yellow (of the answers).

Color all the tens digits

red (of the answers).

What do you notice?

but remember you can change

the order of multiplication.

8 7 is the same as 7 8,

which is 56.

17=

27=

37=

47=

57=

67=

77=

87=

97=

10 7 =

11 7 =

12 7 =

1 12 =

2 12 =

3 12 =

4 12 =

5 12 =

6 12 =

7 12 =

8 12 =

9 12 =

10 12 =

11 12 =

12 12 =

a. ____ 7 = 49

b. ____ 6 = 48

c. ____ 8 = 64

d. ____ 9 = 72

____ 7 = 28

____ 6 = 30

____ 8 = 48

____ 9 = 54

____ 7 = 56

____ 6 = 54

____ 8 = 56

____ 9 = 63

e. ____ 5 = 45

f. ____ 3 = 27

g. ____ 4 = 28

h. ____ 2 = 18

____ 5 = 35

____ 3 = 18

____ 4 = 36

____ 2 = 16

____ 4 = 32

____ 2 = 12

____ 5 = 40

i. ____ 7 = 35

____ 3 = 21

j. ____ 5 = 60

k. ____ 6 = 36

l. ____ 8 = 72

____ 7 = 63

____ 5 = 25

____ 6 = 72

____ 8 = 16

____ 7 = 21

____ 5 = 30

____ 6 = 42

____ 8 = 32

84

10

11

12

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

5. A school hired 8 minivans that take 7 passengers each and one bus to take all 90 students to

a swimming pool. If all minivans were full, how many students went in the bus?

6. Let's practice the order of operations again.

a. 4 7 + 5 = ____

c. 4 (7 5) = ____

e. (4 + 5) (5 + 2) = ____

b. 2 (5 + 6) + 4 = ____

d. 100 5 6 = ____

f. 70 (5 + 6) 4 = ____

7. Fill in the missing numbers so that both sides of the equal sign = have the same value.

Example: 2 12 = 8 3

because

24 = 24

c. 3 10 = 6 ____

a. 2 6 = 4 ____

b. 6 6 = 4 ____

12 = 12

d. 2 20 = 10 ____

85

e. 5 12 = 6 ____

Scales Problems

This is a pan balance or scales. Things

go into the two pans, and the heavier

pan will go down, like in a seesaw.

If the two things weigh the same,

the balance stays balanced.

1. Solve how much each geometric shape weighs. You can use either pounds or kilograms.

86

on both sides, use this trick:

Take away the same amount of

unknown shapes from both sides.

The scale WILL continue to

stay balanced!

Then we see that three diamonds weigh 15.

2. Solve.

3. Solve. These are trickier. Use both balances to figure out the two unknown shapes.

87

that is balanced. Something is on the right side,

and something is on the left side, and they are

equal or balanced

5+7=26

a. 78 + ____ = 148

b. 7 + 6 + 6 = ____ 10

c. 2 50 = 40 + ____

160 = ____ + 90

5 + 5 + 5 + ____ = 2

12

7 6 = 2 ____

50 ____ = 32

16 + 19 = 2 ____ + 1

4 6 7 = 2 ____ + 1

On the next page you will find empty scales pictures. You can print out the page and devise your own problems. But be

careful! If you just make random problems, the solutions are likely to be fractions. See also:

http://www.mathplayground.com/algebraic_reasoning.html - weighing scales game that practices algebraic reasoning

http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=33 - an interactive pan balance with shapes.

88

89

1. a. Ten tens make a hundred.

How about 20 tens or more?

How about 20 hundreds or more?

10 tens = 10 10 = ____

13 tens = 13 10 = ____

20 tens = 20 10 = ____

21 tens = 21 10 = ____

37 tens = 37 10 = ____

92 100 is the same as 100 92. Both are 9,200.

To multiply a number by 10, just tag a zero in the end.

To multiply a number by 100, just tag two zeros in the end.

10 56 = 560

100 47 = 4700

10 481 = 4,810

Note especially what happens when the number you multiply already ends in a zero.

The rule works the same; you still have to tag a zero or two zeros.

10 60 = 600

100 20 = 2,000

10 500 = 5,000

2. Multiply.

a. 10 315 = ____

b. 100 62 = ____

c. 10 25,000 = ____

3,560 10 = ____

10 1,200 = ____

35 100 = ____

10 5,060 = ____

90

What is 20 14?

Then it becomes 2 14 = 28. Then, just

tag a zero to the end result: 20 14 = 280.

Then it becomes 2 31 = 62. Then, just tag

two zeros to the result: 200 31 = 6,200.

the fact that 20 = 10 2. For example,

fact that 200 = 100 2. For example,

20 14 = 10 2 14

200 31 = 100 2 31

2 14 = 28. Then multiply by ten:

2 31 = 62. Then multiply by a hundred:

10 (2 14) = 10 28 = 280.

a. 20 8 = ____

b. 200 7 = ____

c. 20 12 = ____

d. 20 16 = ____

4 20 = ____

5 200 = ____

35 20 = ____

42 200 = ____

20 5 = ____

11 200 = ____

200 9 = ____

54 20 = ____

The same principle works if you multiply by 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90. You can

imagine multiplying by 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, and then tag a zero into the end result.

Similarly, if you multiply by some whole hundred, imagine multiplying without

those two zeros, and tag the two zeros to the end result.

50 8 = 400

90 11 = 990

300 8 = 2,400

12 800 = 9,600

4. Multiply.

a. 40 3 = ____

8 20 = ____

e. 200 9 = ____

7 400 = ____

b. 70 6 = ____

c. 80 9 = ____

50 11 = ____

f. 700 6 = ____

600 11 = ____

30 15 = ____

12 40 = ____

g. 200 12 = ____

h. 3 1100 = ____

15 300 = ____

91

d. 60 11 = ____

8 900 = ____

5. Multiply.

a. 20 90 =

b. 60 80 =

70 300 =

30 900 =

c. 400 50 =

d. 80 800 =

40 70 = 2,800

In a problem 600 40 you can multiply

6 4, and tag three zeros to the result:

200 200 =

200 500 =

e. 100 100 =

f. 800 300 =

600 40 = 24,000

In a problem 700 800 you can multiply

7 8, and tag four zeros to the result.

40 30 =

90 1100 =

6. Write different factors for these products, using whole tens and whole hundreds.

Have you noticed?

7 80 = 560 and

70 8 = 560 !!

c. ___ ___ = 280 and

Have you noticed?

60 40 = 2,400 and

600 4 = 2,400 !!

60 ___ = 420

d. ___ ___ = 400 and

f. 2 ___ = 1,800 and

e. ___ ___ = 990 and

g. ___ ____ = 5,400 and

92

7. Find the missing factor. Think backwards of how many zeros you need.

a. ____ 3 = 360

b. 40 ____ = 320

____ 50 = 450

5 ____= 600

d. ____ 30 = 4,800

e. 40 ____ = 2,000

c. ____ 40 = 400

____ 2 = 180

f. ____ 800 = 56,000

6 ____= 4,200

____ 20 = 12,000

8. Here is another method for finding ten times a number. We will find 10 88 in steps,

and start out by finding 2 88.

Find 9 88 by adding 88

to your previous result.

Find 4 88 by doubling the previous result.

9 88 = _____

4 88 = _____

Find 8 88 by doubling the previous result.

Find 10 88 by adding 88

to your previous result.

8 88 = _____

10 88 = _____

Do you prefer using the shortcut?

9. These questions help you find how to multiply money amounts by 10.

a. What is 10 40 in dollars?

d. What is 10 80 in dollars?

b. What is 10 $2?

e. What is 10 $11?

g. What is 10 6 in cents?

k. What is 10 5 in cents?

h. What is 10 20 in dollars?

l. What is 10 10 in dollars?

i. What is 10 $8?

m. What is 10 $13?

Based on the questions above, can you discover a shortcut for multiplying money amounts by 10?

It is found on the next page.

93

To multiply a money amount by 10, move the decimal point by one digit.

Tag one zero so you have two digits to show the cents.

10 $2.40 is $24.00

10 $45.30 is $453.00

10 $1.56 is $15.60

10 $17.82 is $178.20

For example, if you have $3 first, after multiplying by 10 you need to have $30:

10 $3.42 is $34.20.

a. 10 $2.20

b. 10 $35.10

c. 10 $1.87

d. 10 $22.45

e. 10 $45

f. 10 $167.50

g. 10 $9.16

h. 10 $299.99

and 10 pairs of mittens for $5.50 each.

What was his total bill?

b. Mike bought ten pencils for 89 cents each,

and paid his purchases with a $10 bill.

What was his change?

c. Which is cheaper, to buy a 10-pack of cans of juice for $9.99,

or to buy ten individual cans of juice for $0.99 each?

What is the price difference?

the multiplication into smaller parts. He wrote 40 as 4 10

and 70 as 7 10, and then multiplied in a different order:

40 70 = 4 10 7 10

= 10 10 (4 7) = 100 28 = 2,800.

You do the same, and prove that 60 50 is indeed 3,000.

94

Multiply in Parts

Multiply 3 46

Break 46 into two parts: 40 and 6.

Then multiply those two parts separately by 3:

3 40 is 120, and 3 6 is 18.

Then add these two partial results: 120 + 18 = 138.

Here is another way of showing the same thing, using ten-bundles.

3 40 = 120

3 6 = 18

46

46

46

3 46

120

+ 18

138

8 13

(10 + 3)

5 24

7 68

(20 + 4)

(60 + 8)

8 10 and 8 3

5 20 and 5 4

7 60 and 7 8

80 and 24

= 104

100 and 20

= 120

420 and 56

= 476

1. Multiply tens and ones separately. Then add to get the final answer.

a. 6 27

(20 + 7)

b. 5 83

(

c. 9 34

)

= _____

= _____

= _____

95

2. Break the second factor into tens and ones. Multiply separately, and add.

a. 6 19

6 10 =

69 =

60

+ 54

b. 3 73

3 ___

3 ___

c. 4 67

114

d. 5 92

e. 9 33

f. 7 47

3. Multiply in parts. You can write the partial products under the problems, if you wish.

a. 5 13 = ____

b. 9 15 = ____

c. 5 33 = ____

d. 8 21 = ____

e. 4 22 = ____

f. 4 36 = ____

g. 6 42 = ____

h. 7 51 = ____

i. 5 25 = ____

a. How many seconds are there in one hour?

b. Jack bought 8 shirts for $14 each. What was his total bill?

c. Mary and Harry set up nine rows of seats in the school

auditorium, with 14 seats in each row. After that, they

had 56 seats unused. How many seats were there in all?

d. A package of small spoons costs $13. A whole silverware set is

four times as expensive. How much do both items cost together?

96

7 300 is 2,100, and 7 20 is 140, and 7 9 = 63.

Lastly add

the partial results:

2,100

140

+ 63

2,303

5. Multiply hundreds, tens, and ones separately. Then add to get the final answer.

a. 3 127

(100 + 20 + 7)

b. 5 243

(

= _____

= _____

c. 7 314

(

d. 4 607

(

= _____

= _____

6. Break the second number (factor) into hundreds, tens and ones. Multiply separately, and add.

a. 4 128

4 100 =

4 20 =

43=

b. 8 151

400

80

+ 12

d. 6 317

c. 3 452

e. 8 212

f. 6 198

97

For the upcoming club meeting she needs to get at least

10 cm of string, 3 sheets of paper, and two toilet paper

rolls for each kid. Write down her list of needed supplies.

b. A guitar class costs $18. Ernest paid for eight classes from

the $200 that he has saved. How much does he have left?

six dozen (72 flowers) at a time. She needs a new batch

once a week. How many roses will Susie order in 5 weeks?

How much will the roses she orders in five weeks cost her?

8. Compare. Write < , > , or = in the boxes between the number expressions.

a.

10 10

d. 100 26

9 11

b.

6 12

5 14

c. 8 22

5 27

40 70

e. 5 + 195

40 5

f. 4 72

300

Fill in the missing numbers.

a. 6 6 = 9 ___

b. ___ 10 = 5 24

c. 20 + ___ = 4 10

d. 6,000 = 30 _____

e. 120 75 = 5 ____

that whatever is on the left

side and on the right side of the

sign are supposed to be equal:

10 + 10 = 5 + 15

26=34

18 3 = 5 3

98

Break money amounts in parts, and multiply the parts separately.

When multiplying cent-amounts, remember to change them to dollar-amounts.

3 $1.70

8 $4.28

Lastly add:

$32.00

$0.64

+ $1.60

4 $15.22

$60

(4 $15)

$0.88 = $60.88

$34.24

(4 $0.22)

a. 6 30 = 180 = $1.80

b. 5 50 = _____ = $______

c. 8 70 = _____ = $______

d. 3 90 = _____ = $______

e. 5 18 = _____ = $______

f. 6 41 = _____ = $______

2. Break the money-amount into dollars and cents. Multiply separately, and add.

a. 6 $2.80

b. 5 $4.70

______ + ______ =

______ + ______ =

(6 $2)

(5 $4)

(6 $0.80)

c. 4 $12.50

(5 $0.70)

d. 7 $5.61

e. 6 $6.75

f. 7 $14.09

g. 6 $11.85

h. 5 $2.93

i. 11 $9.45

6 $11

6 $0.80

6 $0.05

99

Estimating Products

If you don't need an exact result, you can estimate. To estimate a product (= an answer to a

multiplication problem), round the factors so that they become easy to multiply mentally.

There are no hard and fast rules as to how exactly you should round.

Just so that your new rounded numbers are easy to multiply in your head.

Estimate 8 189.

Estimate 42 78.

Estimate 7 $4.56.

The estimated product is

8 200 = 1,600.

42 40 and 78 80.

The estimated product is

40 80 = 3,200.

7 $4 = $28 and 7 50 = $3.50.

7 $4.50 = $31.50.

1. Estimate the products by rounding a factor or both factors to the nearest ten.

Don't round both if you can calculate in your head just by rounding one factor!

a. 5 69

b. 11 58

c. 119 8

d. 27 52

e. 7 $4.15

f. 8 $11.79

g. 25 $42.50

h. 9 17

i. 63 897

b. 512 Popsicles

at 19 each

at $1.29 per yard

a. 24 chairs at

$44.95 per chair

3. Solve.

a. Estimate the cost of six tennis balls that cost $3.37 each

and two rackets that cost $11.90 each.

b. A can of beans costs $0.29. A bag of lentils costs $0.42.

Estimate which is cheaper: to buy 8 cans of beans

or to buy 5 bags of lentils.

c. Jackie needs to buy 8 ft of string for each of

the 28 students in the craft class.

The string costs $0.22 per foot. Estimate her total cost.

100

Many word problems can be solved using multiplication and estimation. Study the examples.

If each bus can seat 57 passengers, how many buses do you need to seat 450 people?

One bus seats 57 passengers.

Two buses seat 114 passengers.

Eight buses seat 8 57 passengers.

With how many buses will your answer be 450 or a little more?

This problem could be solved by division (450 57) but instead, you can estimate using

multiplication. Round the number 57 to 60, and quickly calculate:

7 60 = 420 and 8 60 = 480. It looks like 8 buses are needed.

However we need to check it using the exact number 57:

8 57 = 400 + 56 = 456, so yes, eight buses is the answer.

A sticker collection costs $2.39. How many collections can Jill buy if she can afford to spend $70?

First round the price to $2.40. Two collections cost $4.80. TEN collections cost $24. Twenty

collections cost $48, and thirty cost $72. Twenty-nine collections would cost a little less than $70

($72 $2.40) so that is how many she can afford.

However, we used the rounded price $2.40 to find that. The difference between $2.40 and the real

price $2.39 is 1 penny. For 30 collections we make an error of 30 cents. This is not big enough to

throw off the estimation (in reality 30 collections cost only 30 cents less than what we estimated).

4. Solve the word problems using estimation.

a. How many $0.79 pens can you buy with $5?

How many ads can Bill buy with $2000?

How many whole hours can Sandra skate for $25?

d. You earned $6.50 for weeding the vegetable garden. How many

times do you need to weed before you can afford a paint set

that costs $38.90?

101

38

6

Let's multiply

6 38 in parts,

writing the

numbers under

each other.

38

6

38

6

38

6

48

48

180

48

+180

First multiply

6 8.

Multiply 9 2.

Multiply 9 80.

82

9

82

9

18

18

720

228

write the result under the 48.

Remember, the "3" is in the

tens' place in the number 38

so it actually means 30.

Add.

Lastly, add.

Multiply 3 7.

Multiply 3 40.

82

9

47

3

47

3

47

3

18

+720

21

21

120

21

+120

738

Add.

141

1. Multiply.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

102

first the ones, then the tens, then the hundreds. Lastly, add.

Ones:

76

tens:

7 20

hundreds:

7 500

Add.

Ones:

98

tens:

90

hundreds:

9 200

526

7

526

7

526

7

526

7

208

9

208

9

208

9

42

42

140

42

140

3500

42

140

+3500

72

72

0

72

0

1800

3682

Add.

208

9

72

0

+1800

1872

2. Multiply.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

a. 58 5 + 291

b. 1,000 3 145

103

money amounts in parts.

$23.57

$5.18

4

4 0.08 (cents)

4 0.10 (ten-cents)

4 $5 (dollars)

individual cents,

then whole ten-cents,

then whole dollars,

and so on.

3 0.07

3 0.50

3 $3

3 $20

0.32

0.40

+ 20.00

$20.72

0.21

1.50

9.00

+ 60.00

$70.71

4. Multiply.

a.

b.

d.

c.

$1.45 each and two packs of

crayons for $2.85 each.

What was the total cost?

Sue has four times as many.

How many marbles do the

girls have together?

a.

b.

1 4

4 9 0

+ 7 0 0

c.

9

8 1

2 0 0

+1 2 0 0

+6 3 0 0

1 4 3 2

6 3 8 1

104

Here we learn the standard algorithm of multiplication. It is based on the same principle of

multiplying in parts: you simply multiply ones and tens separately, and add. In the standard algorithm

the adding is done at the same time as multiplying. The calculation looks more compact and takes

less space.

63

4

63

4

63

4

252

4 3 = 12

Place 2 under the line at

the ones place, but the tens

digit (1) is written above

the tens column as a little

memory note. This is called

carrying to tens.

12

+ 240

add the 1 ten that was

carried over.

4 6 + 1 = 25

There is a total of 25 tens,

which actually signifies 250.

Write the 25 in front of

the ones digit (2).

252

Compare to the method of

multiplying in parts that

you learned previously,

where the adding is done

separately.

(In the calculation 4 6 + 1 = 25, the 6 and the 1 are actually tens.

So in reality we calculate 4 60 + 10 = 250.)

Look at other examples. In each case, some tens are carried as a result of multiplying the ones.

2

27

4

27

4

69

7

69

7

54

6

54

6

108

483

324

4 7 = 28

83

9

93=

4 2 + 2 = 10

83

9

98+2=

7 9 = 63

7 6 + 6 = 48

77

7

77

7

77=

105

6 4 = 24

38

5

5 6 + 2 = 32

38

5

75

8

40

+560

75

8

75

8

600

5 8 = 40,

4 is carried.

78+4=

56 + 4 = 60

OR

600

You can choose which one you use. Discuss it with your teacher.

1. Multiply. Be careful with the carrying.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

q.

r.

s.

t.

106

With a 3-digit number you might have to carry twice, to tens and to hundreds.

1 3

1 3

238

4

238

4

238

4

52

952

4 8 = 32

Place 2 under the line

and carry the tens digit

(3) to the tens' column.

and add the 3 tens that were

carried over.

4 3 + 3 = 15

Place the 5 in the tens' place and

carry the 1 into the hundreds'

column.

digit, and add the 1 hundred

that was carried over.

42 + 1=9

Place the 9 in the hundreds'

place.

1 2

1 2

127

4

127

4

127

4

08

508

4 7 = 28

4 2 + 2 = 10

127

4

28

80

+ 400

41+1=5

508

4 3

4 3

496

5

496

5

496

5

496

5

80

2480

5 6 = 30

5 9 + 3 = 48

5 4 + 4 = 24

729

4

_

multiply ones

729

4

729

4

_

multiply tens and

add what was carried

add what was carried

107

30

450

+2000

2480

729

4

36

80

+2800

2. Multiply.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

108

3. Solve the word problems. Write a number sentence for each one.

a. The school has 304 students. To go to the museum,

they hired buses which can each seat 43 passengers.

How many buses did they need?

seats were left empty when all of the students

and all of the teachers joined the trip?

Marie needed 1300 sheets. How many

packages did she need to buy?

and Jeanine earned three times as much.

How much did they earn in all?

Elaine solved three times as many.

How many more did Elaine solve than Emily?

4

4 6 8

7

9

8 7 0

109

3

6

9

3

Estimate the answer

before you actually calculate.

If the estimated answer

is very different

from the calculated

answer, you can

suspect an error.

Estimation:

Estimation:

5 45

45

5 50 = 250

2025

7 400 = 2,800

is VERY different from the

calculated answer 2025.

There must be an error!

7 418

418

7

2926

and the calculated answer 2,926

are fairly close. This does not prove

the answer is correct though, but if

there is an error, it is a smaller one.

1. Estimate the products, and then multiply to find the exact result.

a. Estimation:

b. Estimation:

c. Estimation:

d. Estimation:

43

9

72

8

68

3

89

e. Estimation:

f. Estimation:

g. Estimation:

h. Estimation:

72

5

126

6

771

3

808

9 40 = 360

and an 8th grade math book is three times

as long. How many pages does it have?

b. If it takes three hours to drive 180 km,

how many hours would it take to drive 600 km?

110

3. Solve where the kids go wrong. Find out the right answers, too.

4

a. Look at Minnie's

calculations. Figure out

what error she is doing

every time she multiplies.

Where did he go wrong?

4 2

78

3

38

9

133

4

252

297

811

28

3

45

5

25

3

624

2025

615

wrong, too. How?

48

7

48

8

239

3

286

484

697

Fill in the missing numbers.

a. 5,400 = 90 _____

b. ___ 20 = 8 40

c. 7 49 + ____ = 8 49

e. 7 13 = 5 13 + ____

3

3 1 5

3 7 0 2

111

8

4

4

5

7

Error of Estimation

Let's estimate 8 78.

78 80 and 8 80 = 640.

$4.35 4.50 and 6 4.50 = $27.

640 624 = 16. That is the error of

estimation.

$27 $26.10 = $0.90. That is the error of

estimation.

The error of estimation is the difference between the estimated result and the exact result.

The error tells you how much off you were.

1. First estimate the products, then calculate the exact result, and then find the error of estimation.

a. Estimation:

4 91

4 90 = 360

Error of estimation 4

c. Estimation:

6 34

b. Estimation:

Exact:

5 67

91

4

364

9 68

Exact:

d. Estimation:

7 59

34

6

8 242

Exact:

59

7

f. Estimation:

Exact:

9 113

68

9

g. Estimation:

67

5

e. Estimation:

Exact:

Exact:

113

9

Exact:

h. Estimation:

5 693

242

8

112

Exact:

693

5

2. First estimate the total cost. Then find the total cost exactly. Then, find the error of estimation.

a. Jack bought two train sets for $56.55 each.

b. Elisa bought for her mom three books for $11.58 each.

You can estimate even if there are many operations. The goal is to round

the numbers in such a way that you can then calculate mentally.

You can also round numbers up to the middle 5 if you can calculate mentally with it.

1,124 2 243

7 $14.85 + $41.95

7 $15 + $42 = $105 + $42 = $147.

3. Estimate first, then find the exact result. Remember multiplications are done before

additions and subtractions.

a. 6 78 + 129

b. 1,754 5 139

c. 2 $4.85 + 3 0.73

4. a. Calculate.

6 800 = _____

____ 4 = 360

____ 60 = 480

50 90 = _____

70 ____ = 2,800

5 ____ = 450

300 8 = _____

7 ____ = 490

90 ____ = 18,000

400 20 = _____

____ 50 = 4,000

8 ____ = 5,600

113

1. Calculate anything within parentheses ( ).

20 2 5 + 9

(20 2) 5 + 9

= 20 10 + 9

= 18 5 + 9

= 10 + 9 = 19.

= 90 + 9 = 99

In which order are they done?

2. Next multiply that sum by ____.

4. Then, add ____ to the subtraction result.

a. 2 3 300 =

b. 6 5 7 =

10 5 3 =

c. 40 10 8 =

d. 20 70 2 =

10 0 40 =

70 4 20 =

5 8 50 =

3. Solve mentally.

a. 500 2 200 =

b. 70 30 + 2,000 =

c. 60 10 + 20 20 =

500 + 2 200 =

70 30 2,000 =

30 40 40 20 =

e. 90 + 15 + 2 7 =

f. 500 7 70 10 =

800 2 20 + 100 =

90 10 + 120 40 =

10 7 5 + 100 + 250 =

a. (500 200) 2 =

b. 70 (30 + 20) =

(500 + 200) 2 =

70 (30 20) =

c. 60 (10 + 20) 2 =

30 (40 40) 2 =

e. 90 + (15 + 5) 7 =

90 (10 + 20) 40 =

114

5. Solve for N.

a. 5 N = 150

N = ____

b. 3 N 3 = 27

c. 20 3 N = 180

N = ____

d. N 2 100 = 2,400

N = ____

N = _____

a. the sum of ten, a hundred,

and a hundred and forty

a. 5 98 2 87

c. 8 (281 133) 4 15

8. Find a matching number sentence (expression) for each problem and solve.

4 ($2 + $3)

a. Lisa bought four cards for $2 each and three shirts for $3 each.

What was her total bill?

4 $2 + 3 $3

4 $3 + $2

b. Mom bought for each of the four children crayons for $2 and a

book for $3. What was her total bill?

five pens for $2 each. What was his change from $50?

115

4 $3 2

$50 5 $3 + $2

$50 5 $3 2

$50 5 $3 5 $2

a. Elisa bought seven packs of needles for $2.55 each.

What was her change from $30?

and fifteen 2-kg bags of blueberries?

He drives to work and back every day, five days a week.

How many kilometers does he drive in a 5-day work week?

is 9 feet tall. Another apartment house is three times

as tall as that one. How tall is the second house?

for $4.25 each and three books for 8.50 each?

for $3.60 per meter, or to buy four meters of

material for $4.80 per meter?

parentheses ( ) so that the calculations become true.

a. 7

8 = 70

b. 80

10

116

5 = 55

c. 4

20 = 40

Multiplying with money amounts happen

the same way as multiplying whole numbers.

Estimation:

8 $3.59

8 $4 = $32

a dollar sign ($) in the answer.

Estimate your answer first.

4 7

$3 . 5 9

8

$2 8 . 7 2

a. Estimation:

4 _____ _____

$4 . 5 5

b. Estimation:

___ _____ _____

c. Estimation:

___ _____ _____

$9 . 7 0

$3 . 9 1

d. Estimation:

___ _____ _____

$0 . 8 2

2. Study the charts. Solve. Write a number sentence under the chart in c.

a. Jill bought three baskets for $7.20 each.

She paid with $50. What was her change?

b. James bought four wheels for $29 each,

and afterwards he had $51 left.

How much did he have originally?

c. Jack had $30, and then he bought five

screwdrivers for $3.08 apiece.

How much did he have left?

117

3. Now we have a bunch of word problems to solve. Just remember, in real life you will deal with money

a lot, so it is an important topic to master! You can draw charts to help.

a. If you buy 20 cans of fish for $1.29

each, what is your change from $30?

(Hint: multiply dollars and cents separately!)

She now has $12.50 left. How much

did she have originally?

and 30 notebooks for $1.09.

What was the total cost?

himself a laptop for $399. How many weeks will it take?

How much will he have left over after buying it?

A construction company bought eight.

What was their total bill?

Guess and then check, until you know for sure.

and a hard drive for $65, and had $25.80 left.

How much money did Paul have initially?

You want 20 bottles. What is your total cost?

118

1. Fill in these tables.

a. A bus is traveling 45 miles per hour. Fill in the table with how many miles it

can travel in the given numbers of hours.

Miles

45

Hours

10

10

10

12

14

16

18

20

80

90

100

Dollars

$5.10

Meters

Dollars

$3.00

Cans

d. You can get four buckets of paint for $60. Fill the table.

Dollars

$60

Buckets

10

e. An earthworm can travel at the speed of 240 feet per hour. Fill the table.

Feet

Minutes

10

20

bicycle tires in an hour.

Tires

Minutes

30

40

50

60

scarves in nine days.

Days

Scarves

70

in five hours.

Hours

12

15

18

119

Dollars

12 kg of potatoes. How many of

that size of sack would you need

to get 30 kg of potatoes?

To solve the problem, make up

a little table as on the right:

1 sack

____kg

2 sacks

12 kg

3 sacks

3 6 kg = 18 kg

____ sacks

____ 6 kg = 30 kg

The total number of chocolates in

five identical boxes was 30.

How many chocolates would

there be in two boxes?

1 box

____ chocolates

2 boxes

____ chocolates

5 boxes

30 chocolates

2. Solve the problems using tables. First find out the numbers for ONE of the things.

a. Six flowers cost $18.

How much would

five flowers cost?

1 flower

5 flowers

6 flowers

$18

4 cans

800 g

3 lures

$6

How much would three

cans weigh?

costs $6. How much would

seven lures cost?

of the Animal Farm series in

90 minutes. How long would

it take for him to watch

5 episodes?

seconds. How many could

he do in one minute if he

maintains the same speed?

120

What would seven cost?

At that rate, how many days

would it take her to read a

300-page book?

What do 30 pairs of socks cost?

a. Five collectible cars cost $35.50.

What would four cars cost?

plants in one and a half hours. How long

would it take her to weed nine rows?

track in an hour. Today though, she only

ran around three times, and then walked

through the track the fourth time. All in all,

this took her 10 minutes longer than on

her normal days. How many minutes did

it take her to walk around the track?

121

Something to ponder:

5

58

7

406

Something to ponder:

5

7 58 = 406.

What would 70 58 be?

16 9 = 144.

16

9 What would 160 90 be?

144

Don't read more until you think about the questions above!

70 58

160 90

= 10 (7 58)

= 10 (16 9) 10

the result to 7 58.

a hundred times the result to 16 9.

Just tag a zero!

Just tag two zeros!

We tagged two zeros!

We tag three zeros!

a. 60 87

b. 20 820

c. 510 400

d. 56 3,000

2. Solve the problems.

a. A crate of apples weighs 20 kg.

How much does 65 crates weigh?

b. One crate contains apples laid out in four layers.

There are 25 apples in each layer.

How many apples are in a crate?

c. A store owner sold 60 kg of apples to one customer.

How many apples did the customer get?

122

write a zero in the ones

place

in the answer before

calculating. Then just

multiply 7 58 normally.

58

70

4060

160

90

14400

90?

You can write two zeros in the ones

and tens places in the answer before

calculating. Then, just multiply 9 16

normally.

3. Multiply. Place a zero in the ones place in the answer before multiplying.

a.

46

80

b.

27

60

c.

805

30

d.

179

40

e.

549

20

0

4. Multiply. Place a zero in the ones place and in the tens place in the answer before multiplying.

a.

40

80

b.

415

300

c.

120

70

d.

231

800

00

5. The bus driver Mr. Hendrickson drives about 250 km each day on his route.

How many kilometers does he drive in his 5-day work week?

How about in his total of 300 workdays a year?

6. One side of farmer Greg's square-shaped field measures 200 m.

He jogs around it seven times. How long is his jogging track?

7. Calculate. Use a notebook if needed.

a. 80 560 + 15,000

b. 65,000 50 430

c. 20 (85 + 126) + 2,333

If 382 29 = 11,078,

then what is 3,820 29,000?

123

e.

658

700

You've learned to do 7 82 in parts: first multiply 7 80 and then 7 2.

This same idea works even when we have two 2-digit numbers.

Let's look at 25 34. To find 25 times some number we can find 20 times the number and 5 times the

number, and then add those two. So we break 25 34 into two parts: 20 34 and 5 34.

To find 78 47, break the 78 into two parts (70 and 8) and multiply by both: it is 70 47 and 8 47.

25 34 in parts:

20 34

5 34

78 47 in parts:

Then add

the parts.

70 47

8 47

Then add

the parts.

34

20

34

5

680

+ 170

47

70

47

8

3290

+ 376

680

170

850

3290

376

3666

Study more examples. Note you have three separate calculations to do.

34 16

Do 30 16.

Then do

Don't forget

the extra zero.

4 16.

29 35

Then add.

Do 20 35.

Remember

the extra zero.

Then do

Then add.

9 35

4

16

30

16

4

64

+ 480

35

20

35

9

315

+ 700

480

64

544

700

315

1015

1. Break the multiplications into two parts. You don't have to find the final product (answer).

a. 28 16 = 20 16 and 8 16

124

a. 28 16

b. 48 73

c. 19 42

f. 28 39

g. 15 27

d. 55 89

e. 46 41

h. 93 16

3. Solve.

a. Mary's Internet bill is $35 per month.

How much does Mary pay in a year?

b. Find the product of 1 2 3 4 5 6.

c. A store sells large 15-kg boxes of apples

for $35 a box. If you buy twelve boxes,

what is their total weight?

125

Let's do the same when one number has two digits, and the other has three.

To find 57 314. you break 57 into two parts: 50 and 7, and multiply 314 by them both. So we break

57 314 into two parts: 50 314 and 7 314.

57 314 in parts:

50 314

62 180 in parts:

7 314

Then add

the parts.

60 180

2 180

Then add

the parts.

314

50

314

15700

+ 2198

180

60

180

2

10800

+ 360

15700

2198

17898

10800

360

11160

4. Try your skills. Break each calculation into two multiplications, and then add.

a. 28 315 = 20 315 and 8 315

b. 65 135

c. 19 472

d. 45 683

e. 73 394

f. 56 602

126

5. Solve.

a. 45 83

b. 72 865

c. 32 118

d. 7 8 9 10

How many hours are in a year?

How many more hours does the baby sleep in a year than Annie?

broken down into four parts:

26 89 is first of all 6 89 and 20 89.

6 89 is 6 80 and 6 9.

20 89 is 20 80 and 20 9.

The area of a rectangle is side times side. Where are those four parts represented in this picture?

Can you explain why?

127

with a 2-Digit Multiplier

You have learned to calculate multiplications such as 67 54 in parts.

You did two multiplications and then added. It took three separate calculations.

In the usual, traditional way of multiplying there are also three separate calculations.

But this time ALL three calculations appear together.

67 54

2

3 2

54

67

54

67

54

67

378

3240

378

+3240

378

First multiply 7 54.

(Pretend the 6 of

the 67 is not there.)

3618

underneath the 378. Remember the zero.

Pretend the 7 of the 67 is not there.

Then add.

Study these examples, too. Note the extra zero needed in the ones place on the second line!

5 34

20 34

Add.

4 63

90 63

34

25

34

25

34

25

63

94

63

94

63

94

170

170

680

170

+ 680

252

252

5670

252

+5670

850

5922

a.

Add.

b.

c.

128

d.

2. Multiply.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

m.

n.

o.

p.

q.

r.

s.

t.

129

3. Solve the word problems. Write a number sentence for each one.

a. How many eggs are in 15 dozen eggs?

to a zoo by bus. One bus can seat

39 passengers. Are 11 buses enough to

take them all? (Use multiplication!)

How many minutes are there in 15 hours?

watering the neighbor's flowers.

How much does she earn in a year?

How much does he earn in a year?

(There are 52 weeks in a year.)

Brenda or Andrew?

How much more?

costs $78, how many months does

he have to save for that?

130

by a Two-Digit Number

You multiply the same way if one number has three digits. It is done in parts.

1

735

42

1470

First

multiply

2 735.

121

46

735

42

$6.9 1

57

$6.9 1

57

$6.9 1

57

1470

29400

1470

+ 29400

4 8.3 7

4 8.3 7

3 4 5.5 0

4 8.3 7

+ 3 4 5.5 0

Then

multiply

40 735.

30870

First

multiply

7 $6.91.

Then

multiply

50 $6.91.

$3 9 3.8 7

735

42

Then add.

a.

b.

c.

d.

2. Multiply.

a.

e.

b.

c.

f.

g.

131

d.

h.

Then add.

a. There are 365 days in a year.

How many hours are there in a year?

What would 32 cans cost?

4. A store did inventory. The workers filled the table with numbers.

a. First fill in the Total count column.

b. Calculate what goes to the total value column.

Use a notebook for calculations if you need more space.

c. Fill the two empty boxes in the TOTALS row.

In boxes

On shelf

Total count

unit

price

Total value

Cereal A

3 50

13

163

$2.87

Cereal B

2 40

25

$3.00

Granola A

3 25

$4.38

Granola B

2 25

27

$4.90

Product

TOTALS

Find a. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

b. 9 10 7 4 0 6 2 1

132

Review

1. Multiply in parts.

a. 5 43 = ____

b. 8 13 = ____

c. 7 57 = ____

a. 4 30 = ____ 3

Roses

Estimated price

$0.90

Exact price

$0.88

a. How many $0.59 toy cars can you buy with $8?

b. If you earn $515 weekly, in how many weeks will

you have earned more than $4000?

5. First estimate the products, then calculate the exact result, and then find the error of estimation.

a. Estimation:

7 48

b. Estimation:

Exact:

Exact:

6 83

48

7

83

6

6. Multiply.

a. 400 3 = ____

9 20 = ____

b. 70 60 = ____

300 11 = ____

133

c. 90 900 = ____

7. Find the missing factor. Think of how many zeros you need.

a. ____ 50 = 4,000

____ 50 = 350

b. 70 ____ = 280

c. ____ 40 = 12,000

7 ____= 2,800

8. Multiply.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

9. Solve mentally.

a. (1,500 1,000) 4 =

b. (76 + 34) 2 0 =

c. 80 2 (30 + 20) =

a. 2 98 8 17

134

11. Solve.

a. A store owner bought 50 boxes of shirts,

with 20 shirts in each box, and each shirt

costs $2. What was his total bill?

What was his change from $50?

$1.50 each. She has $12.50 left.

How much did she have originally?

and seven pineapples for $2.15 each.

What was her total bill?

$8.20 per hour, with $100.

What was his change?

How far could it run in 10 minutes?

44 pounds each, or five boxes that

are 32 pounds each?

How much more?

but it was discounted by $20.

How much do five rolls cost?

What would six sheets cost?

135

Introduction

The fourth chapter of Math Mammoth Grade 4-A Complete Worktext includes time, temperature, length,

weight, and volume related lessons.

The focus on fourth grade is no longer the actual act of measuring, but calculations that involve

conversions between different measuring units.

In time lessons, the student gets to do fairly complex calculations concerning hours and minutes. In

temperature, the student is introduced to negative numbers and gets to do a few simple calculations even.

The lessons concerning measuring units usually include a table that lists the units and the conversion

factors.

For metric units, those tables always include all of the units, even when they are not in common usage.

For example, when studying metric units of volume, the chart looks like this:

10

10

10

liter

deciliter

dl

centiliter

cl

milliliter

Only milliliters and liters are dealt with in the lesson. But the chart shows the two other units as well in

order to get the student used to two basic ideas of metric measuring units:

1. How the units always differ by a factor of ten,

2. How the units are named consistently, with always the same prefixes such as milli-, centi-, deci-,

deca-, hecto-, and kilo-. These prefixes and their meanings are NOT yet studied in detail in fourth

grade; but I wanted to include the charts to familiarize the students with the terms and the ideas.

You may, of course, at your discretion, explain it all to the student.

page

span

5 pages

2 pages

Time Passes ...................................................... 145

5 pages

2 pages

2 pages

1 pages

3 pages

136

159

2 pages

161

2 pages

163

2 pages

165

2 pages

167

2 pages

169

2 pages

171

2 pages

2 pages

Calculating Time from BBC SkillsWise

Fact sheets, worksheets, and an online game to practice time calculations.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/numbers/measuring/time/calculatingtime/

A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

Explains the common measuring systems and has lots of background info of their history.

http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/

Measure It!

Practice measuring lines with either centimeters or inches. Multiple choice questions.

http://onlineintervention.funbrain.com/measure/index.html

Measures

Activities, revision bites, and quizzes about measuring time, weight, and capacity (in metric units).

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/maths/shape_space_measures.shtml

Measurements

Online lessons with interactive exercises on metric prefixes, symbols, number values, metric mass, length,

volume, US length and volume, and temperature conversions.

http://www.aaamath.com/B/mea.htm

Units of Measurement Quizzes

Quizzes for area, distance, volume, and mass - both metric and English systems.

http://www.quiz-tree.com/Units_of_Measurement_main.html

Metric Measurement Matching Game

Match metric terms and prefixes with the correct match

http://www.quia.com/mc/4177.html

Reading a tape measure worksheets

Worksheet generator - you can choose to which accuracy to measure, inches, or inches & feet.

http://themathworksheetsite.com/read_tape.html

137

Time Units

60 seconds = 1 minute

all these time units, if you

don't know them yet.

12 months = 1 year

60 minutes = 1 hour

24 hours = 1 day

7 days = 1 week

Minutes

Seconds

Years

Hours

1

Months

Years

Days

Days

2. Solve the problems.

a. Brian puts $120 into his savings each month.

After saving for a year, he bought a keyboard

for $799. How much does he have left of his

savings?

b. How much money do you use if you buy

a candy bar for $2 every day of the year?

c. Joan finished the foot race in exactly two

minutes, and Jean was 24 seconds faster.

What was Jean's finishing time?

d. John was given an antibiotic for three

whole days following his surgery.

How many hours is that?

e. Write a multiplication expression to find

the number of seconds in one year.

Use a calculator to find the product.

138

a. 70 min = ____ h _____ min

c. 5 h = ____ min

a. Jennie helped her aunt on her strawberry farm during one busy week.

She kept track of her working hours:

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

5 h 15 min

3h

Saturday

Sunday

2 h 30 min 3 h 40 min

She got paid $6 an hour. How much did she earn?

b. It takes about 40 minutes to drive to town from Raymond's home.

The family is going to spend about 3 hours shopping, and come back.

What is the total amount of time they will be gone on their shopping trip?

stopped for a visit at a friend's house for 1 hour and 10 minutes.

How much time did they take for everything?

You plan to use it every day while walking your dog,

which takes about 25 minutes each day.

How many days will the batteries last?

How many hours/minutes does he teach in a day?

In a five-day week?

139

Either 31, 30, 29, or 28 days.

February has 28 days but on leap years February has 29.

The rest of them have 30 or 31.See the chart.

In calculations, use 30 days for one month unless it is a specific calendar

month and you can know how many days it has.

Here's another little mnemonic:

Look at the knuckles of your fists.

Count the months using both

knuckles and the valleys

between them, starting from

the little finger's knuckle.

The months on the knuckles have

31 days. The months on the

valleys between have 30 days, except February which has 28 or 29.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Notice that months 7 and 8 (July and August) both are on a knuckle,

so both have 31 days.

How many days are there from March 13th till July 5th, including the starting and ending days?

March 13 ... March 31 is 19 days

April: 30 days

May: 31 days

June: 30 days

July 1st ... July 5th: 5 days

5. Solve the problems. Both the starting and ending days are included.

a. How many days are from June 12th till September 6th?

b. How many days are from January 5th till October 5th?

c. How many days are from your birthday till December 31st?

d. An advertisement starts running on October 6th and

runs for 120 days. When is the last day that the advertisement runs?

e. The month of June has ____days, ____ ____hours, ____ ____ ____ minutes,

and ____ ____ ____ ____ seconds = _______ seconds. (Use a calculator.)

140

31

28

31

30

31

30

31

31

30

31

30

31

We commonly say there are 52 weeks in a year, but that is not exact: 52 7 days = 364 days

The whole year is normally 365 days so there is a one-day difference.

That is why if your birthday is on Monday one year, the next year it is on the next weekday

(unless it was a leap year, and then it would jump two weekdays).

6. Solve the problems.

a. Jane watches TV about 7 hours a week. She

swims about 6 hours a week, and does chores

about two hours a day. How many hours

in a year does she spend with each activity?

the year, five days a week, about four hours a day.

How many hours do they do school in a year?

normal years. A leap year is 366 days

long. On a leap year, February gets

an extra day (29 days long).

is not exactly 365 days. It is about 365 1/4 days.

That is why in four years we get off one day

and need to add that to the calendar.

not when the year number ends in two zeros.

For example, the years 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996 were leap years. 2000 was not.

The years 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 and so on are leap years

7. a. How many days were in the years from 1997 till 2000?

b. How many days were in the years from 2001 till 2005?

c. Find your age in days. Remember that some years have been leap years.

The right answer is NOT just 100 365 = 36,500.

141

Below you see a 2007 school calendar for New York City schools.

The whole year from September 4th till September 3rd is of course 365 days.

How many days of that do the kids spend in school and how many days off school?

Remember a school week is from Monday thru Friday and not seven days.

School Calendar

September 4

School begins

October 8

November 12

November 22-23

Thanksgiving Recess

January 15

March 21

April 21 - April 25

Spring Recess

May 26

Summer Vacation

142

As you know, the hour hand goes around the entire

12-hour clock face two times in one day.

A day has 2 12 hours = 24 hours.

Instead of using a.m. and p.m. to indicate which round we are

on, we can use the 24-hour clock. The hours are simply

numbered from 0 till 23 (or sometimes from 1 till 24). The

afternoon hours are those from 13 till 24.

The 24-hour time is commonly called the military time or

astronomical time in the United States. In most countries of the

world it is the dominant system used for bus, school, or TV

schedules.

How do we change a time expressed in the 12-hour clock

to the 24-hour clock?

z

clock times, you subtract 12 hours from the afternoon times.

3:50 a.m.

3:50

noon

12:00

5:54 p.m.

17:54

10 p.m.

22:00

midnight

24:00

a. 5:40 a.m.

___ : ____

e. 12:30 p.m.

___ : ____

b. 8:00 p.m.

c. 6:15 p.m.

___ : ____

___ : ____

f. 4:35 p.m.

g. 11:55 p.m.

___ : ____

___ : ____

d. 11:04 a.m.

___ : ____

h. 7:05 p.m.

___ : ____

a. 15:00

e. 14:30

___ : ____

b. 17:29

c. 4:23

___ : ____

___ : ____

f. 10:45

g. 16:00

___ : ____

___ : ____

143

d. 23:55

___ : ____

h. 21:15

___ : ____

3. Study the bus schedule below. The times are given as (hours minutes) in the 24-clock time.

Each column represents a bus that leaves at York Mills at a certain time, and arrives in

Newmarket. There are a total of 12 different buses.

Stops:

York Mills

Bus Terminal

Yonge Street

Finch GO

Bus Terminal

Thornhill

Richmond Hill Hillcrest Mall

Richmond Hill Yonge & Bernard

Oak Ridges

Aurora

Newmarket

Bus Terminal

Bus 1

Bus 2

Bus 3

Bus 4

Bus 5

Bus 6

Bus 7

Bus 8

Bus 9

15 10

15 35

15 50

16 05

16 17

16 29

16 41

16 53

17 05

17 20

17 35

17 50

15 17

15 42

15 57

16 12

16 24

16 36

16 48

17 00

17 12

17 27

17 42

17 57

15 28

15 53

16 08

16 23

16 35

16 47

16 59

17 11

17 23

17 38

17 53

18 08

15 42

16 07

16 22

16 37

16 49

17 01

17 13

17 25

17 37

17 52

18 07

18 22

15 50

16 15

16 30

16 45

16 57

17 09

17 21

17 33

17 45

18 00

18 15

18 30

16 02

16 27

16 42

16 57

17 09

17 21

17 33

17 45

17 57

18 12

18 27

18 42

16 09

16 15

16 34

16 40

16 49

16 55

17 04

17 10

17 16

17 22

17 28

17 34

17 40

17 46

17 52

17 58

18 04

18 10

18 19

18 25

18 34

18 40

18 49

18 55

16 30

16 55

17 10

17 25

17 37

17 49

18 01

18 13

18 25

18 40

18 55

19 10

which bus should you take from York Mills?

b. If you need to be at Newmarket by 6 p.m.,

which bus should you take from York Mills?

c. Each bus takes the exact same amount of time

to travel from York Mills to Newmarket.

How much time is that?

d. Jack was going from Oak Ridges to Newmarket.

He came to the bus stop at half past five and caught

the first bus that came. When was he in Newmarket?

e. How many minutes does it take to travel in

a bus from Thornhill to Aurora?

f. How many minutes does it take to travel

from Yonge Street to Oak Ridges?

g. Mark lives in Thornhill and he goes to an art class in

Newmarket that starts at 6:30 p.m. He has to walk for

15 minutes from the Newmarket bus stop to the art class.

Which bus should he take from Thornhill?

144

When finding out how much time passes between two different times,

we are dealing with the difference.

You can find the difference by starting from the earlier time and

adding up the elapsing time until the latter time. Imagine

turning the hand of a clock from the starting time on, and

keeping track of how much time passes.

How long was an airplane flight if the plane

took off at 12:45 p.m. and landed at 5:10 p.m. ?

From 1 till 5

4h

10 min

Total 4 h 25 min

Subtract the hours and minutes separately in their own columns.

How much time passes between 2:10 a.m. and 8:43 a.m.?

8 h 43 m

2 h 10 m

6 h 33 m

How much time passes between 4:46 p.m. and 7:13 p.m.?

Notice you can't subtract 46 minutes from 13 minutes.

Before you even start, you need to borrow 1 hour

from the hours column. 1 hour is 60 minutes so add

that to the minutes you have in the minutes column.

Do NOT borrow 10 or 100 minutes.

How much time passes between 9:42 p.m. and 2:45 a.m.?

Here the p.m. changes to a.m. It is safer to figure this

in two parts: first from 9:42 p.m. to midnight, and

then from midnight to 2:45 a.m.

If you subtract the two numbers, you get the time difference

the other way around: From 2:45 to 9:42, which is not

the right answer. (Of course, knowing that you can figure out

the other by subtracting the answer from 12 hours.)

6 h 73 m

7 h 13 m

4 h 46 m

2 h 27 m

9:42 p.m....10 p.m. = 18 min

10 p.m....midnight = 2 hours

Midnight...2:45 a.m. = 2 h 45 min

18 m

2h 0m

+ 2 h 45 m

4 h 63 m

=5h3m

a. From 12:30 p.m. till 2 p.m.

____h ____ min

d. From 9:30 a.m. till 2:10 p.m.

____h ____ min

____h ____ min

e. From 7.58 p.m. till midnight

____h ____ min

145

____h ____ min

f. From 11:05 p.m. till 6:35 a.m.

____h ____ min

a. From 4:53 p.m. till 8:26 p.m.

8 h 26 m

4 h 53 m

a. From 8:27 p.m. till 2:12 a.m.

a. From 8:27 till 13:45

a. Workers in a factory work in three shifts.

How long is each shift?

Shift 2 2:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.

Shift 3 9:30 p.m. - 6:30 a.m.

b. Make a schedule for a doctor. He assigns 30 minutes for each patient, and after three patients,

he has a 20-minute break. Use the 24-hour clock.

Time

Patient 1 8:00 - 8:30

Patient 2

Patient 3

break

Patient 4

Patient 5

Patient 6

break

Time

Patient 7

Patient 8

Patient 9

break

Patient 10

Patient 11

Patient 12

c. Make a class schedule. Each class is 50 minutes, with 5 minutes between them.

146

Class

Time

Class

Time

Lunch

Math

History

Science

P.E.

English

The meeting starts at 2:30 p.m. and lasts for 1 hour 15 minutes.

Simply add the hours to the clock time hours, and minutes to the clock time minutes:

2 hours + 1 hour = 3 hours.

30 minutes + 15 minutes = 45 minutes.

Answer: The meeting ends at 3:45 p.m.

Jake started playing at 3:35 p.m. and played for 45 minutes.

You can still add like you did above and get 3 hours 80 minutes, but 80 minutes is more than one

hour! We need to see the 80 minutes as 60 + 20, where 60 minutes makes one hour.

Therefore the final answer is 4 hours and 20 minutes, or 4:20 p.m.

The other way is to add the starting time and the elapsing time.

If it started raining at 10:53 and it rained for 4 hours and 40 minutes, when did the

rain end?

10 h 53 m

+ 4 h 40 m

14 h 93 m

Add the minutes and the hours separately. Note the minutes go over 60, so we need

to change the 93 minutes to 1 hour and 33 minutes. The final answer is 15:33 or

3:33 p.m.

= 15 h 33 m

a. Guests came at 3:40 p.m. and stayed for 2 hours and 30 minutes.

b. Making pizza takes 1 hour and 40 minutes. Mom starts at 13:45.

c. The pool opens at 8 a.m. and is open for 10 1/2 hours. When does it close?

d. Jen's exam lasted for 2 1/2 hours, starting at 8:45.

e. The airplane takes off at 18:08 and flies for 3 hours and 55 minutes.

f. The food went into the oven at 5:47 p.m. and baked for 35 minutes.

147

One more possible problem is that you know when something ends and how long it lasted.

The airplane landed at 4:30 p.m. The flight lasted for 3 hours and 40 minutes.

When did the plane take off?

You need to go backwards from the ending time. Start at 4:30 and let the minute

hand travel in your mind backwards 3 full rounds, and then 40 minutes. Where do

you end up?

Alternatively, subtract in columns. You will again need to borrow an hour = 60

minutes. The answer 50 minutes would mean the clock time 12:50 p.m.

3h 90 m

4 h 30 m

3 h 40 m

50 m

A 55-minute class ended at 21:10. When did it start?

If it had lasted 1 hour, it would have started at 20:10.

But it was 5 minutes shorter and therefore started 5 minutes later, or at 20:15.

A TV show lasted 1 h and 35 min, ending at 11:20 p.m. When did it start?

Subtract in columns or think it through mentally. Again you'd need to borrow.

It started at 9:45 p.m.

10 h 80 m

11 h 20 m

1 h 35 m

9 h 45 m

a. From ____:_____ p.m. till 2:00 p.m.

is 40 minutes.

is 30 minutes.

is 1 hour 30 minutes.

is 4 hours10 minutes.

is 6 hours 20 minutes.

is 5 hours 32 minutes.

is 45 minutes.

is 2 hours 40 minutes.

a. The Johnson family arrived in the city at 10:30 after a 3-hour, 15-minute car ride.

When did they leave home?

b. When should the family leave the city to make it home by 20:00?

(assuming the driving time back home is the same)?

148

in the woods, and times himself.

Here is the chart he made up.

Fill in the chart with how much

time he spent running each day.

Start:

End:

Running time:

Mo Wd Th

Fr

Sa

17:15 17:03 17:05 17:45 17:12

18:20 18:05 18:12 18:39 18:15

e. Gordon works from 8:30 till 17:15 each day. He has a 30-minute lunch break,

and two 15-minute coffee breaks. How many hours/minutes does he actually work?

f. Pete went to sleep at 22:15, and woke up at 7:00. But he also woke up at 3:30 and

couldn't sleep till 5:10. How many hours/minutes did he actually sleep during the night?

g. The air conditioner is kept running from 7:30 a.m. till 9 p.m.

How many hours does it run in a week?

h. An airplane is scheduled to take off at 3:40 p.m. and land at 5:10 p.m.

The flight is delayed so that it leaves at 3:55 p.m. instead. When will it land?

149

Temperature 1

In the Celsius scale, zero degrees is the freezing point of water. Below that

temperature, water turns to ice. Rain falls as snow. When the temperature

drops below 0 degrees, we use negative numbers. The temperature just 1

degree below zero is minus one degree Celsius or -1C.

When reading negative numbers on a thermometer, you read it sort of

backwards. The line just under 0 degrees matches -1C. The line below that

is -2C, and so on. The temperature in the picture on the right is -4C.

The example on the left shows

the temperature of -16C.

The table lists some benchmark

figures for the Celsius scale.

Water boiling

100C

37C

20-25C

Water freezing

0C

a. -5C

b. -8C

c. -12C

a. 12C

b. -5C

c. 31C

d. -23C

150

d. -19C

e. -23C

3. Read the thermometer and write down the the temperature the thermometer shows.

a. _____C

b. _____C

c. _____C

d. _____C

e. _____C

4. First write down the the temperature the thermometer shows. Then the temperature changes

as indicated. Color the empty thermometer to show the new temperature

rises 3C

a. _____C

falls 5C

_____C

b. _____C

_____C

temperature

After

rises 1C

______

a. -9C

temperature

After

falls 1C

______

b. -9C

temperature

After

rises 3C

______

d. -13C

temperature

After

falls 5C

______

e. -7C

f. 2C

temperature

After

rises 5C

______

g. -5C

temperature

After

falls 5C

______

h. 2C

temperature

After

falls 3C

______

i. -13C

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

151

temperature

After

rises 3C

______

c. -1C

Now

Now

Now

temperature

falls 4C

After

______

Fahrenheit scale

In the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is not

zero but 32F. Anything below 32F means that ice forms.

The Fahrenheit scale does have a zero as well, and below it

we again use negative numbers.

The table lists some benchmark figures:

Water boiling

212F

Nice inside temperature

70-78F

Water freezing

32F

freezes is 0C = 32F.

6. Describe a situation to fit these temperatures.

a. 33F

b. -12F

c. 102F

7. Write the temperature the thermometer shows. Notice the scale carefully!

a. 12F

b. 76F

c. 54F

152

d. 88F

e. 104F

Temperature 2

1. Read the chart and fill in the table, as best as you can.

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Max Temperature

b. What is the coldest month?

c. Find two months that have the same temperature.

d. What is the difference in the maximum temperatures between May and June?

e. How about between June and July?

f. What is the difference in the maximum temperature between the coldest and hottest months?

153

Dec

Month

Minimum

Temperature

Month

Minimum

Temperature

Jan

-10

Jul

Feb

-9

Aug

Mar

-8

Sep

Apr

-2

Oct

-4

May

-1

Nov

-5

Jun

Dec

-7

b. What is the difference in the minimum temperature between May and June?

c. How about between October and November?

d. How many degrees does the minimum temperature change from January to June?

154

Remember Fractions?

One-half of the rectangle is colored.

1

2

3

4

a.

1

3

1

4

b.

c.

3

5

d.

5

8

a.

b.

c.

d.

3. The fractions are equal because there is the same amount! Write the fractions.

1

2

2

4

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

4. Are the fractions equal or not? The diagrams above can help.

a.

1

1

and

2

3

b.

1

2

and

2

4

c.

155

2

1

and

8

4

d.

3

5

and

4

8

Measuring Length

Remember? This ruler measures in inches. The three lines between each two numbers on the ruler

divide each inch into four parts, which are fourth parts of an inch.

The 2/4 mark is also the 1/2 mark. We normally use 1/2 instead of 2/4.

This ruler measures in centimeters. The

numbers signify whole centimeters. All the

little lines between those are for

millimeters.

There are 10 millimeters in each

centimeter.

10 mm = 1 cm

1. Measure the lines to the nearest fourth of an inch.

Also measure them using a centimeter-ruler.

a. ________ in. or _____ cm _____ mm

156

In the ruler below, each inch is divided into eight parts, which are eighth parts of an inch.

Usually, the lines that show 1/2 inches are longer than other lines.

Compare it to the ruler below it, which shows fourth parts of an inch only.

Notice that 2/8 inch = 1/4 inch, 4/8 inch = 1/2 inch, and 6/8 inch = 3/4 inch.

This line is 1/8 inch long

b. ________ in.

a. _________ in.

c. _______ in.

d. _________ in.

e. ________ in.

f. ________ in.

157

a. 3 1/8 inches long

b. 4 1/4 inches long

c. 5 7/8 inches long

d. 9 5/8 inches long

e. 7 1/2 inches long

4. Draw lines using a ruler.

a. 5 cm 3 mm

b. 12 cm 1 mm

c. 4 cm 4 mm

d. 25 cm 7 mm

e. 19 cm 9 mm

5. Practice measuring small items (such as pencils, pens, pins, erasers, the width of books) using a

ruler that measures in 1/8th parts of an inch. If you don't have a ruler, cut out the ruler from the

bottom of this page. Measuring tapes used for sewing often have a 1/8-inch scale on them, also.

Item

Length/width

158

1. Spread one hand wide open and let someone measure the distance from your thumb tip to your

pinky tip. This distance is the definition for the measure span. So your span is _____ inches.

(The official span is 9 inches.)

Now use your span to measure the height of a table (or chair): Table height = ____ spans.

Now, use that to estimate the height of the table in inches. Height estimate = _____ in.

Lastly measure with a measuring tape to check. Height: ______in.

You can repeat this for other objects.

2. Find five small things. BEFORE you measure, make a guess of the length or width.

Then, measure them in inches and centimeters both.

Item

Guess (in.)

Reality (in.)

Guess (cm)

Reality (cm)

b. Measure its sides also in centimeters and millimeters.

c. Figure out the perimeter (the distance all the way around), in centimeters and millimeters.

159

4. Use your measuring tools, maybe even draw lines, to find out which is a longer distance:

a. 3 cm or 1 inch

b. 2 inches or 7 cm

c. 15 cm or 6 inches

a.

b.

c.

4 cm = ____ mm

6 cm 1 mm = _____ mm

4 cm 5 mm = _____ mm

17 cm = ____ mm

9 cm 9 mm = _____ mm

40 cm 8 mm = _____ mm

55 cm = ____ mm

12 cm 8 mm = _____ mm

100 cm = _____ mm

a.

b.

c.

70 mm = ____ cm

21 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

430 mm = ____ cm

78 mm = ____ cm ____ mm

1,200 mm = ____ cm

7. Draw here a triangle so that its one side measures 4 1/4 in. and another side 3 3/8 in.

Measure its third side. Find the perimeter.

160

Remember? 12 inches equal 1 foot. 12 in = 1 ft.

1. Draw a long line on the yard and mark on it 1 ft, 2 ft, 3 ft, etc. marks up until at least 20 ft.

Walk along your line. First, try to take 1-foot steps. Then, try to take 2-foot steps.

Then, try to take 1-yard steps.

Which kind of steps were the most comfortable and easiest steps for you to take?

After practicing the 2-foot steps, measure some distances using your steps. For example,

measure how wide a street is, or how long a room is. Count your steps, and then figure out

the distance in feet.

in your house using feet and inches.

a. 6 ft = ____ in.

11 ft = ____ in.

d. 36 in. = ____ ft

50 in. = ____ ft ____ in.

g. 6 yd = ____ ft

13 yd = ____ ft

7 ft 8 in. = ____ in.

e. 27 in. = ____ ft

100 in. = ____ ft ____ in.

24 ft = ____ in.

f. 64 in. = ____ ft

85 in. = ____ ft ____ in.

h. 2 yd 2 ft = ____ ft

i. 24 ft = ____ yd

5 yd 1 ft = ____ ft

42 ft = ____ yd

j. 13 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

k. 22 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

l. 32 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

17 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

29 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

40 ft = ____ yd ____ ft

161

How much is 3 2 ft 7 in? Multiply the feet and the inches separately:

3 2 ft = 6 ft and 3 7 in = 21 in. Then add those. But first you need to

convert the 21 inches into 1 ft 9 in: 6 ft + 1 ft 9 in = 7 ft 9 in.

4. Multiply.

a. 7 5 in = ____ ft ____ in

c. 8 3 ft 5 in = ____ ft ____ in

b. 4 4 ft 4 in = ____ ft ____ in

d. 7 2 ft 9 in = ____ ft ____ in

The short sides are 2 ft 10 in.

P = ___ ft ___ in

P = ___ ft ___ in

P = ___ft ___ in

and its perimeter 16 ft 10 in.

How long are the shorter sides?

Mile originates from the Roman measure mille passus, or thousand paces.

(A pace is a double-step.) The Roman mile was exactly 5,000 Roman feet.

Read here how the 5,000-foot mile became a 5,280-foot mile around the year 1300:

http://www.sizes.com/units/mile.htm and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furlong

b. An airplane flies at the height of 21,000 feet. About how many miles is that?

c. How many feet is four miles?

d. About how many miles tall is Mt. Everest (elevation 29,029 ft)?

e. Andrew can walk 300 feet in one minute.

How many whole miles can he walk in an hour?

162

The basic unit in the metric system is the meter.

All of the other metric units for measuring length

have the word meter in them.

10

based on 10. That is why you will use either

10, 100, or 1,000 when changing one metric

unit of length to another.

10

10 centimeters makes 1 decimeter.

10 decimeters makes 1 meter. And so on.

10

10

10

10

hectometer

hm

(not used)

decameter

dam

(not used)

meter

decimeter

dm

millimeter mm look at your ruler!

Remember that 1 meter is very close to 1 yard. 1 meter is a tiny bit longer than 1 yard.

1. Outside, or in a long corridor or room, draw two lines that start at the same place.

a. Using a measuring tape,

mark on the one line

1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and

4 m. Can you take

hops 1 meter long?

1 meter

1 meter

1 meter

1 meter

Make 1-yard hops.

Compare: do the two kinds of hops feel about the same?

Write it also using whole meters and centimeters.

Name

How tall

_____ cm = 1 m ____ cm.

163

Remember what millimeters look like on your ruler. 10 mm = 1 cm.

Decimeters aren't usually marked on rulers.10 centimeters make 1 decimeter.

10 decimeters end up being 100 centimeters, and that is 1 meter.

1 km = 1,000 m

1 m = 100 cm

1 cm = 10 mm

a. 5 m = _______ cm

b. 4 m 6 cm = _______ cm

c. 800 cm = _______ m

12 m = _______ cm

10 m 80 cm = _______ cm

6 m 20 cm = _______ cm

9 m 9 cm = _______ cm

d. 58 mm = ___ cm ___ mm

e. 5 km = ________ m

f. 2 km 800 m = _______ m

78 cm = _____ mm

57 km = _________ m

6 km 50 m = _______ m

5,000 m = _____ km

60,000 m = _______ km

a. 5 km 200 m + 8 km 900 m

b. 3 2 km 800 m

c. 1,500 m + 2 km

d. 6 700 m

a. How many millimeters are in a meter?

b. Mary can walk 1 km in 10 minutes. How far can she walk in 34 minutes?

c. John jogs through a track 1 km 800 m long twice a day, five days a week.

How long a distance does he jog in a week?

d. A 10-meter wall is divided into five segments

(not of equal length). Four of the segments

are 1 m 20 cm each; how long is the fifth segment?

e. Kathy's wallpaper has butterflies that are 80

mm wide. She will put the wallpaper in her

room. How many complete butterflies can

she have on a wall 3 meters long?

164

Measuring Weight

Units of weight in the customary system

2,000

(short) ton

16

pound

ounce

1. Choose the right weight for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.

a. a sparrow

10 oz

b. a book

1 oz 16 oz

1 lb

d. a car

2T

2 oz

20 oz

22 lb

e. a magazine

3,500 lb 300 lb

5 oz

2 lb

f. a healthy woman

1 lb

1 lb = 16 oz

44 lb 66 lb

80 lb

130 lb 60 lb

1 T = 2,000 lb

6 lb 4 oz = 6 16 oz + 4 oz = 100 oz

17 T = 17 2,000 lb = 34,000 lb

4 lb 9 oz + 1 lb 7 oz = 5 lb 16 oz = 6 lb

Pounds

2 1/2

10

Ounces

Tons

15

80

5 1/2

480

10

Pounds

14,000

25

41

40,000

a. 7 lb 7 oz = ______ oz

b. 33 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

2 lb 14 oz = ______ oz

c. 7 lb 7 oz = ______ oz

42 lb 14 oz = ______ oz

52 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

a. 1500 lb

1 1/2 T

b.

3T

4000 lb

165

c.

64 oz

3 lb 6 oz

Week Weight

0

6 lb 14 oz

6 lb 12 oz

6 lb 14 oz

7 lb

7 lb 2 oz

7 lb 4 oz

7lb 6oz

7lb 7oz

Afterwards, figure out if the total ounces actually

make some whole pounds.

In the example on the right, 33 oz needs changed

to 2 lb 1 oz before giving the final answer 5 lb 1 oz.

a. Jose's packages and letters for the week weighed

2 oz, 6 oz, 5 oz, 1 lb 1 oz, and 1 lb 4 oz.

What was their total weight?

b. The cocoa powder on the scales weighs 2 lb 5 oz.

Janet puts some in a bag, and then the scales shows 1 lb 8 oz.

How much cocoa powder did she put in the bag?

c. How many more bags can Janet make of the same size

from the 1 lb 8 oz she still has unbagged?

d. Farmer Smith's red apples weigh about 4 oz each.

How many apples are in 5 lb of apples?

e. An ounce of rice costs $0.09.

Find the price for 2 pounds of rice.

f. A bag of split peas weighs 1 lb 4 oz.

How much do ten bags weigh?

166

9 oz

1 lb 11 oz

+ 2 lb 13 oz

3 lb 33 oz

= 5 lb 1 oz

Units of weight in the metric system

10

1 kg = 1,000 g

10

10

kilogram

hectogram

hg

decagram

gram

(not used)

kilograms

2 1/2

3 1/2

10

grams

7,000

9,500

20,000

2. Convert.

a. 5 kg 400 g = ______ g

c. 60 kg = ______ g

32 kg 40 g = ______ g

8 1/2 kg = ______ g

5000

3650

+ 490

can change them all to grams first.

9140

kilograms and grams to grams.

Remember that 1,000 grams

makes a kilogram.

5 kg + 3 kg 650 g + 490 g

4 kg 250 g + 5 kg 800 g

kilograms and some in grams, you

Answer: 9,140 g

or 9 kg 140 g

= 9 kg 1,050 g = 10 kg 50 g

3. a. Jeremy received in the mail, packages that weighed 700 g, 350 g, 4 kg 400 g, and 1 kg 900 g.

What was the total weight of the packages?

b. Angi bought three 1 1/2 kg packages and seven 400-gram packages of buckwheat flour.

What is the weight of the flour she got?

c. You need 2 kg of flour to make bread. The scale shows you already have 1,050 g.

How many more grams of flour do you need?

d. A 200-gram bag of millet costs $1.69.

How many bags do you need for 1 kg of millet?

What is the total cost?

167

a. 3 kg 300 g

3,030 g

b. 6 kg 400 g

640 g

c. 10 kg

5,000 g

5. a. Fill in the table how much weight Greg gained during each year.

b. When did he grow the fastest?

c. How can you see the 'fast' growth periods on the chart?

(yrs)

(kg)

previous year

0

3 kg 300 g

10 kg 200 g 6 kg 900 g

12 kg 300g

14 kg 600 g

16 kg 700 g

18 kg 700 g

20 kg 700 g

22 kg 900 g

25 kg 300 g

28 kg 100 g

(yrs)

(kg)

previous year

168

10

31 kg 400 g

11

32 kg 200 g

12

37 kg

13

40 kg 900 g

14

47 kg

15

52 kg 600 g

16

58 kg

17

62 kg 700 g

18

65 kg

Units of volume in the customary system

gallon for large amounts of liquid (gal)

4

pint

cup

cups

3 1/2

ounces

gallons

24

96

4 1/2

quarts

6

22

Cups

64

160

a. A spoonful

a cup.

b. A glass of milk

c. A bucket of water

d. A quart of juice

e. Three cups of flour

a pint.

2 quarts.

fourth of a gallon.

a quart.

a pint.

3. The measuring cup can hold 2 cups when full. Draw to fill it.

a. 1 1/2 cups

b. 3/4 cups

c. 1/4 cups

169

d. 1 1/4 cups

4. Choose the right volume for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.

a. a cup of coffee

1 oz

4 oz 6 oz

b. a bucket

c. a paint can

4 qt 12 gal 4 gal

d. a shampoo bottle

14 c 14 oz 2 qt

12 gal

e. a cooking pot

2 pt

2qt

4 qt

2 gal

10 oz

20 gal

70 gal

100 gal

5. Which is more?

a. 12 qt

d. 3 qt 3 c

2 gal

b. 14 fl. oz.

5 pt

e. 1 gal

2 cups

144 oz

c. 1 pint

20 oz

f. 5 qt

1 gal 1 pt

6. Convert.

a. 1 pt = _____ oz

b. 2 qt = ____ C

1/2 qt = ____ C

c. 1 qt 1 C = ___ oz

12 C = ___ qt

a. A full water cooler contains 2 gallons of cold water.

How many 6-ounce servings can you dispense?

b. If you serve 8-oz servings of juice for 30 people,

how many whole gallons of juice do you need?

c. Mom buys a 1/2-gallon jug of milk, and uses 2 cups

of it for baking. How many cups of milk are left?

d. The washer uses about 14 gallons of water for a load

of laundry. If you run the washer three times a week,

how much water do you use in a year?

e. Mom was making applesauce in 2-gallon batches

and canning it in 1-quart jars. After 9 batches,

how many jars of applesauce had she made?

f. A 4-ounce serving of coffee costs $1.20.

What would a 1-ounce serving cost?

A 6-ounce serving? A 5-ounce serving?

g. Mark drinks three 5-ounce servings of coffee a day.

Find how much coffee he drinks in a month.

Give your answer in meaningful units (not in plain ounces).

170

d. 12 pt = ___ qt

11 C = ___ qt ___ C

The most often used units of volume in the metric system are

called liters and milliliters.

A liter is very close to a quart -- just a little bit more.

Milliliters are thousandth parts of a liter. In other words,

1,000 milliliters make one liter.

A milliliter is abbreviated ml. A liter is usually abbreviated

L but sometimes you may see just a lowercase l.

Most 2-cup measuring cups also have a milliliter scale.

2 cups is about 500 ml. 4 cups is about 1 L.

liter

deciliter

dl

centiliter

cl

milliliter

10

1 L = 1,000 ml

10

10

1. The measuring cup can hold 500 ml when full. Color the cup to fill it to the correct measurement.

a. 300 ml

b. 120 ml

c. 440 ml

d. 280 ml

L

ml

2 1/2

5

3,000

50

8,500

171

12,000

a. A nose dropper can hold (5/500) milliliters.

a.

b.

c.

1 L 80 ml = ______ ml

4 L 400 ml = _______ ml

3 L 8 ml = _______ ml

a.

b.

a. Jeanine drank 250 ml of a 1-liter jug of juice.

How much is left?

b. Mark filled four 200-ml glasses out of a 2-liter bottle

of juice. How much is left now?

c. Ed drank 1/2 liter out of a full 2-liter water bottle. The rest of it

was poured into 250-ml glasses. How many glasses were filled?

d. Jeanine bought five 250-ml cans of juice, two 2-liter bottles

of water, and three 350-ml bottles of juice.

Find the total amount of liquid in liters and milliliters.

e. How many 200-ml glasses can you fill out of a 5-liter water cooler?

f. A 250-ml cup of yogurt costs $0.80 and a 170-ml cup of yogurt costs $0.65.

To compare the prices, imagine buying four bigger cups of yogurt, or six smaller ones.

How much yogurt is in four bigger cups?

In six smaller ones?

How much would the total cost of each be?

Which yogurt seems to be cheaper?

172

Review

1. How much time passes?

a. From 11:15 p.m. till 6:07 a.m.

b. From 10:55 till 21:35.

2. A flight that lasts 4 hours 20 minutes is landing at 1:10 p.m.

When did it take off?

3. Describe a situation to fit these temperatures.

a. 25F

b. 25C

4. Draw here a line that is ...

a. 2 3/8 in. long

b. 36 mm long

5. Convert between the different measuring units.

a.

b.

c.

15 cm = ____ mm

4 yd 2 ft = _____ ft

4 m 25 cm = _____ cm

6 cm 8 mm = ____ mm

8 km = _________ m

150 mm = ____ cm

36 ft = ______ yd

What is its perimeter?

7. The distance from Sarah's home to the community center

is 1 km 400 m. If Sarah goes there twice a week,

how long a distance does she walk all in all?

8. Choose the right weight for each thing. Sometimes there are two possibilities.

a. a 5-year old child

b. a thick dictionary

16 kg

8 oz

12 lb

34 lb

2 kg 12 oz

173

c. a letter

2 lb

2 oz 20 oz

b.

a.

c.

5 lb 11 oz = ______ oz

3 T 200 lb = _______ lb

56 oz = ____ lb _____ oz

7 kg 500 g = ______ g

He had gained 2 kg 350 g since his last visit.

What did he weigh at his previous visit?

11. Mary gives her cat 6 oz of catfood every day.

How many days will the 4-lb sack of catfood last her?

a. 3 gal

11 qt

b. 21 fl. oz.

3 cups

c. 3 pints

44 fl. oz.

a.

b.

c.

you get from 1 gallon of juice?

and Samantha bought a quart.

How much did she pay?

how much would a liter cost?

174

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