You are on page 1of 111


A swimming pool, a bath, or a wading pool is an artificially created, enclosed
body of water. It may be intended for various kinds of activities ranging from
recreational and competitive to entertainment and health.
Humans have known swimming for long, as archaeological findings tend to
show. Babylonian bas-reliefs and Assyrian wall drawings point to very early
swimming skills. The most ancient and famous of drawings depicting men
swimming are estimated to be about 6,000 years old. Many of the other
worlds ancient civilisations swam, including the Egyptians, the Phoenicians,
Persians, Romans and the Greeks. Plato, the great Greek philosopher once
declared that anyone who could not swim lacked a proper education.
Modern day swimming pools differ greatly from those of the ancient world in
that those of the ancient world were largely baths, which were not meant for
swimming. Their swimming was done in lakes, ponds, rivers etc. Also,
because the baths water was continually drained and refreshed, so it did not
pose health risks unlike modern day pools which use the same body of water
on and on with the attendant risk of continuous contamination from bathers.
Pools can be classified in several ways, based on construction, usage,,
location, source of water etc. Generally, pools are classified as public or
private. All other categories such as material of construction (gunite or

poured), inground or aboveground can be classified under the two general

1.1.1 Public Pools
Public pools are pools, which are meant for every member of the public
usage. They can be fee paying or free. They are of the in ground type and
are usually made from gunite with tile or fiberglass finish.

Fig. 1.1: A public pool hall.

There are different sub-categories under public pools:
Regular Pools: These are used primarily for swimming. They are found
in hotels, public parks etc.
Spas: They are public swimming pools designed for recreational and
therapeutic uses that are note drained, cleaned, or refilled after each
individual use. Spas may include units designed for hydroject circulation,
hot water, cold water mineral bath, air induction bubbles etc.
Wading Pools: These are public pools designed for use by children,
including wading pools for toddlers and childrens activity pools designed

for casual water play ranging from splashing activity to the use of
interactive water features placed in the pool.
1.1.2 Private Pools
These are pools, which are not open for every member of the public usage.
They are found in the homes of rich individuals hence the name private or
residential pools. They can be of the above ground or in-ground type (usually
the later) and are constructed from gunite or poured concrete material.
Private pools are costly elaborate and come of different shapes and sizes.

Fig.1.2: A private pool

The water in a swimming pool contains microorganisms and unwanted
substances, which derive from the skin and excretion products of swimmers.
Bathers cause many pollutants to enter the water (it is estimated that every
swimmer adds up to a million microorganisms to the water), such as bacteria
from saliva and wounds, excretion products (urine and sweat), pollution from
swimwear, skin tissue, sebum, nose excretion, hairs, cosmetics, dead insects,
leaves, dust and ammonia (NH3. Some of the dissolved pollutants such as

sweat and urine are in themselves not harmful to human health but contain
substances such as kreatine, kreatinine and amino acids which when react
with disinfectants in the water, such as chlorine produces unwanted reaction
products consisting mainly of chloramines.
1.2.1 Health Effects of Swimming Pool Pollutants
Swimmers are susceptive to pathogenic microorganisms in swimming pool
water. As a result of cooling and water uptake, the resistance of the mucous
membrane of swimmers to weaken, causing them to become more susceptive
to pathogens in swimming pool water and air, and even to pathogens that are
present in their own bodies. Microorganisms that enter the water through
excretion by swimmers cause a large variety of conditions. Most pathogenic
microorganisms cause diarrhoea or skin rashes. Certain microorganisms (e.g.
poliovirus 1, E. coli bacteria) can cause serious symptoms, such as paralysis,
brain inflammation, heart inflammation, jaundice, fevers, vomiting, diarrhoea
and respirational or eye infections.

Pathogenic microorganisms that are

found in swimming pool are bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa.

Children, the elderly, and people with damaged immune systems are more
prone to infections caused by these species and will fall ill more easily.
Water purification generally means freeing water from any kind of impurity it
contains, such as contaminants or microorganisms. It is not a very one-sided
process; the purification process contains many steps. The steps that need to

be progressed depend on the kind of impurities that are found in the water.
This can differ significantly for different kinds of water.
1.3.1 Water Purification Methods
Clean and safe potable water as is distributed in cities is treated extensively.
Specific water purification steps are taken, in order to make the water meet
current water standards.
Purification methods can be divided up into sedimentation, physical/chemical
treatment of colloids and biological treatment.
1. Sedimentation: This is the gravity separation of suspended material from
aqueous solution. Suspensions in which particulate matter is heavier than
water tend to settle to the bottom as a result of gravitation forces. This
process is not used in swimming pool water treatment but reserved for
potable water purification.
2. Physical Water Purification: This is primarily concerned with filtration
techniques. Filtration is a purification instrument to remove solids from
liquids. There are several filtration techniques. A typical filter consists
of a tank, the filter media and a controller to enable backflow.

Screens: Filtration through screens is usually done at the beginning of the

water purification process. The shape of the screens depends on the
particles that have to be removed. Screens do not find application in pool
water treatment.

Sand Filtration: Sand filtration is a frequently used, very robust method

to remove suspended solids from water. The filter medium consists of a

multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity. When
water flows through the filter, the suspended solids precipitate in the sand
layers as residue and the water, which is reduced in suspended solids,
flow out of the filter. When the filters are loaded with particles the flow
direction is reversed (backwashing), in order to regenerate it.


filtration finds very useful application in swimming pool water treatment.


Cross Flow Filtration: Cross flow membrane filtration removes both

salts and dissolved organic matter, using a permeable membrane that only
permeates the contaminants.

The remaining concentrate flows along

across the membrane and out of the system.


Cartridge Filtration:

Cartridge filtration units consist of fibres. They

generally operate most effectively and economically on applications

having contamination levels of less than 100 ppm. For heavier
contamination applications, cartridges are normally used as final
polishing filters.
3. Chemical Water Purification:

Chemical water purification is concerned

with a lot of different methods. Which methods are applied depends on

the kind of contamination in the (waste) water. Below, many of these
chemical purification techniques are briefly described.

Clarification: Clarification is a multi-step process to remove suspended

solids. First, coagulants are added. Coagulants reduce the charges of ions,
so that they will accumulate into larger particles called flocs. The flocs
then settle by gravity in settling tanks or are removed as the water flows

through a gravity filter. Particles larger than 25 microns are effectively

removed by clarification. Water that is treated through clarification may
still contain some suspended solids and therefore needs further treatment.


Disinfection is one of the most important steps in the

purification of water from cities and communities. It serves the purpose of

killing the present undesired microorganisms in the water; therefore
disinfectants are often referred to as biocides. There are a variety of
techniques available to disinfect fluids and surfaces, such as: ozone
disinfection, chlorine disinfection and UV disinfection.
Chlorine-based disinfectants are among the most frequently applied
disinfectants and oxidizers for swimming pool treatment. Chlorine is
added as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypochlorite (OCl-). Chlorine kills
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in the water.


dioxide is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm and

over a wide pH range. ClO2 penetrates the bacteria cell wall and reacts
with vital amino acids in the cytoplasm of the cell to kill the organism.
The by-product of this reaction is chlorite. Toxicological studies have
shown that the chlorine dioxide disinfection by-product, chlorite, poses no
significant adverse risk to human health.
Ozone has been used for disinfection of drinking water in the municipal
water industry in Europe for over a hundred years and is used by a large
number of water companies, where ozone generator capacities up to the
range of a hundred kilograms per hour are common. When ozone faces

odours, bacteria or viruses, the extra atom of oxygen destroys them

completely by oxidation. During this process the extra atom of oxygen is
destroyed and there are no odours, bacteria or extra atoms left. Ozone is
not only an effective disinfectant, it is also particularly safe to use.
UV-radiation is also used for disinfection nowadays. When exposed to
sunlight, germs are killed and bacteria and fungi are prevented from
spreading. This natural disinfection process can be utilised most
effectively by applying UV radiation in a controlled way.

Distillation: Distillation is the collection of water vapour, after boiling

the wastewater. With a properly designed system removal of organic and
inorganic contaminants and biological impurities can be obtained,
because most contaminants do not vaporize. Water will than pass to the
condensate and the contaminants will remain in the evaporation unit.

pH-adjustment: Treated water is often pH-adjusted, in order to prevent

corrosion from pipes and to prevent dissolution of lead into water
supplies. The pH is brought up or down through addition of hydrogen
chloride, in case of a basic liquid, or natrium hydroxide, in case of an
acidic liquid. The pH will be converted to approximately 7 to 7.5, after
addition of certain concentrations of these substances.

4. Biological Water Purification: Biological




performed to lower the organic load of dissolved organic compounds.

Microorganisms, mainly bacteria, do the decomposition of these
compounds. There are two main categories of biological treatment:

aerobic water treatment and anaerobic water treatment. The Biological

Oxygen Demand (BOD) defines the organic load. In aerobic systems the
water is aerated with compressed air (in some cases merely oxygen),
whereas anaerobic systems run under oxygen free conditions. This
method of purification is not used in swimming pool water treatment.

Historically, water was considered clean if it was clear. Without the analytical
chemistry of todays world, visual clarity and appearance were the only real
indicators of how pure a water source was. People who lived in prehistoric
times built their homes on lakeshores or along rivers so they would have
water to drink and wash in. the water in lakes and rivers was much cleaner
back then because many of the impurities of today did not exist then. There
are no records of how water was cleaned in prehistoric times.
Before 500 B.C.
The Egyptians were the first people to record methods for treating water.
These records date back more than 1,500 B.C. The records, some of which
are paintings indicate that the most common ways of cleaning water were
boiling it over fire, heating it in the sun, or dipping a heated piece of iron into
it. Filtering boiling water through sand and gravel and then allowing it to cool
was another common treatment method. This early treatment was performed
only to improve taste and appearance of water. The use of alum to remove
suspended particles is also attributed to the Egyptians.


Fig.2.1: Egyptian drawings depicting siphoning

Among other early advances, Mayan civilizations developed remarkably
complex hydraulic systems for water distribution. An ancient Hindu source
gives what may have been the first drinking water standard, written at least
4,000 years ago; it directed people to heat foul water by boiling and exposing
to sunlight and by dipping seven times into a piece of hot copper, then to
filter and cool in an earthen vessel.
The Greek physician Hippocrates (considered as the Father of Medicine),
invented the Hippocratic Sleeve, a cloth bag to strain rainwater in the 5th
century B.C. He stated in one of his writings that water contributes much to
health. Hippocrates focused more on selecting the healthiest water source,
rather than expending energy and resources on purifying less desirable
The Romans, borrowing Hippocrates idea of selecting the healthiest water,
built extensive aqueduct system to bring in pristine water from far away to
their cities. But other than the incidental mild disinfection effect of sunlight
on water in open aqueducts, no major treatment was provided.


In the 8th century A.D., Arabian alchemist Geber distilled water to purify it
for the imbibitions of alcohol and clean medicines according to The Quest for
Pure Water. In the 11th century, a Persian physician named Avicenna, after
performing several tests and experiments on water found out that straining
water through a cloth is effective in removing impurities. He therefore
recommended that travellers strain water through a cloth or boil it.
As in other scientific arenas, little progress was made in the Middle Ages
toward an understanding of water treatment and its importance to public
health. Sir Francis Bacon, the great Elizabethan philosopher, chronicled only
10 scientific experiments in the preceding 1,000 years (prior to 14th century
A.D.), which related to water treatment. There was little progress in water
treatment and its connection to public health.
In the 17th century, British philosopher and scientist Sir Francis Bacon
applied his scientific method of making empirical observations and drawing
conclusions from them to a vast array of subjects, including water. In 1627 he
published thousands of experiments detailing water purification methods,
including percolation, filtration, boiling, distillation, and coagulation. In
1684, Dutch naturalists, Anton van Leeuwenhoek published sketches of his
wee animalcules, a common form of bacteria viewed with a simple
microscope that he invented himself.


Fig.2.2: van Leeuwenhoek microscope

Also in the same century, 1685 to be precise, an Italian physician named Lu
Antonio Porzio designed the first multiple filter. These two unrelated events
were to play important parts in the future of water treatment.
Van Leeuwenhoek was accused of inaccuracy. The scientific community
regarded his sketches of microscopic organisms as unimportant
Then 200 years later, the scientists of the 19th century made the connection
between these "animacules," water, and health. Porzio's filter used plain
sedimentation and straining followed by sand filtration. It contained two
compartments (one downward flow, one upward).
In the 18th century, called the Age of Enlightenment, natural philosophy
(now termed science) began to be viewed as something that could have
practical value to humans. In 1703, Parisian scientist Phillippe La Hire
presented a plan to provide a sand filter and rainwater cistern in every
individual household. He also documented that groundwater was rarely
contaminated. In 1746, fellow Frenchman Joseph Amy was granted the first
patent for a filter design. Amys filters consisted primarily of sponges and
sand in a variety of configurations, the smallest of which provided for the


passage of water through sponges in a perforated plate. By 1750 his filters for
home use could be purchased. Later in the century, filtered water was sold on
a small scale, but no large commercial plants were built. James Peacock, a
British architect, was granted a patent in 1791 on a three-tank, upward-flow
backwash filter.
In 1804, Paisley, Scotland, became the site of the first filter facility to deliver
water to an entire town. It was built by John Gibb to supply his bleachery and
the town, and within three years, filtered water was even piped directly to
customers in Glasgow, Scotland.
In 1806, a large water treatment plant opened in Paris, using the River Seine
as a source. The water was settled for 12 hours prior to filtration then run
through sponge prefilters that were renewed every hour. The main filters
consisted of coarse river sand, clean sand, pounded charcoal, and clean
Fontainebleau sand. The filters were renewed every six hours. A simple form
of aeration was also part of the process, and pumps were driven by horses
working in three shifts (steam power was too expensive). This plant operated
for 50 years. The year 1832 saw the first slow sand filtration plant in the
United States built in Richmond, Virginia. By 1833, the plant had 295 water
subscribers, showing a growing awareness of the relationship between clean
water and health. The next US plant to open was in Elizabeth, N.J., in 1855.
Up until the late 1860s, only 136 waterworks operated in the US. Many of
these delivered what was considered to be pure water that did not require


filtration. Following the American Civil War of 1865, waterworks

construction increased significantly. Slow sand filters were introduced in
Massachusetts in the mid-1870s. Sand filters and other treatments were
primarily designed to improve the aesthetic quality of water. It took major
developments in bacteriology during the 1870s and 1880s to demonstrate that
microorganisms that exist in water supplies can cause human and animal
diseases. This led to the realization that water treatment could help prevent
disease. Robert Koch, the German physician and microbiologist who
postulated the germ theory of disease, and the Scottish surgeon Joseph Lister
were major players in this work. In 1881, William Stripe, superintendent of
waterworks at Keokuk, Iowa, issued an invitation to all persons concerned
with waterworks design, construction, operation, maintenance, and
management to gather at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo. The 22
respondents to this call to exchange information pertaining to the
management of water works, mutual advancement of consumers and water
companies, and to secure economy and uniformity in the operation of water
companies, together founded the American Water Works Association. By the
1890s filtration was gaining recognition for not only straining out undesirable
particles, but also removing deadly germs. For instance, towns and cities
along the Hudson River in New York State that used filtration for water
purification had fewer outbreaks and incidences of typhoid than communities
that did not filter the Hudson River water. In the mid 1890s, the Louisville
(Kentucky) Water Co. combined coagulation with rapid sand filtration,


reducing both turbidity and bacteria in the water. Significant improvements to

water treatment in the 1880s and 1890s included development of rapid sand
filters, which were mechanically driven and could handle larger volumes,
improved operation of slow sand filters, and the first applications of chlorine
and ozone for disinfection. At an 1894 meeting of the American Public
Health Association, waterworks engineer George Warren Fuller suggested
that a cooperative effort toward standardization of bacteriological testing was
needed so that results from different laboratories could be compared. The
result was an 1897 report that evolved into the Standard Methods text used
The year 1906 saw the installation of slow sand filters in Philadelphia, United
States and the use of ozone as a disinfectant in Nice, France. In the early
1900s, ozonation for disinfection became common in Europe, but was less
prevalent in the US. Ozonation equipment was more complex and costly than
that used for chlorination, but ozone caused fewer taste and odor problems.
Many Europeans also were reluctant to use chlorine after World War I
because it had been used as a chemical warfare agent. In 1908, Jersey City
(N.J.) Water Works became the first utility in the US to use sodium
hypochlorite for primary disinfection, and the Bubbly Creek plant in Chicago
instituted regular chlorine disinfection (electrolytic generation of chlorine and
hypochlorites was by then a readily available technology). In that same year
information became available on bacterial kill rates, which led to the Chick


and Watson model of chemical inactivation of microorganisms. It was

observed that numbers of typhoid cases often plummeted following
introduction of chlorine. In 1914, the US Department of Treasury
promulgated the countrys first drinking water bacteriological standard, a
maximum level of 2 coliforms per 100 mL. This only applied to interstate
systems, as the authority to establish such a regulation was created under the
1893 Interstate Quarantine Act, intended to prevent the spread of disease
from one state or possession to another. Chlorination was first used in 1917
in Ottawa, Canada and Denver, Colorado. Initially, chlorine was applied for
disinfection on a dosage basis. In 1919, Americans Abel Wolman and L.H.
Enslow demonstrated that chlorine consumption varied dramatically
depending on the characteristics of the water and developed the concept of
chlorine demand as the amount added minus the residual present after a
specified time period. By the 1920s and 1930s, use of filtration and
chlorination had virtually eliminated epidemics of major waterborne diseases
such as typhoid and cholera from the American and European landscape. In
1925, the US bacteriological standard was revised to 1 coliform per 100 mL,
and standards for lead, copper, zinc, and excessive soluble mineral substances
were added. These two decades also saw the development of dissolved air
flotation (patented 1924), early membrane filters (primarily for analytical
use), floc-blanket sedimentation, and the solids-contact clarifier. A major
step in the development of desalination technologies came in the 1940s
during World War II when various military establishments in arid areas


needed water to supply their troops. In 1942, the US Public Health Service
adopted a set of drinking water standards that included bacteriological
sampling in the distribution system and maximum permissible concentrations
for lead, fluoride, arsenic, and selenium. Hexavalent chromium was added to
this list in 1946, and the membrane filter process for bacteriological analysis
was approved in 1957. By the early 1960s, more than 19,000 municipal water
systems were in operation throughout the US. Most of these facilities used
chlorine for disinfection. Although ozone was in common use in continental
Europe throughout the 20th century, by 1987 only five US water treatment
facilities were using it, primarily for taste-and-odor control or trihalomethane
precursor removal. With the exception of the coliform standard in interstate
commerce, US drinking water standards were basically non-enforceable
guidelines until the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. The SDWA came
about in large part because of concerns about organic contaminants, and the
law laid out the process that the US Environmental Protection Agency would
use to set health-based maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and the
aesthetic-related secondary MCLs.

Although the focus of USEPA

regulations in the 1980s was on minimization of disinfection by-products,

concern for both chemical and microbial contaminants dominated the water
industry in the 1990s. The 1993 Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee,
Wisconsin, served as a reminder that another pathogen always exists that may
cause acute health effects if a breakdown in treatment occurs. The 1996
amendments to the SDWA were a step in the direction of stronger


cooperation between utilities and USEPA in establishing new regulations.

2000 and Beyond Today, the processes of filtration and disinfection are still
in use, but are continually being refined based on better understanding of the
complex web of physical and chemical interactions that make these processes
work. Particles can now be measured in microns, and compounds can
detected to part-per-billion and part-per-trillion levels. Regulations now
require not only proper disinfection but also careful control of disinfection
by-products. Membranes are starting to provide the same functions as
conventional treatment and alternative disinfection methods such as
ultraviolet light are coming into focus.

In addition to water treatment

practices, water systems must work toward solutions to the formidable

problems of source water protection and water scarcity, as well as how to
replace an aging infrastructure. The challenges of supplying an increasingly
higher quality of water to an increasing human population on a planet with a
limited freshwater supply will shape the future of water utilities and advanced
treatment processes in the 21st century.
Swimming as organised activity dates back as far as 2500BC, ancient Egypt
and later in ancient Greece, Rome, and Assyria. In Rome and Greece,
swimming was part of the education of elementary age boys. Until the
Romans built the first pools, what was obtainable in most of the ancient
world could be considered as baths. The transition to the present day
swimming pool happened over several centuries.


2.3.1 Baths and Spas

The first in the category of artificially enclosed body of water was the bath,
which came about as a result of socialization. Social bathing was an
important cultural process practiced by Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Minoans,
Greeks, and Romans whenever they sought health and relief from their pain
and diseases. As a result, baths and adjacent gymnasiums became popular and
were places of socializing. With the completion of a new Roman aqueduct in
19 BC to supply water, the Thermae Agrippae was the first public bath in
Rome. The largest of all Roman baths was the Diocletian, completed in A.D.
305 and covered an area of 130,000 sq. yards. Engineers of the ancient times
still cause modern man to marvel and ask: "How did they do that"? Gaius
Maecenas of Rome, a rich Roman lord, built the first heated swimming pool,
in the first century BC.
As the Roman Empire fell, the Roman thermae fell into disrepair and disuse.
The bath gained and lost popularity in different parts of the world Asia,
Europe, Africa, and North America through the present day. Baths were
often built near natural hot or mineral springs. According to Professor de
Vierville, Charlemagne's Aachen and Bonaventura's Poretta developed as
important social bathing and healing places around thermal springs during the
Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era, Paracelsus' mountain mineral springs at
Paeffers, Switzerland, and towns like Spa, Belgium, Baden-Baden, Germany,
and Bath, England, grew up around natural thermal waters considered to have
healing properties. The use of saunas and steam baths also emerged. As these


springs and spas were discovered, forgotten, and rediscovered, the healing
power of the water was often enhanced and formalized. In 1522, the first
scientific book on the Czech Karlovy Vary treatment for disease was
published in which a regimen of baths and drinking the waters of the springs
was recommended. In the 1890s, Father Sebastian Kneipp developed holistic
herbal and water therapy in the German spa village of Bad Worishofen.
The King's Bath
The Kings Bath was built, using the lower walls of the Roman Spring
building as foundations, in the 12th century. The bath is so called because a
statue of King Bladud overlooks it. The bath provided niches for bathers to sit
in, immersed up to their necks in water. On the south side of the bath is a seat
beneath the waterline, known as the Master of the Baths chair that was
donated in the 17th century. Although modified and encroached upon by the
building of the Grand Pump Room in the 18th century and subsequent 19th
century developments the Kings Bath continued in use for curative bathing
until the middle of the 20th century.
American Sweat Houses
They had also sweathouses and menstrual lodges. The permanent sweathouse
was a shallow subterranean excavation, roofed with poles and earth and
bedded with grass, in which the young and unmarried men slept during the
winter season, and occasionally sweated themselves by means of steam
produced by pouring water upon hot stones placed in the centre. The
temporary sweathouse used by both sexes was a framework of willow rods,


covered with blankets, and with the heated stones placed inside. The
menstrual lodge, for the seclusion of women during the menstrual period and
for a short period before and after childbirth, was a subterranean structure,
considerably larger than the sweathouse, and entered by means of a ladder
from above. The occupants thus secluded cooked their meals alone and were
not allowed even to touch any articles used by outsiders.
2.3.2 Modern Swimming Pool, Hot Tubs and Spas
The modern hot tubs and swimming pools of today have come a long way.
The transition from the baths and spas of the ancient world to the present day
artificial pools and spas has been greatly assisted as Kings, Emperors, rulers
and the fabulously rich have constantly tried to out do one another thereby
encouraging pool designers to come up with new and improved design.
Modern swimming pool only became popular in the middle of 19th century in
Britain and this was largely due to competitive swimming. Indeed by 1837,
six indoors pools had been built in London, England. As the sport grew in
popularity many more pools were built, and when a new governing body, the
Amateur Swimming Association of Great Britain, was formed in 1880, it
numbered more than 300 member clubs. The Olympic games further
popularized swimming when swimming became a medal-winning event at


The prime purposes of applying water treatment equipment to pool water
(other than for sterilization) are three in number:

To maintain continuously a satisfactory standard of cleanliness

To ensure that the bottom of the pool is at all times clearly visible to the
attendant staff, as a safeguard against drowning accidents

To achieve clarity and sparkle which will make the water attractive to
the bather.


A typical swimming pool comes with seven major components and these are:

a basin

a motorized pump

a water filter

a chemical feeder



uPVC plastic plumbing connecting all these elements

The contamination of swimming pool water to some extent is inevitable,

water treatment techniques therefore must be established to make the water
safe for bathers. Such treatment is accomplished by the operation of three
interrelated and interacting systems as regards the seven components listed


- A system for the re-circulation and distribution of pool water

- A system for feeding chemicals for disinfection and control of pH
- A system for the removal of particles by filtration
The basic idea is to pump water in a continual cycle from the pool through
the filtering and chemical system and back to the pool again. In this way, the
pumping system keeps the water in the pool relatively free of dirt, debris and
bacteria. Some pools also include heaters in the mix, in order to keep the
water at a certain temperature.

Fig.3.1: A typical pool system

The function of the swimming pool re-circulation system is probably best
described as a type of transportation system. Water is transferred from the
pool, delivered to a station where it is filtered and chemically treated, and
then returned to the pool. The round trip the water takes is described by the
term turnover. Turn over is expressed as the number of hours necessary to


circulate a volume of water equal to the volume contained in the pool.

Another method of expression is the number of times in 24hours that the
volume of water in the pool is circulated i.e. turn over in 8hours is a turnover
of three. Both in theory and practice, it has been determined that the typical
public pool should be re-circulated continuously at a rate equal to one
turnover in each 6 to 8hour period. The law of dilution as developed by Gage
and Bidwell suggests that such a turnover rate will provide 95 to 98% dilution
of soiled pool water with water that has been filtered and chemically treated.
Gage and Bidwells law has been largely upheld in practice and the 6 to
8hour turnover rates have generally become a standard for the operation of
the public pools.
The basic problems inherent in the circulation of the filtered and treated pool
water are not unfamiliar to the heating and ventilating engineer. As with so
many systems, the production of a conditioned agent is but part of the task, its
conveyance to and distribution within the occupied area often represent the
key to success or failure. In the case in question, the output of the plant must
be introduced into the pool in such a manner as to avoid stagnation and to
provide optimum conditions at all times to suit varying occupancy. Four
principal methods have been developed to meet these requirements; these
basic principles may be summarized as follows:
The Orthodox System: This has the fundamental merit that at all times the
whole of the water delivered to the pool passes through the shallow end and
is thus available to deal with the contamination which, as has already been


said, occurs predominantly in this area, further, this principle is one which
can not be altered by maladjustment or misuse. The system is simple; it calls
for a minimum of pipe work and valves and of connections through the pool
wall, these are such that the pool is inherently drainable through the outlet
The Cross-flow System: This a more complex arrangement, has longer
pipelines, more valves and connections and is therefore inherently more
expensive. Since flow is across the pool the throughput of water in the
crowded shallow end is less than with the orthodox system to the extent that
water is delivered direct to the deep end of the pool. The deep end has a very
low rate of turnover since a relatively small water quantity is delivered and
the volume of this area of the pool is large.
With the many distributed inlet and outlet points, a potential facility exists by
manipulation of the valve on each such point, for adjustment of the flow rate
over any portion of the pool at will and thus of regulating the pattern of water
movement to suit the conditions for the time being, or of recovering a
condition of lost breakpoint by local treatment. Such regulation, however
could only be made if rate of flow indicators were provided on each inlet and
outlet branch and even with this facility, alterations to flow patterns would be
difficult to set up, doubtful in effect and disastrous if misused or improperly
understood. A practical disadvantage is that the system does not naturally
provide pool drainage facilities and in consequence, a separate connection
must be made for this purpose.


Fig 3.2 Circulation in conventional pools

The Surflo System: In effect, this system provides a preset varying rates of
turnover highest in the shallow ends and decreasing towards the deep ends.
The shallow end turnover as in the cross-flow system is necessarily less than
in the orthodox system. Circulation generally within the bath is good and the
surface flow (hence the name) of water towards the edge weirs is conducive
to the removal of surface contamination. The need for a standing head of
water over the weirs when running necessitates a balance tank to
accommodate the surplus water when the circulation ceases and this could in
some circumstances become a depository for pollution.


The Deck Level System: In some respect the circulation arrangements are
similar to those of the surflo system but important differences arise in that the
peripheral outlet takes the form of a channel, covered by a grating, actually
on the pool surround. When there are no bathers in the pool, the water level
there lies an inch or so below the surround level and return circulation is from
a deep end floor grating to the balance tank. With increasing occupation, the
tank water level rises to due to displacement and a float valve restrict the
outflow from the floor grating to bring the peripheral channel into use. At a
maximum load the entire outflow is via the channel. It is claimed that bathers
can enter and leave this kind of pool with such ease due to the literal identity
of water and surround levels, that steps and ladders are unnecessary.
Simplicity of installation, resistance to corrosion and economy of labour and
materials are the dominating factors for all good circulation installations. The
Greek used timber and terra-cotta, the Incas gold, the Romans silver and lead
and the Victorians copper and cast iron for their pool water circulation lines
and fittings. Todays pool plumber uses plastic pipes and sometimes cast iron
or asbestos-cement when large bore plastic fittings is difficult to get. Largebore systems in plastic also provide strength and easy fixing plus excellent
Pool pipe work is a low pressure, low temperature re-circulation system but
where extremes are involved, below freezing and above 400C- special plastic
grades will be required. Most pool system try to standardize between 25 and


100mm lines with their relevant fittings, keeping larger diameter bores and
their more costly fittings for main lines only. For facings, panels, grilles,
grids and drains, detailed specification are usually necessary, they must be
tough and durable, and they must not trap fingers or toes nor catch skin. They
should not be adjustable by the swimmers, nor in anyway corrodible; main
drain grilles especially must be designed never to allow excess suction or to
be removable by bathers. Maximum flow through a main drain grille can be
0.3m/s but 0.2 or lower is better.
Inlets and outlets, skimmers and overflows, offer diverse design arrangements
to suit all circumstances and need to be professionally installed since most
leakages occur around them.
3.3.1 The Drains
It is inevitable that the water in a swimming pool needs to circulate through a
filtering system to remove dirt, debris and soil particles. During normal
operation, water flows to the filtering system through two or more main
drains at the bottom of the pool and multiple skimmer drain around the top of
the pool. The main drains are usually located on the lowest point in the pool,
so the entire pool surface slants towards them. Most of the dirt and debris that
sinks exit the pool through these drains. To keep bathers from getting their
hair or limbs caught in the plumbing, the drains are almost always covered
with grates or antivortex covers (a cover that diverts the flow of water to
prevent a dangerous vortex from forming). The skimmers as suggested earlier
on, draw water the same way as the main drains but they suck only from the


very top of the pool (the top eight of an inch typically). Any debris that
floats- leaves, suntan oil, hair- leaves the pool through these drains.

Fig. 3.3: The Skimmer

In the drain system, the floating weir i.e. the door at the inlet passage way
swings in and out to let a very small volume of water in at a time. To catch
debris effectively, the goal is to skin just the surface level, the water flows
through the strainer basket, which catches any larger debris such as twigs and
leaves. In addition to main inlet the skimmer system has a secondary
equalizer line leading to a drain below the surface level, this line keeps the
skimmer from drawing air into the pump system if the water level drops
below the level of the main inlet. The water is pumped through the filtering
system and back out to returns inlet valves around the side of the pool. The
system involves a lot of suction but if the pool is built and operated correctly
there is no risk of suction holding somebody against one of the drains. The
only way the plumbing system could apply this sort of suction is if there were
only one open drain. In a safe pool, there are always multiple main drains so
if somebody or something blocks one drain, the plumbing system will pull the

water from one of the other drains, this eliminates the suction from the
blocked drain.
3.3.2 Balance Tanks
A balance tank is required to take up displacement caused by bathers and
wave surge and to provide a source of backwash water so that water in the
pool remain at a constant level. This facility can be accommodated within a
level deck design, though it is usual to provide a separate tank, either
freestanding or as part of the main pool construction.
The balance tank is usually provided with high and low level switches to
control the make up supply; a make up solenoid valve opening to provide a
water supply to the tank on the low level switch and closing on the high level
switch. Sufficient available volume remains at the low level mark to provide
for a filter backwash likewise, there should be sufficient volume at any point
between low and high level marks to provide for maximum bather
displacement and wave surge. A facility in the suction line from the balance
tank is required to regulate the flow quantity.
3.3.3 Water Make-up Supply
The water treatment process produces pollutants that can only be controlled
by dilution of the pool water with fresh make-up water, this make-up water
may be derived directly from sources other than the water company mains
supply as in the case with borehole, spring or sea water fed pools. To some
extent, the dilution is achieved by water replacement to offset water lost to
evaporation, to bathers and during backwashing but further dilution is usually


necessary to control pollutants especially where bather loading is high.

Intensively used leisure pools which incorporate significant areas of shallow
water may require a weekly water replacement in excess of 50% of the total
pool volume to control levels of dissolved solids and combined chlorine
within the normal range.
The make-up supply line is usually fitted with a water meter to enable the
quantities to be monitored. The water is introduced via a break tank and the
tank supply, tank and feed must be of sufficient size to refill the pool after
backwashing or dilution in a practicable period of time. Associated heating
and dosing equipment also needs to be able to maintain satisfactory operating
conditions during and after refilling.
3.3.4 The Filter
After making its way into the various drains, the water flows on to the
filtering stage. The filters are of different types but these would be discussed
later under filtration.
3.3.5 The Pump
The pump is the heart of the swimming pool system. It must operate reliably
and economically, reasonably quietly and be compact. The pumping power
must be greater than the total resistance for the complete circulation system
including the restriction from the filtration. This total head resistance
comprises static head i.e. vertical distance to be overcome from pool water
level to the point of delivery, plus dynamic head i.e. friction resisting flow in
suction from within the filter. The best rule is to keep the static and the


frictional losses to the minimum, rather than having to upgrade the pump to
overcome them.
3.3.6 Pump Types
As regards the swimming pool, pumps could be classified into two; the
centrifugal pump and the positive displacement pump, there being many
different types within each category. However, the main characteristics
referred to below can be regarded as generally applicable.
Centrifugal Pump
A centrifugal pump in its simplest form consists of an impeller and a volute
casing. It usually includes an integral strainer basket before the impeller and
volute. The volute casing has to be filled completely with liquid when the
pump is in operation, the impeller throwing the liquid to the outside of the
volute thus imparting kinetic energy. In this way a centrifugal pump is
capable of generating a certain head, which varies according to the pump
speed and the accepted method of expressing the relationship between
capacity and head by means of a characteristic curve often referred to as the
Q/H curve, where Q is the quantity (flow rate) and H is the head. The main
characteristics of centrifugal pumps can be summarized as follows:
- Capacity varies with head
- Capacity proportional to pump speed
- Head proportional to the square of the pump speed non self-priming.
- Suitable for low viscosity liquids.


Fig. 3.4: A centrifugal water pump

Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps usually consist of a casing containing gears,
vanes, pistons, lobes, screws, and sliding shoes etc. Operating within
minimum clearance, the liquid being positively transferred from suction to
discharge port. Due to the fine clearance involved, most positive pumps are
self-priming and some can handle entrained gas or air.
Neglecting leakage, they deliver almost constant capacity irrespective of
variations in head. It is not usual to provide Q/H curves for positive pumps.
The main characteristics of the positive displacement pumps can be
summarized as follows:

Capacity substantially independent of head

Capacity proportional to speed


Suitable for viscous liquids (reduced speed usually necessary for high

Generally, about 90 to 95% of the worlds pumping is carried out using

centrifugal pumps and wherever the conditions are suitable, a centrifugal


pump is normally the simplest and most economical type available, also
where large volumes of water have to be moved at relatively low heads, the
centrifugal pump is the natural choice, and this is the case with a swimming
Filtration is of some value for its capacity to remove bacteria and disease
producing organisms. However, its primary function is to remove dirt, debris
and soil particles which if not removed would increase the need for chemical
treatment and reduce the germ killing and oxidizing power of disinfection
chemicals. The filter deals with particulate matter, it strains out suspended
solids down to sub-micron size in order to retain water clarity. It does not
remove dissolved salts, nor does it filter microorganisms. Filtration combined
with disinfection produces effective water purification that keeps water clear
and non-toxic, odourless and tasteless, free of bacteria and algae, and
balanced to prevent corrosion or scale formation. The working capacity, in
general, can be determined by the amount of dirt it is capable of holding
without blocking or missing more than say, 10 micron sized particles in a
given time.
3.4.1 Filters
In order to maintain the pool water in the required condition, it is necessary to
provide a system of filtration to remove contaminant matter (and heating,
which is optional) to maintain the required temperature. Filters deal with the
removal of suspended colloidal materials and/or particulate matter, which


would otherwise cause excessive turbidity. The most consequential source of

these pollutants being the bathers themselves, although outdoor pools also
experience the addition of atmospheric debris such as dust, leaves etc.
Large suspended matters are removed by passage through a bucket typestrainer fitted on the suction line from the pool at the pump inlet. The strainer,
usually have a free area of at least six times that of the suction pipeline.
3.4.2 Types Of Filters
There are three general or principal types of main filter commonly used
although a number of refinements and differences are available within each

Pressure sand filter

Pre-coat filters and

Cartridge filters

Of these, the pressure sand filter is by far the most commonly used, having
been applied in substantially the same form for very many years, while the
pre-coat filter, well established in the field of industrial water treatment has
more recently been applied to certain swimming pools. The cartridge filters
are for lightly loaded pools. Regardless of the type of filters selected, it must
be constructed of materials that are compatible with the chemical water
treatment employed. For instance, mild steel filter shells are suitably treated
internally to withstand the corrosive nature of the water.


Pressure sand filters:

Pressure sand filters are the most universally available and are suitable for all
types and sizes of pools. They are capable of filtering water down to 5 to 10
microns. A pressure sand filter consists of a vertical or horizontal shell which
accommodates a filtering media bed through which the water to be filtered is
passed from top to bottom. The composition and depth of the media bed
varies depending on the rating and/or the manufacturers system that may be
employed. The filtration process is assisted by feeding a coagulant, normally
a solution of alum into the entering water until a gel is formed over the face
of the bed. The filter pressure drop increases as particulate matter is trapped
in the surface layers of the media bed and after a period of time, the bed
requires cleansing by the process of backwashing (backwashing is the
cleansing of the filter by reversing the flow of water through the filter and
flushing the debris with the wash water). The cleansing during the
backwashing process is assisted by the agitation of the bed, either with
compressed air or with mechanical rakes.
A spreader system in the crown of the filter shell and a collection system at
the base are both required ensuring an even distribution of water across the
bed during filtration and backwashing process. Most manufacturers use their
own particular arrangements for this purpose. Filter shells are readily
available in various sizes up to 3000mm in diameter; the capacity of a
particular type of filter depends on the filtration rate selected. The collection
system at the base of the filter shell is required to ensure an even flow of


water through all parts of the bed during both the filtration and the backwash
processes and there are various arrangement of pipe work and nozzle systems
for this purpose.
A manhole is normally provided on the top of the shell to gain access for the
sand removal and replacement. This is a considerable task and the operation
may be considerably facilitated by the provision of an additional manhole
level with the bottom of the bed, hence obviating the arduous lifting,
bucketful by bucketful through the top manhole.
Conventional pressure sand filters with media bed depth of between 0.75m
and 1.5m are capable of filtration rates between 10 to 50m3 of water per m2 of
bed surface area per hour [m3/(m2.h-1)]. Generally, filters rated in the range of
10 to 30m3/m2.h-1 are termed medium rate filters and filters rated above
30m3/m2.h-1 are termed high rate filters.

Fig. 3.5: Medium and high rate pressure sand filters


For pools which does the public use or have regular periods of high bathing
loads, filtration rates above 30m3/m2.h-1 are not recommended. Filter rates
between 25 and 50m3/m2.h-1 are generally only satisfactory for highly loaded
or residential pools.
Backwashing of Pressure Sand Filters
Backwashing is achieved by reverting the flow of water from its normal path
so that flow through the filter bed is from bottom to top and then to waste.
This reversal of flow is achieved by the manipulation of valves. The
backwash water is withdrawn from the pool and its loss may be made good
by topping up as and when convenient; however the effluent is disposed off at
the rate of flow through a single filter and a comparable capacity in the
drainage system of the building is therefore a necessary requirement.
The need for backwashing is determined by the increase of pressure drop
across the filter bed and a differential pressure gauge is provided for this
purpose. The performance of medium rate pressure sand filters can be
enhanced by the use of a flocculant that forms a gel on top of the media bed,
causing smaller particles to group together and become trapped. This
flocculant is lost during the backwash cleansing and a suitable feed facility is
required in order to introduce the flocculant during the filtration during the
filtration cycle.


Fig.3.6: Typical valves to redirect water flow for backwash

Agitation in Pressure Sand Filters
The backwash process for the medium rate filter can be assisted by the
agitation of the media bed. This can be achieved using filters with built-in
mechanical rakes or more usually by the use of compressed air. This
compressed air system is carried out prior to backwashing normally at a rate
of approximately 32m3m2.h-1 and at a rate pressure of 0.35bar, although the
rate and pressure requirements differ from one manufacturer to the other. The
mechanical system is more complex and involves higher capital outlay than
the compressed air system, although it is held by some that, by this means,
disturbance of the filter bed is more positively achieved than with compressed
air, there are, nevertheless, very many air agitated installations which operate
quite satisfactorily.


Fig. 3.7:Vertcal rake pressure sand filter

Fig. 3.8: Vertical air scoured pressure sand filter

Pre-coat Filters:
The pre-coat filter differs fundamentally from the pressure sand filter in that
while the former uses a permanent filter bed which is cleaned at intervals as it
becomes fouled, the pre-coat filter uses an expendable medium which is


disposed off and renewed each time the filter is cleaned. The normal but
expendable medium used for this purpose is powdered diatomaceous earth,
which is made up into slurry, and for pressure pre-coat filters, is pumped into
the filter shell where it is deposited onto plates or cones (candles). The water
to be filtered is then passed through the plates or cones and the dirt collects
on the medium until a rising pressure indicates that cleansing is necessary.
The water flow is then reversed, flushing the medium and dirt from the plates
into the base of the shell to drain.
The main advantage of the pre-coat filter is that they can provide a much
greater filter surface area than a comparably sized sand filter and
consequently need less plant space. In addition, they filter out bacteria and
organic substances of sized down to 1 to 5 microns, which can result in fine
water clarity and polish. The ability to remove bacteria and the oocysts/cysts
of organisms such as cryptosporidium parium and giardia lambia, means that
pre-coat filter are ideal in areas where the quality of the source water is poor
or where these aspects are particularly problematic.
Pressure pre-coat filter should have a filtration rate of approximately
6m3/m2.h-1 and vacuum pre-coat filter approximately 4m3/m2.h-1. Backwash
rates for pressure pre-coat filters should be the same as the filtration rates.
The principle of operation of the pre-coat filter may be summarized as
Coating: a quantity of slurry is made up in a separate mixing tank of water
and the filter medium, and this is then pumped into the bottom (dirty) section


of the shell from where it passes through the cores, depositing on the external
faces there of, up into the top (clean) section and from there back to the
mixing tank. Re-circulation in this manner continues until deposition is
shown to be complete by the water in circulation becoming clear.
Filtering: water to be filtered is pumped into the bottom of the shell, through
the filter medium and up through the cores into the top of the shell and then
through the outlet connection. Dirt collects on the filter medium until a rising
pressure differential between clean and dirty sides indicates that cleaning is
Cleaning: this is effected by the reversal of the water flow through the shell
to flush both the dirt and the filter medium from the cores into the lower
section of the shell from where the flushing water with dirt and filter medium
in suspension is dumped to drain until such times as the effluent is observed
to be clean.
Performance of Pre-coat Filters
The filter is susceptible to blockages by quite minor quantities of greasy
material such as may derive from body oils, hair creams or cosmetics which,
collecting on the surface of the filter medium, form an impervious barrier that
may obstruct water flow. This difficulty may be overcome by continuous
slurry feeding through out the time during which the filter is in use. The
effect here is to deposit new filter medium concurrently with any greasy
material so that the latter is prevented from forming a homogenous layer and
the filter bed remains pervious.


The degree of filtration achieved by this type of filter is very high indeed,
perhaps beyond that which is absolutely necessary for a swimming pool.
However, it is essential that coating of the cores is complete and that it
remains so, otherwise a complete bypass of the filter bed will exist and, in a
swimming bath application, there is no immediate means of establishing that
such faulty conditions exist. Flow of water through the filter contributes to
the retention of the filter medium on the cores and in order to ensure that the
medium remains in place during periods of disuse (e.g. overnight), the
continuous re-circulation of a minor quantity of water by means of a small
secondary pump is sometimes advocated.
Comparison between Sand and Pre-coat Filters
The principal advantage of the pre-coat filter for the treatment of pool water
is its small size although this is largely nullified by the storage area required
for the consumable coating medium which is of low density and thus bulky.
In comparison to the sand filter, (a rugged piece of equipment that will
withstand a great deal of abuse), the alternative is a delicate piece of
apparatus remarkably efficient when operated correctly. As in most such
comparisons, the deciding factor is the cost in use.
Cartridge filters:
Cartridge or pad filters offer low capital cost filtration. They are normally of
the induced or vacuum flow type and are designed primarily for small, lightly
loaded pools. Some cartridges or pads are dispensable and expensive while
others can be removed, hosed down and reused. There are a number of


different types and filtration rates vary between 1 and 25m3/m2.h-1 depending
on the membrane material. They also vary widely in efficiency, filtering
particles sized between 1 and 25 microns. Spa pools operate with cartridge
filters employing polyester material and not paper.
Disinfection is 100% destruction of all disease- causing bacteria (pathogens)
on the object being disinfected. As with sterilization one cannot obtain
complete destruction in the pool environment. Although improper, the term
disinfection has persisted for long and is now commonly used while
Sanitation, the destruction of microorganisms to levels (usually by 99% or
more) deemed safe by public health standards. This is the proper term to be
used with pool or spa water.
A pools filter system does the heavy lifting in keeping the water clean, but it
takes chemistry to do the fine-tuning. The disinfection function is a
complicated process involving rather intricate chemistry. It is important to
carefully manipulate the chemical balance in pools for several reasons:

Dangerous pathogens such as bacteria thrive in water. A pool filled

with untreated water would be a perfect place for disease carrying
microorganisms to move from one person to another.

Water with the wrong chemical balance can damage the various parts of
the pool.

Improperly balanced water can irritate the skin and the eyes

Improperly balanced water can get very cloudy.


A modern re-circulation and purification system or even continuous flow

pool for thermal and mineral waters, holds purity and clarity equally
important for the safety of the bathers. Accidents can go unnoticed in murky
water to the extent that even today a young person may be drowned in a
swimming pool and the body may not be found until the tank is emptied a day
or so later.
To take care of pathogens in the water, a disinfecting agent is introduced; the
most popular pool disinfectant is the element chlorine, in the form of
chemical compound such as calcium hypochlorite (a solid) or sodium
(a liquid). When the compound is added to the water, the chlorine reacts with
the water to form various chemicals; most notably hypochlorous acid (HOCl).
Hypochlorous acid kills bacteria and other pathogens by attacking the lipids
in the cell walls and destroying the enzymes and structure inside the cell
through an oxidation reaction. Alternative sanitizers such as bromide, do
basically the same thing with slightly different results.
When filtration is adequate and disinfection is properly operated, coliform
and E.coli will not normally be detectable in 100ml samples of water. To
guarantee that no dangerous E.coli (which causes all kinds of nauseating
troubles it is faecal bacteria and is equivalent to saying that one is
swimming in sewage or effluent) can appear in any sample, a very fast-kill
disinfectant such as free-fast-acting chlorine, must exist in the pool water at
all times. A high residual of fast acting hypochlorous acid resulting from


super chlorination (i.e. the addition of more chlorine beyond that required to
combine with all the ammonia present in the water), acts rather like the white
corpuscles that destroy bacteria within the blood stream. Ions of low
molecular weight with absence of electrical charge make it relatively easy for
the hypochlorous acid to degenerate cell walls of bacteria to burn them out.
Invading bacteria is overwhelmed and absorbed, but in the process, some of
the residual defence material also gets used up.
Fast and free chlorine (as hypochlorous acid) is easily dissipated by UV light
and requires the support of a slow acting, more stable form of chlorine for
back up. Because chlorine is typically prepared in liquid, powder or tablets
form (though some professionals use gaseous chlorine), it can be added to the
water any where in the cycle. Pool experts generally recommend adding it
just after the filtering process, using a chemical feeder. If it is added directly
into the pool, using tablets in the skimmer boxes for example, the chlorine
tends to be too concentrated in those areas.
A major problem with hypochlorous acid as mentioned earlier is that it is not
particularly stable. It can degrade when exposed to UV light from the sun,
and it may combine with other elements to form new compounds. Pool
chlorinators often include a stabilizing agent, such as cyanuric acid that reacts
with chlorine to form a more stable compound that does not degrade as easily
when exposed to UV light. Even with a stabilizing agent, hypochlorous acid
may combine with other chemicals, forming compounds that are not very
effective sanitizers. For example, hypochlorous acid may combine with


ammonia, found in urine, amongst other things, to produce various

chloramines such as monochloramines (NH2Cl) and dichloramines (NHCl2).
These combined residual form of chlorine are relatively slow acting as
sanitizing agents and to this extent are unsatisfactory. Not only are these
chloramines poor sanitizers, they can actually irritate the skin and eyes and
have an unpleasant odour. The distinctive smell and eye irritation associated
with swimming pools are actually due to chloramines, not ordinary
hypochlorous acid- a strong smell usually means that there is too little free
chlorine (hypochlorous acid) rather than too much. To get rid of chloramines,
there is a need to shock treat the pool by adding an unusually strong dose of
chemicals to clear out organic matter and unhelpful chemical compounds.
No matter how one sanitizes, a pool in use never becomes that wishful sterile
environment, but is a disinfected one repeatedly polluted. When bacteria
combine with oxygen, they are made harmless, chlorine speed this oxidation
process tremendously. In properly run pools, polluted water and infection is
rare- almost impossible, but if treatment is below par, chlorine resistant
organisms will develop, super chlorination will therefore always be necessary
to cope in heavier bathing pools and higher water temperature.
Disinfection may also be accomplished with bromine and the chemistry
involved is much the same. The chemical reaction produces a mild acid with
germ killing properties approximately equal to those of hypochlorous acid.
Regardless of the disinfecting or sanitizing agent used, the primary goal is the
same: to provide uniformly distributed sanitization and oxidation residual of


sufficient strength to rapidly destroy disease-producing organisms in pool

3.5.1 pH of pool water
The pH is a chemical abbreviation used to describe the presence of the
hydrogen ion in water. It is often explained as a measure of the relative
acidity or basicity of water (alkalinity of water). There are many factors
affecting the efficacy of a purification system and adding up to the
disinfection demand. A major aspect controlling the most efficient kill rate is
this acidity or alkalinity of water. The indicative pH factor must be balanced
with the addition of acids or bases to neutralize extreme conditions, not only
for the comfort of the bathers but for the optimum activity from the residual
pH is measured on a scale of 0 to 14. The midpoint 7 is the neutral point;
above which alkalinity becomes progressively greater. In swimming pool
water, it is important to maintain a slightly alkaline condition between 7.2
and 7.8. Problems develop when this range is exceeded on either side. A high
pH, for example, can cause precipitation of dissolved minerals such as
calcium and iron with resulting discolouration and turbidity. Low pH can
cause serious corrosive damage to metals in the re-circulation system. Both
high and low pH will cause eye irritation. The most recommended pH
position for the most active result from most disinfectant is 7.5 also the pH
of the tear duct and the most compatible level for the bathers skin. Whenever
complaints are made about the chlorine it is almost certain that the pH is out


or there is insufficient free chlorine available in the pool water to burn out all
by-product compounds and all contaminants. An active swimmer or bather
can perspire one litre per hour; and when the average contribution of urine
per bather is in the region of 25 to 50 ml, or almost 2litres for every class full
of children, the purifying method chosen for the water for the swimming pool
must work well.
3.6.1 Electro-disinfection Techniques
The processes stem from the principle of electrolytic corrosion, where
dissimilar metals in pool water conduct an electrical current between them.
The pool is really a vast battery where dissimilar metals can actually be
transferred back and forth in electrolysis. This is highly dependent upon the
amount of dirt in the water; the pH, the dissolved metals accelerating
corrosion or staining electro-plating elsewhere.
When a pool is charged with 4000ppm common salt solution, electrolytic
equipment can disassociate constituent elements. Nascent and fast acting
chlorine is one of them. These electro-chemical systems work best with
bathing loads not subject to sudden change and with balanced water but can
donate by product such as hydrogen, sodium etc that must be dealt with.
Molecular chlorine is produced at the positive anode while hydroxyl ion plus
water at the negative cathode.
By inserting other metallic plates to carry current, different water treatment
action can also be provided. Copper and aluminium plates will flocculate fine


materials for the water to trap. Platinum and silver will purify and oxidise
microbes (silver is highly bactericidal at level ten times lower than marginal
chlorination). Ion exchange systems can be very successful. They suit small
pools admirably but regrettably a little neglect goes along way in limiting
their very convenient advantages.
3.6.2 Ozonators
Ozonators are used on swimming pools and spas to reduce traditional
chlorine or bromine levels. Ozone water purification systems can be installed
in new pool or spa or retrofitted for existing systems. The ozone system
attaches to the water circulation system quickly and easily. It generates ozone
and injects it into the return, where it instantly oxidized and purifies the
water. In the process, ozone destroys bacteria, virus and algae and oxidizes
metals, which bond together for easy removal by the filter. It holds distinct
advantages in that rapid and total oxidizing of organic matter with purer
agents cuts down the side effect problems, which in turn allows a far more
comfortable swimming environment, plus the increased chance of operating
very successful total heat recovery and re-circulation system.
Below is a simplified drawing showing the basic configuration.

Fig. 3.9: A typical ozone system


Design Consideration
Swimming and bathing pools vary considerably in size, shape and in the
intensity and pattern-of-use. The design and operational management brief is
usually considered by relevant professionals (civil, mechanical, electrical and
chemical) with no aspect determined in isolation. The choice of water
treatment system is dependent on a variety of factors, including:
(a) nature of incoming water supply
(b) the size and shape of the pool and variety of features to be incorporated in
the scheme.
(c) The anticipated bathing loads and pattern of use
(d) The finances available.
Also, basic assumptions are made at the initial design stage and these will be
the limiting factors for operation duration, and schedules and maximum
numbers of bathers.
The objective of a pool water treatment system is to provide a hygienic, safe,
comfortable and aesthetically pleasing environment for bathing. These are to
be achieved irrespective of the loading within the predetermined parameters.
The water treatment system should be capable of:
(a) Providing clear, colourless and bright water by removing suspended and
colloidal matter.

(b) Removing organic matter, which may provide a source of food for
bacterial and cause a cloudy, dull appearance.
(c) Destroying and removing bacteria and ensuring that the water is
(d) Maintaining the pH of the water at an optimum for disinfection and bather
(e) Maintaining the water at a comfortable temperature for bathers.
The primary functions of the system are to filter, circulate, disinfect and heat
the recirculating pool water so as to achieve the above.
Filtration of pools is carried out with the use of filters. These filters strain out
suspended solids down to sub-micron size in order to retain clarity.
The heterogeneous particulate suspension commonly found in water is often
characterised by size distribution function known as the power law. The law
states that the number of particulates N per size category is an inverse
power function of the size, , of the particulate material.

= Al


The slope of the power law function is a useful parameter to characterise the
type of suspension being treated. Depending on the value of the power law
coefficient P, the major portion of the surface area or volume fraction of a
suspension will be found in certain size range.
This is summarised in the table below:


Table 4.1: Influence of power law coefficient on distribution of surface area

volume of particulates by size
Power Law Coefficient,


% of Surface area in
Fraction > 2cm

% of Volume in
Fraction > 2cm

Fig.4.1: Particulate size frequency distribution

4.2.1 Process Selection
The appropriate solids-liquid separation process is initiated by a
preliminary screening of processes that may be suitable for the particular
design problem.

Several filtering devices are available as have been

discussed previously.
The methodology for process selection is based on physical characteristics of
the particulates. Expected regions are defined in which various processes are


likely to be appropriate for the removal of particulate materials depending on

initial number and mass concentration of particulate materials and the average
size characterising the distribution.

For particulate suspension with an

average size greater than 100mm and suspended solids greater than 50mg/L,
gravity sedimentation is the most cost effective solid liquid separation
process. This is usually the case with the land of particulates found in
swimming pools.
4.2.2 Quantitative Predictions of Particulate Removal
Particulate removal in filter media occurs by straining or by attachment to the
media itself.

In addition, material already deposited can be retained or

detached due to sharing forces that increase as the filter clogs. The relative
importance of different mechanisms will depend on physiochemical
4.2.3 Collection Efficiency of Filter Media
Straining: Straining becomes an important removal mechanisms when the
ratio of the particle size to the media size in porous media is greater than
0.2(Herzig, 1970; Boller, 1980).

This ratio at which straining becomes

important depends to some extent on the number flux of particles

approaching the media (Flux is defined as the superficial velocity times the
particle number concentration).
For particle sizes greater than 100m, straining in porous media becomes a
dominant removal mechanism (Maroudes, 1965; Tien, 1979). In case of
granular media filtration straining is undesirable because head loss will


increase rapidly due to the formation of a surface mat.

Consequently, in the design of grander filters (found in swimming pools) the
size of the filter media is selected to minimise this straining phenomena.
Non-Straining Mechanisms: The rate of particulate capture in granular filter
media due to non-straining mechanisms is made from knowledge of
particulate mechanisms in porous media under the influence of hydrodynamic
and physiochemical forces. The solution of the governing equations for
particulate motion in porous media require selection of a geometric model of
the porous media and the quantitative description of all forces acting on the
particulates as they pass through the granular media.
Isolated Single-Sphere Model: A schematic of isolated spherical collector is
shown below:

Fig. 4.2: Modes of action of the basic transport mechanism

A, interception; B, sedimentation; C, diffusion


The efficiency of particular collection is defined as the number of successful

collisions for all particulates in the cross-sectional area of the collector
divided by the total possible number of collisions between the particulates
and collector.

successful number of collisions

total no. of possible collisions in cross-sectional area
per particulate to the isolated collector




media size or diameter

Therefore, the collection efficiency throughout the depth of the granular

media is the summation of the efficiency of individual collector in the filter
The change in particulate concentration N with depth then becomes

N (1 0 )L
x i



media depth
shape factor (defined as the ratio of area and volume shape
factors for granular media, = 6 for spherical media).

initial pore volume or porosity of the granular media.

Assuming state removal, integrating Eq. 4.2 above gives

(1 0 )
= exp



L = total depth of the media

This model provides a framework for understanding the effects of various
design variables on the efficiency of filtration.

Fig. 4.3: Effect of media depth (L), media size (dm), and individual collector
efficiency () on particulate capture on granular media.


When water or any fluid passes through porous materials, either granular or
consolidated, energy losses occur due to both form and drag fraction at the
surface of the media material. In addition, losses occur due to continuous
contraction and expansion experienced by the fluid as it passes through preopenings in the media.
Flow patterns through porous media are quite complex, and thus the
prediction of head loss requires different strategies than used for pipes. Head
loss will depend on a wide range of systems variables, including the
fractional void or porosity, the particle shape, roughness, size and size


distribution of the granular media, manner of packing, and type of fluid flow,
that is, whether it is laminar, transitional, or turbulent.
4.3.1 Laminar Flow
Laminar or viscous flow is characterised by viscous forces dominating inertia
forces. For the Reynolds number in porous media defined as

Re =

d mV0 L
(1 0 )


Flow is observed to be laminar for Re < 10

In a classic study by Darcy (1856), he discovered that the hydraulic gradient,
p/L, under laminar conditions in porous media was given by






pressure drop
depth of porous media
hydraulic permeability (determined by experiment)

The Kozeny-Carman equation predicts that the hydraulic permeability is

03 d m2
(1 0 ) 2 180


for spherical particles. Combining both equations and converting to head


H 180(1 0 ) 2 V0
03 d m2 L g


head loss in units of length

gravitational constant


The table below gives the sphericity, shape and porosity factors for granular
Table 4.2: Typical sphericity, shape and porosity factors of Granular material




Factor, S

Porosity, o

























4.3.2 Transition Flow

For larger sized media, deeper filtration beds, and higher filtration rates with
appropriate pretreatment, Reynolds number as high as 50 are not uncommon.
For Reynolds numbers > 1000, the hydraulic gradient (by Burker-Plumber) is

p 1.75 LV02 (1 0 )
d m 03


Combining Eqns.4.7 and 4.8, a general expression is obtained, valid over the
complete range of Reynolds number expected in granular media filtration,
assuming spherical media.

H 180 V0 (1 0 ) 2 1.75V0 (1 0 )
L gd m2 03
d m g 03


The effect of velocity on head loss per unit depth of media for various media
sizes at 20oC is shown below:


Fig. 4.4: Effect of velocity on head loss, T=200C, o=0.4, spherical media,
single size
4.3.3 Non Uniform Beds
In practice, the media used in filtration are not uniform or spherical and
consist of a range of particle sizes. Prediction of head loss through such clean
poly-dispersed media can be obtained by segmenting the depth of media into
a series of layers and summing the head loss through each layer. Ultimately,
an equivalent diameter is used in the head loss correlations where this
equivalent size of media gives the same head loss as would be obtained by
empirical observation. This is the basis for the effective size of the media,
which is equivalent to the 10% fraction by weight the so-called d10 media
4.3.4 Clogging Media
As particulate material is captured in granular media filters, interstitial pore
space reduces. In addition, the media size changes due to accumulation of
particulate matter on the media surfaces. The effect of this is increase in head


loss due to accumulation of solids in the pore space. This increase in head
loss in approximated by an infinite series as

1 + 1 + 2 2 + .


(developed by Herzig, 1970; Ives, 1982)

where Ho

= head loss through clean media at time t = 0,

= mass specific deposit mass/volume or quantity of solids

per volume of filter bed.
=empirical constants in units of volume/mass

With low specific deposits, higher terms of the above equation are neglected

1 + 1


4.3.5 Effect of Deposit Morphology on Head Loss Build up

The impact of the mass of solid collected in the filter on the head loss is a
function of the type of solid and the density and degree to which the solids
are compacted in the pore space.
in the equation above is interpreted as a compaction coefficient with units
of volume/ass. A compaction coefficient or the ratio of the volume specific
deposit to the mass specific deposit is shown below:


Fig. 4.5: Dependence of volume-specific deposit on porosity and density of

deposited solids.

This ratio is given by


( S 1)(1 )
where, *


volume-specific deposit

density of water

density of solid particulates

porosity of deposit

The table below summarizes, the compaction coefficients for several

particulates determined under a variety of operating conditions.


Table 4.3: Compaction coefficient for different filtration systems

Type Solids






Granular filters design involves the determination of the following items

Type, size and number of filter

Filtration rate and terminal head loss

Filter flow control scheme

Media depth, size and material

Filter washing (backwashing)

4.4.1 Selection of Type, Size and Number of Units

For swimming pool purposes, the selection of filter type is between rapid
sand filters and high rate filters (which sometimes utilize course monomedia,
dual sand or multimedia, other than sand). The selection of the type depends
on the degree of pretreatment of the raw water being used in the pool. For
small plants (<0.5m3/s [10 mgd]), the choice must be rapid sand filter. This
filter type is a proprietary product in most of the western world, but its
construction is not all that difficult. In such small plants, it offers a number
of advantages. These includes (a) lower capital costs, (b) low head loss


across the filter, (c) a good filtered water quality, and (d) simple operation
and maintenance.
For large plants (> 0.5m3/s [10 mgd]), the gravity, downflow, sand, and coal
dual-media filter is the preferred choice.
4.4.2 Filtration Rate and Terminal head Loss
The effect of filtration rate on effluent quality varies widely depending on the
specific application. In filtering flow resulting from alum and polymer
coagulation or biological floc at reasonably low influent solids concentration,
the effect of filtration rate on effluent quality is generally not significant for
rates up to 6.94 mm/sec and reasonable filter run lengths is achieved. With
weak chemical floc such as alum floc or with high concentrations of poorly
flocculated biological flocs, filter effluent quality tends to degrade at
filteration rates above 3.47 mm/sec. High rates increase solids penetration
and head loss buildup per unit volume filtered may actually decrease at
higher rates due to lower solids removal rates.
For gravity filters, available head loss is generally less than 3m. If terminal
head loss is much above 3m, pressure filters have to be utilized. Head loss
development in filter beds is determined by the amount and location of
retained solids in the bed. The average solids capture (mass per unit plan
areas of filter media) during a filter run ranges from 555-5550g/m2/m of head
loss depending on many factors involved.


4.4.3 Media Depth, Size, and Material

There are two basic ways of selecting the proper depth and size of filter

through use of pilot plant studies

through use of existing data from filtration facilities treating similar


There are many possible combinations of filter media size, d, and depth L.
This relationship between L and effective size de (10% finer by sieve
analysis) of many high-rate filters is shown below:

Fig. 4.6: Relationship between depth of media and size of media.

In this figure, the average effective size for dual or multimedia was
computed as a weighted average. The data in the figure reveal that a clear
relationship exists between L and d with some exceptions. The main reasons


for the scatter in Fig. 4.7 are: (1) porosity of each filter is not the same; (2)
variation in the objectives of purification and raw water characteristics and
(3) pretreatment methods are not the same for each filter. This relationship
can be expressed as

= const.
The surface area of filter media per unit of filter plan area, a (m2), is
expressed by the following equation.

a =

6(1 f ) L


Average diameter of filter media grain

measure of sphericity (ranging from 1.0 to 0.7 and 0.8 for

ordinary filter media)

porosity of bed

The efficiency of the collection of the filter is described by the following

Efficiency, =
where, =

= exp L / d


constant for the bed


influent particle concentration


effluent concentration for the packed bed.


This equation indicates that as the media used becomes coarser, the required
depth is increased, and conversely, as the media become finer, the depth
required is reduced.
The specific deposit, defined as the volume of material deposited per unit of
filter depth during the filter run, is expressed by the equation.

q (C0 C L )t

where =


specific deposit

filtration rate

length of time filter has been operating

Experimental data have shown that for a given filter and water quality,
turbidity breakthrough usually occurs at the same level of specific deposit.
This level of deposit is usually referred to as the effective deposit, e, and is
defined as follows:

e =

q (C0 C L )t b


where, tb = the filter run time to turbidity breakthrough.

This relationship allows comparison of the ability of various filter media to
remove particulates.

It follows that higher filtration rates or higher

concentrations of particulates in the influent will reduce the length of time to

turbidity breakthrough, and that deeper beds will give longer runs.


For good quality raw water, Co is in the vicinity of 6 x 104nL (10-5L) of

particle volume per litre, CL is around 1 x 102, and a volume of about 5 x 10-3
may be used.
4.4.4 Backwashing
Backwashing cleans the filter by reversing the flow and causing the water to
course upward through the bed. The choice of a backwash system is between
fluidized bed backwash and the partial fluidized backwash with air score.
Partial fluidized bed backwash with air scour is employed in filters with no
backwash troughs. A single overflow weir or side channel runs provide for
discharge of backwash waste.
The two most important design criteria in backwashing are backwash
velocities and backwash flow rate.
The circulation system is the transportation system, which keeps water
constantly in motion. The correct movement of water through the pool is
essential if water quality is to be maintained. For this to be achieved, there
must be full entrainment of water from all zones of the pool so that the
required turnover periods are achieved. Failure to achieve this, results in
slow running or stagnant water, which will encourage bacterial growth,
formation of algae etc.
The various parts that forms the pool circulation system are

The Pool Basin

The Pipes and Fittings


The Surface over flow system

Inlets and Drains

Balance tanks

The Pump

4.5.1 The Pool Basin

This is the pool tank that holds the volume of water to be circulated. The
design of the pool tank is strictly a structural engineering problem. The only
point to be considered in its design is how the water is to be drained and
returned to the pool.
4.5.2 The Pipes and Fitting
The pipes and fittings are the arteries/veins of the pool circulation system.
The design consideration for pipes and fittings selection are corrosiveness
and toxicity, Pipe flow and Pipe sizing for maximum discharge and minimum
friction loss.
Corrosiveness and Toxicity: The pipes selected for pool water circulation
must be inert to the chemicals (Chlorine, ozone, etc) used in the disinfection
of pool water. The selection of fittings is done carefully; with a view to
avoiding anodic and cathodic corrosion of pipes since the pool water becomes
a weak electrolyte upon the addition of disinfection chemical. Also the pipe
must not be toxic, so as not to contaminate the water since bathers take a gulp
of pool water from time to time. This is why uPVC is mostly used for pool
piping system.


Pipe Flow and Sizing: The flow regime in pool water circulation is governed
by laminar flow.

Since the fluid is water, which is regarded as

incompressible, there is no change in density with pressure. The selected

pipeline (of whatever material) should be adequate to deliver the required
peak flow of water without excessive loss of head i.e. without decreasing the
discharge pressure below a desirable minimum.
The capacity of pipeline is determined by its size, length and interior surface

The length of the pipe is fixed and its interior condition

established by the type of material, the design problem is now in determining

the required diameter for maximum discharge and minimum friction loss.
The equation which combines alls these factors, is the Darcy-Weisbach
equation given as:
4fl v2
d 2g
where, hf = head loss


f = friction factor
The equation is applicable to both turbulent and laminar flow. For laminar
flow, f = 16/Re; so it is dependent on the velocity of flow since


volume flow rate

V.A (A = pipe area)




4fl 16Q2
d 2g2d2





acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2

The Colebrook-White transitional flow function is used to evaluate the

friction factor, i.e.
= 2 log10
3.7 D Re f


where, k = Colebrook-White roughness coefficient(m)

Alternatively, the Moody chart could be used.

flQ 2
3d 5


There are difficulties and inconveniencies inherent in the use of this equation.
Instead, the charts similar to the one on the next page are used, depending on
the material of the pipe. It is derivable from the equation with an error of
approximately 1%.
There are two other pipe flow formulas, which do not give the same accuracy
as the Colebrook-White equation over a wide range of flows. They are often
used in hydraulics because of their comparative simplicity. They are:
The Manning formula

V = R2/3

1/ 2


The Hazen Williams formula

V = 0.849CR






n = Manning roughness coefficient
C = Hazen Williams roughness coefficient
R = hydraulics radius (R =D/4 for full pipe flow)
H/L = hydraulic gradient (m/m)
Table 4.4: Friction loss for pipes, valves and fittings.
Equivalent length of straight pipe (mm), for friction losses
Pipesize Radius Gate Round Globe Normal Swing Tee Foot
elbow valve elbow valve bend
1.5 1.5
1.8 2.3
11.3 0.8
2.4 2.7
13.4 0.9
2.7 3.4
17.4 1.1
3.4 4.6
20.1 1.4
4.3 5.5
26.0 1.5
5.2 6.7
34.0 2.1
6.7 8.8
43.0 2.7
8.2 11.0
49.0 3.4
10.0 14.0
67.0 4.3
13.4 18.0
85.4 5.5
16.5 22.0
98.0 6.7
20.0 27.4


Additional head losses arise from the inclusion of fittings and valves. These
losses are expressed in terms of the equivalent to the length of and size of a
straight pipe, which would produce an equivalent loss if the straight pipe
were added instead of fittings.


Fig. 4.7: Pipe sizing graph for stainless steel.

4.5.3 The Surface Overflow System

The surface overflow system consists of overflow rims or skimmers. They
are necessary to remove some water from the surface of the pool. Surface
water removal is important since the top few centimetres usually contain the


highest degree of contamination due to oral and nasal discharges, airborne

pollution, insects etc.
The surface overflow system is designed to handle 50 80% of the
circulation flow taking the load off the main drain at the bottom of the pool.
Since they are prefabricated, the two important design considerations are the
size of its drain and equalizer pipes and determining the differential
(difference between pool level and level of overflow tank) that will allow the
equalizer valve to open when the need arises.
4.5.4 Inlets
These are the outlets through which the return treated water is returned to the
pool basin. The arrangements of the inlets are critical, in order to produce a
uniform circulation of water and maintain a uniform disinfection residual
throughout the pool. The specifications is that a minimum of four inlets are
required for any swimming pool, though generally, at least one inlet is
required for 20 gallons per minute of return water flow. To ensure uniform
flow, the inlets are located equidistance to one another.
If the inlets are made large, therefore low flow (laminar flow distribution)
sweep towards the drain point. In contrast, small inlets/high flow (turbulent
rapid distribution) increase mixing to avoid dead spots (points where mixing
does not take place). Adjustable orifice is used to permit adjustment of the
flow through each inlet.


4.5.5 Drains
Water for recirculation is removed from the pool through two main drainage
systems; the surface over flow system and the main drains. The methodology
of surface overflow system has been discussed above.
The main drains are located at the deepest part in the pool basin and are to
remove at least 50% of water for recirculation. The design must provide for
at least two of these drains (so that at least one will be functional if the other
is blocked) which are connected by a T piping. The design of the main
drain pipe is such that blocking any one drain will not result in flow through
the remaining drains or pipes exceeding a limiting velocity of approximately
1.5m/s while handling 50% of the design flow rate. To prevent settled pool
pollutants to block the drains, they are provided with gratings, which ideally
should be four times the area of the discharge pipe. The grating is designed
to prevent dangerous vortex building up while the pool water is being
4.5.6 Balance Tanks
A balance tank is required to take up displacement caused by bathers and
wave surge and provides a source of backwash water so that water in the pool
remains at a constant level. The facility is either accommodated within a
level deck, provided as a separate tank, free standing or as a part of the main
pool construction.
The tank is provided with a high and lower level switches to control the
make-up supply. The low-level mark volume provides for a filter backwash


and volume at any point between low and high level marks provides for
maximum bather displacement.
The displacement allowance for the average bather is 0.07m3. The maximum
number of bathers that the pool can accommodate is used to determine the
total displacement. The table below gives minimum pool water surface area
per person for comfort and safety.
Table 4.5: Recommended pool water surface area per bather
Depth range / m

Surface area per person / m2







Diving pool


Spa pools


Therefore for a pool area of say 50m3, number of bathers is 50/2.7 = 18.5.
This is approximated to 19 bathers. Therefore displacement allowance is
0.075m3 x 19 = 1.425m3
4.5.7 Pump Selection
The two main pump classifications are centrifugal and positive displacement
with many different types within each category. Circulating pumps for pools
are of the centrifugal type, usually split casing. The characteristic of the
pump should be such that the quantity of water circulated will not drop
significantly as the filters become dirty and create more resistance to flow.
The steps to pump selection are:


Estimation of The Pump Flow - Normal flow is taken as the largest process
flow required for operation at the rated plant output. In this case, this will be
the maximum circulation flow rate, Q.
Estimation of pump head To calculate the head accurately, the total head on
the suction and discharge sides of the pump must be determined.
System head = total discharge head total suction head.
H = Hd Hs



Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd


hsd = discharge static head (due to fluid)
hpd = discharge surface pressure head (from filters)
hfd =discharge friction head (due to pipes)
Hs = hss + hps + hfs


hs = total suction head
hss = suction static head
hps = suction surface pressure head (from pool)
hfs = suction friction head
It should be noted that,
hps = 0 (gauge) since the suction tank (the pool) is open, so suction surface
pressure equals atmospheric pressure.


Fig. 4.8: Pump static heads

Consideration of flow regulation
f = Q1/Ho > 0.08


Then the pump is confirmed as centrifugal and:

Up to a flow of 3.5l/s, one running pump is selected regulated by a control
valve in the bypass line and Qo = 4l/s is used as the second estimate.
Above a flow of 3.5 l/s through the pump, selection for regulation in by troth
If the preliminary choice is a centrifugal pump with throttle regulation then
the second estimate of pump head as
Ho = 1.08Hs + 1.63Hs



Effect of viscosity



1/ 2

1/ 4


where v = kinematics viscosity of the liquid at normal temperature (cst)


If > 20, then a rotary pump is selected

If < 1, effect of viscosity is ignored
If > 1, the equivalent duty for a viscosity of 1cst is calculated as

Q = Q0 1 + 5 / 6 1 / 4
Q0 .H 0


H = H 0 1 + 5 / 6 1 / 4
Q0 .H 0


Net Positive Suction Head - This is a method of specifying suction

performance under critical suction conditions including attitude, high
temperature and high vapour pressure and the limitations of the pump itself.
NPSH available = atmospheric pressure (in head) + static suction head +
surface pressure head vapour pressure at pumping temperature total
friction loss (suction)

= HS




= vapour pressure of the liquid at maximum operating temperature.

NPSH required = maximum absolute pressure necessary at pump entry to

maintain the required flow without cavitations.
NPSH required must always be less than NPSH available.
At constant pump speed, the NPSH required by pumps increase with
capacity. If the calculated volume of the basic NPSH is less than 10.5, then
the likely limit on the rotational speed of the pump impeller is given by

N max

100( NPSH 1) 3 / 4
Q1 / 2



Choice of Pump Type and Speed - Using the corrected valves of flow and
head from (v), the charts given below are entered. If the speed thus chosen is
greater than the limit in (vi) above, then the charts are entered at the speed
Nmax to obtain equivalent flow and head duty.
Alternatively, they are obtained as

Q* = Q

N max
H* = H

N max




Disinfection is a unit process whose objective is the destruction or otherwise
inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, amoebic cysts,
algae, spores, and viruses. Disinfection systems are generally divided into
two groups: chemical agents (compounds with oxidation potential e.g.
chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromines, ozone etc) and non-chemical, or energy
related, means of disinfection (e.g. ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and gamma
4.6.1 Chemistry Of Disinfection
Disinfectants capabilities of chlorine depend on its chemical form in water
which in turn depend on pH, temperature, organic content of the water and
other water qualities.


Chlorine chemistry in water is as follows: gaseous chlorine, or any of the

other chlorine sources added to water, hydrolyzes to hypochlorous acid
(HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Cl 2 + H 2 O HOCl + H + + Cl
or, NaOCl + H 2 O Na (OH ) + HOCl
The hypochlorous acid further undergoes additional reaction, which includes
disinfection (by oxidation) and reaction with various organics and inorganic
compounds, or dissociation to hydrogen and hypochlorite ions (OCl-), as

HOCl H + + OCl
Hypochlorous acid is weakly acidic. Thus the pH of water affects the relative
amounts of HOCl AND OCl-. Fig.4.10 is a distribution diagram for the
Chlorine species (Cl2, HOCl, and OCl-) over a broad pH range. Between pH 6
and pH 9, the relative fraction of HOCl decreases, while the corresponding
fraction of OCl- increases.

Fig. 4.9: Distribution diagram for chlorine species: 250C


The dissociation of hypochlorous acid is also temperature dependent. The

effect of temperature is such that at a given pH, the fraction of HOCl will be
lower at higher temperature. The best-fit formula, developed by Morris
(1966), is shown by Equation 4.33:

pK a =

10.0686 + 0.0253T


where T = temperature in 0K
Generally, the disinfection capabilities of hypochkorous acid are greater than
that of hypochlorite, especiallyat short contact time. However, as shown in
the figure above, the disinfection model suggests the equivalency of bacterial
inactivation by these free chlorine products at long contact times.
Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents that has practical
application for water treatment. Ozone (O3), is a highly reactive gas formed
by electrical discharges in the presence of oxygen as follows:

3O2 + energy 2O3

Fig. 4.10: Reaction pathway of ozone.


Substantial amounts of energy are required to split the stable oxygen-oxygen

covalent bond to form ozone. Ozones high level of chemical energy is also
the driving force for its decomposition. The rate of decomposition is a
complex function of pH, temperature, and concentration of organics solutes
and inorganic constituents.
Fig. 4.11, shows the reaction pathways of ozone as described by Hoigne and
Bader (1975a; 1975b; 1976). Once ozone enters solution, it follows two basic
modes of reaction: direct oxidation, which is rather slow and extremely
selective, and autodecomposition to the hydroxyl radical. Autodecomposition
to the hydroxyl radical (OH.) is catalyzed by the presence of the hydroxyl
radicals, by organic radicals, or by high concentrations of hydroxide ion.
4.6.2 Demands on disinfectants
Disinfectants used for swimming pool water disinfection must meet certain
demands. When chlorine, or any other disinfectant is added to water in a
newly filled pool, some of it is consumed in the process of destroying algae,
bacteria and other oxidizible material in the water. The amount of chlorine
consumed in this process is referred to as the chlorine demand of the water.
Once the chlorine demand has been met, any additional chlorine added is
referred to as chlorine residual. The are two types of chlorine residual:
1. Free chlorine residual- this is chlorine available to sanitize the water.
2. Combined chlorine residual- this is chlorine combined with simple
nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and urea. This chlorine (or


chloramines) is a non-effective as a sanitizer compared to free available

In other to maintain a free-chlorine residual at all times to achieve a sanitary
pool water, super chlorination is used. This simply consists of adding a larger
than normal dosage of chlorine to burn out nitrogenous materials.
4.6.3 Part per million
Operating a pool is economical primarily because of the efficiency and
versatility of free available chlorine. Chlorine performs all the necessary
function of disinfection in parts per million (ppm) concentrations, which is an
extremely small quantity.
A ppm unit of concentration is equivalent to:
1inch in 16 miles, or 1 minute in 2 years.
4.6.4 Disinfectant Selection
The first criterion in selecting a disinfectant is the ability of the compound or
process to destroy microorganisms. However, other properties of the
disinfectant should be considered as they affect treated water quality, plant
performance, and economics.
In the area of effluent quality, the same compounds that inactivates
microorganisms can also affect water quality parameters; some beneficially
and others adversely. For instance, chlorine and ozone can decrease colour
by oxidizing organic color- causing compounds. However, chlorine reacts
with humic material to produce chlorinated organics, some of which are
believed to be carcinogenic. Ozone forms aldehydes.


Other considerations include the impact of the selected disinfectant on other

portions of the treatment plant. For example, the maintenance of chlorine
residual through the filters is advantageous, in that the filters operate in an
inert state and do not become affected by slime growths. Both ozone and
chlorine pre-treatment leads to decreased filtered water turbidity.
In addition, the handling characteristic and general safety will affect plant
operations because disinfectants can be toxic to people as well as
microorganisms. Other operation and maintenance considerations include the
level of skill required of personnel, the degree of control and supervision
necessary to achieve satisfactory performance, and the equipment
maintenance requirements.
Below is a summary of the pool condition for a residential pool using
chlorine-based disinfectant.
Calcium Hypochlorite
It contains 65% available chlorine and when dissolved in water.

It is slightly alkaline so it increases the pH of the pool water.

It is dosed into a skimmer or the solution is added through a small dosing


75 grams adds approximately 1 part per million of free chlorine to 10,000

gallons of water.

The level of free chlorine is maintained at between 1 and 2 parts per

million. This is measured with a chlorine (DPD 1) test kit.


It is also used as a shock treatment to rid the pool of algae or to burn off
unpleasant chlorine by products (chloramines).

Stabilized Chlorine
In order to stop chlorine being broken down by sunlight it is combined with a
stabiliser - cyanuric acid. It is supplied as stabilised chlorine granules or
The problem with all stabilized chlorine products is that as well as stopping
the sunlight breaking down the chlorine they also make the chlorine less
effective. Therefore it is important not to get too much cyanuric acid in the
There are two forms of stabilized chlorine:

Stabilized Chlorine Tablets (sodium dichloroisocyanurate) - This is a

white tablet which adds chlorine to the water just like any other sanitizer
but it also adds stabilizer at the same time. It has a pH close to neutral (7)
so that it will have little effect on the pH of the pool water. It is added by
dissolving the required quantity in warm water. 60 grams will add 1 part
per million chlorine to each 45m3 (10,000 gallons) of pool water.

Stabilized Chlorine (Trichloro isocyanuric acid) It comes as a 200 gram

tablet which adds chlorine to the water just like any other sanitiser but it
also adds stabiliser at the same time. It is acidic so it will reduce the pH of
the pool water making it necessary to add an alkalinity builder to the
water to prevent corrosion or the attack of concrete or tile grout. The
tablets are slow dissolving. They are dosed in the skimmer to dissolve


over several days. A 200 gram tablet will add approximately 4 parts per
million of chlorine to each 45m3 (10,000 gallons) of pool water.
The table below summarises the pool water condition for a residential pool.
Table 4.6: Pool water condition
Free Chlorine
1 - 3mg/l
7.2 - 7.8
Total Alkalinity
120 - 150mg/l
Calcium Hardness 100 - 150mg/l


In this chapter, a residential pool of particular specification is presented for
water treatment design and analysis.
The diagram below shows a plan view of a residential pool with the following

Fig.5.1: Pool plan layout




2(L+B) = 2(10.6 + 6) = 33.2m






Min. depth


Max. depth


Slope 1


Slope 2


Pipe materials =



5.3.1 Pool Basin Bottom Length
From slope 1,
1.52 1.07 = 0.45

= 0.45/L1
= 0.45/ tan
= 0.45/0.1
= 4.5m

Then from slope 2,





1.48/ tan



The final Length L at the deep end


[10.6 (4.5 + 4.48)]



5.3.2 Capacity of the Pool

Capacity of the pool is the volume of water it can hold.
Volume =

area x length

The pool shape comprises, trapezium A, trapezium B and rectangle C

Area of A

= (a + b) x h
= (1.07 + 1.52) x 4.5
= 5.8275m2

Area of B

= (a + b) x h
= (1.52 + 3) x 4.48
= 10.1248m2

Area of C

= 3 x 1.62
= 4.86m2

Total Area

= 5.8275 + 10.1248 + 4.86
= 20.8123m2

Volume of the pool

= (20.8123m2 x 6) m3
= 124.87m3
= 125 000 litres
or 33025 gallons (U.S)

5.3.3 Turnover
Pools become polluted at different rates. Turnover is the number of hours it
takes the filter to pass one pools worth volume of water. That is, the time it
takes to filter the volume of water in a pool.


Table 5.1: Pool water turnover time

Pool type


Leisure water bubble

Flume splash
Leisure water <0.5m deep
Leisure water 0.5-1.0m deep
Leisure water 1.0-1.5m deep
Leisure water >1.5m deep
Conventional pool up to 25m long with >1.0 at
the shallow end:
club/private (light)
club/private (heavy)
Residential (domestic use)
Spa (heavy)

The recommended turnover time for Residential (domestic) pool from the
table is 6.0 7.0 hours
The lower value of 6.0 hours is chosen for it provides for a faster return of
treated pool water to the pool basin.
5.4.1 Design Flow Rate, Q
This is the flow rate (discharge) at which the pool water is circulated
throughout the pool system.

Pool volume
Turnover time

6.0 hour





5.4.2 Sizing for a Pressure Filter

The goal is to select a filter whose filtration rate matches the desired flow rate
for the pool. The filter flow rate is defined as the amount of water filtered
over a given period of time.
Table 5.2: Approximate capacities of vertical pressure filter


Filtration rate/ (m3/(m2/h1))


area /




































































































Assuming an initial shall diameter of 900mm = 0.9m, based on space and

economy constraint.
This gives a bed area of


d 2

With Q

(0.9) 2

= 0.64m 2


Filtration rate =

Q bed area

Filter rate



When selecting the right filter, provision has to be made for a time when the
filter medium becomes more and more clogged with dirt, at which point, it
requires a greater flow rate to clean an equal volume of water. This is


overcome by oversizing the filter. Therefore the filter rate obtained above is
increased to 40m3/m2/h.
It is always safer and prudent to have more than one filter, therefore, if one
designs for two filters.
Bed area for each

= 0.64
= 0.32m2

The shell diameter for each filter is




4 0.32

Filter rate per filter = 0.64m2 x 40m3/m2/h

= 80m3/m2/h
5.4.3 Backwashing
When the filter media is clean, the differential pressure between inlet and
outlet pressure of the filter is around 0.2bars. When this value rises to about
1.25bars, then backwashing becomes necessary. Backwashing is done at the
same design previous flow rate.
i.e. Q for backwash = 20.83m3/h
5.4.4 Number of Skimmers Required
Pool regulation is that at least a skimmer must be provided for every 70m2 of
surface area of pool.
For the pool under consideration, area = 63.6m2

Providing one Skimmer in this case is impracticable since Skimmers has to

handle 80% of the design flow rate. If this one skimmer becomes blocked, it
could create problem for the main drains located in the deep end of the pool.
Providing for 3 skimmers, then
Skimmer flow rate

= 80% of Design flow rate

= 0.80 x 20.83m3/h
= 16.7m3/h

Flow through each Skimmer

= Skimmer flow rate
No. of skimmers
= 16.70m3/h
= 5.6m3/h
= 25gpm
The rule is that this value lies between 20gpm and 30gpm.

5.4.5 Number of Return Inlets

The rule is that there must be a minimum of one recirculation system inlet for
every 56m2 of surface area of the pool.
For the pool under consideration,
Pool area


Therefore, 2 inlets are provided.

5.4.6 Number of Drains
A drain is to be provided for every 73m2 surface area of pool.


For safety, provision is made for 2, as one will continue to function in the
event that the other becomes blocked.
5.4.7 Pipe Size Selection
(a) Skimmer Line Size
The rule is that for the skimmer to be able to take flow between 20 and
For safety, we design for the maximum value.
Max Q for each skimmer is 30gpm.
Q = 30gpm = 6.813m3/h
= 1.9 x 10-3m3/s
The rule states that, skimmer pipe velocity must not exceed 1.52m/s for
suction line piping and 2.5m/s for discharge line (see attached rule in the
Skimmers are along suction line, therefore

1.9 x 10-3 m3/s = U A

velocity of flow

pipe cross sectional area

1.9 x 10-3 = 1.52 x A

1.9 x 10-3

1.25 x 10-3 m2



4 x 1.25 x 10-3



= 40mm

Skimmer specification
Pipe size


Flow in pipe

1.9 x 10-3 m3/s



(b) Return Line Size

2 inlets are provided for

Branch 1

Main return
Branch 2



5.79 x 10-3 m3/s

Qb1 + Qb2

Maximum allowable velocity for branch 1 and 2 = 2.5m/s (for discharge line)

U1.A + U2.A

A(U1 + U2)

but U1 = U2



2 x 2.5 x A

5.79 x 10-3

1.158 x 10-3 m2


1.158 x 10-3 m2


4 x 1.158 x 10-3




Main return


5.79 x 10-3 = 2.5 x A

A = 2.32 x 10-3


4 2.32 10 -3

d = 0.054m = 54mm

(c) Main Drain Size
The rule is that returning pipe be sized such that blocking any one drain will
not result in flow through the remaining drains or pipes exceeding a velocity
of 1.52m/s while handling 50% of the design flow rate.
The provision is for 2 drains

The design calls for each one being able to handle 50% of the design flow
rate at a maximum velocity of 1.52m/s.



5.79 x 10-3 m3/s


Q for each branch = 0.5 x 5.79 x 10-3 m/s


2.90 x 10-3 m/s



2.90 x 10-3

1.91 x 10-3 m2


4 x 1.91 x 10-3




dB =

50mm pipe


For the diameter of pipe C, dc


5.79 x 10-3 m3/s



5.79 x 210-3

3.81 x 10-3 m2

4 x 3.81 x 10-3





(d) Main Drain Grate Selection

The rule is that the main drain outlet area be 4 times area of outlet pipe

i.e. A

= 4 x area of outlet pipe

Area of outlet pipe = d2

= x (50 mm)2
= 1963.5mm

4 x 1963.5


using, d =

4 A

This gives a diameter of 100mm for the circular grate.

5.4.8 Friction Losses In The Pipes
(a) Main Drain Line Loss (Copper)
Straight Pipe Length ( 50mm)


18nos.elbows x equiv. length 2.3


3nos. tees x equiv. length 3.5


5nos. valves x equiv. length 0.8


Total equivalent length


Friction Loss

Branch 1 and 2 both have the same flow rates, and diameters therefore the
friction loss would be the same
The flow rate =

2.90 x 10-3 m3/s


2.90 l/s

From Graph A2 for pipe sizing (see appendix),

2.90l/s for a copper pipe 50mm gives a friction loss of = 0.04m/m
Main drain

70mm (use 75mm)


Friction loss of 0.078m/m

Friction load in metres = friction loss x total equivalent length

(0.04 + 0.078) x 124.852

= 14.73m

(b) Return Line Loss

Straight pipe ( 40mm)
Straight pipe length ( 50mm)


11nos. elbows x equiv. length 2.3


3nos. tees x equiv. length 3.5


5nos. valves x equiv. length 0.8


Total equivalent length


Friction loss ( 40mm) at Q = 5.79l/s gives 0.45m/m

Friction loss ( 50mm) at Q = 5.79l/s gives 0.14m/m
Total friction loss = 0.14 + 0.45 = 0.59m/m run
Friction load

= 0.59 x equivalent length

= 0.59 x 85.85 = 50.65m


5.4.9 Pump Sizing

Equation 4.22 establishes the system head as,
System head

= total discharge head total suction head.

H = Hd - H s

Hd = hsd + hpd + hfd
Hs = hss + hpd + hfs
hsd = discharge static head (due to fluid)
hpd = discharge surface pressure head (from filters)
hfd =discharge friction head (due to pipes)
hs = total suction head
hss = suction static head
hps = suction surface pressure head (from pool)
hfs = suction friction head
It should be noted that,
hps = 0 (gauge) since the suction tank (the pool) is open, so suction surface
pressure equals atmospheric pressure.
Suction Side Of Pump
hss = 1m (height of pool surface above pump centre line)
hps = 0,as explained above.


Hfs = 14.73m (obtained as friction load from 5.3.7 above).

Hs = 1+ 14.73 + 0
= 15.73m
Discharge Side Of Pump
hsd = 1.8m (approximate of pump discharge pipe into the filter).
hpd = this must always lie between 0.2bars and 1.25bars. Using the maximum
value of 1.25bars,
hpd = 1.25bars
=1.25 x 105 N/m2. Converting this to head of water using,

P = gh , gives
hpd = 12.74m
hfs = 50.65m (as obtained above).
Hd = 1.8 + 12.74 + 50.65
= 65.19m
H = 15.73 + 65.19
= 80.92m, as the system head.
Next to obtain the speed of the pump; Graph A3 in the appendix is used.
From the chart, checking flow rates against differential head, a zone code is
obtained which is read from Table 5.3.
Q = 20.83m3/h
= 5.79l/s
H = 65.19m


From the chart, these two values give a corresponding zone code A, which
from the table gives the pump specification as
Flow rate = 5.79 l/s
Total dynamic head = 65.19m
Number of stages = 1
Impeller speed, N = 48 r/sec
Impeller type = single entry radial.
Table 5.3: Guide to pump type and speed liquid viscosity of 1cSt
Zone Code

Number of

speed, N











entry radial
radial flow

taken <500/Q1/2
As Zone Q or T, alternatively a single entry
mixed flow (cone flow) impeller at the same
Vertical take
entry radial
2nd impeller
entry radial may be single
Take N <


The contamination of swimming pool water is to some extent inevitable.
Therefore water treatment techniques must be established to make the water
safe bathers. A water treatment facility design is very rigorous and involves
the assemblage of several experts (structural, mechanical, biochemist, etc),
working in concert to achieve the goal of water treatment.
The design of the treatment plant is such that a balance is reached between
proprietary equipment and custom (build it yourself) equipment. This is
essential in order to reduce cost and wastage, and ensure that equipment work
to specification.
Lastly, no design is considered standard because of variation in intended use,
plant capacity, raw water quality and climate. Each project is analysed on its
own merit and peculiarities. Therefore, variations are allowed to the water
treatment design principles, as long as the objectives of the design are
realised and the design meet local water treatment standards.
The importance of designing a proper and functional water treatment scheme
for a swimming pool cannot be overemphasised. Although, water treatment
principles are to some extent general, this project has only considered the
design of a private swimming pool. It is hoped that future will done on public


swimming pool, which involves areas not touched upon by this project, such
as pool hall ventilation and heating and ancillaries.
Also, because this project is largely based on United States and British codes
(due to non existence of codes from the local water authority), it is
recommended that future work on the same subject make use of FEPA
(Federal Environmental Protection Agency) and LASEPA, the Lagos state
chapter, Effluent Water Treatment Codes in trying to give local content to the


Carman, P.C., Fluid Flow Through Granular Beds, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng.,
15,150 (1937).
Chang, S. L., Modern Concept of Disinfection. J. Div. Eng., Proc. Am.
Soc. Civ. Eng., 97 (SA5), 689-707 (October 1971).
Doe, L. N., Gura, J. H., Martin, P. L., Building Services For Swimming
Pools, Oscar Faber and Partners (December 1967).
Douglas, J. F., Gasiorek, J. M., and Swaffield, J. A., Fluid Mechanics Long
Man Group Ltd., England. (1979 and 1985).
Hoigne J., and Bader, H., Identification and Kinetic Properties of the
Oxidizing Decomposition Product of Ozone in Water and its Impact on Water
Purification, Presented at the Second International Ozone Symposium,
International Ozone Institute, Montreal, Canada (May 1975b).
Hoigne, J., and Bader, H., Ozonation of Water: Role of Hydroxyl Radicals
as Oxidizing Intermediates, Science, 190, 782 (1975a)
Ives, K. J., Deep Filters Filtration and Separation, 4(3/4), 125 (1967)
Kavanaugh, M. C., Use of Particle Size Distribution Measurement for
Selection and Control of Solid/Liquid Separation Process, in Particulates in
Water, American Chemical Society Advances in Chemistry, No 189 (1980),
p. 305.
Maroudas, A., and Eisenklam, P., Clarification of Suspension: A study of
Particle Deposition in Granular Media; Part II: A Theory of Clarification,
Chem. Eng. Sci., 20, 875-888 (1965b).


Morris, J. C., The Acid Ionization Constant of HOCl from 50 to 350C, J.

Phys., Chem., 70, 3798 (December 1966).
Rodgers, J. G., Plumbing Services Design Guide,. The Inst. of Plumbing,
England. (November 1977).
Tien, C., Turian, R. M., and Pendese, H., Simulation of the Dynamic
of Deep Bed Filters,. Jr. AichE, 25(3), 385 (1979).
Yao, K. M., Influence of Suspended Particle Size on the Transport Aspect of
Water Filtration, Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Davidson J., Process Pump Selection,. ImechE Guides for the Process
Industries. Inst. of Mech. Eng. (1986).
Headquarters, Dept. of the Army, swimming Pool Operation and
Maintenance, Washington, DC. (28th February 1986).
Rules .2501-.2507 of Title 15A Subchapter 18A of the North Carolina
Administrative Code (T15A .18A .2501-.2507), (4th April 1990).


Schematic diagram of a swimming pool water treatment plant


Graph A2: Pipe sizing and friction losses


Graph A3: Guide to pump type and speed