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Avrea - A Constructed SVO Language

Avrea = Avretor di tudes reas = Partaker of all roots

b - [b]
bb - [b:]
v - [v]
vv - [v:]
p - [p]
p - [p:]
l - [l]
ll - [l:] (terminal ll is [l])
r - [r] (terminal r is silent)
rr - [r:]
s - [s]
ss - [s:]
t - [t]
tt - [t:]
d - [d]
dd - [d:]
n - [n]
nn - [n:]
- [] (terminal is [])
- []
z/zz - [t s] (terminal z is [z])
j - []
x - []
c - [k] before a, o, and u, and [t ] before i and e
cc - [t :]/[k:] (cch is also [k:])
g - [g]
gg - [g:]
h - [h~ ] ([] occurs more often as a terminal consonant, such as in xadah [d])
m - [m]
mm - [m:]
y - []
` - Stress marked vowel

a - []
e - [] when stressed and [] when unstressed
i - [i]
o - [o]
eo - [] (always stressed)
u/ou - [u]
au - [ow]
eu - [u]
ei/ey - [j/j]
ae - [a:e]
ai/ay - [aj]
ui - [ui/we] (pronounced [we] in some rural dialects)
iu - [iu]
ua - [wa]
uo - [wo]
ueo - [w]
- - a mark used to denote syllable separation to maintain pronunciation of a sound
Note: Avrea makes various distinctions between common/spoken language and poetic/literary
connotations and usage. These are strictly obeyed, and the two only overlap in limited cases,
such as recitations, quotations and dialogue. However, some Avrea writers eschew common
language entirely in their writing, even in dialogue. Much of the literary or poetic language
comes from Asian languages, particularly South Asian languages such as Hindi and Kannada.
Pronouns: 3rd person singular and plural are gendered.
Subject Pronouns (Common Language)
I - io

we (inclusive/exclusive) - noi/nui

you (non-polite) - tu

you all (non-polite) - vos

you (polite) - Astad

you all (polite) - Astades

you (rude) - ro

you all (rude) - rui

he/she - elye/ella

they - elyes/ellas

Equal sign means they share conjugations and pronouns; nuance is expressed through the
pronoun, making Avrea less pro-drop-prone than other languages.
ro = tu
rui = vos
Astad = elye/ella

Astades = elyes/ellas
Us is a third person pronoun used mostly within the LGBTQ community to refer to transgender
and queer individuals, and it shares conjugations with elye/ella. Issues arise with us because it
can be used to mean it, which is especially concerning to the LGBTQ community. The
LGBTQ community prefers yai or yim in politically correct contexts.
Subject Pronouns (Poetic/Literary Language)
I - are

we (inclusive/exclusive) - aretas/arexas

you (non-polite) - dan

you all (non-polite) - dantas

you (polite) - tav

you all (polite) - tavas

you (rude) - ni

you all (rude) - ni-as

he/she/it - avan/aval/ade

they - avanas/avalas/adetas

Reflexive Pronouns (Common Language)

io - me

noi/nui - nos/nus

tu - te

vos - ves

elye/ella/Astad - es

elyes/ellas/Astades - es

Reflexive Pronouns (Poetic/Literary Language)

are - re

aretaz - ran

dan - de

dantaz - dan

avan/aval/tav - te

avran/avral/tavra - tan

To separate the reflexive pronoun into a prepositional phrase, such as toward themselves, add -s
to the pronouns ending in -e, and add -es to the words ending in -s.
Indirect Object Pronouns (Common Language)
io - mi

noi - nos

tu - ti

vos - vos

elye/ella/Astad - li

elyes/ellas/Astades - lis

Indirect Object Pronouns (Poetic/Literary Language)

are - ra

aretaz - reu

dan - da

dantaz - diu

(avan/aval)/tav - ut

(avran/avral)/tavra - tui

Direct Object Pronouns (Common Language)

io - em/m

noi - ens/'ns

tu - et/t

vos - ev/v

elye/ella/Astad - el/l

elyes/ellas/Astades - els/ls

Direct Object Pronouns (Poetic/Literary Language)

are - er/r

aretaz - ers/rs

dan - ed/d

dantaz - eds/ds

(avan/aval)/tav - et/t

(avran/avral)/tavra - ez/z

The second version is to be attached to the end of verb conjugations that end in vowels. They can
be used interchangeably to suit the flow of the language. To attach them to infinitives, drop the
terminal r, put an accent grave on the final vowel and add the apostrophized pronoun. Ex. veritar
+ l = verit'l
The partitive pronoun ne (ve in poetic/literary language) is used in expressions like:
Ne voleo comir. = I want to eat some (of it).
Volevo prensir-ne. = I wanted to take some of it.
The neuter pronoun ho is used to substitute clauses or thoughts:
Avina non poteva andar l negzio. Avo bisseo ca ho fassi/fizi.
Avina couldnt go to the store/shop. I need you to do this.
Note: In Iberian style, for verb conjugations ending in vowels and for infinitives (after dropping
the terminal r), you can attach the pronoun as explained below.
Ne volo comir. -> Volo comin.
Volevo prensirne -> Volevo prensin.

The pronoun ho in the Iberian Style becomes xo, and would attach as such:
Avina non poteva andar al negozio. Avo bisseo ca fassix.
Note that when there is a double object combination attached to a verb, the spelling may change
slightly. Commands will take a grave accent on the final vowel. But gerunds do not change
spelling or pronunciation. Double objects are not common in written text, aside from dialogue.
Double Object Pronoun Combinations (Common Language)































































Double Object Pronoun Combinations (Poetic/Literary Language)
































































Eastern and Northern Avrea occasionally insert a u after the apostrophe to make it a glottal stop
when used before a verb. So the combination tuv is [tu:v] in Western and Southern Avrea but is
tuuv [tuuv] in Eastern and Northern Avrea.

Reflexive Pronoun Combinations (Common Language)






















Reflexive Pronoun Combinations (Poetic/Literary Language)






















Nouns are non-gendered. There are six cases, one of which is unmarked. They are the
nominative (unmarked), accusative, beneficent (benefiting/for the good of/for the sake of),
ergative (used to distinguish the agent from others in the sentence, especially in vague contexts),
instrumental-ablative (going away from/emanating from, etc.), and temporal (in/at the time
of). The temporal case, when a non-time noun is used, may instead mean at the time of
obtaining or speaking of which. The example noun is raem (old times/traditions).

al/un raem

als/uns raemes


sal/san raemre

sals/sans raemres


mal/man raemma

mals/mans raemmas


ral/ran raemxe

ral/rans raemxes


oul/ouan raeman

oul/ouan raemans


val/van raemte

val/van raemtes

To make a noun plural, add -s if there is a vowel at the end, and -es if there is a consonant.
Verbs: Verbs fall into one of three categories: -ar, -er, -ir; No irregular verbs; Note: For verb
stems that end in i, simply lengthen the i sound.

-ar Verb - cerrar - to close

Present Indicative Conjugation:
io cerro

noi cerramo

tu cerri

vos cerreu

elye/ella/Astad cerra

elyes/ellas/Astades cerran

Present Subjunctive Conjugation:

io cerra

noi cerremo

tu cerri

vos cerriu

elye/ella/Astad cerre

elyes/ellas/Astades cerren

Past Indicative Conjugation:

io cerravo

noi cerravamo

tu cerravi

vos cerraveu

elye/ella/Astad cerrava

elyes/ellas/Astades cerravan

Past Subjunctive Conjugation:

io cerrao

noi cerraamo

tu cerrai

vos cerraeu

elye/ella/Astad cerraa

elyes/ellas/Astades cerraan

Future Indicative Conjugation:

io cerrar

noi cerrmo

tu cerrar

vos cerrars

elye/ella/Astad cerrar

elyes/ellas/Astades cerrarn

Future Subjunctive Conjugation:

io cerrer

noi cerrermo

tu cerreri

vos cerrereu

elye/ella/Astad cerrere

elyes/ellas/Astades cerreran

Conditional Tense Conjugation:

io cerrasso

noi cerrssamo

tu cerrassi

vos cerrasseu

elye/ella/Astad cerrassa

elyes/ellas/Astades cerrassan

-er Verbs - ver - to see

Present Indicative Conjugation:
io vo*

noi vemo

tu vi*

vos viu

elye/ella/Astad vea

elyes/ellas/Astades vean

*Verbs whose conjugations would end in diphthongs take an accent on the first vowel to separate
the vowels. All -er verbs take an accent on the e to distinguish it from [].
Present Subjunctive Conjugation
io vea

noi veamo

tu vi

vos veu

elye/ella/Astad ve

elyes/ellas/Astades ven

Past Indicative Conjugation:

io vevo

noi vevamo

tu vevi

vos veveu

elye/ella/Astad veve

elyes/ellas/Astades veven

Past Subjunctive Conjugation:

io veo

noi veemo

tu vei

vos veeu

elye/ella/Astad vee

elyes/ellas/Astades veen

Future Indicative Conjugation:

io ver

noi vremo

tu ver

vos vers

elye/ella/Astad ver

elyes/ellas/Astades vern

Future Subjunctive Conjugation:

io ver

noi vermo

tu veri

vos vereu

elye/ella/Astad vere

elyes/ellas/Astades veren

Conditional Conjugation:
io verasso

noi verssamo

tu verassi

vos verasseu

elye/ella/Astad verassa

elyes/ellas/Astades verassan

-ir Verbs salir - to leave

Present Indicative Conjugation:
io salo

noi salimo

tu sali

vos saliu

elye/ella/Astad sale

elyes/ellas/Astades salen

Present Subjunctive Conjugation:

io sal

noi salamo

tu sali

vos saleu

elye/ella/Astad sala

elyes/ellas/Astades salan

Past Indicative Conjugation:

io salivo

noi salivamo

tu salivi

vos saliveu

elye/ella/Astad saliva

elyes/ellas/Astades salivan

Past Subjunctive Conjugation:

io salio

noi saliamo

tu salii

vos salieu

elye/ella/Astad salia

elyes/ellas/Astades salian

Future Indicative Conjugation:

io salir

noi salramo

tu salir

vos salirs

elye/ella/Astad salir

elyes/ellas/Astades salirn

Future Subjunctive Conjugation

io salir

noi salirmo

tu saliri

vos salireu

elye/ella/Astad salire

elyes/ellas/Astades saliren

Conditional Tense Conjugation:

io salisso

noi salssamo

tu salissi

vos salisseu

elye/ella/Astad salissa

elyes/ella/Astades salissan

To form perfect tenses, take the desired tense of the verb aver (to have/to be (auxiliary)) and add
the past participle. To form gerunds and present participles, just add -ante, -unte, or -inte to the
stems of -ar, -er, and -ir verbs respectively.
The active voice past participles end in -ate, -ute, and -ite for -ar, -er, and -ir verbs respectively.
However, for use in the passive voice, they end in -ah, -eu, and -em. However, the following
verbs have irregular passive past participles.
disser - diem/daim (daim is more common in older texts)
voler - vulse
poter - potam
aver - avah
dever - deive
saper - saprim
vatar - vum
viner - vinne
fazer/fizer - fexte/fixte
extar/axtar - extm/axtm
ver - vixte
puser - pusea
The progressive tenses are formed using extar/axtar/irar and the gerundive forms. The
imperative is simply the subjunctive present of the conjugations for the people one is
The following verbs are irregular in the future tense, with their stems given following the verb.
disser - dixrvoler - vorrpoter - potraver - avrdever - devrsaper - saprvatar - vadrviner - virr-

fazer/fizer - fajr-/fijrpuser - puxrThese apply to the conditional as well, but not the future subjunctive.
Other Moods:
The Northern and Southern dialects of Avrea have developed non-standard moods that eliminate
the need for certain auxiliary words. These moods take the form of prefixes, infixes, or suffixes,
marked in the table as P, I, and S, respectively. The endings are different for each tense. The
extra vowels or consonants are inserted when it might be awkward to pronounced otherwise.
Infixes are placed after the first syllable. The example verb is disser (to say/to tell) in the io form





Volitive (P)





Necessitative (P)





Jussive (S)


-yeoga/(i)meoga/ -yara/(i)mara/


Inferential (S)





Sarcastic (I)





Energetic (I)










Volitive (P)





Necessitative (P)





Jussive (S)

dissoya/dissoma/ dissevoyaga/
dissore (M/F/



Inferential (S)





Sarcastic (I)





Energetic (I)





Example: disser

The jussive indicates wishes (hopefully you say)), purpose (you say in order to do
something), and consequence (thus/as result, he says). For the (M/F/Polite) parameter, this
changes based on who one is speaking to. The jussive also tends to drop terminal vowels to
attach the ending.
These moods are considered unacceptable in academic writing. While not seen as uneducated,
this manner of speaking, outside its native regions, is widely seen as strange and even
disrespectful around those unfamiliar with it.
However, there is one peculiar form in Standard Avrea, which expresses a tense-less
predicate. It is a temporally independent tense. It is used in idioms, expressions of fact, everyday
occurrences, and poetry without a definite sense of time.
io cerri

noi cerram

tu cerrim

vos cerreum

elye/ella/Astad cerrah

elyes/ellas/Astades cerrhn

io veoh

noi veim

tu ve-ium

vos ve-eus

elye/ella/Astad verh

elyes/ellas/Astades verfn

io saliya

noi salehm

tu saltus

vos salreu

elye/ella/Astad salha

elyes/ellas/Astades salfn

Note: If there are two words to one meaning, the second is more common in non-Western
varieties of Avrea, unless otherwise stated.
Basic Phrases:
S - Yes
No(n) - No/Not (negates a phrase)
Lai/Lae - No (to a negative question; affirming that something is not)

Per favor - Please

Addo/Alvit - Goodbye
Salve/Ada - hello
Pace-(axtar(en)) - Hello (formal (sing./plural))
Perdn/Scusam - Pardon me
Xemsa - Sorry
Vale - Fine/OK
(Molte) graze - (Many) thanks
Non si nente - Its nothing
Afin loga - See you later/Until next time
Nos-veremo dem - Well see each other tomorrow
Ben-jorne - Good morning
Ben-tarde - Good afternoon
Ben-sera - Good evening
Ben-noze - Good night
Com (axti/axta)? - How are you? (informal/formal) (Western)
Xadh att/ass. - Peace be upon you. (informal/formal)
(Molte) bene - (very) well
Po male - A little badly
Equale - likewise
() meu praer - (Its) my pleasure/Nice to meet you
Cos - what
Chi - who
Com - how
Dove - where
Quan - when
Quante - how many
Edaca - why
Yauda - which
Edacandre - Because
Quantores ho sin? - What time is it?
Percos/Ain - why/because
Cosse teu nom? - Whats your name?
Meu neom esse - My name is
Adossi/Iva - now
Loga/Ava - later
Allora/nadruve - Then
Ben-vinute(s) - Welcome (all)
Er/Erre! - Hey! (to call someones attention) (also a word of exclamation)
Note: Words marked as terms of address can also be used to point out or discuss a person not
being spoken to.

Adjectives: Non-gendered, and pluralize by adding -s or -es (ending in a vowel and consonant,
Adjectives: Colors
blanc - white
nuit - black
grs - gray
rosta - rose/pink
azzure - blue
rosse - red
scarleu - scarlet
amrl - yellow
turcheu - turquoise
verte - green
naraah - orange
violeta - violet/purple
morreon - brown
Adjectives: Others
tude - all
nulla - none
va - empty
piente - full
medit/arda di - half (of)
terzo di - third of
quart di - quarter of
marina - maritime
bahua - earthen/earth-related
malo - bad
malite - sick
ben/hux - good
amarja/pahida - bitter
aspre/musum - sour
dole/mani - sweet
picante/kehara- spicy
sallat/masna - salty
agra - tangy
molte - many/much/very
juove - young
veo - old
santa - holy/sacred

belle - beautiful
brute - ugly
amrah - rich
povre - poor
neova - new
vert/vero - true (vero can also be used to mean right/correct)
steze - same
intell-ijente - intelligent
operasse - hardworking/industrious
prezs - lazy
stupide - stupid
all-egre - happy
furiose - angry
trixte - sad
arrogante - arrogant
serio - serious
osseno - obscene/sordid/morally distasteful
cortaze - courteous/kind
scortaze - discourteous/unkind
talentate - talented
fzile - easy
difzile - difficult
interasse - interesting
simpliza - simple
complesse - complex
faveorite - favorite
aburrante - boring
graduale - gradual
clare - clear
scurate - dark
alte - high/tall
basse - low/short
avanate - advanced
irritante - irritating
gozante - pleasing
bravose - brave/strong
dvole - weak
caritose - charitable/generous
egosta - selfish
vnide - vain
umile - humble

xuddah - clear/pure (particularly of speech, language; never of personality or people) (Ex.

XuddAvrea is pure Avrea, completely free of loanwords, such as saying al lunch to say
clar - clear/pure (more appropriate for physical things)
perfecte - perfect
tedio - tedious
mara - well-behaved/having a good upbringing
suvatta - clean
culga - dirty
lijere - fast/light
lent - slow
agara - able/possible/capable
vicitre - strange
ordinaro - ordinary
gambehire - humble/courteous
ualle - good-natured/kind
agradavile - pleasant
disagradavile - unpleasant
Nominalized Adjectives
al seriosit - seriousness
al tedeum - tedium
al alts - height
al basss - lowness/shortness
al caritosit - charity
al irritazeon - irritation
al egosme - egoism
el vanids - vanity
al vereum - true-ness/veracity (not to be confused with al verit, which means truth)
al vas - emptiness
al bahayim - earthliness
al maleum - badness (of character)
al maras - humility
al xuddam - purity/clarity (of language)
al bravosit - bravado/bravery
Words can take the following endings:
-eum (-ium in English; ex. tedium) adjectives ending in -io/-o
-s (-ezza in Italian; ex. altezza) Roman adjectives ending in -e; nouns ending in consonants
double them before adding the ending: clar clarrs
-it (-ity in English; ex. community) adjectives ending in -s/ose

-isme (-ista in Italian/Spanish; ex. turista) adjectives ending in -ista

-zeon (-cin/zione in Spanish/Italian; ex. irritacin/irritazione) 3rd person conjugation of
verbs of Romance origin
-as/iada adjectives ending in -a
-am adjectives ending in -ah
-ayim adjectives and nouns ending in -um but not -eum
-arah 3rd person conjugation of verbs of Eastern origin (equivalent to -zeon)
-ava Eastern adjectives ending in e; nouns ending in consonants double them before adding
the ending: vicitre vicitrava
achs (sing.) - achses (pl.) - this
achl (sing.) - achles (pl.) - that
achh (sing.) - achhes (pl.) - that (away)
isto - this
isso - that
ivvo - that (away)
Possessives: (can also function as nouns)
meu/aira - my
teu/daira - your (informal)
seu/taira - his/her/your (formal)
nosse/aize - our
vosse/daize - your (plural informal)
seu/taize - their/your (plural formal)
esser/hair - to be (permanent or usually unchanging conditions)
Esser is an irregular verb, and man of its forms are shorter to accommodate fluid speech. The
present participle is seunte, and its active past participle is seonne, while its passive past
participle is assun.

Present Indicative
io so

noi sum

tu sis

vos sius

elye/ella/Astad si

elyes/ellas/Astades sun/sin

Present Subjunctive
io suo

noi seum

tu sui

vos sues

elye/ella/Astad sia

elyes/ellas/Astades suan

Past Indicative
io evvo

noi evvemo

tu evvi

vos evveu

elye/ella/Astad evva

elyes/ellas/Astades evvan

Past Subjunctive
io evho

noi evhum

tu evhi

vos evheu

elye/ella/Astad evha

elyes/ellas/Astades evhan

Future Indicative
io exr

noi exrmo

tu exr

vos exru

elye/ella/Astad exr

elyes/ellas/Astades exrn

Future Subjunctive
io evver

noi evvermo

tu evveri

vos evvereu

elye/ella/Astad evvere

elyes/ellas/Astades evveren

io exresso

noi exrssemo

tu exressi

vos exrsseu

elye/ella/Astad exresse

elyes/ellas/Astades exressen

Temporally Independent
io sui

noi seoum

tu suiya

vos seoeu

elye/ella/Astad suiah

elyes/ellas/Astades suifn

Hair is also irregular, as a remnant from the ancestor of Avrea. The glottal stop is preserved
only in this word and a few others. The active past participle is haite and the gerundive form is
hainte. The passive past participle is haor.
Present Indicative
io ha

noi haemo

tu haes

vos haeu

elye/ella/Astad hiya

elyes/ellas/Astades hiya

Present Subjunctive
io hei

noi heim

tu hai

vos hais

elye/ella/Astad hiye

elyes/ellas/Astades hiyen

Past Indicative
io hui

noi huim

tu hus

vos hueu

elye/ella/Astad hu

elyes/ellas/Astades huen

Past Subjunctive
io huv

noi huvm

tu huvs

vos huveu

elye/ella/Astad huai

elyes/ellas/Astades huain

Future Indicative
io hair

noi hairm

tu hairs

vos hairste

elye/ella/Astad hair

elyes/ellas/Astades hairn

Future Subjunctive
io haer

noi haerem

tu haeres

vos haereste

elye/ella/Astad haiyer

elyes/ellas/Astades haiyeran

io haao

noi haem

tu haes

vos haeste

elye/ella/Astad hae

elyes/ellas/Astades ha'en

Temporally Independent
io hajah

noi haum

tu hat

vos haure

elye/ella/Astad haaf

elyes/ellas/Astades ha'afen

aver - to have (irregular verb) (W/E)

Present Indicative
io uo/avo

noi aum/avem

tu aus/avi

vos aues/aveu

elye/ella/Astad au/ava

elyes/ellas/Astades aun/aven

Present Subjunctive
io auo/avuo

noi auem/avuem

tu aui/avui

vos auas/avues

elye/ella/Astad aua/avua

elyes/ellas/Astades auan/avuan

Past Indicative
io auei/avvo

noi auam/avvem

tu auste/avvi

vos aueste/avveu

elye/ella/Astad aueo/avve

elyes/ellas/Astades auen/avven

Past Subjunctive
io auho/avuio

noi auhum/avuiem

tu auhi/avuii

vos auheu/avuieu

elye/ella/Astad auha/avuia

elyes/ellas/Astades auhen/avuien

Future Indicative
io auir/avr

noi auirmo/avrmo

tu auir/avr

vos auiru/avru

elye/ella/Astad auir/avr

elyes/ellas/Astades auirn/avrn

Future Subjunctive
io aur/avver

noi aurmo/avvermo

tu auri/avveri

vos aureu/avvereu

elye/ella/Astad aure/avvere

elyes/ellas/Astades auren/avveren

io ausso/avesso

noi ussemo/avssemo

tu aussi/avessi

vos usseu/avsseu

elye/ella/Astad ausse/avesse

elyes/ellas/Astades aussen/avessen

Temporally Independent
io arreoh/aveoh

noi arrm/avm

tu arrim/avuim

vos arreus/avuius

elye/ella/Astad arrh/avrh

elyes/ellas/Astades arrfn/avfn

axtar/irar - to be (impermanent or temporary conditions) (extar is also an Eastern variant)

devener/bannar - to become
corrar/oder - to run
caminar/nadir - to walk
natar/ijer - to swim
disser - to say/tell
ver/deher - to see
scoltar/chelasir - to hear/listen (to)
sentir - to feel
pensar/anisser - to think (with IOP, means to seem)
olorer(-se) - to smell (transitive/intransitive)
donar - to give
aprendir - to learn
insear - to teach
parlar - to talk
saper - to know (factual information or skills)
conossir - to know (people or places)
incontrar - to meet
fassar/fizer - to do/make
ballar/naccer - to dance
cantar - to sing

prensir - to take
comir - to eat
bevir - to drink
mirar - to look/watch
coinar - to cook
fornar - to bake
assar - to roast/broil
jugar - to play
udar/sonar - to play (music/an instrument)
gozar/plaer - to like (second one with an IOP)
digozar - to dislike
aburrar - to bore
divertir(-se) to amuse/have fun
laner - to throw
tiver - to poke
cohir - to catch
aver - to have
ler/lir - to read
esqueer-se (di) - to forget
ricordar-se (di) - to remember
vatar - to go
vatar-sen - to go away
viner(-se) - to come (the reflexive is optional)
benviner - to welcome
dever - should/must
visser/jiner - to live
mortir/saiar - to die
acesinar/saisar - to kill
vendir - to sell
comprir - to buy
scrivar/escrier - to write (the same verb in Western varieties; only escrier in Eastern varieties )
finar/hatmir - to finish
comenar/xuruhar - to start/begin
harar(-se) - to come closer/approach
edurar(-se) - to move farther from
poter - to be able
crer - to believe
portar/trez-ar - to bring (the same verb in Western varieties; only trezar in Eastern varieties)
tressir - to trace
entendir - to understand
ritornar/vapaviner-se - to return/go back (vapaviner-se has poetic undertones and may imply that
a person is returning after a long time away)
voltar - to turn

vestir-se - to dress
essedar - to sit
malir(-se) - to make/get worse/bad
benir(-se) - to make/get better/good
limpir - to clean
dizear - to design/draw
aburrar/aburrar-se - to bore/get bored
conducer - to drive
levar - to carry
levar (person) (in carro) - to drive (someone)
volar - to fly
voler/ciaher - to want
ferrer(-se) - to injure (oneself)
sanar/sanar-se - to heal/recover
malar - to become sick
vinar - to win/defeat
ll-uvar/piojer - to rain (W/E)
never - to snow
fissar - to fix
teixar - to weave
messer-se/penrer - to wear
all-argar - to lengthen/stretch/elongate
consell-ar - to counsel/advise
axcortar - to shorten
anull-ar - to nullify/negate/cancel
nazer/naer/nassir - to be born
perder/perder-se - to lose/get lost
liberar - to free/liberate
pregar/reizar - to pray
asacrar - to consecrate
disacrar - to desecrate
deixar - to permit/allow
traduxir/anvadar - to translate
arruinar - to ruin
constructar - to construct
destrer - to destroy
proter - to protect
atrigar - to try (as in a trial)
arrollar/arrollar-se - to enroll (oneself)
illumir - to illuminate
luir/uljar - to shine
estardar/estardar-se - to make late/become late
peixar - to fish

inunder/inunder-se - to drown (oneself/someone else)

apressiar - to hurry/rush
duvitar - to doubt
axperar/ummidir - to hope
puser/itter - to put/place
vantar - to brag/boast (about)
vietar - to forbid
vijilir - to keep watch (over)
crear - to create
envelar-(se) - to veil/hide
disperder - to dispel/send away
merer - to deserve
pre-ocupar/pre-ocupar-se - to cause worry/to be worried
mostrar - to show
lezar - to lecture
agrazar/dahaar - to thank
parezir - to seem
assumir - to assume
vergonzar/vergonzar-se - to embarrass/get embarrassed
aiutar - to help
enar - to eat dinner
collazer - to eat breakfast
pranzir - to eat lunch
contravir - to go against/defy/rebel
definar - to define
axifrar/axifrar-se - to mask/disguise (oneself)
dell-uder - to delude
ell-uder - to elude
educar - to educate
difassar/difizer - to undo
diminir - to diminish
dormir/maller - to sleep
celevrar - to celebrate
invidir - to envy
temer - to fear
pianjir - to cry
detestar - to detest/hate
entender - to understand
lorer-se - to graduate
operar - to work
conzenir-se (con) - to be concerned (about)
atrixtar/atrixtar-se - to make sad/become sad
disfrutar - to enjoy

dissarolar - to develop
vester - to dress/wear
disvester(-se) - to undress/disrobe
usar - to use
lassir - to allow/let/permit
discuvrir/sigar - to discover/dig up/uncover
elejir - to elect
anomar(-se) - to name/call (oneself) - Used in the sense of what one calls oneself
trucar - to call (out to someone/something)
telefonar - to telephone
emperer - to command
bendisser - to bless
maldisser - to curse
dessejar - to desire
durrar - to last
luitar - to fight
cassar(-se) - to marry/get married
atar - to act
finjar - to fake/pretend
mentir/suldir - to lie
rispetar - to respect
onrer - to honor
aceitar - to accept
spaspar - to gossip
aver calor - to be hot (oneself)
aver freta - to be cold (oneself)
aver vergonza - to be ashamed
aver para (di) - to be afraid (of)
aver colpa - to be at fault
aver ganes - to feel like doing (put an infinitive after)
aver seon - to be sleepy
fassar/fizer ven/gale - to be windy
fassar/fizer calore/xaca - to be hot (weather)
fassar/fizer freta/cialla - to be cold (weather)
fassar/fizer sol/surai - to be sunny
fassar/fizer plessura - to be pleasant (weather)
fassar/fizer neba/maiga - to be cloudy
fassar/fizer + (adjective) - to make (adjective)
eivessar-se - to become old/to age
eigassar-se - to become angry
eilochesser-se - to go crazy
eipeorar-se - to worsen
eimeliorar-se - to improve/get better

impaxonar-se (con) - to become impassioned (by)/to fall in love (with)

virar(-se)/tirgir(-se) - to turn
ranvir - to brave/encourage/empower
sigadar - to punish (severely)/castigate
tervar - to have sex
concevir - to conceive (a child)
cresser - to raise/rear
yosser - to drift
sapnar/yumir - to dream
yurar - to sway
vanir - to fade/vanish
tallir - to cut/tear
rivelar - to reveal
toccar - to touch
maigar(-se) - to cloud/become cloudy
fremer - to tremble (present particple: fremeunte)
cader - to fall
lunuscar-(se) - to blurred by the moon/moon-rise
rovexar - to overflow/burst
tomarir - to halt
naccar - to embrace (transitive only)
baginar/salimar-se - to prostrate oneself
eoffrir - to offer
murer-se - to assume (a form or disguise)
taivar - to meditate
canhir - to praise
ajunjer - to add
Poetic Verbs:
These are verbs that have standard, colloquial equivalents. Words that are very obviously used
mostly in poetic contexts are not listed here.
hair - to be (permanent conditions)
irar - to be (impermanent conditions)
andar - to go
taxrifir - to come
vassir - to smell/inhale/imbibe (transitive)
sahmir - to breathe (intransitive)
raesmer - to prostrate oneself
vehmer - to say/tell
rimmir - to reveal/show
carrir - to do/make

Family Terms:
al patre/(abeoram/apeoram) - father (very formal and traditional)
al matre/ammarim - mother (very formal and traditional)
al pata/(abeo/apeo) - father (less formal; very common)
al mata/ammani - mother (less formal; very common)
al pai/appa - dad (informal; intimate; often used by young children)
al mai/amma - mom (informal; intimate; often used by young children)
al jentre - parent
al marit(a) - husband/wife
al videvo(a) - widower/widow
al ereditor(a) - inheritor/heir
al altisse - heir apparent (used to refer to the child ultimately chosen to succeed)
al anteor(a) - predecessor (specifically a previous family head)
al sucessor(a) - successor (specifically an initiated or current family head)
al passade - ancestor
al dixendente - descendant
al zuo/zua - paternal uncle/aunt
al ahle/axli - maternal uncle/aunt
al bizzuo/bizzua - paternal great uncle/aunt
al bihle/bihli - maternal great uncle/aunt
al terzzuo/terzzua - paternal great x2 uncle/aunt
al terhle/terhli - maternal great x2 uncle/aunt
al quazzuo/quazzua - paternal great x3 uncle/aunt
al quahle/quahli - maternal great x3 uncle/aunt
al avolo(a) - paternal grandfather/grandmother
al tata(iya)/pate(iya) - maternal grandfather/grandmother
al bissavolo(a) - paternal great-grandfather/great-grandmother
al bistata(iya)/bispate(iya) - maternal great-grandfather/great-grandmother
al teravolo(a) - paternal great x2 grandfather/grandmother
al teretata(iya)/terepate(iya) - maternal great x2 grandfather/grandmother
al quavolo(a) - paternal great x3 grandfather/grandmother
al quatata(iya)/quapate(iya) - maternal great x3 grandfather/grandmother
al frateus/annai(ya) - elder brother
al frateto/tamai(ya) - younger brother
al sorrea/dedai(ya) - elder sister
al sorreta/ta-a(ya) - younger sister
al coss/cossina - cousin
al sovro/sovra - nephew/niece
al bissovro/bissovra - great-nephew/great-niece
al terssovro/terssovra - great x2 nephew/niece
al quassovro/quassovra - great x3 nephew/niece

al infante - infant/baby
al fil/filla - child/son/daughter
al nito/nita - grandchild/grandson/granddaughter
al bisnito/bisnita - great-grandchild/great-grandson/great-granddaughter
al terenito/terenita - great x2 - grandchild/grandson/granddaughter
al quarnito/quarnita - great x3 - grandchild/grandson/granddaughter
al umane - human
al raga(-a) - boy/girl
al ombre - man
al doa - woman
al vejo(a) - old man/woman
al amic(a) - friend
al amorat(a) - lover/boyfriend/girlfriend
al enemic(a) - enemy
al studente - student
al enseator(a) - teacher
al itan(a) - citizen
al jente - people
al operator - worker
al polize - police(man/woman)
al vendetor(a) - seller/clerk
al jugator(a) - player
al pescator(a) - fisherman/woman
al loreaze(a) - laureate/graduate
al advocat(a) - lawyer
al medicator(a) - doctor
al bancat(a) - banker
al esportista - athlete
al afaro(a) - businessman/woman
al pellocortat(a) - hairdresser
al director(a) - director/boss
al xenzat(a) - scientist
al marcator(a) - designer (of fashion
al messanje - messenger
al poltico(a) - politician
al latreon(a) - thief
al ballant(a) - dancer
al musicat(a) - musician
al prine/prinessa- prince/princess
al coteiga - dowager/Queen Mother

al raieon(a) - king/queen
al reija/reonna - lord/lady (nearly synonymous with reieon(a); In Eastern Avrea, it is preferred)
al impero(a) - emperor/empress
al senator(a) - senator
al prest(a) - priest(ess)
al valdre(a) - investor
al prionero(a) - prisoner
al prlaro(a) - speaker

Body Parts:
al cap - head
al gamma - leg
al brace - arm
al mn - hand
al dit - finger
al pai - foot
al dit-de-pai - toe
al pet - chest
al cotovo - elbow
al ombro - shoulder
al colla - neck
al gola - throat
al u-a - nail
al facce - face
al occa/canna - eye
al buca/vai - mouth
al dente - tooth
al schena - back
al osse - bone
al cor - heart
al polmo - lung
al pulse - wrist
al mugam - nose
al orella - outer ear
al ovit - inner ear
al chivida - whole ear
al capel - hair
als labbes - lips
al nalga - tongue
al steomaco - stomach
al ndize - index finger

al mnim - pinky finger

al mezzo - middle finger
al anullare - ring finger
al polgo - thumb
Note: Words ending in -ity in English end in it. Words ending in -tion in English end in -zeon.
al apparta - place of belonging
al (monde/mn/monya)/dua - world
al universo - universe
al scola - school
al cassa - house/home
al quarda - room
al universit - university
al cit - city
al capital - capital
al ginazo - gymnasium
al classe - class
al govern - government building
al parlamente - parliament
al congressia - congress
al mosque - mosque
al sinageo - sinagogue
al iglesa - church
al templo - temple
al aeroporta - airport
al terminal - terminal/stop
al ristorante - restaurant
al otele - hotel
al piazza - plaza
al teatre - theater
al cafe - caf
al mercad - market
al campa - countryside
al campe - field (as in a sports-field)
al pasa - country
al nazeon - nation
al embassa - embassy
al castile - castle
al palasse - palace
al sanctora - sanctuary

al state - state
al stazeon - station
al prieon - prison
al stad - stadium
al spetaja - beach/shore
al terra - land
al mare - sea
al eox - ocean
al dessarte - desert
al rio - river
al foreste - forest
al jard - garden
al tundre - tundra
al corta - court
al ospitale - hospital
al negozio/ngada - store/shop
Terms of Address
Xri/Xridan - Mr. (title/pronoun)
Xrira/Xrirami - Mrs. (title/pronoun)
Xriret/Xriremya - Ms. (title/pronoun)
Maixri/Maixridan - Mr. (title/pronoun) (for an elderly man)
Maira/Mairami - Mrs./Ms. (title/pronoun) (for an elderly woman)
Crio(a) - little one (male/female; term of address)
Baha(ra)/Hyeon - older brother (term of address typically used by children to address young
adults whom they dont know or with close older friends; never actual siblings)
Acca(ne)/Eonna - older sister (female equivalent of baha(ra)/hyeon)
Adum - young man (term of address; informal/potentially impolite)
Aura - young woman (term of address; informal/potentially impolite)
Adurre - young man (term of address; formal/polite)
Aurani - young woman (term of address; formal/polite)
Danot - gentleman/grown or middle-aged man (term of address; informal/potentially impolite)
Danra - gentleman/grown or middle-aged man (term of address; formal/polite)
Remita - lady/maam/madam/grown or middle-aged woman (term of address; informal/
potentially impolite)
Remyani - lady/maam/madam/grown or middle-aged woman (term of address; formal/polite)
Maivol - elderly man (term of address; informal/potentially impolite)
Maidan - elderly man (term of address; formal/polite)
Maivola - elderly woman (term of address; informal/potentially impolite)
Mairani - elderly woman (term of address; formal/polite)
Az-ayim - young master/young lady (used for the children of a household in which there are livein staff, such as butlers and maids; young children only)

Az-hayya - young master/young mistress (the older version of az-ayim)

Eo-ueoya - lord of the house
E-ueonni - lady of the house
Rua - honored guest (used to indirectly refer to guests who are not related to the household)
Fasou - honored guest (used to address guests who are not related to household)
Vairua - honored relative (used to indirectly refer to guests who are related to the household)
Vaifasou - honored relative (used to indirectly refer to guests who are related to the household)
Gassull-ae - an enemy of the household (used exclusively to refer to and address those who are
no longer welcome to the house or otherwise held in contempt; not necessarily impolite, but can
be used as such)
Objects and Abstract Things:
al matite - pencil
al plum - pen
al borra - eraser
al livra - book
al zano - backpack
al cartele - folder/binder
als apontes - notes
al tarea - task/homework
al scrivete - desk
al borda - board
al tvole - table
al bandara - banner/flag
al dispose - wastebasket
al seda - seat/chair
al divn - divan/couch
al caroze - carriage
al abrega - coat/jacket
al materelle - material
al set - silk
al coteo - cotton
al fivra sinttica - synthetic fiber (polyester, nylon, etc.)
al all-ana - wool
al texta - text
al texta-livra - textbook
al manuale - manual
al trof - trophy
al premete - prize
al compet - competition
al balle - dance/ball
al filme - film/movie

al opra - opera
al spetaco - show/play (theatrical work)
al ocazeon - occasion/situation
al progrssia - progress
al difficolt - difficulty
al facolt - ease
al felicit - happiness
al trixtessa - sadness
al odesso - hate
al devozeon - devotion
al ioranza - ignorance
al intellijenza - intelligence
al carit - charity
al egosme - selfishness
al vanit - vanity
al umilit - humility
al vit/pra - life
al mort/sattum - death
al fata - faith
al razisme - racism
al sessime - sexism
al fuga - lie/smoke
al vaxna - scent
al mariada - manners (without context, its assumed to be good manners)
al hav - wind
al spaspa - gossip
al escriu - handwriting (when capitalized, refers to the writing system of Avrea)
al liharre - writing (as in the content of written work)
al ci - voice
al husnam - beauty
al nuir - glint/allure/attraction
al cussarah - the river of paradise
al agaxa - embrace
al fsula - regret
al xeoha - daring/sauciness/mischief/quality of a prankster
al adayim - style/grace/comportment/sprezzatura
al ba-pa - carefreeness/freedom of spirit
al cammit - price/value
al maz-a - teasing/making fun of (jovial)
al manciy - free-spirited
al sard - shackles
al rhem - footsteps/path

Religion and Philosophy:

al relijia - religion
al atesme - atheism
al tesme - theism
al i-eozicsme - ignosticism
al panentesme - panenetheism
al pantesme - pantheism
al diyeon(a) - god/goddess
al Deus - God (non-immanent; most closely corresponds to the Judaeo-Christian God)
al Brahmn - God (immanent; most closely corresponds to the Hindu God)
al Amaitah - God (manifest; the presence of God in living beings rather than in the world)
al Ueo - the Lord (implies submission)/The Ruler
al Amman - the Lord (implies compassion)/The Lover
al Caru-are - the Lord (implies mercy)/The Merciful
al Anayad - the Lord (implies omnipotence)/The Infinite
al Bahu-ada - the Lord (implies omniscience)/The All-Knowing
al Sittad - the Lord (implies wrath)/The Wroth
al Daharaiga - the Lord (implies righteousness)/The Just
al Levvas - the Lord (implies playfulness)/The Joyous
al Rava - the Lord (implies direction of the conscience)/The Guide
al muras - physical manifestation of God; Jesus Christ in Christianity qualifies as this
LGBTQ Terminology:
omosessuo - homosexual (technical term)
omse - gay/lesbian
trassessuo - transexual (technical term)
trasse - trans (slang)
trassvestium - transvestite-ness
trassveste - transvestite
assessuo - asexual
asseus - ace (slang)
bisessuo - bisexual
bisse - bi (slang)
sali-a - queer
alliat - ally (can also be used in the general sense)
al medice - medicine
al infermit/huxd - illness/sickness
al epidm - epidemic

al aspirina - aspirin
al sirope - syrup
al tossia/cambla - cough
al rasfreta/negadi - cold
al fievre/jora - fever
al influenza - flu
al coma - coma
al deolora - pain
al pastill-a - pill
al tavleta - tablet
al emicraa - headache
al iezeon - injection
al infesa - infection
al vcine - vaccine
al tratamente - treatment
al medic(a) - doctor
al infermer(a) - nurse
al diavetas (tipe un/due) - diabetes (type one/two)
al malaira - malaria
al epatita (A/B/C) - hepatitis A/B/C (pronounced ah/beh/cheh)
al sindr - syndrome
al autisme - autism
Food and Drink:
al aqua - water
al birra - beer
al vine - wine
al votca - vodka
al sujo - juice
al refrezo - soda
al alimente - food/nourishment
al adaga - cooking
al cahan - meal
al paeya - paella
al pasta - pasta
al nociole - nut
al amela - almond
al eineo - walnut
al avlya - hazelnut
al han - fruit
al seba - apple
al balahan - banana

al rama - grape
al marmelt - jam/marmalade
als antienas - appetizers
al blaga - morning coffee (usually for a single person)
al ela - second morning coffee (everyone has woken up, and breakfast is being prepared)
al coll-aze - breakfast
al pranze - lunch
al tinde - afternoon tea/coffee/snack (usually after an afternoon nap)
al ena - dinner/meal
al mitah - sweets/dessert
al consom - consomm
al spezata - curry
al pania - sandwich
al tortele - tortilla
al ovo/motta - egg
al porca - pork
al pollo - chicken
al carne - meat
al poltre - poultry
al marizca - seafood
al resse - beef
al merenda - snack
al astofa/hulla - stew
al zupe - soup
al rise - rice
al tarcar - vegetable
al salata - salad
al salsa - sauce/salsa
als notellas - noodles
al formaja - cheese
al esteca - steak
al cordere - lamb
al monteon - mutton
al cotolete - cutlet/chop
al involte - roll (a packed roll like a spring roll)
al paote - bread roll
al pan - bread
als lentizes/dal - lentils
al speze/masl - spice
al ogar - cooked and dried spices (not garam masala)
Plants and Animals:

al hasso - cow
al gal(a) - rooster/chicken
al ovesia - sheep
al cavre - goat
al serpenta - serpent/snake
al cocodrl - crocodile
al caimo - alligator
al pez - fish
al pacxa - bird
al hulo - insect/bug
al rao - spider
al flora - flora
al animlia - fauna
al flora - flower
al animal - animal
al apeja - bee
al vespat - wasp
al formsa - ant
al medusa - jellyfish
al lapna - rabbit
al veolpa - fox
al loba - wolf
al ursa - bear
al mon/cot - monkey
al elefante/anai - elephant
al mur - peacock
al caa - story
al is - history
al poema - poem
al literata - literature
al brusso(a) - wizard/witch
al draceon - dragon
al beste - beast
al fantasme - ghost/specter
al spirito - spirit
al Gumne - the Boogeyman
al incanto - spell
al maldizeon - curse
al brussiera - magic
al septre - scepter/wand

brusse - magic (adjective)

Bellisa Addormate - Sleeping Beauty
Nevablanca - Snow White
Ventafossia - Cinderella
al monstre - monster
al faeda - fairy
Al Faedamtrina - Fairy Godmother
Al Scanociole - The Nutcracker
al malvaja - evil (as an abstract noun)
al benveja - good (as an abstract noun)
al batall-a - battle
al ll-uit - fight
al eerim - ether
al xad - marriage
al boda/als noxes - wedding
al dulha - groom
al dulhana - bride
al noxela - bridal gown (can also refer to items (not gifts) purchased for a bride or wedding)
al ummada - promise/vow
al xadrasse - wedding house; a hall or venue being used for a wedding
al esfilatum - wedding procession announcing the arrival of the bride and grooms families
al suvvayam - main wedding ceremony
al chetavha - Jewish ketubah
al tall-ir de nomes - the cutting of names; ceremony in which the combined family name of the
bride and groom is determined
al contrat del dulhana - the brides contract; an agreement made between the brides mother
and the groom that she will be taken care of properly and fairly
al camra de leies - the room of laws; a room in which parents discuss with the bride and groom
their responsibilities as a married couple
Games, Festivals, and Diversions:
al nassayir - an Avrean card game similar to poker
Al nassayir is a form of poker developed in the Western Avrean culture. In a game of four
players (though it can include up to twelve, in which case an extra deck is used for each
additional four), each player is dealt three cards, which they can see. A fourth card (and
sometimes also a fifth) is dealt to each, but that card is held facing outward, but the player
holding it cannot see it. Then, four or five cards are laid down on the table, flipped each time a

turn goes around where each player matches the raise. The cards are not flipped if a turn goes
where each person checks.
Each player is given a total of thirty-five chips: ten white chips used for the ante and betting; ten
blue chips, eight green chips, three red chips, and two black chips. The values of those chips are
5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 casrates, the Avrean term for betting currency. The remaining two chips
are loan chips (which are usually violet), called prstimes, which can be used to take money from
the dealer, which must be paid back. Each time a person who took out a loan from the dealer
wins must give a set percentage (usually 15-30%, though the dealer can decide otherwise, and
the loanee can negotiate) of their winnings. The ante is always made in white chips, and big and
little blind may apply if the players so choose.
There are a few other differences: unlike normal poker, a player can do one of three things on
their turn: bet/call/check, exchange their betting chips for solid assets (which cannot be bet, paid
with, or lost), or they can try to see one or both of the cards hidden from them, in exchange for
accumulating interest on each turn, which must be paid back if they player does not win the
hand. If the player pays back the interest before the hand is over, the cards the person saw are
returned to the deck, and the player is given new cards, that are hidden again. The protocol for
seeing those cards is the same. The interest rate is set at the beginning of the game, agreed on by
all players, and the dealer collects the interest to add to their pot. The dealer changes each turn,
whether a card is flipped or not. However, if the player who paid for their hidden card(s) to be
revealed does win the hand, the dealer does not win the interest, and the player will collect an
additional 50 casrates in solid assets.
The objective of the game can be to reach a certain amount of money (this winning rule is called
colocar) , or until at least one person (per four players) is flushed out (this rule is called
eliminar), at which point the player with the most money wins. However, solid assets do not get
included in the pot, which is a set bet made at the beginning of the match. Solid assets are
defenses against getting flushed out and can prevent the winner from gaining more money. A
bonus may be granted to the winner based on the margin by which he or she won, depending on
the casino or game being played.
Some regions and even casinos will have rules unique to the area, just to make the game more
interesting. It is for this reason that an official rulebook is always kept on hand by the dealer, just
in case an ambiguity needs to be cleared up. In formal tournaments, the rounds may consist of
any combination of the three standard forms of play, which are Western, Eastern, and Combined.
Western uses the loan system and the eliminar rule, and tends to have freer numbers of players in
the game. The Eastern form does not use the loan system, upholds the colocar rule, and only has
eight or four players at a time; no more, no less. Combined uses the loan system, plays with six
players only, and a coin is flipped to decide whether to play with eliminar or colocar.
A player that is flushed out in games of more than four players can choose to take a loan.
However, in such games, such as in a game where there are eight players where they play until al

eliminazn (a player is eliminated), which in this case is where two players are flushed out of the
game. If there is only one player flushed out, that player in this game of eight can still get back in
the game through the loan system. But if both are flushed out, the game is over.
Due to the increased number of cards that apply to the game, the hands that can win are slightly
different, and are sorted according to rank, and a sub-rank, should two hands of the same rank
clash. The sub-ranks are ordered in ascending order, with the last within a rank being the highest.
Some are obvious: a pair of jacks is greater than a pair of eights; two fives and two queens is
greater than three tens; three threes is greater than two fours, etc. Those are not listed. The
Avrea term for the is given in brackets.
Rank 0: High card [rescarta]
Rank 1: Two of a kind (different colors) [duva barai], Two of a kind (same color) [duva adena],
three of a kind [treuva]
Rank 2: Face-card sequence of four (different suits), [riale] Face-card sequence of four (same
suit) [riale superate]
Rank 3: Flush [sequenza], Four of a kind [quatruva], Full house [complessa], Straight [forza]
Rank 4: Straight flush [sequenza forzate] Royal flush [forza riale], Royal straight flush [forza
Rank 5: Sumran, (two four of a kinds), Maisumran (two five of a kinds; only in games that
include jokers/wild cards), Xuiram (two straights/royal flushes/royal straight flushes)
al pai-xyn/fai-syn - pai sho (from the world of Avatar: The Last Airbender)
al joc-de-concia - lit. game of shells; chowka-bara
Affirmatives and Negatives
alchim/yarara - someone
ninchim/yaralla - no one
tudes/llara - everyone
tude - everything
nulla/res - nothing
all-am - some
ne-am - none
all-amoda - some way
ne-amoda - no way
anque/u - even
nemmai/nu - not even
semmai - if anything
Prepositions and Conjunctions
e - and

a - to (contracts with words beginning with a hard c as acc- such as in ad + chi = acchi); Also
has personal function, as in Spanish: when there is a direct object, one must use this before it if it
is a person; contracts with the definite article al(s) to make l(s))
o - or
n n - neither nor
di - of/relating to (contracts with al(s) to make del(s) and with un(s) to make dun(s); Also elides
with all vowels, making d)
se - if
con - with (contracts with al(s) to make col(s) and un(s) to make caun(s))
sin - without (contracts with al(s) to make sel(s) and un(s) to make sen(s))
ma - but
sin - but (As in not this but (rather) that)
vin - except
su - on the topic of (Contracts with al(s) to make sul(s) and with un(s) to make sun(s))
per - to (as in: in order to)/by/for/through (contracts with al(s) to make pel(s) and un(s) to make
in - in/at (contracts with al(s) to make nel(s) and un(s) to make nun(s))
ante di - before
depoi di - after
seotta di - under
sopre di - on top/over
atr di - behind
infrente di - in front of
allato di - next to
den di - inside of
afuore di - outside of
vizine di - around/in the vicinity of
alza di - some of
intraze di - between
leontan di - far from
cerca di - near
al diret - right
al esquea - left
arrve/madi - up
baxe/chele - down
voltatore/sutta - all around
utr/neor - North
dax/seor - South
apr/ovest - West
parv/est - East
poi/-mela - then (sequential; Then he did this) (to use -mela, take the verb stem and attach mela to the end)
allores - then/well (Well then, or OK then)

aqu - here
l - there
ca - that (as in I hope that you come home; Elides with all vowels; Ex. Axpero cAstad vena ad
eossia - or rather/that is
quind - so/therefore (As in And so we did that)
ar - like (As in It looks like that)
ara - now
encara/tudevia - still/yet
via - away
j - already
cass - almost
sempre - always
mai - never
molte - many
poca - few
plus/in - more
cam - less
dinale - daily
ratrale - nightly
varxale - annual
tingale - monthly
mai - never
fzilmente - easily
furiosemente - angrily
male - badly
brezemente - briefly/quickly
bravosemente - bravely/strongly
dvolmente - weakly
cortemente - politely
scortemente - impolitely
amaa/nala - tomorrow
ayer/nenna - yesterday
oj/ivatta - today
un - 1
due - 2
tres - 3

quatra - 4
cinze - 5
seis - 5
sete - 7
vuit - 8
nove - 9
dize/deze - 10
undize - 11
dodize - 12
tredize - 13
catordize - 14
cindize - 15
sedize - 16
dissete - 17
di-vuit - 18
di-nove - 19
vinte - 20
vint-un - 21
vin-due - 22
vin-trs - 23
vin-quatra - 24
vin-cinze - 25
vin-seis - 26
vin-sete - 27
vin-vuit - 28
vin-nove - 29
trente - 30
quatrante - 40
cintrante - 50
seisante - 60
setente - 70
vuitante - 80
novente - 90
cente - 100
cent-un - 101
cen-due - 102

ducente - 200
trecente - 300
quacente- 400
cincente - 500
seicente - 600
setecente - 700

vuicente - 800
nuocente - 900
maile -1000
Ordinal Numbers:
primr - 1st
segeon - 2nd
terzr/terr - 3rd (both are common in Western and Eastern )
quardr - 4th
cinzr - 5th
seissr - 6th
setr - 7th
vuitr - 8th
novr - 9th
dizr - 10th
undizr - 11th
dodizr - 12th
tredizr - 13th
catordizr - 14th
cindizr - 15th
sedizr - 16th
dissr - 17th
divuitr - 18th
dinovr - 19th
vintr - 20th
vint-unr - 21st
vin-dur - 22nd
vin-tresr - 23rd
vin-catrr - 24th
vin-cinzr - 25th
vin-seissr - 26th
vin-setr - 27th
vin-vuitr - 28th
vin-novr - 29th
trentr - 30th
quatrantr - 40th
cintrantr - 50th
seisantr - 60th
setantr - 70th
vuitantr - 80th
novantr - 90th
centr - 100th

cent-unr - 101st
cen-dur - 102nd

mailr - 1000th
Times and the Sky:
al ano - year
al dcene - decade
al scole - century
al setema - week
al dia - day
al jorne - daytime/morning
al noze - night
al tarde - afternoon
al ore - hour
al minut - minute
al seceon - second
al mese - month
al somv - Monday
al manv - Tuesday
al buhudv - Wednesday
al guruv - Thursday
al xucrav - Friday
al xanv - Saturday
al bahanv - Sunday
al cetra - January
al vaixa - February
al jexta - March
al axad - April
al xrava - May
al bahada - June
al axvn - July
al cara - August
al agar - September
al pauxa - October
al maga - November
al pahal - December
al masm - season
al hemntar - the process of one season becoming another/the cycle of the seasons
al girixa - summer
al xard - autumn
al xixra - winter

al vasante - spring
al varx - rainy/monsoon season
al sechisse - dry season
al sol - sun
al lun/zuca - moon
al estl - star
al astre - asteroid
al acx - sky
al bahum - ground/earth
al fuja - shooting star/meteor
al neba - cloud
al ll-uva/pioja - rain
al rellampa - lightning
al treoo - thunder
al inundazeon - flood
al grnis - hail
al giace - ice
Als Estates Unitates - The United States
Al Reo Unitate - The United Kingdom
Anglaterra - England
Franze - France
Spaa - Spain
Italia - Italy
Allemaa - Germany
Austria - Austria
Grezia - Greece
Rossa - Russia
Danmarca - Denmark
Suida - Sweden
Finlndia - Finland
Norveje - Norway
Belja - Belgium
Al Repblice Ceco - Czech Republic
Ucrana - Ukraine
Blancarossa - Belarus
Axtoa - Estonia
Ltvia - Latvia
Lituania - Lithuania
Islanda - Iceland
Suzera - Switzerland

Als Pasas Basses/Olanda - Netherlands/Holland

Portogale - Portugal
Romaa - Romania
Cit Vaticane -Vatican City
Iraa - Iran
Iraca - Iraq
Baharad - India
Pakistane - Pakistan
Nepale - Nepal
Bangladexa - Bangladesh
Sxri Lanca - Sri Lanka
Afganistane - Afghanistan
Tibeta - Tibet
Cina - China
Japeon - Japan
Corea (Norde/Sorde) - (North/South) Korea
Indonssia - Indonesia
Malssia - Malaysia
Als Filipinas - The Philippines
Israle - Israel
Palestina - Palestine
Turza - Turkey
Sria - Syria
Lebana - Lebanon
Jordana - Jordan
Arabia Sudite - Saudi Arabia
Tailanda - Thailand
Camboja - Cambodia
Laoxa - Laos
Vietname - Vietnam
Srbia - Serbia
Slovaca - Slovakia
Slovnia - Slovenia
Ongra - Hungary
al nazonalit - nationality
americane - American
anglese - English
franzano(a) - French
espaese - Spanish
italiane - Italian

allemao(a) - German
austriane - Austrian
greziane - Greek
rossiane - Russian
danmarcane - Danish
suidase - Swedish
finlandase - Finnish
norvejano(a) - Norwegian
beljane - Belgian
ceco(a) - Czech
ucrae - Ukrainian
blancarossiane - Belarussian
axtoo(a) - Estonian
ltvite - Latvian
liteo(a) - Lithuanian
islndice - Icelandic
svize - Swiss
olande - Dutch
portogese - Portugal
romae - Romanian
irano(a)/persiano(a) - Iranian
iraco(a) - Iraqi
indiane - Indian
pakistao(a) - Pakistani
nepalese - Nepalese
bangladesso(a) - Bangladeshi
sxri-lancane - Sri Lankan
afgano(a) - Afghanistan
tibetano(a) - Tibetan
cinese - China
japonese - Japanese
(norde/sorde)-coreano - (North/South) Korean
indonsse - Indonesian
malsse - Malaysian
filipino(a) - Filipino
israleo(a) - Israel
palestio(a) - Palestine
turzaxe - Turkish
sriane - Syrian
lebanese - Lebanese
jordane - Jordanian
sudite - Saudi Arabian
tano - Thai

cambojane - Cambodian
laoxane - Laotian
vietnamese - Vietnamese
al bahs - language
al angls - English
al spaole - Spanish
al franz - French
al italiano - Italian
al allemande - German
al grezo - Greek
al rosso - Russian
al danesca - Danish
al suidesca - Swedish
al finesca - Finnish
al norvesca - Norwegian
al cecano - Czech
al ucrao - Ukrainian
al blancarossiano - Belarussian
al axtoe - Estonian
al latvitana - Latvian
al liteano - Lithuanian
al islandina - Icelandic
al olandina - Dutch
al portogo - Portugal
al romaa - Romanian
al fars - Farsi
al arab - Arabic
al ind - Hindi
al urd - Urdu
al nepala - Nepalese
al bengali - Bengali/Bangladeshi
al snhala- Sri Lankan/Sinhala (pronounce the h)
al paxteo - Pashto (language of Afghanistan)
al tibeto - Tibetan
al cins- Chinese
al japons - Japanese
al coreano - Korean
al bahasa indonssia - Bahasa Indonesia
al bahasa maliu - Bahasa Malaysia
al taglog - Tagalog

al hivreu - Hebrew
al turze - Turkish
al tada - Thai
al cambeo - Cambodian
al la-eo - Laotian
al vieta - Vietnamese
Grammatical Terms:
al sustante - noun
al adjativa - adjective
al verba - verb
al adverba - adverb
al cas - grammatical case
al sujontiva - subjunctive
al indicativa - indicative
al emperativa - imperative
al futuro - future
al presenta - present
al passat - past
al condizonl - conditional
al gramtica - grammar
al sintasse - syntax
al gendre - gender
al sujeta - subject
al ojeta - object
al palavre/lafse - word
al frase - sentence
Tudes humanes nazan lveres ed equales in dignit ed dretes. Essen dotates con razeon e
conxenze, e devean actar verse ses nen spirito di fraternit.
(Artcole Un del Declarazeon di Dretes Umanes)
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Axpero cAstad, al letor, disfrute aprendir Avrea. Le cre percosio volej fassar/fizer-le. Esse
diseate per deixar jente aprendir-le sin dificolt. Ore, aqus lingua esse tudevia un opra in
progresso, ed quind deveamo dissarolar-le per usar-le in molte ocazeones.
I hope that you, the reader, enjoy learning Avrea. I created it because I wanted to make it. Its
designed to allow people to learn it without difficulty. Now, this language is still a work in
progress, and so we should develop it to use it in more situations.

Note: Drop final vowel, if there is one, before adding any of these endings.
-era - Adding this to a noun that refers to a broad set of items (such as nuts, fruits, or clothes)
denotes the shop or place where the noun is made or sold
-eot(a) - Pejorative suffix; Adds negative or insulting connotation, and also of being ugly
-et(a) - Diminutive suffix; Adds connotations of smallness or endearment
-s(sa) - Augmentative suffix; Adds connotations of bigness or greatness
-eos(sa) - Beautifying suffix; Adds connotations of being attractive or beautiful, and also of being
precious or valuable
-vera - When added to the names of fruits, nuts, vegetables, and other produce, names the plant
or tree that it comes from
-mente - When added to an adjective, makes it an adverb
-sque - When added to nouns, it makes it the adjective (noun)like; Ex. sapnesque (dreamlike)
-iuscra - When added to adjectives, it creates a noun meaning, the state of being (adjective)
-euze - When added to verb stems, it creates a verbal noun; Ex. scrivar (to write) -> scriveuze (a
thing that is written; an entry)
-azo - When added to certain nouns, it becomes a noun meaning a blow from that noun or the
noun used to inflict it
-ata - Collective suffix
Untranslatable/Unique Words
al riseu - a speaker of Avrea or member of the Avrea-speaking community/ethnic group
al dixpssa - roughly a feeling of great internal anguish due to guilt, grief, emotional trauma,
pity, or self-effacement
al avm - an injury to personal pride or ego
al maxcl - roughly an understanding between people over their mutual suffering, pain, or
negative condition
al saudit - a yearning or longing for that which it is impossible to reclaim
al devent - the point at which someone becomes fully mature and understands the world fully
al misode - a misplaced/irrational/unconscionable hate, envy, or anger that harms others
al dunt - internal feeling of inspiration or being moved to create art that reflects the feelings that
inspired it
al depect - an act of unforgivable or unconscionable sin that violates morality
al giace-de-cor - the feeling of ones heart being closed due to emotional trauma and the anguish
that persists with it [lit. heart ice]
al vespra - the chaos and unpredictability of life; sometimes used as a euphemism for what
happens due to fate or destiny, or even used interchangeably
al rateira - cover of night/exhilaration of freedom at night

al rixta - an enduring relationship or love for someone (different from al relazeon, which just
means relationship and nothing else)
al chizena - bond/kinship
al duha - a form of subtle grief that pervades ones being, particularly as a result of loss
al suha - a pervasive feeling of happiness and joy
al nixe - a brand or mark (physical or figurative) that haunts someone or continually reminds
someone of something (not necessarily negative)
ixcar - to deeply and passionately love (not on a superficial level)
al huxava - a fragrance that evokes a strong, emotional memory
sinder - to live with such vivacity that exudes fulfillment and completeness (akin to a verbal form
of sprezzatura)
al recorda del raste - coming to familiar places and recalling important memories associated with
them [lit. memory of the street/road]
amizar - to platonically love
amar - to romantically love
al Rs - the Dance (poetic contexts; may be figurative)
al safra - nothingness/emptiness/the void
al ruxn - the light (to see the light)/truth/revelation
narazer - to hate/loath/despise
al muahida - a deep/unbreakable trust
al beja - can be very similar to ennui but can also mean boredom in general
al elam - poor people (in a sympathetic context)
al nalla - very high level cuisine or dishes/cooking
al a - an injustice/a pity/a shame
al jalm - lifetime
al rcat/sangue - blood
al hudainm - naming ceremony at birth (lit. birth name)
al namprensa - naming ceremony at 14 years of age (lit. taking of a name)
al sapna - dream (can be poetic/figurative)
al maduha - wine/ambrosia
al malsecret - lit. bad secret; an injurious rumor thats going around, i.e., a poorly kept secret
esser fugasque - lit. to be smoke-esque/like smoke - to be a nuisance/annoyance/pain/hindrance or
bater-se l safra - lit. to whore oneself out to nothingness/the void - to give oneself to something
or someone that doesnt reciprocate
al sona - gold
natacar - to be dramatic (in a negative way)
al ossache - wine over which promises are made (a sort of cheers or toast)
al hyachia - can be used to refer to the underworld, black market, gang scene, or other shady
parts of society, usually with other words to specify (from the Japanese hyakki yagy)
aver cap de hab - lit. to have a head of wind, to be quick-witted or clever
al inmerez - ingrate/an undeserving person (not to be used in polite company)
al beza di giace - lit. kiss of ice, a seemingly kind gesture but with ulterior motives

al cacra - fragment (poetic usage)

al hiero - the memory of someone that suddenly resurfaces (a form of nostalgia)
trovar nel xixra . - lit. to find in the winter; to be extremely unlikely to find
edar fuga blanc - lit. to smoke/puff white smoke; to tell an obviously false lie or make weak
(passar) al zai amarc - lit. (to pass) bitter tea; bad karma that came back to bite
al reum grs - lit. grey reign; A period of improper, indecisive, or otherwise poor leadership
al reum azzure - lit. blue reign; The converse of reum grs
al exreal - lit. former royal; A person who has become estranged from their group of friends or
family; not necessarily the person in questions fault
-ara - like/in the manner of (attached word)
al vixa - matter/topic of discussion
al darx - blessing (typically a physical action)
al saura/svara - an extremely large amount
al rim - a emergency fund or money stash; contingency plan (not necessarily financial)
al chismada - the sense of impending and unspoken tragedy, tacitly expected and accepted but
with a lingering sense of melancholy
gemir spines nel nalga - to have thorns growing on the tongue; to speak harshly or wickedly
sempre preparar al fusille - to always prime your gun; to rain on someones parade; always
having something negative to say
Tu ami caramente acchi amizi. - lit. You (romantically) love dearly who you love
(platonically). - You desire that which is not yours to want. (Note: Can also be used literally!)
Bevi aqua ed pensin maduha. - lit. Drink water and think it wine. - Be grateful for what you
have, for what is worthless to you, is precious to another.
Al cassi daltre esse come fer bs. - lit. That which is of another is as base iron. - Do not
covet thy neighbors goods.
Seguirmo al Rs e transermo cada jalm. - lit. May we continue the Dance and transcend
each lifetime. - (This is a wedding vow; An everlasting promise to continue loving one another
and find each other in the next life)
Sul ossache. - lit. Over the wine (of promises). - I solemnly swear to this agreement./On my
honor, I swear to you.
Al hemntar passa, ed anque pesat xixra essen leje brissa. - lit. The seasons pass, and even
heavy winter is a light breeze. - With time, even the worst of grudges/wounds will heal, and will
be remembered without pain.
Truca ad al pret ante di comprir al noxela. - lit. Call the priest before buying the bridal
gown. - Look before you leap.
Rcat pura ricorre ral comaqua. Rcat mixta ricorrespe comaduha ed esse axta dole. - lit.
Pure blood runs thin like water. Mixed blood runs thick like wine and is as sweet. - Being
among different people is better and more beneficial than sticking to ones own kind.

Dove axta/ira al luzia, anquel fuscata vaga. - lit. Where there is light, the darkness, too,
wanders. - For all good things in the world, there must also be bad things.
Al rabba sazia mai ninch ed ceda nulla. - lit. Rage/Anger never sates anyone and yields
nothing. - Violence/anger is not the answer.
Entre sncat ed tmila ho esse molte sangue. - lit. Between the Sankethi and the Tamilian
there is much blood. - Two people who dont get along actually have a lot in common. (Note: A
play on the meanings of blood; Blood as in violence or bad relations and blood as in
lineage or ancestry)
Al fil non es herita di seu jentre. - lit. The child does not inherit him/herself from his/her
parent. - You cannot expect yourself to be as good as those before you.
Anque reines saudan dassada. - lit. Even kings long for freedom. - Things are not always
what they seem./There is something tragic in everything that is exquisite.
Depoi di cada noze scurate, al albeor encara risser. - lit. After every dark night, dawn shall
yet break. - Endure through suffering, and you shall be rewarded./Suffering is a necessary but
fleeting evil.
Come Risaele ed Lisella entre jalmes. - lit. Like Rizael and Liselle across/between lifetimes.
- A reference to Avrean mythology; A bit like Romeo and Juliet, as their story is somewhat
tragic, but also like saying two people are made for one another.
Un sefarda non mente, per n verita. - lit. An angel does not lie, but does not tell the truth
either. - A person who hides the truth may do so with good intentions.
Quan amor esse reali, trova un hag. - lit. When love is real, it finds a way. - Selfexplanatory
Scioler entrel dret natal ed al ca vole al cor? - lit. Will you choose between your birthright
and what your heart wants? - Can you make a hard decision between things that will probably
make the other choice unobtainable? (A reference to an Avrean epic)
Cada via fine nel steze jga. - lit. Every path ends at the same place. - Dont judge someone
elses way of doing something or go somewhere just because its not the same as yours.
Comsequal fassa/fize al senyor, al serveu non el fassi/fizi al steze hag. - lit. However the
lord does it, the servant will not do it the same way. - Just because it is done in certain way
widely, does not mean that someone wont figure out a better alternative.
Mort l dissafortunate, ed un rimyeo vit l inmerez. - lit. Death to the unfortunate, and a
damned life to the undeserving. - Death is too kind to those undeserving of mercy. They should
live out their lives and suffer. Similar in sentiment to Your just desserts but has negative
connotations for the person hurt by the situation in a way that was not their fault.
Als nosses cores sin amrrahes col filum azzure. - lit. Our hearts are tied with the blue
thread. - We are very close friends. We trust each other with anything and everything.
Expletives and Invectives: (NSFW)
Each curse word (al palavreot) will be listed with a number of asterisks ranging from 1-5,
indicating the intensity and impoliteness of the word.
al xaa - good-for-nothing, accursed, bringer of misfortune *

al frvisse - outsider, interloper (implies bad intentions) ***

al masfid - f*cker, thirsty b*tch ***
al xadriz - lit. wedding-crasher; person that moves on someone already in a relationship ****
al lettre - c*ckblocker **
al ciulo - ass *
al rivva - person who cant let an old relationship go; trying to start it up again *
cager - to sh*t **
fotter - to f*ck **
al assol - the demon-god Assolai; a euphemism for a backstabber, destroyer, good-for-nothing,
and altogether terrible person ****
rim/rimyeo(n)/rissyeo(n) - damn *
al mivram - a**hole *
al vandi(u) - jacka** *
al vissat - bastard (in an affectionate or playful manner) *
al innazis/innaam/innassat - lit. unborn; bastard (insulting/pejorative) ***
al xafuta - lit. like Xaf Liy; whore
al yedrassi/yedrx/edras/erx - one born under an unfortunate star/so pitiful that one should not
have been born *****
al bevizque - lit. drinks anywhere; slut *** (could be male or female; never a compliment)
al fregato - lit. one who doesnt give a damn; a doucheb*g
al desteselor - lit. tile-mixer/tile-destroyer; a cheat, someone who uses underhanded means to
do everything; originally referred to a person who plays unfairly in a game of pai-xyn/fai-syn
al segisque - a person who follows people around, behaving like a leech or someone who
ingratiates themselves to others (think Uriah Heep from David Copperfield)
The speakers of Avrea will be united by language and a sense of community, not by faith and
not by race. We are a community, not just a group. All people are welcome to learn Avrea.
Neova nom, ed neova bahs
Nos prensimo ed seguimo
Afin ca vine al par de sams
(New name, and new language
Upon us do we take and heed
Until the halt of time)
Avrean Cultural Traditions:
Weddings in Avrea-speaking cultures can be somewhat confusing. Unlike in some other
cultures, the bride does not permanently leave her family home. Also, same-sex couples, while

not necessarily common, do have well-established contingency traditions that are used in their
In most weddings, the xadrasse is largely symbolic, formerly representing the house that the
bride and groom would occupy as their residence. However, in some parts of the Western
communities, it is indeed their new home. In the Eastern tradition, it is still symbolic, though
some newly wed couples may include people who have inherited a family estate or mansion.
The actual ceremony is three parts, though in some regions, particularly affluent ones, the entire
proceedings of a wedding may take up to a month. This is because there are pre-wedding and
post-wedding functions that are attended, typically, only by the bride and grooms family. To be a
non-family member and be invited to one of these functions is considered a great honor.
The pre-wedding function is called the esfilatum, the procession that welcomes the families of
the two being married to the house. The families are formally invited to stay in the house for
the night before the wedding. As one may imagine, this house may take the form of a hotel, a
large hall with living accommodations, and in rare cases, an actual house or villa. The following
evening, other wedding guests will arrive.
The wedding itself consists of two parts: al tallir di nomes (the cutting of names) and al
suvvayam (consecration of vows and subsequent unity). The tallir di nomes is decision of how to
best combine the last names of the couple and is usually accompanied by a sort of astrology
reading for the couples future. The guests arrive beforehand, and witness the event.
Prior to the suvvayam, guests offer their congratulations to the couple, then taking their seats
before the altar. Gifts are set aside for the couple to open after the ceremony and the wedding is
over. Traditionally, the couple is offered gifts of money or jewelry. It would be wildly
inappropriate to give something such as an ordinary coffee machine, though if it were a fairly
nice and/or expensive one, it might be fine, depending on the family.
Couples exchange rings or or pendants at the altar to confirm the marriage. Pendants have
recently become more popular in the West, where flashy or ornate jewelry is less common in
formal or evening dress. Men frequently wear their wedding pendants in public, as do women.
The wedding pendant can be worn as a necklace, though some women have it made into a
detachable ornament that can be fitted onto a ring or chain when they choose. These tokens are
meant to form a single, unique set that fit together. It is customary to have an original design in
mind when the proposer pops the question, and in both East and West, it is deeply regarded as
being miserly and noncommittal to not have designed the tokens personally.
After the main ceremony, the fathers of both spouses will meet with the groom in a separate
room, called al camra de leies, the following morning, to discuss how to be a good spouse,
though it is largely symbolic now and very little actual advice is given nowadays. The same is
done by the mothers with the bride. This ceremony was originally a legal process where property

held by one party would be signed over to the groom or bride if it was considered appropriate.
Such situations were if one of the parties did not have a legitimate or worthy heir to the family
business, in which case, the title would be passed over to the selected spouse. This is still done
by some wealthy families, though to a far lesser extent, and very rarely is the highest office given
to a non-blood-relative. Dowry is more common in arranged marriages, though this is falling out
of fashion.
What is discussed in the rooms is often assumed to be a secret. It is considered very ill-mannered
to ask at any point what went on inside. Whether either spouse reveals that information is up to
their discretion. If they do decide to do so, the people privy to the discussion know that it must
not be revealed to anyone else, or discussed ever again, even with people who do know.
After emerging from the rooms, the family and perhaps a few close friends are invited to stay a
while. The days over which this takes place are filled with large family meals, games, and
occasionally a trip somewhere. Because outsiders are rarely invited to this function, it is
considered a great honor to take part in the festivities. (At this point, one may be able to tell that
Avrean weddings can be extravagant affairs and quite bank-breaking!)
Because Avreans often belong to different faiths, despite being apart of the same ethnic group,
the suvvayam, even with its basic traits, can differ greatly from family to family. This comes
from many years of migrants from different parts of the world having migrated to the Avrean
strongholds. As a result, though belonging to a single ethnic group, there do exist religious subcommunities within the Avrean ethnic group.
For example, Jewish Avreans do not recite their vows, but rather record them in the ketubah, or
chetavha in Avrea, a Jewish legal document that certifies that the wedding took place.
Otherwise, the traditional esfilatum procession is much the same.
Hindu Avreans can have some of the most elaborate weddings, with the main ceremony
typically occupying two to four days of the whole event. Hindus often modify the ceremony to
change the obligation of one of the spouses (who in most cases would be the wife) to formally
leave his or her home to live with their spouses family. However, the ancestors of both spouses
are called upon to bless the marriage in spirit, and the couple still goes around the chamber to
receive the blessing of parents and grandparents.
On average, Christian Avreans have among the most austere, but also very elegant weddings,
with the aesthetic concentration still focused upon a contrast of black and white. While typically,
the brides father walks her down the aisle, in the Christian Avrean tradition, both parents
accompany her down the aisle, because the brides mother often exacts a ceremonial agreement
from the groom to take proper care of her daughter, though she does not belong to the groom
in any way.

Non-religious Avreans, even atheistic Avreans, still have the traditional ceremonies of the
community as a whole, but instead of honoring God, the couple will often arrange for a
ceremony of their own making that asks parents for their formal blessing for the marriage to
The Naming Tradition
The tradition of new speakers (those not born into the ethnic group or community) of Avrea is to
adopt a new name. When one speaks in Avrea, one uses Avrea names. One derives a name
from the roots from the list below.
For roots that end in vowels, you can drop the vowel before adding another root to make the
name sound more smooth. These roots can also be used to name things that arent people.
However, animals that are pets are typically not given such names, as it is considered distasteful
to do so.
When two people (regardless of gender) get married, it is not a simple matter of one taking the
others last name. In fact, most Avreans consider this to be a disrespectful thing for either side
of the marriage to request. Avreans, instead, hyphenate each others last names together. So, the
couple of Lisella Assina and Ixvenum Hayaram would each take the last name HayaramAssina. However, this couples children will take their mothers last name, because they are
born from the mother, not the father. In case of same-sex couples, some opt to compromise on
choosing one of their names, take the childs biological mothers last name (if available), or
simply make a new one altogether. In addition to the mothers last name being used, the
childrens fathers last name is often incorporated as a middle name.
However, in Eastern Avrean traditions, a common alternative is to take the preferred roots of
each persons name and combine them. So, the aforementioned couple may take the name
Hayssina or Aaram, and their children will simply use this as their last name. It is common to
give a child, as a middle name, an artistic name, such as one inspired by the birthplace,
circumstances, etc. In both Eastern and Western Avrea, it is considered inappropriate to use a
grandparent or other relatively close relatives (uncle, cousin, etc.) name.
When a speaker turns 14, a special ceremony called namprensa is performed, giving them a new
name. Typically, a religious figure (a priest, rabbi, pastor, etc.) or other respected authority in the
speakers life is called upon to help select a name and perform the ceremony by which he or she
is formally inducted into adult society. This ceremony is followed by a waltz with one person of
the opposite sex or one he or she is comfortable dancing with. The attire is often the traditional
attire of the country the speaker and his or her family reside in or hail from. Some modern
speakers select themed attire of their own choosing.
In the Avrea-speaking communities, first names are given in a three-component manner,
choosing from raizas essenzius (essential root), raizas celestes (celestial roots), raizas

morteus (mortal roots), not necessarily arranged in that order. Raizas essenzius are often those
that identify form, purpose, origin, or role, and most are terminal roots. It is possible to convert
terminal roots into non-terminal components, though it is uncommon. Raizas celestes are those
that are associated with divine, etherial, or non-worldly. Raizas morteus are those describing
worldly or earthly attributes. Consonants, vowels, and syllable separators are added and deleted
as seen fit.
Roots for Names:
Raizas celestes
Ris/Riz - wave, ocean, the god Rizael
Verst - clad in green, the color of the goddess Halshifa, the goddess Halshifa
Div - darkness, night
Eleta - happiness, light
Sefar/Safr/Zefr - angelic, messenger
Els - joy, holiness, supremacy
Xaf - fire, the goddess Shaf-Liya
Lis - empress, transcendent, the bride of Rizael
Esse/Asse - being, completeness, soul
Ima - motherly, the goddess Ayam, firm
Vet/Vet - ephemeral, mist
Vez - maturing, timestanding, eternal, time eternal, eternity
Yeo/Yo/Ye - noble, dusk, lord of the night flower in Avrean mythology
Lecis - harbinger, retribution
Cor - soul, emotion
Nair/Nur - blackening, black cloud
Sonr - smile, beauty, dream
Ei/Eiv - scarlet, flame, endurance
Ta/Tav - lotus, nirvana, enlightenment, truth, divinity
Ue/Yim - truth, arbiter, absolution
Ech/Ich - pestilence, karma, executor of will
Uxva - seclusion, silence, meditation
Riu(m) - chosen, prophetic, savior
Gri/Chri - defiance, writer of fate, unbound
Raizas morteus
Hiv/Inve - ice, snow, winter
Cel - sky, celestial
Vol - lightning, flight, desire
Tru/Tir - thunder
Auro - gold, golden, glittering

Rist - lance, sword, weapon

Ber - fortress, mountain
Pev - stone, earth, soil
Xo/Xe - speech
Flor - flower, blooming, spring
Est - summer, sun
Avad/Aiv - autumnal, autumn, withering, dormant
A/Ai/Ae - glorious, original, most high
Hyo/Hyeo - dawn, imperial, morning star
Vins/Vin/Vitt/Vict - victorious, defeating
Liz/Li/Liss - lustrous, shining, valuable, pure, untouched
Ver - green, earthy, having an affinity for nature
Mar - sea, water, the deep
Nev(a) - snow, cold, sleep
Dral/Dra/Drac/Draz - dragon, serpentine, opposition
Meo/Meon - mountain, stone
Axa - hope, wish, destiny
Juste - fairness, judgement
Su/Sum - graceful, elegant, poised
Mus/Muss - field, agriculture, plains
Brus/Bir/Mer - wood, forest, jungle
Misr/Mixr - sweet, herbs
Yah/Yeh/Yue - scent, breeze
Ajr - watchman, keeper of the altar, guardian
Fex/Fei - tranquility (of nature), guidance, teacher
Qur/Yu - writer, literary, poetic, epic, legendary
Ouit/Uid - leader, king, protection
Hay/Haye - being, stable (existence), solidarity
Hus - beauty, perfumed with jasmine, graceful
Za-i - devotion, compassionate, humanitarian
Raizas essenzius
-seva - serving in a manner described by (other root(s))
-euze - that which is (other root(s))
-axn - creation of (other root(s))
-jit - destroyer/overcomer of (other root(s))
-tre - wielder of ((other root(s))
-le/-d/-dai/dai/de - seeker/master of ((other root(s))
-uxed - keeper of (other root(s))
-lena - that which is (other root(s)) having grace
-tan/-ta - hailing from a place described by (other root(s))
-gra - sage described (other root(s))

-xr(a/i) - leader (m/f) described by (other root(s))

-maiha - palace having the qualities of (other root(s))
-mura - in the form of (other root(s))
-hua/hea - flower having the qualities of (other root(s))
-ilde/ide/sid/id - seat of (other root(s)) (seat in the figurative sense)
-(a)ya - sword (figurative) of/having the qualities (other root(s))
Ra/Re/Rer/Rai - worship, wisdom, enlightenment
Reum/Reu - regal, royalty of (other root(s))
Sai/Sa - spirit, wanderlust
Maha/Ma - great/big
El/Ey/Yel - sprezzatura, poise, magnanimous, merciful
Amro - healing, soothing, curative
Ali - sympathetic/sympathy, heart
Mal - wrath, fury, drive
Tevr/Tovr - honor, loyalty
Co/Cu/Couv - gentility, fragrance
La/Laz/Lav - order, harmony
Vice/Vis/Vi - crushing strength, companion
Zis - double-edged/sided, being doubly endowed
Vetr - ambition, passion
Alzi - rising, friendly
Zex - illusory, deceptive, ambiguous
Ers - mischievous, eclectic, chaotic
Ella - femininity, purity, personal strength
Ar - active, powerful
xa - overwhelming
Fors - strength, power(ful)
Riv - forge, riven/born (from)
Sto - residing in (other root(s))
Alt(a) - exalted, supreme
Tra - between, bonding
Teher/Ter - wise, gifted
Al - all-pervading
Seyi/Sei - silken, soft(-hearted)
Hieu/Hie - humble, obedient, quiet
Per/Par(i)/Pai(r) - loving, protective, emotive
Hal/Ha/Hai - gentle, kind, good samaritan
Rismurra - in the form of the god Rizael/a wave/the ocean (the first interpretation is the most
common); also read as worshipper of/enlightened by that which is in the form of Rizael
Verlissta - hailing from a place of untouched nature

Vezriv - one riven/born from eternity

Linvua - lustrous winter flower
Dai Ve Yeon- eternal lord of the night; the master of dusk; eldest son of Liselle and Rizael
Hyeorissa - the wave that arrives at dawn to meet Rizael; eldest daughter of Liselle and Rizael
Riyuco/Ryuco - the gentle savior of legend
It is a Southern habit to exclude essential roots from name, whereas the North tends to exclude
celestial roots, often resulting in shorter names.
The Kinship System
There are things to note about families that speak Avrea. Unless given express permission, it is
considered very rude to use an older relative or siblings name in forms of address, even in
affectionate ways. Even with express permission, younger siblings often refrain from using their
older siblings names in front of older relatives or in formal situations. Younger siblings will
address older siblings using the words for, elder brother or elder sister. Older siblings
usually use their younger siblings names, though some families that speak Western Avrea have
older siblings refrain from using younger siblings names as well, in the same manner as already
mentioned. For families with multiple brothers and sisters, a system was developed by Western
Avrea, which was later adopted by Eastern speakers, which formerly dealt with ambiguity
without distinctions. For families with more than seven sons or daughters, an ordinal number was
simply added to the non-differentiated form. For example, in a family with eight children, the
seventh youngest child doesnt have his or her own term, so they would be called frateus setr or
sorrea setr. In Eastern Avrea, they would be tamai(ya) setr or ta-a(ya) setr. Extended
members are referred to by their position relative to ones own family and family members
within the family are referred to by their absolute position in the family.
Children whose parents have multiple brothers and sisters simply append an ordinal number
corresponding to their seniority by age relative to their parent. So, ones mothers oldest sister,
when ones mother is the third child, that aunt is axli primr. This mothers next younger sister
would not be axli terzr/terr, but rather axli quardr, because ones mother is the third child.
In-laws do not necessarily receive the same treatment, though some families will have spouses
refer to their in-laws using the same system as with their own siblings. In very formal situations
or extremely traditional families will append enleide to these names. For example, a mans wifes
oldest brother is his frateum (enleide).
al frateum/annam - eldest brother
al sorremma/dedama - eldest sister
al fraterre/annarre - second oldest brother
al sorrerra/dedarra - second oldest sister
al fratesse/annasse - third oldest brother
al sorressa/dedessa - third oldest sister
al fratn/annn - fourth oldest brother

al sorrenna/dedenna - fourth oldest sister

al fratezze/annazze - fifth oldest brother
al sorrezza/dedezza - fifth oldest sister
al fratve/annve - sixth oldest brother
al sorreva/dedeva - sixth oldest sister
al frateixe/tamaixe - youngest brother
al sorreixa/ta-aixa - youngest sister
The reason for the high degree of distinction of kinship terms is that Avrea speaking
communities are very large, and this enabled families to support a great number of children. This
is not restricted to the upper class or the nobility; lower classes also have three or four children
on a regular basis, due to great support from the community and the government, which provided
for larger housing in the cities. The distinctions are particularly relevant, however, to
landowning, business-owning, political, and other estate/office-holding families. According to
imperial law, primogeniture and gender-based exclusion from inheritance or succession are
forbidden. Therefore, families were required to make succession competitive. Acknowledging
the inherently divisive nature of such conduct, parents and community members encourage
strong relations between brothers and sisters in order to prevent permanent or long-lasting
breakages in familial ties. As a result, many parents not only have consolatory rewards for the
children that do not inherit, but also make sure that such children have other ways to make their
way in the world. These children who, lose, cannot challenge the choice of the predecessor
without legitimate reason, and do not get another chance at inheritance, even if the successor
chosen dies or is incapacitated.
Those who do inherit become family heads, and their brothers and sisters families are
considered side branches to the main family. Should the current head die or otherwise become
incapacitated while holding office, there are various protocol, depending on the family in
question, on how to handle the situation. Because there is usually no second-best or runner-up to
the deceased successor (not one that is named anyway), families usually choose the most capable
of the successors children to succeed, usually with a relative in a regent-like capacity for the
first year. The other method is used by families where the successor has no children, or where
they do not use the first method. In this method, a member from a side branch may submit his or
her own name in consideration for succession, provided he or she can prove his or her legitimacy
as a candidate (i.e., belonging to at least one of the side branches of the family, among other
In Avrea-speaking societies, al xixtam, or the combination of etiquette, upbringing, and
personality is a very important concept. It can be loosely defined as comportment or
manners, but the inclusion of personality and morals changes the concept of etiquette in an
important way. Avreans believe there are certain desirable personality traits (which may vary
from family to family) that ought to be instilled in children as they grow up. This comes from an

old custom of preparing noble children for matchmaking and the like. Now, it is seen as a
necessity for social interaction in general.
Despite variations, there are few traits that nearly all Avreans consider to be fundamental.
Below is the list of aspects of what is commonly held to be proper public etiquette, the first
component of xixtam. These things are those that are not immediately obvious.
1. Respect for parents when due. This is not to suggest that parents are infallible, but rather the
opposite; parents are human as well, and it is a childs responsibility to point it out and help
them correct it.
2. Rejecting criticism, advice, or offers in an uncivil way. It is seen as highly inappropriate for
people to respond unkindly or impolitely to constructive criticism or offers of any kind. This
is often applied as a tenet against child abuse.
3. Discussing the dead or death in the presence of the elderly or at a birthday celebration. It is
seen as inauspicious, and inviting death to the occasion. This is discussing them in an undue,
unceremonious, or improper fashion.
4. Hoisting undue or unreasonable expectations on others. For example, it is dishonorable for a
parent to refuse to support children through higher education when they have the means.
5. Insistence, such as evangelism and self-promotion, is in poor taste and is seen as intrusive.
When it comes to evangelism, it is preferred that it take place within the house of worship. It
is unsightly to publicly preach or go to peoples homes to discuss it.
Household Etiquette and Minor Public Etiquette


Never receive a gift with only the left hand.

Ask whether a person needs help with household chores.
Displays of unprofessionalism are deeply frowned upon.
Meals should not begin without the matron of the house present to initiate the meal.
Meals ought to be taken with all members of the house present.
When invited to a house on a special occasion, such as a birthday, wedding, baby shower,
etc., it is customary to bring a gift.
Gifts of alcohol for a house-warming are seen as inappropriate.
It is bad luck to break an object in a place or time of worship.
Children throwing tantrums are not to be placated with small trinkets or gifts, if they are old
enough to speak and understand.
It is rude to leave during a service, ceremony, or other function without proper notice.
Unless there is an implicit or explicit agreement or relationship between people, it is illmannered to take advantage of things in someones house without their permission (Ex.
going into the fridge and taking food). It ought to be well-understood that such a relationship
exists; if one is unsure, one should ask.
In transitioning to a more informal relationship, it is customary to ask the question,
Donmo-nos del tu? (Shall we behave in a more informal way?) This is the equivalent of

asking to use the tu form in Romance languages. In Eastern Avrea, however, it would be
seen as presumptuous to ask this without precedent and one should be granted permission.
13. It is important to express distaste with something or someone in a tactful way, without being
excessively harsh.
Suteki da ne - Avrea
Meu cor yosseva nels ("My heart drifts/swims about in")
Lafses levates pel ven ("Words carried by the wind")
Meu ci entrava den ("My voice entered into")
Dun amaa maigate ("A clouded tomorrow)
Al zuca yura nel ayina ("The moon sways in the mirror")
E riflesse meu fremeunte cor ("And reflects my trembling heart")
Nel tara-darya caden ("In the river/stream of stars fall")
Halimes namidas ("Gentle tears)
Com suteca ha'e ("How wonderful it would be")
Futarante l teu simta ("Walking with you at your side")
Voleo vatar l ("I want to go to")
Teu cassa, inte, den teus braces ("Your house, home, into your arms)
Del teu naca ("Of your embrace")
Are con te ("Me with you")
Vaninte nel rate ("Fading into the night")
Are sapno ("I dream)
Lafses tomarites pel hab ("Words halted by the wind")
Halim illuzn hiyan ("Are a gentle illusion")
Axida tallite pels maiges ("Tomorrow cut/torn by the clouds")
Hiya ci del alli ("Is a voice from beyond/afar/a distance)
Meu cor, nel ayina ("My heart, in the mirror")
Lunuscate ed rovexante ("Blurred by the moon and overflowing")
Dels tares fremeuntes ("With the trembling stars")
Rivela meus namidas ("Reveals my tears)
Teu cao ("Your face")
Del meu yam ("From my dream")
C'are tocco ("That I touch")
Vane l ass ("Fades at daybreak)
Als Deze Bahales di Valeu Meditative

Haaf al capacit di proveder clemenzze sin considerar al s, xemsa sin jugar, e alcanar al cor
com se evha al di s. Haaf al seu vice al errdeum , al duem dinvidia e dixlah e al seu
deformazeon, al pre-ocupazeon. Al cura dachs huxd haaf al saper del mancs di controle. Se
soffrh al mn e haaf recusah, haaf al lmite del fissvel.
Haaf al huucar di conossimente, ush del manera yeoume, e meditar nels cosses importantes
nel seu aspette in profunde. Haaf al seu vice al dissquietum, aver sapute e aver seonne
dissquietah. Al conossimente non potrh esixtire com molestia, ma deve devenir un parte
integrale del mente. Non suiah vert se non suiah accordat. Haaf al cura dachs huxd al
meditazeon nel natura del conossimente e al seu effette nel mente.

Aperta deverh hair al cor per donar al sentimentes ls altres. Connetterh al cor ls dels amics,
per amarrl l terra. Haaf al seu vice chiuser al cor al nima, prevenir cals altres ho entren, ca
elyes conossant, e ca offrant compazzeon. Aqus destrerh e corrugerh al s. Haaf al cura
daqus huxd al liberar di lgrimes dels cannas e sentimentes del cor. Al traner del nima non
potrh ocorrer sin aver seonne amarrat l terra e ls altres.
Haaf al onra al bahale terrale in importante. Menestre haaf onrer al histria, al liage, al
identit, e al s. Haaf al seu vice al settarisme, al misode ca fere altres persones, al ioranza ca
destre al sentimente di s e identit, e al intente di canviar ls altres sin al seu permesse. Haaf al
cura daqus huxd al huucar di clemenzze e al processe di espaer-se.