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# Soil & Water Conservation Measures

## - Mr. Jiten Malakar

Soil and Water conservation is a multidisciplinary subject comprising of Soil
Science, Agronomy, Forestry and Agricultural Engineering. Through various Soil
& water conservation practices, various factors like physiography, soils properties, vegetative cover, land use practices, nature and distribution of rainfall, floods
and drought are tried to be modified in such a way that erosion is controlled and
moisture is conserved thereby resulting in improved agricultural production
1.0 Prediction of design of peak rate of run off
The peak rate of run off i.e. the maximum runoff from catchments is the primary
factor while planning and designing of soil and water conservation structures.
Devising suitable measures for harvesting run off from the field to store suitably
thereby recycling it as life saving or supplemental irrigation to the crops, govern
the basis of the structures. And quantitative estimates of runoff rates its volumes
and distribution which is known as peak rate of run off is the hydraulic design of
the structures.
There are three main methods commonly used in arriving at the Peak rate of run
off.

Rational Method
Cooks Method
Hydrologic Soil Cover Complex Method

RATIONAL METHOD
This method is the oldest, simplest and possibly the most consistent one in its
ability to adjust with the new concepts and developments in evaluating a watershed condition. The method is expressed by an equation.
1

CIA
Q

=
360

Where,
Q: Peak Rate of runoff in cumec
C: Run-Off Coefficient which is obtained from existing literatures.
I: Intensity in Millimeter / Hour
A: Catchments area in hectare
And
10 KTa
I=
(t + b) n
Where,
T: Frequency Interval in years.
t: Time of Concentration in hours
k, a, b & n obtained from Intensity - Duration -Return Period
Relationship Table / Graph.
0.01747K1 0.77
t

=
60

K1

= L3
H

Where,
L:

H:

## Difference of Elevation between most remote point and out let in

meters.

Drop spill ways may be constructed reinforced concrete, plain concert, and
rock masonry, concert block without reinforcing or gabion.

Design
The design of drop spill way is followed by its hydraulic design to determine the
weir length and depth against its maximum discharge or peak rate of run off.
The crest length is calculated using the standard formula
Q=1.84 LH3/2
Where,
Q = the peak rate of run off in cumec and calculated using Rational
Formula.
L = the length of the weir
H = Total depth of weir including freeboard.

Rectangular Weir
H
Fig-1
Q = 1.84 LH 3/2

## L = Length of Head Wall

H = Height of Head Wall

## By measuring the Nallah Cross Section L is calculated by

assuming the Value for H
There is different type of measures and activities under the subject Soil and
Water Conservation which are described below.
1. 1 Water Conservation & Water Harvesting
In India about 77% of the cultivable land depends upon in situ rainfall contributing about 46% of the national agricultural production. Food production from
such areas can be stabilized if life saving irrigation or supplemental irrigation is
3

given to the crops. In case of high rainfall areas, dry spells even within the
monsoon period are not uncommon, resulting both drought and flood within the
same season. In the above circumstances to mitigate drought and at the same
time, harvest the runoff water, which otherwise goes as waste, store it and recycled it for stabilizing agricultural production. Storing of such harvested runoff
can be accomplished in the following ways.
1.1.1 Vegetative Barrier
Vegetative Barriers supplemented either with live posts or with barbed wire fencing clipped with angles are raised in the upper reaches. At these points channels
are not defined properly. However run off water spells towards downstream,
causing gradual loss of top soils. Vegetative barriers are erected in the fingers
and across the slopes mainly to reduce velocity of run off thereby improving
moisture regime through accelerate percolation and infiltration. This measure is
not very common in high rainfall areas like NE Reigon, but practiced in the low
rainfall regions of the country. A model estimate of the measure is appended at
Annexure-1
1.1.2 Earthen Water Harvesting Structure
Construction of Earthen Bund/dam is one of the measures taken up to reserve
rain water. Such kind of Earthen Bund /Dams is constructed across the streams/
slopes where storage water is facilitated. The selection of the suitable site is
mostly considered from the view point where the valley is narrow, side slopes
are relatively steep and slope of the valleys floor will permit a large deep Basin.
The base of the structure preferably should be constructed with stable soil but
not of with rocks.
Unlike masonry structures, incase of earthen structures water is not allowed to
spill over. In view of the stability of the structures, surplussing arrangements are
provided so that water will not over top but will pass through these arrangements
viz diversion drains, grass waterways, catch water drains etc. Normally in upstream sides of the bund, stone pitching is done and down stream side grass
turfing is done.

Foundation
Where the foundation consists of pervious materials at or near surface with
impervious materials at a greater depth, seepage through the pervious layer should
be reduced to prevent piping and excessive losses. Usually key trench is cut
parallel to the center line of the dam that extends into the impervious layer. The
trench is filled with successive thin layers of relatively imperious materials and
thoroughly compacted at near optimum moisture conditions. A Core wall can be
constructed with impermeable soil with full saturation of water up to 1ft height
for increasing strength of the structures facilitating water harvesting in the up
stream. Model estimate of the measure is appended at Annexure-2
1.1.3 Boulder Cheek Dams/Gabions
Boulder Check Dams in the shape of squire rectangle or circular are encaged
with hexagonal wire net across the stream/gullies with an aim to reduce the velocity of run off as well as to facilitate impounding of water level in the upstream.
Normally boulder check dams are raised in the middle reaches supplied with clay
box or without clay box. Where water retention is aimed these are raised clubbed
with clay box. Normally 0.5 to 1.0 m size boulder sausage with minimum foundation of 0.25 m are provided depending on the flow of flood and discharge.
The boulder dams raised in the hexagonal wire net in the shape of gabion are
named as Gabion Structures. The boulder check dams raised in series provide
great help while reducing velocity of run off and stream bank erosion.
1 .5 m

1 .5 m

15 8

u /s

u /s

1m

1m

0 .5 m

0 .5 m
1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

1 .5 m
u /s
D /S

1m

TOE

W ALL

0 .5 m

0 .5 m

1m

1m

1m

1m

Fig-2
Model estimates for Boulder check dams and Gabion are appended at Annexure-3
and Annexure-4 respectively.
5

1.1.4

## Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Dam

RCC check dam which are also known as drop spill way is a wire structure.
Flow passes through the weir opening drop approximately level apron silting
basin and then passing into the down stream channel. It is also used as water
harvesting structure after storing water it allows to spill over through the weir. In
Assam this is popularly known as Gully Control structures. The Spill Ways are
constructed across the gullies thereby checking expansion of active gullies and
filling up of old gullies. These are proven to be very effective while saving fertile
soil from erosion and the water so conserved in the upstream may be used for
irrigation. The general component of the drop structures are:
(2) Side wall
(3) Wing Wall
(4) Apron
(5) Longitudinal Sills
(6) End sill
(7) Cut off Wall

Fig-3
6

Materials
Drop spill ways may be constructed reinforced concrete, plain concert, and
rock masonry, concert block without reinforcing or gabion
Design
The design of drop spill way is followed by its hydraulic design to determine the
weir length and depth against its maximum discharge or peak rate of run off.
Model estimate for RCC check dam and water reservoir is appended at
Annexure-5
1.1.5

## Where the topography does not lend to embankment construction, dugout or

excavated ponds can be constructed in a relatively flat terrain. Since dugout
ponds can be constructed to expose a minimum water surface area in proportion
to volume, they are advantageous where evaporation losses are high and water is
scare. Excavated ponds may be constructed to almost any shape desired; however, a rectangular shape is usually convenient. The size of the pond depends on
the extent of area draining into the pond, the extent of area that could be put
under pond and its surrounding bund of excavated soil, the amount of money
considered appropriate to invest, the nature and amount of rainfall, soil type and
expected runoff into the pond. The side slopes of a dugout pond should not be
steeper than the natural angle of repose. In most of the cases, the side slopes
should be flatter than 1: 1.
Model estimate for Dugout/ Excavated pond is appended at Annexure 6
1.1.6 Dug out Well
The dug out well has traditional been used in Assam. The water is normally used
for domestic as well as drinking purposes. The medium upland which is not
connected with any perennial stream and dependent on rain water can adopt this
measure. Here the surface water is trapped as a source of irrigation to the field of
horticultural crops and vegetable crops. The design of Dug out well is depended
on soil type, terrain conditions, rainfall pattern and ground water level of the area.
Model estimate for dug well is appended at Annexure 7
7

## 1.1.7 Roof Top Water Harvesting:

The rain water in the form Roof Top Water harvesting in small scale but in large
number may be helpful in reducing the surface run off particularly in the monsoon. The roof top water harvesting is designed considering the area of the roof
of a particular house and the rain fall pattern. The water collected from the roof
is allowed to pass through a PVC pipe to a Small tank dug proporsonate to
estimated water to be harvested from roof. This roof top water harvesting ponds
are mainly used for recharging the ground water thereby improving moisture
regime of the area.
Design
A design has been framed considering the average roof size in the rural areas at
150 sqm and average rainfall of 1700 mm for a maximum duration of six hours.
Model estimate is enclosed at Annexure -8
1.2 Land Development
Land Development measures are mainly based on two concepts
To prevent soil erosion thereby achieving the desired moisture
regime and runoff disposal from a particular plot of land.
To make the wasteland cultivable.
The land development measures consist of various type of bunding like Graded
Bund, Contour Graded Bund, and Nalla Bund etc. Generally bunds are defied as
series of mechanical berries across the slope to break the slope length and also
to reduce the slope degree wherever necessary. However, removal of sands either by manually or mechanically is also practiced in the sand infested or flood
affected lands of Assam
Design
The Cross section of bund defines the height, top and bottom width. The shape
of the trapezoidal and the size of the bund are calculated as
8

x Height

2
Top Width

Side
Slopes

Height

Bottom Width

Fig-4

## 1.2.1 Nalla Bunding

Nalla bund consists of construction of bunds of suitable dimensions across the
nalla or gullies to hold the maximum runoff water which creates flooding in the
upstream with surplussing arrangements at suitable intervals to drain the water.
However, the number of such bunds depends upon the slope of the gully and the
quality or run off expected to flow. The temporary storage of runoff against
these bunds carries deposition of silt and the water is drained off in a controlled
manner. The impounding of water facilitates percolation of water, which otherwise flows with erosive velocity, causing siltation of natural drainage courses and
reservoirs. The bunds are constructed in such a way that before it acquires
erosive velocity, it meets the next bund below in the catchments. The basin at
the upstream side is enriched by the silt deposition progressively and the general
level is thereby raised. Construction of such bunds facilitates reclamation of
gullied lands and also recharged the ground water.
Model estimates for Contour Graded Bund, Graded bund, Nalla Bund , Reclamation of land from sands, Earth filling etc. are appended at Annexure- 9, 10,
11, 12 and 13 respectively.
1.3 Flood Control & Protection Measures
Flood Control measures primarily consist of various type of boulder protection
works such as Boulder pitching, Boulder Spur, Boulder Revetment and various
earths works like construction of Embankments, construction of Raised Plate
Form, desiltation & decongestion of Drainage Channels etc.
9

## 1.3.1 Boulder Protection / Pitching Works

Any boulder protection work depends directly on discharge of the river or the
stream. Therefore, it is always necessary to find out scour depth. Scour depth is
defined as follows
R = 0.74 (Q/f)1/3
R = Scour Depth
Q = Discharge of the River m3/Sec
f = Silt factor, in Assam condition it is considered from 0.8 to 1
Normally desired scour depth is considered from 1.25 to 2 m and accordingly
protection works are estimated.
B
H.F.L 81.10

1.5:1

3.925 m

Fig-5

Where,
Designed scour is considered as 1.25* R and in Assam condition the
value of R is considered as 3.925
Model estimate for Boulder Protection / Pitching Work is appended at
Annexure-14
1.3.2 Boulder Revetment
The sausages/revetments are provided at the toe of the earthen embankment at
the water face to prevent sliding river bank erosion. This may be provided in
square, rectangular or circular in shape encaged with hexagonal wire net. Usually
10

0.5 to 1m size boulder sausages are provided depending on the intensity of the
flood or discharge. The model estimate for boulder revetment is appended at
Annexure-15
1.3.3 Boulder Spur
It is a river bank protection structure placed in such a way either to deflect or to
attract the flow of water thereby facilitating siltation around the bank. Its location
mainly depends on proper study of river morphology and its characteristics. The
usual angle of erection of spur varies from 450 to 600 .
Model estimate for Boulder Spur is appended at Annexure-16
1.3.4 Construction of Earthen Embankment
In case of Earthen Embankment which holds up to a depth of water against one
face, the bank becomes gradually structured by way of percolation up to certain
level constituting a gradient falling from the point where the water touches the
embankment on the upstream. The inclined line is called hydraulic gradient for
that soil and below which the embankment portion is saturated. This is due to the
pressure of water and more the soil is porous the less is the resistance of percolation and the flatter the hydraulic gradient.

Free Board

## U/S of Water Source

D/S

Minimum 0.60m
from Toe

Fig-6

11

The plane of the surface of percolation of water is called the plane of saturation
or percolation and if this cuts the outer face of the bank a visible flow will appear
along and below the line of intersection. The hydraulic gradient line must fall
within the toe of the bank and be covered by least 60 cm of soil, which should be
much more in case of river embankment. The hydraulic gradient can be observed by installing a small pipe with strainer.
Model Estimate for Raised Platform is appended at Annexure -17
1.3.5 Raised Platform
Raised Platform is mainly constructed in the flood affected areas as an alternative source of shelter for human beings, livestocks during the peak of the floods.
The materials used are-earth, clay soil, bamboo, boulder, grass etc. The Size is
calculated depending on number of families/animals etc. to be accommodated
during floods. HFL of the area is considered while designing the height of Raised
Platform.
Model Estimate for Raised Platform is appended at Annexure -18
1.3.6 Drainage Development
In order to maintain sustained production from irrigated agriculture, removal of
excess water agricultural lands is essential. If lands are not properly drained, it is
difficult to maintain agricultural production in a sustained basis. Besides, water
logging it also creates environmental hazards. In areas having moderate to high
rainfall, the major portion of excess water comes from precipitation. In case of
flat lands because of poor surface drainage, temporary flooding occurs. Water
logging is caused due to
Uncontrolled irrigation
Seepage losses from unlined irrigation canals and field channels
Ground water moving from shallow aquifers
Non-maintenance of natural drainage
12

## Seepage water emerging in the form of springs under a certain

pressure.
There are various types of drains namely Field Drains, Seepage Drains, Carrier
Drains and Main Drains which are used for different purposes in the field and
designed accordingly.
Design
The following formula can be used for calculating the rate of run off for drainage
design
Q = CM

5/6

Where,
Q = The rate of run off at any point in the drainage area
in m2/sec or ft2/sec.
C = The drainage coefficient for a unit area whose value varies
between 35 and 40
M = The size of the drainage area in proper units of area, i.e. km2
The model estimates are appended at Annexure-19
Assam is rich in natural water bodies .These water bodies are traditionally known
as Beel, Holla land, Pitoni, and so on. Basically these are low land / depressed
land covered with marshes comprising of silts, sands and natural vegetation like
water hyacinth, various water born grasses etc. Remote sensing survey reveals
that about 25% of the wasteland consists of marshy land which is lying unproductive. The main reasons for lying unproductive are
Depth is more
Water bodies are covered with uncultivated soils and Weeds.
13

Hence, development of these water bodies by reclamation has immense potentialities towards increasing productivity of the fish in Assam .Reclamation includes
removal of marshes, weeds, etc. to convert into fish ponds. However, construction of embankment surrounding the water bodies and above the HFL in a scientific manner holds the key for success. Generally smaller is the size more is the
utility. The side bunds so developed can also be used for suitable plantation.
Model estimates are appended in the Annexures-20 to Annexure-25 respectively.
1.5 Afforestation
Forests in general bring about a long chain of advantages, moderating the local
climate, increasing precipitation, preventing bloods, regulating stream flow and
sustaining off season discharge and thereby protecting the soil erosion. The
maintenance of forest vegetation on sites is essentially a measure of soil conservation. By proper measures based on scientific principles of silviculture and
forest management, forests could be availed in perpetuity without Soil deterioration. Various methods of forest management have been developed taking into
account of type of forests, the requirements of the species, particularly with
reference to conditions to their growth and local needs of produce from the
forests.
Different type of plantations namely Tree plantation with forest species, Horticultural crops plantation, Plantation Crops development, Energy plantation, Aromatic plantation, Medicinal crops plantation Pasture land development etc have
great potentialities in Assam in the field of Soil and Water Conservation, Environmental Protection and agricultural production.
Model Estimates for Tree Plantation (Timber Species), Horticultural (fruits) Plantation, Energy Plantation, Pasture/Grass land Development, Medicinal Plantation, Aromatic Plantation and Community Nursery are appended in the Annexure 26, 27, ,28,29,30,31 and 32 respectively.
1.6 Model Estimates
Considering various pre requisites viz Physiography and slopes, Soils properties, Vegetative cover, Rainfall pattern etc. different coefficients are determined.
14

Different formulae mainly the rational formula relating to discharge are used and
dimensions required are found out. Various Schedules, Norms, Literatures of
different government departments viz. APWD, Soil Conservation, Fisheries,
Forest, and Horticulture are reviewed. Accordingly model estimates for all activities are prepared and furnished below:

## Model estimate for vegetative barrier

(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Item No. 1. Considering 100m length live post

(Size = 2m, 10cm dia) = 51 Nos
@ Rs. 30.00 /No..
Item No. 2. Barbed wire 5 strand
Quantity = 100m x 5
For cross binding = 50m x 5

Rs.1,530.00

= 500 Rm
= 250 Rm

Total:
= 750 Rm = 107 Kg
@ Rs. 70.00/Kg (As per Market rate
including fitting and fixing)
Item No. 3. U staples = 10 Kg.
@ Rs. 80.00/Kg

Rs. 7,490.00

Rs. 800.00

## Item No. 4. Making of contour trench, erection of life post and

fitting, fixing of post including barbed wire fitting,
fixing complete.
L.S. = 15 DIs.
@ Rs. 77.00/DI
Total
Net Total
Say

Rs. 1,155.00
Rs 10,975.00
Rs

548.75

Rs 11,523.75
Rs 11,524.00

15

## For 100m length

= Rs. 11,524.00
For 1 m length
= Rs. 11,524.00
Say Rs.
= Rs.
115.00
( Rupees One Hundred Fifteen ) only.
(i)
(ii)

## Analysis for (Part B) Palasiding Soil bunding spp.(Considering 10m)

Collection of soil bunding spp. Branch , Cutting , Rhizome, Grass Rizome
etc. for planting ( .30cm x .30cm C/C ) i.e. Ficus Ramphil, Jejofha Carpus,
Ekra Patidoia, Bamboo spp. etc).
10 Mutha of cutting or 400 Nos Rizome.
( Size of Mutha ) (0.60 cm girth 1 mtr. Length)
Required 5 dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dl
Carriage up to site LS
Total
Rs. 435.00/ 10 Rm
Rs. 43.50/ Rm
Say Rs. 44.00
Rupees Forty Four per Running Meter.

16

Rs. 385.00
Rs. 50.00
Rs. 435.00

## Model Estimate for Earthen Bund/Dam with Core

Wall by Clay Soil
(Water Harvesting by Earthen Structures)
For = 1.00 Rm.
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)

Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Item No. 1. Site clearance 12.80m x 1.00m = 12.80 m2

@ Rs. 8904.00/Ha.

Rs. 11.38

## Item No. 2. Earth work in core of embankment by head load with

soil of approved quality with a lead up to 30m and lift
up to 1.50m in layers not exceeding 20cm including
breaking clods, dressing grading etc to be required.
(i) For 1.50m height
= 15.75 m2
(9.00m + 12.00m) x 1.50m
2
= 15.75 m2 x 1.00m = 15.75 m3 0.75 m3
= 15.00 m3
@Rs. 74.00/m3.

Rs. 1,110.00

## (ii) Above 1.50m height

(5.00m + 9.00m) x 2.00m x 1.00m = 14.00 m3
2
@Rs. (74.00 + 4.00)/m3.

Rs. 1,092.00

## Item No.3. Earth work in excavation including removing the spoil

as directed up to a distance of 100m including dressing,
cambering grading the surface etc all completed as per
direction.
(3.00m + 2.00m) x 0.50m x 1.00m = 1.25 m3
2
@ Rs. 46.00/m3.
Rs. 57.50

17

## Item No. 4. Earth work in core of embankment by head load with

soil of approved quality with a lead up to 30m and lift
up to 1.50m in layers not exceeding 20cm including
breaking clods, dressing grading etc to be required.
(3.00m + 1.00m) x 1.00m x 1.00m
= 2.00 m3
2
@Rs. 74.00/m3.

Rs. 148.00

## Item No. 5. Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial

turf forming grass on embankment slope, verges
or other locations shown on the drawing or as
directed by the engineer including preparation of
ground, fetching of rods and watering.
5.25m x 2 sides x 1.00m = 10.50 m2
@ Rs. 19.00/ m2

Net total

Rs. 199.50
Rs. 2,618.38
Rs. 130.92
Rs. 2,749.30

Say

Rs. 2,749.00

Total
5% of survey & contingency

Rupees two thousand seven hundred and forty nine per Rm only.

18

## Model Estimate for Boulder Check Dam

(for = 1.00 Rm.)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

Item No. 1
2.3

@ Rs. 8.90/m2..

Item No.2
3.13 (i) A

## Earth work in excavation for foundation of structure as per

drawing and technical specification including setting out
construction of shoring and bracing, removal of stumps and
other deleterious matter, dressing sides and bottom and
back filling with approval materials
5.00m x 0.50m x 1.50m = 3.75 m3
@ Rs. 99.00/m3
Rs. 371.25

Rs. 37.38

## Item No. 3. Boulder apron laid in wire crates Providing and

laying of boulder apron laid in wire crates made with
4.00mm dia GI wire conforming to IS : 280 & IS : 4826
in 100mm x 100mm mesh weaved diagonally including
10% extra for laps and joints laid with stone boulders
weighting not less than 40 Kg each)
3.40m x 1.00m x 1.00m = 3.40m3
1.00m x 0.65m x 1.00m = 0.65m3
4.05m3
@ Rs. 1762.00/m3
Rs. 7,136.10
Total
Rs.7,544.73
. 5% of contingency
Rs. 77.24
Net Total
Rs. 7,921.97
Say
Rs. 7,922.00
(Rupees Seven thousand Nine Hundred Twenty Two)only
For 1.00m3 = 7,922.00
4.05m3
= 1956.05
Say

= 1956.00

## (Rupees One Thousand Nine hundred and Fifty Six)/ m3 only.

19

(Annexure-4)
Model Estimate for Boulder Gabion (size 2m x 1m x 1m )
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

@ Rs. 8.90/m2

Item No.2
3.13 (i) A

Amount

Rs. 17.80

## Earth work in excavation for foundation of structure.

as per drawing and technical specification including setting out
Construction of shoring and bracing, removal of stumps and
other deleterious matter, dressing sides and bottom and
back filling with approval materials
(2.00m x 1.00m x 1.00m) = 2.00 m3
@ Rs. 99/m3

20

Rs. 198.00

Item No.3.
15.13

## Providing and constructing gabion structures for erosion control,

river training works and protection works with wire crates of size
(Page No.163) 2.0m x 1.0m x 1.0m each divided into 1m compartments by cross
netting , made from 4mm galvanized steel wire @ 32 Kgs per 10Sqm
having minimum tensil strength of 300Mpa conforming to IS:280
and galvanizing coating conforming to IS:4826, woven into meshes
with double twist , mesh size not exceeding to 100mm x 100mm,
firred with boulders at least dimension of 200mm , all loose ends
to be tied with 4mm galvanized steel wire.
For size
2.00m x 1.00m x 1.00m
=2.00m3
@ Rs. 3149.00 / m3

Rs. 6,298.00
Rs. 6,513.80
Rs. 325.69
Rs. 6,839.49

Total
Contingencies 5%
Net Total
3
For 1.00 m = 6839.49
2
= 3419.75 m3
Say Rs. 3420.00m3
( Rupees three thousand four hundred and twenty )/m3 only

21

## Model Estimate for RCC Check Dam

(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)

Item No.
Item No. 1

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Excavation for roadway in hard rock (blasting prohibited)

tippers and disposal within all lifts and leads up to 1000
mm trimming bottom and side slopes in accordance with
requirements of lines, grades and cross sections.
(a) Manual Method :
Main Trench 4.00 x 1.70 x 2.25
2 x 2.30 x 1.70 x 3.75
Wing wall (2.50 + 1.50) x 0.90 x 2.40
Buttress 2 x 2.30 x 0.90 x 0.90

= 15.30 m3
= 29.30 m3
= 8.60 m3
= 3.50 m3
= 56.70 m3

## As per site earth mixed avoiding

The broken stone 10%

= 5.70 m3
= 51.00 m3
@ Rs. 418.00/m3..
Item No.2
3.13 (i) A

Rs. 21318.00

## Earth work in excavation for foundation of structure.

as per drawing and technical specification including setting out
construction of shoring and bracing, removal of stumps and
other deleterious matter, dressing sides and bottom and
back filling with approval materials
Deduct Quantity of Item No.1

= 5.70 m3

@ Rs. 99/m3 .
Item No.3
12.4
Page 108

22

PCC 1:3:6
Plain cement concrete 1:3:6 nominal mix in foundation
with crushed stone aggregate 40mm nominal size
mechanically mixed , placed in foundation and found-tion and compacted by vibration including curing for
14 days.

Rs. 564.00

## Main trench 4.00m x 1.70m x 0.30m

2 x 2.30 x 1.70 x 0.30
Wing Wall 4.00 x 0.90 x 0.30
Buttress 2 x 2.30 x 0.90 x 0.90

= 4.95m3
= 2.34 m3
= 1.08 m3
= 1.24 m3
= 6.66 m3

@ Rs. 3193/m3.

Item No.4
13.5 (A)

Rs. 21265.38

## Plain / Reinforced cement concrete in sub-structure as

per drawing and technical specification
Main trench 4.00x0.50x2.50
4x1.10x0.45

= 5.00 m3
= 1.98 m3

2x1.80x1.10x0.45

= 4.95 m3
= 1.78 m3

## Wing wall 4.00x0.30x2.40

= 2.88 m3
Buttress
2x2.00x0.30x1.60+0.90) = 1.50 m3
2
= 18.03 m3
@ Rs.4005.00/m3

Rs. 72450.45

## Item No. 5. Supplying, fitting and placing TMT CRS re-enforcement

13.6 (A)
in sub-structure co0mpl;ete in foundation as per
drawing and technical specifications.
A.12mm o RodMain bar
At opening2x4.00x2.90m x 0.89kg/Rm
=206kg
0.1
Both sides2x2x1.5x3.70m x 0.89kg/Rm
=197.60kg
0.1
Buttress2x2.00x1.9+1.2x 0.89kg/Rm=36.80 kg
0.15
2
23

B.8mm o Rod
2.95 x 15.30x0.39kg/Rm
= 7.70kg
0.15
= 17.90kg
2x0.8x4.30x0.39kg/Rm
0.15
Buttress2x1.6x1.00x0.39kg/Rm
= 8.30kg
0.15
= 474.7kg
= 23.7kg
Total
= 498.4kg
@ Rs.46,779.00/ MT (as per PWD SR 07-08) Rs.23,314,65.00
Item No.6

## Plastering with cement mortar (1.3 on brick work in structure

as per Technical Specification.
Main structure4.00m x 2.50m=10.00m2
4x 0.8m x 0.5m=1.60m2
Wing wall4.00m x 1.10m=4040m2
Toe wall2x2.00x1.00=4.00m2
=11.00m2
@ Rs. 72.00/m2 (as per PWD SR 03-04)

Item No.7

24

Rs.792.00

## Collection of stone materials at quarry

Blasted Boulder for Hill Quarry (200mm to 300mm size)
V/S of structure2.00x4.00x1.00+0.3=5.20m3
2
At bank2x3.50x1.00x0.30=2.10m3
D/S of structure2.00x4.00x1.00+0.3=5.20m3
2
=12.50m3
@ Rs 577/m3 (as per PWD SR 03-04)
Rs. 7212.5

Item No.8

## Carriage of stone materials from quarry to working site

Quarry distance=47km
Quantity same as item no 7 = 12.50m3
(i)
(ii)
(a) Surfaced graveled road = 3km @ Rs 6.36=19.08
(b) Unsurfaced graveled road 48 km @ Rs 7.64=366.72
(c) Kacha track 5 km @ Rs 15.27 = 76.35
55 km @ Rs.220.15
@ Rs 550.05/m3
Rs 6,877.00

Item No.9

## Construction of embankment with approved material obtained

from borrow pits with all lift and leads , transporting to
meet requirement of table 300-2 ( including compensation of
earth) (including cost of testing materials at site and laboratory
as directed by the dept.). from private land
.
Right side afflux bund20.00x1.50+2.30x1.50 = 132.00m3
2
In better Spillway and public along
5.00x1.5+2.30x1.00 = 22.00m3
2
154.00m3
For back filling the structure
2x7.50x3.50x0.80 = 42.00m3
Total = 196.00m3
@ Rs 168.00 / m3 (as per SR CE.
Irrigation Dept. 2003-04)

Item No.10 0.15m dia, 2.00 long RCC Hume pipe out let
Quantity-1 No
@ Rs. 2206.00 / No
( As per sub estimate enclosed)..
Item No.11

Rs.32928.00

Rs 2,206.00

## Turfing with Soil Furnishing and laying of the line size

of perennial turf forming grass on embankment slope,
verges or other locations shown on the drawing
25

## situated by the engineer including preparation of ground,

fetching of rods and watering .
R / side afflux bund
2x20.00x2.30=92.00m2
@ Rs 19.00 / m2 (as per SR 03-04, C.E Irrigation Dept)
Rs.
1748.00
Total
Rs. 1,70, 022.00
Say
Rs. 1, 70,000.00
(Rupees One Lakh Seventy Thousand) only.

Model Estimate for Excavated Pond (for 1333.35m2=1 Bigha Water Area)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1 .
3.1 (301)

26

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Earth work in excavation including removing the spoil

as directed for excavated pond up to a distance of 100m
including dressing , cambering, grading the surface etc
all completed as per direction.

Section - 1
( 36.52m + 35.02m) x (36.51m + 35.01m) x 0.75m
2
2
3
= 959.35m
Section -2
( 34.02m + 32.52m) x (34.01m + 32.51m) x 0.75m
2
2
3
= 829.92m
@ Rs. 46.00/m3
Item No.2.
12.1
Page 106

Rs. 82,306.42

## Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf

forming grass on embankment slope, verges or other
locations shown on the drawing or as directed by the
engineer including preparation of ground , fetching of
rods and watering. (In ordinary soil)
356 m x 2.83m = 1007 m2
@ Rs. 19.00/m2
Rs. 19,133.00
Total
= Rs. 1,01,439.42
Contingencies 5% Rs.
507.97
Net Total Rs. 10,65,110.35

For 1.00m3 =

106511.35
1333.35
= Rs. 79.88 m3
Say Rs. 80.00/m3

27

## Model Estimate for Dug Out Well

(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)

Item No.

Description of work/Rate

## Item No.12 Earth work in excavation including removing the spoils

3.1 (301)
as directed including dressing, cambering, grading, the
surface etc.
? r2
= 3.1428 x 1.00 = 3.1428 m2 x 3.00 m
= 9.4284 m3
3.1428 x 1.25 = 3.9285 m2 x 3.00m
= 11.7855 m3
28

Amount

@ Rs. 46.00/m3
Iten No.2
12.5
Page 108

Item No.4.
13.2
Page 138

Rs. 975.84

## Brick masonry work in cement mortar 1:3 in foundation

complete excluding pointing and plastering , as per
drawing and technical specifications.
2 ? r (1.125) = 7.07m x 3.00 m
= 21.21 m2 x 0.25m
= 5.30m3
@ Rs. 3339.00/m3 Rs.17,696.70
Plastering with cement mortar (1:3) on brick wall on
fair site.
2 ? r (1.00m)
= 2 x 3.1428 x 1.00m x 3.00m
= 18.8556 m2
Rs. 1357.60
@ Rs. 72.00/m2
Total
Rs. 20,029.54
Contingencies 5% Rs. 1001.47
Net Total
Rs. 21031.01

For, 1 m3

= Rs. 21031.01
21.2139
= Rs. 991.37/M3

## Say Rs. 990.00/m3

(Rupees Nine Hundred and Ninety)/m3 only

29

## Model Estimate for Roof Top Water Harvesting

(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2
48
Page 185

30

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Earth work in excavation including removing the spoil

as directed up to a distance of 100m including dressing,
cambering grading the surface etc all completed as per
direction.
(3.00m + 2.00m) x 0.50m x 1.00m = 1.25 m3
2
@ Rs. 46.00/m3..
Rs. 517.50
Providing brick soiling in earthen shoulder with stone/best
quality Jhama brick, sand packed and laid to true line and
level and in panel after preparing the subgrade including
earthwork in excavation as directed including all labour
and materials and if necessary dewatering , complete.

## Bricks on flat soiling ,

4.25m x 4.25m = 18.06m2
@ Rs. 182.00/m2..
Item No.3
12.4
Page 108

Item No. 5

Item No.6

Item No. 7

Rs. 3286.92

PCC 1:3:6
Plain cement concrete 1:3:6 nominal mix in foundation
with crushed stone aggregate 40mm nominal size
mechanically mixed , placed in foundation and found-tion and compacted by vibration including curing for
14 days.
4.60m x 4.30m x 0.25m
= 4.95m3
@ Rs. 3193/m3
Rs. 15805.35
Cost of fitting of ridging for drawn out of roof water
13.40m x 12.95m = 51.25 Rm
@ Rs. 198.00/Rm (As per market rate)
Cost of P.V.C. 10.00 m
@ Rs. 120.00/m

Rs. 10,147.50

Rs. 1200.00

Plastering
(i) 4.6m x 1.0m x 4 Nos
=18.4 m2 (Out side of wall)
(ii) 4.0m x 1.0m x 4 Nos = 16.0 m2 (Inner side of wall)
(iii) 4.30m x 0.30m x 4 Nos = 5.16 m2 (Parapet of wall)
(iv) 4.0m x 4.0m
= 16.0 m2 (Above P.C.C.)
Total Plastering = 55.56 m2
@ Rs. 72.00/m2
Rs. 4,000.32
Total
Rs. 52,186.83
Contingency 5% Rs. 10,473.73
Net Total
Rs. 53,230.56
Say

Rs. 53,230.00

## (Rupees Fifty Three Thousand Two Hundred Twenty Three) only

For, 1.00 m2 = Rs. 53230.00
150.00
= Rs.354.86 m2
Say Rs. 355.00/m2
(Rupees Three Hundred Fifty Five) only
31

## Model Estimate for Construction Of Contour Graded

Bund with Hume Pipe
(For 170rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

Item No.1
41.a

quality with a lead upto 30m and lift upto 1.5m
in layers not exceeding 20cm including breaking
(3.0m + 1.0m ) x 1.0m x 170RM = 340.0m3
2
12.5% deduction for
shrinkage allowances
= 42.5m3
Net volume of E/W
= 297.5m3
@ Rs. 74.00/m3

32

Rs. 22015.00

Item No.2

## Labour for laying Reinforced cement concrete pipe NP2/

/prestressed concrete pipe for culverts on first class bed-ing of granular material / cc M-15 in single row including
fixing collar with cement mortar 1:2 , and cost of granular
bedding but excluding excavation , protection works ,
backfilling , concrete and masonry work in head wall
and parapet , cost of pipe and cost of CC bedding.
Hume pipe- NP-2
300mm dia - @ Rs. 306.40/RM x 2.5m x 2nos

Rs. 1532.00

Collar

Rs. 216.00

- @ Rs. 216.00/no

Item No.2
3.22/307

Rs. 1380.00

## Turfing with Sods

Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf
forming grass on embankment slop , verges or other
locations as directed by the depth.
1.41m x 100.0RM = 141.0m2
@ Rs. 19.00/m2

Rs. 2679.00
Total
Rs. 27822.00
Contingencies 5% Rs. 1391.00
Net Total Rs. 29213.00
For 1 Rm
29213.00
170
= 172.84/Rm
Say

Rs. 172.00/ Rm

33

## MODEL ESTIMATE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF GRADED

BUND WITH HUME PIPE
FOR 200RM
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1
41.a

Description of work/Rate
of approved quality with a lead upto 30m and lift upto 1.5m
in layers not exceeding 20cm including breaking clods,
(1.5m + 4.30m) x 1.40m
2
= 4.06m2 x 200m
= 812m3
12.5% deduction for
shrinkage allowances
= 101.5m3
Net volume of E/W
= 710.5m3
@ Rs. 74/m3...........

34

Amount

Rs. 52577.00

Item No.2
3.22/307

## Turfing with Sods

Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf
forming grass on embankment slop , verges or other
locations as directed by the depth.
1.40m s2 + 1
= 1.98m x 384RM

= 760.32m2

@ Rs. 19.00/RM
Item No.3

Rs. 14446.08

## Labour for laying Reinforced cement concrete pipe NP3/

/prestressed concrete pipe for culverts on first class bed-ing of granular material / cc M-15 in single row including
fixing collar with cement mortar 1:2 , and cosl of granular
bedding but excluding excavation , protection works ,
backfilling , concrete and masonry work in head wall
and parapet , cost of pipe and cost of CC bedding.
Hume pipe- NP-3
900mm dia - @ Rs. 2922/RM x 2.5m x 2nos
Collar

Rs. 14610.00

- @ Rs. 370.50/no..

Rs.

370.50

## Fitting, fixing of collar-@ Rs. 276/RM.

Rs. 1380.00
Total
Rs. 83383.58
Contingencies 5% Rs. 4169.18
Net Total
Rs. 87552.76
For 1 Rm = 87552.76
200
= Rs. 437.76/m
Say
Rs..438.00/m
(Rupees Four Hundred and Thirty Eighty)/Rm only

35

## MODEL ESTIMATE FOR RECLAMATION OF

AGRI LAND FROM SAND
FOR 1m2
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)

Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 51.00/m2

Rs. 51.00
Total Rs. 51.00
Say Rs. 51.00/m2

36

## MODEL SCHEME FOR NALLA BUND WITH SLAB CULVERT

( For 100 Rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

Amount

@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Rs 801.00

## Item No.2. Earth work by head load in filling earthen bund

(Nalla Band) in layers not exceeding 20cm thick
including breaking clods , sections etc.
(i) (5.40 + 9.00) m x 1.50m x 100.00 m
2
= 1080 m3
(-) 12%Deduction for shrinkage = 135.0 m3
945.0 m3
@ Rs. 74.00/m3

Rs. 69930.00

## (ii) Extra lift and lead

(3.00m +6.00)m x 1.00m x 100.00m
2
= 450.00m3
(-) 12%Deduction for shrinkage = 56.25 m3
393.75m3
@ Rs. (74.00+ 4.00+4.00)m3 =82.00 m3 Rs. 32287.50
Item No.3. Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf
12.1
forming grass on embankment slope , verges or other
Page 106 locations shown on the drawing or as directed by the
engineer including preparation of ground , fetching of
rods and watering. (in ordinary soil)
3.90m x 200 m = 780.0 m2
@ Rs.

19.00/m3

Rs. 14820.00
37

Item No. 4

## Sub estimate for construction of slab culvert is enclosed

Rs. 22,127.00
Total Rs. 1,36343.00
Contingencies 5% Rs.
6817.15
Net Total Rs. 1,43,160.15

For, 1 Rm

= 1,43,160.00
100
= 1431.60/RM

## Say Rs. 1431.00/RM

( Rupees One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty One )/ RM only

38

## Detail Sub-Estimate for Construction of

Slab Culvert for Nalla Bund
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Amount

## Item No.1. Earth work in excavation of foundation of structures as

per drawing and technical specification including setting out,
construction shoring and dracing, removal of Stumps and
other deleterious mater, dressing of sides and Bottom
and back filling with approve materials.
= 1.08 m3
= 0.54 m3
1.62 m3
47.00/m3

## 2.x 3.00m m x 0.60m x 0.30m

1 x 3.00m x 1.20m x 0.15 m
@ Rs.

Rs. 76.14

Item No.2
PCC 1:3:6
12.4
Plain cement concrete 1:3:6 nominal mix in foundation
Page 108
with crushed stone aggregate 40mm nominal size
mechanically mixed , placed in foundation and found-tion and compacted by vibration including curing for
14 days.
2.x 3.00m m x 0.10m x 0.45m = 0.27 m3
1 x 3.00m x 1.20m x 0.10 m
= 0.36 m3
0.63 m3
@ Rs. 3193.00/m3
Rs. 2011.59
Iten No.3.
48 (a)
Page 185

## Providing Brick soiling in foundation and under floor with

stone/bas quality picked jhamma brick sand packed and
laid to level and panel after preparing the sub grade as
directed including all labour and materials if necessary
dewatering complete.
1x 3.00m x 1.20m = 3.60 m2
2x 0.45m x 0.30m = 2.70m2
6.30m2
@ Rs. 182.00/m2

Rs. 1146.60
39

Iten No.4.
12.5
(Page 108)

Item No.5

## Brick masonry work in cement mortar 1:3 in foundation

complete excluding pointing and plastering , as per
drawing and technical specifications.
2x 2.0m x 3.00m x 0.3m = 3.96 m3
@ Rs. 3269.00/m3 Rs.12945.24
Reinforcement cement concrete work in sub structure as
per drawing and technical specification.
1x 1.80m x 3.00m x 0.15m = 0.81 m3
@ Rs. 4458.00/m3........
Rs. 3610.98

Item No.6
Supplying TMT bar reinforcement in sub structure complete as
12.40
per drawing and technical specification.
(Page 136)
Total reinforcement required 60 kg/m3 of c.c. work = 50 kg
@ Rs. 46725.00/ton
Rs. 2336.50
Total Rs. 22,127.05
Say Rs. 22,127.00
(Rupees Twenty two Thousand One Hundred and Twenty seven ) only

## Model Estimate For Earth Filling

(for 1m2)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Description of work/Rate
With a lead upto 30m and lift upto 1.5m in layers not
Exceeding 20cm including breaking clods, dressing,
Grading, sectioning to required shape and compact-ing to meet requirement.
@ Rs. 74.00/m2

Amount

Rs. 74.00
Total Rs. 74.00
Say Rs 74.00/ m2

40

## Model Estimate of Boulders Pitching

(For 1 m2)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 0.89/m2...

Item No.2.
3.13 /304

Item No.3.

Item No.4

Rs. 0.89

## Earth work in excavation of foundation of structures as

per drawing and technical specification including setting
out, construction of shoring and bracing removal of
stumps and other deleterious matter dressing of sides
and bottom backfilling the excavated earth etc. as
per drawing and technical specification
1.00m x 0.30m x 1.00m = 0.30m3
@ Rs. 99/m3..

Rs. 29.70

Collection of boulders
Size of R/Bank
= 0.30 x 5.0 = 1.50
= 0.30 x 0.50 = 0.50
= 0.30 x 1.0 = 0.30
= 1.95
@ Rs. 990/m3(Analysis rat enclosed).

Rs 1930.50

= 1.00m3
@ Rs. 243.00/m3
Total
Contingencies 5%
Net Total

Rs. 243.00
Rs. 2204.09
Rs. 110.20
Rs. 2314.29

41

## Model Estimate For Boulders Revetment

(for 1 Rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Item No.1. Earth work in excavation of foundation of structures as

3.13 /304 per drawing and technical specification including setting
(i)A
out, construction of shoring and bracing removal of
stumps and other deleterious matter dressing of sides
and bottom backfilling the excavated earth etc. as
per drawing and technical specification
1.00m x 0.50m x 2.00m = 1.00m3
Item No.2
15.2/2503

42

@ Rs. 99/m3
Rs. 99.00
Providing and laying of boulder apron laid in wire crates
made with 4mm dia Gl wire conforming to IS: 280 &
IS : 4826 in 100 mm x 100 mm mesh (weaved diagonally)
including 10% extra for laps and joints laid with stone
boulders weighting not less than 40 Kg each.
1.00m x 2.00m x 1.90m= 3.80m3
@Rs.1762.00/m3
Rs. 6695.60
Total Rs. 6794.60
Contingencies 5% Rs. 339.75
Net Total Rs. 7134.75
Say Rs. 7135.00/Rm
(Rupees Seven Thousand One Hundred Thirty Five)only

## Model Estimate For Boulder Spur

(for 1 Rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)

Item No.
Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

Description of work/Rate
Site Clearance etc . 1.00 m x 1.00 m = 1.00m2
@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Item No.2.
3.13 /304
(i) A

Item No.3.

Item No.4.

Amount

## Earth work in excavation of foundation of structures as

per drawing and technical specification including setting
out, construction of shoring and bracing removal of
stumps and other deleterious matter dressing of sides
and bottom backfilling the excavated earth etc. as
per drawing and technical specification
0.5 x 4.00m x 3.00m x 1.00m = 6.0m3
@ Rs. 99/m3
Collection of boulders
Size of R/Bank
= 0.30 x 5.00 = 1.50
= 0.30 x 0.50 = 0.15
= 0.30 x 1.0 = 0.30
= 1.95
@ Rs. 990/m3(Analysis rate enclosed)

Rs. 0.89

Rs. 594.00

Rs 1930.50

Collection of Netting
Perimeter 2 x 0.50 + 2 x 0.30 + 2 x 5.0 + 2 x 1.0
= 13.60Rm
=1.36
Total Required
= 14.96Rm
@ Rs. 130/Rm

Rs. 1944.80

43

Item No.5.
Page 42

## Pitching and Bunding of Hexagonal net= 1.95 m3

@ Rs 243.00/m3

Rs. 473.85
Total
Rs. 4944.04
Contingency 2%
Rs. 98.88
Net Total Rs 5042.92
Say

Rs 5043.00 /Rm

## Model Estimate for Construction of Embankment

(for 1Rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

Description of work/Rate
Site Clearance etc . 12.80 m x 1.00 m =12.80m2
@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Item No.2
41 (A)

Amount

Rs. 11.39

layers not exceeding 20cm thick including breaking
clods etc.
(i) (9.0 +12.0)m x 1.50m =15.75 m2
2
Volume = 15.75m2 x 1.00m = 15.75 m3
@Rs.74.00/ m3

Rs.1,165.50

## (ii) Above 1.5 m

(5.00 + 9.00)m x 2.00m x 1.00m = 14.00 m3
2
@ Rs. 78.00/m3
44

Rs. 1,092.00

Item No.3.
12.1
Page 106

## Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf

forming grass on embankment slope , verges or other
locations shown on the drawing or as directed by the
engineer including preparation of ground , fetching of
rods and watering. (in ordinary soil)
2 x 1.00 x 5.25 m = 10.50 m2
@ Rs. 19.00/m3
Rs. 199.50
Total
Rs. 2,468.39
Contingency 5% Rs. 123.42
Net Total Rs. 2,5913.81
Say Rs. 2,592.00
( Rupees Two Thousand Five Hundred Ninety two)only

45

## Model Estimate For Raised Plat-Form

( for 100m2)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Amount

Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

## Site Clearance etc . 26.00m x26.00m =676.00m2

@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Rs. 601.64

Item No.2
41 (A)

with a lead up to 30m and lift up to 1.5m in layers
not exceeding20cm thick including breaking clods,
dressing, grading etc. as per specification.
Volume of Earth Work :(A) (16.00 + 22.00)m x 1.50m x 10.00m =285.0m3
2
@Rs.74.00/ m3

Rs.21,090.00

## (B) Extra lift

(10.00 + 16.00)m x 1.50m x 10.00m = 195.00m3
2
@ Rs. (74.00+4.00)m3=78.00/m3

Rs. 15,210.00

## Furnishing and laying of the live sods of perennial turf

forming grass on embankment slope, verges or other
locations shown on the drawing or as directed by the
engineer including preparation of ground , fetching of
rods and watering. (in ordinary soil)
4nos x 10m x 7.0m
= 280m2
@ Rs. 19.00/m3

Rs. 5,320.00

Item No.3.
12.1
Page 106

Item No.4

Rs. 8,000.00

Item No.5

Rs. 6,000.00

46

Item No.6

Total
Net Amount

Rs. 10,000.00
Rs. 66,221.64
Rs. 3,311.08
Rs. 69,532.72
Say Rs. 69,533

## (Rupees Six Nine Thousand Five hundred Thirty Three) only

For 1m2 = 69,533.00
100
= 695.33/m2
Say
Rs. 695.00/m2

47

## Model Estimate for Desiltation and Decongestion

of drainage Channel
(For 1rm)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1.
2.3(i)A

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Rs. 0.89

## Item No.2. Earth work in excavation of foundation of structures as

per drawing and technical specification including setting out,
construction shoring and dracing, removal of Stumps and
other deleterious mater, dressing of sides and Bottom
and back filling with approve materials.
(5.00 + 3.00)m x 1.00m = 4.0 m3
2
@ Rs.
Item No. 3

47.00/m3

Rs. 184.00
Rs. 9.24

## Total Rs. 194.93/Rm

Say Rs. 195.00/Rm
(Rupees One Hundred and Ninety Five)/ Rm

48

## Model Estimate for Reclamation of Pond

FOR 1 BIGHA=1334 m2
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.

Description of work/Rate

Item No.1

the bank of the pond with all lift 1.5m and lead up
to 100m.in accordance with requirements lines
and cross section.

Amount

Section :(1)
36.52 m + 35.02m x 36.53m + 35.03m x 0.75m
2
2
3
= 959.89m

49

Section : (2)
34.02 m + 32.52m x 34.03 m + 32.53m x 0.75m
2
2
3
= 830.42 m
@ Rs. 57.00/m3
Rs. 1,02,047.67
Contingencies 5% Rs 5102.38
Total Rs.107150.05
Say Rs.1,07,150.00
(Rupees One Lakh Seven Thousand one Hundred Fifty) only
For, 1.00m2 Rs. 80.32m2
Say Rs. 80.00/m2
(Rupees Eighty)per meter squire only.

50

## Model Estimate for Reclamation of Beel

(for 1 Hectre)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Clearance of different types and nature of water

hyacinths aquatics weeds. Taranics, Dalawies,
Pitanies and reputed vegetation from the Beels/
Tanks/Ponds/Swampy areas dragging manually/
Machinacally/By machineries etc. with necessary
ropes bamboo chains and other derrses etc. making
patches cutting in to pieces with the help of doob/
sickles sews as necessary and depositin & stacking
on the marginal areas of the beels/Tanks/Ponds
swampy areas in a regular from of bunds of
heaps with in a lead of 100m and lift (Pushing
out the patches or pieces of vegetations may also
be made through the connecting channels with the
river and burning of lifted vegetations after sun shined
as and when applicable). Thick and floating Taranies,
Dalsnies, Pitanies and other marginal aquatic weed up
to depth of 50cm
100.00m x 100.00m x 7.96
@ Rs. 7.96/m2

Item No.2

Rs. 79600.00

## Single bamboo supur and palasiding of whole 1st class

bamboo (Bholuka or Barua) 85mm to 100m dia closely
packed & driven including fitting fixing with half 2nd
class bamboo (Jati or Bethua) horizontally in three
rows with the cane or tieing wire complete and struls
1500 mm apart longitudinally and providing brush
wood as per drawing and technical specification.
51

## (c) Driven at least 600mm below and 1200 above the

ground on average.
100.00 m + 100.00m = 200.00m
@ Rs. 240.00/m
Rs. 48,000.00
Total Rs. 1,27,600.00
Contingencies 5% Rs. 6380.00
Net Total Rs. 1,33,980.00
For, 1m2 = 133980.00
10,000.00
= 13.40/m2
Say Rs. 13.50/m2
(Rupees Thirteen Fifty)per metre squre only

## Model Estimate for Reclamation of Marshy Land

(For 0.5 Hect.)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

52

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Clearance of different types and nature of water hyacinths

aquatics weeds. Taranics, Dalawies, Pitanies and reputed
vegetation from the Beels/Tanks/Ponds/Swampy areas
dragging manually/Machinacally/By machineries etc. with
necessary ropes bamboo chains and other derrses etc.
making patches cutting in to pieces with the help of doob/
sickles sews as necessary and depositin & stacking on the
marginal areas of the beels/Tanks/Ponds swampy areas in
a regular from of bunds of heaps with in a lead of 100m and
lift (Pushing out the patches or pieces of vegetations may
also be made through the connecting channels with the river
and burning of lifted vegetations after sun shined as and

## when applicable). Thick and floating Taranies, Dalsnies,

Pitanies and other marginal aquatic weed up to depth of 50cm
71.00m x 71.00m x 5041.0
@ Rs. 7.96/m2

Item No.2

Rs. 40,126.36

bank of the pond with all lift 1.5m and lead up to 100m.
in accordance with requirements lines and cross section.
(71.00 x 67.40)m x 1.5 m = 7178.10 m3
@ Rs. 57.00/m3

Item No.3

Rs. 4,09,151.70

## Single bamboo supur and palasiding of whole 1st class

bamboo (Bholuka or Barua) 85mm to 100m dia closely
packed & driven including fitting fixing with half 2nd
class bamboo (Jati or Bethua) horizontally in three
rows with the cane or tieing wire complete and struls
1500 mm apart longitudinally and providing brush
wood as per drawing and technical specification.
(c) Driven at least 600mm below and 1200 above the
ground on average.
71.00 m + 71.00m = 142.00m
@ Rs. 240.00/m
Rs. 34,080.00
Total
Rs. 4,83,358.06
Contingencies 5%
Rs. 24167.90
Net Total Rs. 5,07,525.96
Say Rs. 5,07,526.00

## (Rupees Five Lakhs Seven Thousand Five Hundred Twenty Six)only

For, 1m2 = 5,30,473.00 / 5000.00 = 106.09
Say Rs. 106.00/m2

53

## Model Estimate for Desiltaion of Pond

For [36.51m X 36.52m = 1 Bigha)]
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

54

Description of work/Rate
= 38.0m x 38.0m
= 1444.0m2
@ Rs. 0.89/m2

Amount

Site clearance

Rs. 1285.16

bank of the pond with all lift 1.5m and lead up to 100m.
in accordance with requirements lines and cross section.
36.52 m + 34.52m x 36.51m + 34.51m x 1.0m
2
2
= 35.52m x 35.51m
= 1261.32m3

## @ Rs. 57.00/m3 Rs. 71,895.24

Total Rs. 73,180.409
Contingencies 5% Rs. 3659.02
Net Total Rs. 76,839.42
Say Rs. 76,840.00
(Rupees Seventy Six Thousand Eight Hundred Fourty)only.
For,
76,840 m2
1333.35
= Rs. 57.63/m2
Say Rs. 58.00/m2
( Rupees Fifty Eight )per squire meter only

55

## Model Estimate for Desiltaion of Beel

(For 1 Hect.)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Description of work/Rate

Amount

= 10,000m2
@ Rs. 0.89/m2..

Rs. 8900.00

## Removal of unserviceable soil including excavation,

excluding replacement by suitable soil which shall
be paid separately .
100.0m x 100.0m x 0.5m
= 5000m3
@ Rs. 51.00/m3

Rs. 255000.00
Total Rs. 263900.00
Contingencies 5% Rs. 13195.00
Net Total Rs. 277095.00 /Hect.

Say

Rs. 27.71/m2
Rs. 28.00/m2

56

## Model Estimate for Desiltaion of Marshy Land

(For 1 Hect.)
(As per APWD Schedule 2007-08)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Description of work/Rate
Site Clearance 100m x 100m
= 10,000 m2
@ Rs. 0.89/m2..

Amount

Rs. 8,900.00

bank of the pond with all lift 1.5m and lead up to 100m.
in accordance with requirements lines and cross section.
= 100.0m x 100.0m x 0.70m
= 700.0m3
@ Rs. 57.00/m3
Rs. 3,99,000.00
Total Rs.40,87,900.00
Contingencies 5%
Rs.20,395.00
Net Total Rs. 4,28,295.00/Ha
For, Rs. 42.83/m2
Say Rs. 43.00/m2
(Rupees Forty Three)/m2
57

## Model Estimate for Horticulture Plantation

(For 1 Hect.)
Spacing: 3m x 3m
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Item No.3

Item No.4

Item No.5

Item No.6

58

Description of work/Rate

Amount

## Jungle cutting clearance, stack burning etc.

7.5 Dls @Rs. 77.00/
dls

Rs. 5,775.00

## Land preparation (Dls/Tractorisation/Ploughing)

4 times x 7.5 bigha x Rs.250.00/Bigha..

Rs. 7,500.00

## Soil working uprooting of stumps clearing etc.

140 Dls @ Rs.77.00/dls..

Rs. 10,780.00

@ Rs. 25.00/Rm.

Rs. 10,100.00

## Cost of seedling (layering/bunding) etc.

[Species like Lemmon, Litchi, Orange etc.]
900 Nos @ Rs. 50.00/No (polypotted).
Organic manure
100 qtls @ Rs. 50.00/qtl...

Rs. 45,000.00
Rs. 5,000.00

Item No.7

Item No.8

Item No.9

Item No.10

Item No.11

## Pit digging, planting & mixing of manure etc.

120 Dls @ Rs. 77.00/dls..

Rs. 9,240.00

## Intercultural crop plantation like

(Linseed, Zinger Turmeric and Arhar etc.) L.S

Rs. 10,000.00

## Plant protection measures including

insecticides pesticides L.S

Rs. 3,000.00

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 8,624.00

## For 2nd year maintenance viz. weeding, fire protection etc.

130 Dls @ Rs. 77.00/dls. Rs. 10,010.00
Total Rs. 1, 25,029.00
Say Rs. 1, 25,000.00
(Rupees One Lakh Twenty Five Thousand) only

## Model Estimate for Medicinal Plantation

Area= 1 Hect. Spacing = 3m x 3m, Dls = 1,000 Nos
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2
Item No.3

Item No.4

Description of work/Rate
Jungle cutting, cleaning and burning etc. 40 Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls...
Land preparation (Wages/Transportation/Ploughing)
4 times x 7.5 bigha x Rs.250.00/Bigha
Bamboo fencing 402 Rm
@ Rs. 20.00/Rm..
Cost of seedling (layering/bunding) etc.
10,000 Nos @ Rs. 3.00/each.

Amount

Rs.3, 080.00

Rs. 7,500.00
Rs. 7,500.00

Rs. 30,000.00
59

Item No.5

Item No.6

Item No.7

## Planting, soil working etc. 190 Dls

@ Rs.77.00/dls...

Rs. 14,630.00

## Vermi compost 200 qtls

@ Rs. 50.00/qtls.

Rs. 10,000.00

Total

Rs. 1,800.00
Rs. 75,050.00

## Say Rs. 75,000.00

(Rupees Seventy five Thousand) only

## Model Estimate for Pasture Land Plantation

(for 1 Hect)
Item No.
Item No.1

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs.1,232.00

## Land preparation (wages/Transportation/Ploughing etc)

3 times x 7.5 bigha x Rs.250.00/Bigha

Rs. 5,625.00

Item No.3

Rs. 2,500.00

Item No.4

@ Rs. 20.00/Rm.

Rs. 8,000.00

Item No.5

Rs. 2,000.00

Item No.6

## Compost /FYM 50qtls.

@ Rs. 50.00/qtls. ..

Rs. 2,500.00

Item No.2

Item No.7

60

## Intercultural operation @ 20 Dls

@ Rs. 77.00/dls
Rs. 1,540.00
Total Rs. 23,477.00
Say Rs. 23,500.00
(Rupees Twenty three Thousand Five hundred) only.

## Model Estimate for Energy Plantation

(JATHROPA PLANTATION)
Area= 1 Hectare. Plant No=2500 Nos., Spacing=2.0m x 2.0m
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Item No.3

Item No.4

Item No.5

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs.1,232.00

## Pit digging including soil working, mixing of

Manure etc 60 cm x 60cm x 60cm
2500 Nos. @ Rs.3.00/Pit

Rs. 7,500.00

## Cost of seedling 2500 Nos (Polypotted Plant)

@ Rs. 3.00/Ploypot

Rs. 7,500.00

@ Rs. 30.00/qtls

Rs. 2,600.00

@ Rs. 77.00/dls
Total

Rs. 6,160.00
Rs. 24,992.00

## Say Rs. 25,000.00

(Rupees Twenty Five Thousand) only

## Model Estimate for Community Nursery

(Area= 1 Hectare)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Description of work/Rate
Jungle cutting clearance, etc. 100 Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls
Cost of fencing 4.78 qtls
@ Rs. 6,200.00/qtls (As per local market rate)

Amount

Rs.7,700.00

Rs. 29,605.00
61

Item No.3

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 46,200.00

Item No.4

Rs. 12,000.00

Item No.5

## Cost of fencing 60 Dls

@ Rs. 77.00/dls..

Rs. 4,620.00

Item No.6

Rs. 4,000.00

Item No.7

Item No.8

## Preparation of polypot 1667 Dls

@ Rs. 77.00/dls.

Item No.9

Item No.10

Item No.11

Land Preparation
(i) 15 Dls @ Rs.77.00/dls = Rs.1, 155.00
(ii) 50 Dls @ Rs. 77.00/dls = Rs. 3,850.00
Rs. 4,928.00
Watering 120Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 14,500.00

Rs. 1, 28,359.00

Rs. 5,005.00
Rs. 9,240.00

Weeding 50 Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 3,850.00

Item No. 12
Item No.13

Rs. 6,930.00
Rs. 1,000.00

Item No.14

Camp Huts...

Rs. 16,000.00

Item No.15

Rs. 8,000.00

Item No.16

## Equipments etc. L.S

Rs. 3,000.00
Total Rs. 3,00,009.00
Say Rs. 3, 00,000.00

62

## Model Estimate for Aromatic Plantation

(Area= 1 Hect)

Item No.

Item No.1

Description of work/Rate

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Item No.2

Rs.1,232.00

## Land preparation (Dls/transportation /Ploughing etc)

3 times x 7.5 bigha x Rs.250.00/Bigha

Item No.3

Amount

Rs. 5,625.00

## Soil working, pit digging, application of manure

Planting etc.105 Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Item No.4

@ Rs. 20.00/Rm.

Item No.5

Rs. 8,080.00

@ Rs. 50.00/qtls

Item No.6

Rs. 8,085.00

Rs. 5,000.00

@ Rs. 1.50/Nos

Rs. 35,437.50

63

Item No.7

Irrigation L.S

Rs. 1,540.00

Item No.8

## Pant protection, chemical L.S.

Rs. 1,000.00

Item No.9

Chemical fertilizer
(i) Urea - 220 Kg @ Rs. 8.00/kg = Rs.1, 760.00
(ii) S.S.P-220Kg @ Rs. 8.00/kg = Rs.1, 760.00

Item No.10

## (iii) MOP-60 Kg @ Rs. 8.50/kg = Rs. 510.00

Rs. 3,030.00
nd
for 2 Year maintenance viz.
Weeding and refilling etc L.S
Total

Rs. 3,030.00
Rs. 5,000.00
Rs. 75,029.50

## Say Rs. 75,000.00

(Rupees Seventy Five Thousand) only

## Model Estimate for Tree Plantation

(Area= 1 Hecare)
Item No.
Item No.1

Item No.2

Item No.3

Item No.4

64

Description of work/Rate

Amount

@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs.2,310.00

## Uprooting of stumps, stacking, burning and

Cleaning etc. 55 Dls @ Rs. 77.00/dls..

Rs. 4,235.00

## Soil working, (Thali making, lining for seed sowing

and stump planting etc.)40 Dls
@ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 3,080.00

@ Rs. 20.00/Rm.

Rs. 8,080.00

Item No.5

Item No.6

Item No.7

@ Rs. 50.00/qtls

Rs. 5,000.00

@ Rs. 1.50/Nos

Rs. 35,437.50

## For 2nd year weeding and fire protection etc

30 Dls @ Rs. 77.00/dls

Rs. 2,310.00

Total

Rs. 30,015.00

## Say Rs. 30,000.00

(Rupees Thirty Thousand) only.

65

## Construction of All Weather Rural Roads with Cross

Drainage Works
- Mr. Asom Kr. Das
Types of works:
The works that will be taken up under this act will be such that
they address the causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation, soil erosion etc. The basic aim of the Act is to harness and timely cultivate the natural
resources of the areas to stimulate the local economy. The Act will further enact
those who work for wage employment and will create a productive asset of selfemployment and to increase their income.
Schemes under NREGA 2005 in order of priority.
1) Water conservation and water harvesting
2) Drought proofing including afforestation and tree planting
3) Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation work.
4) Provision of irrigation facility to land belong to households belonging to
SCand ST and to land of beneficiaries etc
5) Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of water tanks
6) Land development
7) Flood Control and protective works including drainage in water logged
areas.
8) Rural connectivity to provide all weather roads including cross drainage
works.
Serial numbers 1 to 7 are all productive schemes On the other hand, Serial no 8 Rural connectivity to provide all weather roads with cross drainage works is
non productive. These all weather rural roads connect isolated villages, markets, important roads etc through out the year without blockade of traffic on
66

I.

## The height of road formation should be

existing ground level.

## minimum 1.0 m above the

II.

The height of road formation should be 0.60m above the Highest Flood
level.

III.

The road formation should have proper cross drainage works including
culverts bridges etc.

IV.

## There must be flood protection measures taken up for probable breaches

of the road embankment, culvert and bridge approaches etc during flood.

V.

## The formation width should be 18ft to 20 ft in case of village roads with

carriageway 10ft to 12 ft with min 4 ft wide side berms fully compacted.

VI.

## The formation width in case of other district roads should be 24 ft with 12

ft wide carriageway with 6ft wide side berms fully compacted.

VII. Proper chamber, gradient and requisite widening of the formation on the
turnings should be provided.
VIII. The sub grade including shoulders should be made of selected ideal soil
at least 0.60m.thick thoroughly compacted by road roller.
IX.

As per latest guidelines, roadside drains of adequate width and depth and
proper gradient should .be constructed on both sides of the rural roads to
drain out water collected from the road surface and from the catchment
areas, Pacca drains with 9 inches brick walling in cement mortar should be
constructed within the thickly populated villages.

X.

## To construct an all weather road, proper compaction to the sub grade,

carriageways, WBM works, bituminous surfacing works etc should be

XI.

## XII. There is no provision of land compensation under NREGA.

XIII. During selection of a road in the Gaon Sabha, the villagers residing along
the said road to be constructed under NREGA must give in written that
they will vacate necessary land for the required formation width of the
road and land for borrow pits without claiming for land compensation.
67

XIV. The roads selected in a Gaon Sabha to be taken up under NREGA must
be inter-connected and all selected roads must connect one or more important roads to take the products of the areas to the nearby market.
A. National Highway.
B. Provincial or State Highways
Most of the other district roads and the village roads run through the
villages connecting other small and major roads within the villages and meet the
requirements of rural populations. Hence some important roads under these two
categories along with cross drainage works should be taken up under NREGA to
improve rural connectivity and to provide all weather access.
Types of roads as per materials used in the construction of the superstructure.
D. Bituminous / Black topped roads.
Earth, Gravel and WBM roads are suitable and sufficient for villages for rural
connectivity. Earth and gravel roads are low type/ low cost roads known as
constructed under NREGA. But during construction of all these roads, full compaction is to be made to the sub grade, WBM and carpeting works. As the
68

compaction on the above works is not at all possible manually, road rollers
are to be used to have required compaction.
As per Act, machinery should not be used. But in the Act, it is also written
that as far as possible, works are to be done manually. The compaction of sub
grade, WBM works, Metalling and blacktopping works etc in construction of an
all weather rural road is not at all possible manually. Hence there is no way out
except use of road rollers during construction of these roads to have proper
compaction, stability and durability.
Technical Requirements of an all weather road.
b) Smooth curves of large radius.
c) Proper chamber and good sight distance.
d) Stable and fully compacted sub grade made of ideal soil having good
bearing capacity not below 2 ton per sqft.
e) Must have drainage layer of sand gravel between sub grade and base
course if there is water cheapage problem to the sub grade
f) The wearing surface / carriageway must be stable, durable and cheap.
There should not be depressions, water logging etc on the road surface.
g) Normally not overtopped by flood water and rain water .The formation
level of road should be 600 mm above HFL.
h) Av. 2 to 3 nos of culverts is to be provided per km as per site requirement.
The side berms should be of ideal selected soil fully compacted by road
Min formation width in plain

18ft to 20ft

14 ft to 16ft
69

## When the carriageway of an earth road is constructed with fully compacted

selected soil including cross drainage works as per technical requirements of all
carry only light traffic. As most of the rural roads in India are earth roads, earth
roads are of great importance for village economy and prosperity. Unfortunately,
most of the earth roads in India are only fair weather roads. There are two types
Natural earth road is made of clay, sand, loamy sand etc available naturally
along the alignment of the road. These existing earth roads are not stable, durable
and highly unsatisfactory for communication even for pedestrians during rainy
season. There are no adequate cross drainage works in these roads. As a result,
during rainy season and easily fail even under light traffic. As a result, the rural
When the sub grade of an earth road has a very low bearing capacity, some processes may be adopted to increase the bearing capacity
of the soil used in the embankment. Such a process is called Soil stabilization
a. Soils, the bearing capacity of which is less then Ton /sqft, are not
suitable for the sub grade. These soils are to be excavated and removed
b. When the bearing capacity of soil in the sub grade is to ton /sqft,
the soil stabilization process is adopted to increase the bearing capacity of
Soil stabilization methods.
There are five methods
1. Mechanical method.
2. Cement stabilization method
70

## 3. Lime stabilization method.

4. Bituminous stabilization method
5. Chemical method.
(i) Mechanical method
The work consists of improving the inferior soils/low grade aggregates by
blending/ mixing them with locally available suitable materials. Aggregates and
soil mixed in correct proportions are compacted to form a stable pavement
layer. Thus the basic principles in this method, are (a) proportioning and (b)
compaction. If granular materials are mixed with a certain proportion of binder
soil, it is possible to increase the bearing capacity and the stability of the earth
road. Similarly, the bearing capacity and stability of fine-grained soil can be
improved by mixing granular materials in correct proportions.
Mechanical stabilization method has been successfully implemented for
construction of rural roads in many parts of India where the traffic and rainfall is low.
In this method, we first verify whether the soil to be stabilized, is
fine grained or coarse grained.
(a)

If the soil is fine grained like clay, coarse sand is brought to site and
spread uniformly over the road formation, then ploughed to 6 to 8 inches
deep for through mixing. Coarse-grained soil is mixed with fine-grained
soil in the ratio of 2 parts of coarse-grained soil to 1 part of finegrained soil.

(b) .

## If the soil is coarse grained, it is ploughed to a depth of 6 to 8 inches deep,

fine-grained soil is brought to site, spread uniformly, and mixed with it in
right proportions to attain maximum dry density.

In both the mechanical mix processes in (a) and (b) above, water is
sprinkled /added to have requisite moisture content in the mixture. Then the
mixture is thoroughly mixed by ploughing and rolled to proper compaction by

71

## (ii) Cement stabilization Method.

Soil containing sand gravels and sandy soils can be stabilized using cement especially in waterlogged and high rainfall areas. In this method, the
soil is to be stabilized is ploughed to a depth of 4 to 6 inches. Proper quantity of
cement (usually 8 to 12 % of the soil ) is mixed with the soil by ploughing\,
Then water is sprinkled / added on the surface of the road formation and the
mixture is thoroughly compacted by light roller. The compacted surface is cured
for a week
(iii) Lime stabilization.
When the local soil, moorum etc cannot be economically and effectively
stabilized by mechanical method, the lime stabilization method is resorted to.
The lime stabilization is normally adopted for silty clays and clayey soils
including black cotton soil. The development of strength depends on the type
of clay and its quantity in soils. It is desirable that the calcium hydroxide
content in lime for lime stabilization should be more than 70%. In case of
inferior lime, the quantity of lime for stabilization is to be increased proportionately. Lime with purity less than 50% should not be used. In case of lime stabilization, the process is similar to that of cement stabilization except that the hydrated lime is used in place of cement. Lime also helps in checking the shrinkage
of soil.
Chemical and (v) Bituminous Stabilization methods are costly and not commonly used .
The top of natural foundation on which the entire road structure rests is
called sub grade. The structural foundation of a road is called a base or foundation or soling.

72

In some roads, there may be additional layer between subgrde and base course.
Such a layer is called sub base, and used only when the bearing capacity of sub
grade is poor and when sub grade has poor drainage properties. It happens
when the road is made of fine-grained soils. Sub base helps in distributing the
traffic load over a greater area of the sub grade. It is better to lay 3 to 6 inches
layer of granular materials like sand gravels, coarse sand etc on the sub base.
This layer also works as a filter media to drain out sub soil water.
The life of a road depends primarily on stable and dry sub grade. When
sub grade fails, the base and the surfacing course cannot perform their functions
and reconstruction of the entire road structure becomes necessary. Hence considerable attentions should be given to the sub grade for proper preparation with
fully compacted selected soil before the road structure is laid on it.
To ensure uniform high bearing capacity of the sub grade, the following
1. All patches of soft soil having bearing capacity below ton per sq ft
should be excavated and removed completely and should be filled up by
good granular soil properly compacted.
2. When the sub grade is likely to be remained wet, the sub surface drainage
layer should be provided to keep it dry.
3. Sub grade including sub base should be compacted thoroughly by road
roller.
4. Clayey soils or soils having low bearing capacity between to ton per
sqft should be stabilized if they are present in the sub grade.
5. The side berms also should be constructed with selected soil fully compacted along with the sub grade, base course etc.
6. The thickness of the hard crust should be decided according to materials
used in surfacing course and the nature and the quantity of traffic expected to move on the road after its completion.
7. The surfacing layer should be impervious and protect the base and the
sub grade from the peculation of rainwater and sub soil water.

73

8. To keep flux between the two sides of the road embankments more or less
The desirable properties of surfacing works are:
Durability: The road surface should have long life and\ should not be
wavy and show distortions.
Stability Road surfacing should transmit the load of traffic to the base
without.. deformations on the surface.
Non- slipperiness Road surface should be non slippery during raining
season..
Dust Free - Road surface should be dust free as far as possible.
The following are the land widths recommended for various classes of

Normal width
100 ft
66 ft

Minimum width
66 ft
44 ft

## Curves -The sharp curves on the road alignment should be avoided as

far as possible and should have large radius, specially for fast moving traffics
The usual types of horizontal curves are.
I.
II.

74

Simple curve.
Compound curves including Serpentine curves or reverse curves

In the cross section of a road, the highest point on the road surface is called
the crown. The level of crown is called the road surface level. The convexity
in the cross section of a road is called camber of the road. Camber is expressed as the slope of line joining the crown with the edge of carriageway. Thus
a camber of 1 in 60 in a carriageway of 30ft wide shows that the crown is 3
inches above the two edges of the carriageway. The cross fall (camber) is given
to take away rainwater from the road surface. The amount of cross fall or camber depends on the materials by which the surfacing layer is made. i.e. cambering
depends on the type of road. It is steep if the surfacing materials are soft and
permeable. On the other hand camber is flat if the surfacing materials are hard
and impervious.
Following are the cambers recommended for various types of roads.
1

1 in 20

1 in 24

Water bound
1 in 30 to 48

Bituminous

1 in 48

## Recommended camber(Vertical Horizontal)

4% where rainfall is less than 1000mm
5% where rainfall is more than 1000mm
3.5% where rainfall isles than1000mm
4% where rainfall is more than 1000mm
ditto 3 % where rainfall is less than1000mm
3.5% where rainfall is more than 1000mm

75

## Barrel camber consists of continuous curve. on both sides of the carriageway

Slopped camber consists of two straight slopes joining the crown with the
edges of traffic way.
Composite camber consists of two straight slopes with a parabolic at crown
portion
Road surface rises and falls along the length of the road alignment. The rate of
this rise and fall is called road gradient and is usually expressed as a ratio of 1
vertical in n horizontal. For example, if the road surface falls 2 ft in 200 feet
in 200 i.e.1 in 100. The longitudinal gradient serves the natural means for drainage of rainwater collected over the road surface. Internal drainage through granular layers needs a longitudinal gradient of 0.3 per cent for its effectiveness. A
gradient which must never be exceeded in any part of the road is called the
In Plain

In hills
1 in 15

## It is however desirable to give the gradient upto a certain desirable

upper limit below the limiting gradient. Such a desirable upper limit of the gradient is called the ruling gradient.

In Plain
1 in 30

In hills
1 in 20

It has been found that for the proper drainage of rainwater from the
alignment. Such a gradient is called minimum gradient and its value is fixed at
1 in 100.

76

## Widening of the carriageway at curves.

On curved portion of a road, the steering wheels turn inside sideways so
that the width of carriageway occupied by a vehicle is more than the width of
carriageway occupied by a vehicle on straight portion of the road. Hence the
widening of carriageway is maximum at the center of the curve. The width gradually decreases towards the ends of the transition curve, which meet the straight
portion of the road. The widening of the roadway is necessary in case of curves,
the radii of which is less than 1500 feet.

The value of maximum widening at the center of the curve corresponding to the
radii of the curves is given below
Radius of circular curve 1001 to
(in ft)
1500
Widening in feet.
1 ft

501 to
1000
2 feet

## 2001 to 500 200 or less

3 feet

4 feet

Super elevation
When the fast moving traffic, say a motorcar, negotiates a horizontal curve,
the centrifugal force acts on the motorcar and hence the lateral stability of the
moving traffic is badly affected. The wheels at right angles to the direction of
their motion experience this force. If the value of centrifugal force is greater than
the frictional resistance between the wheels and the road surface, sideslip / skidding of the wheels may take place. If the speed is not controlled before approaching the curve, there may be fatal accident and the car may topple over.
77

## To avoid this, the outer edge of the carriageway on a curve is super

elevated i.e., raised above the inner edge after proper designing considering
allowable speed of the vehicle on the particular portion of the road. Super elevation is thus provided on all curves and it provides a factor of safety for the
drivers who negotiate it too fast than the designed one.
The sub grade level of a road is to be fixed so that the difference between
formation level and highest flood level is not less than 0.60m and between
formation level and ground level is not less than 1.0 m
Cross drainage Works.
Cross drainage work is very much important to increase the life, stability and
efficiency of a road structure especially in case of an all weather road. Cross
drainage work means the removal of water from the road surface, from road sub
grade and from the catchment area. The water coming down from the road
surface during rainy season is first collected in the roadside drains. The water in
the roadside drains if allowed to remain stagnant for a long period above sub
grade level may cause heavy damage to the road structure due to water percolation to the road sub grade. Hence this water collected in the drains should be
taken to the natural stream / cross drainage works by constructing roadside
drains all along the road length and by constructing permanent cross drainage
works at intervals.
Drainage Structures.
There is another aspect of the surface water and that arises when a lowlying area or a stream or a river crosses the alignment of the road. At the point of
crossing, the water of stream or river is made to pass on the other side of the
road by means of a masonry work known as cross drainage work or drainage
structure.

78

## . The usual types of cross drainage works for roads are:

surface.
2. Causeways
I. Low-level causeway and
II. High-level causeway.
In these cases, water may pass over the road for a period during high
flood.
Definition of culvert and bridge
When the span (lineal waterway) between the inside faces of abutments is
less than 20 feet, it is called a culvert. When the lineal waterway between the
inside faces of abutments is greater than 20 feet, the cross drainage structure is
called a bridge.
Overall width of cross drainage works and carriageway
Type of cross drainage Overall Width Carriage way Overall Width Carriage way
works
Culvert

7.5m

6.6m

6.0m

5.5m

## Small & Minor ridge

6.4m

5.5m

6.0m

5.5m

Submersible Bridge

7.5m.

6.6m

6.0m

5.5m

## Minimum span and clearance of cross drainage works

For the safety and maintenance of the culverts, the clearance between the
Highest Flood Level and soffit / bottom of the slab should be as per list below.
Culverts of small span or diameter get chocked / blocked due to silt and debriges.
Minimum height of soffit of slab culvert should be 1.0 m above lowest bed level
79

Span in meters
1.0 & 1.5

150 mm

300 mm

450 mm

## 5.0 & 6.0

600 mm

Culvert.
There are various types of culverts.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## Hume pipe culvert

Box culvert
Slab culvert
Arched culvert

Note. 1 The cost of slab culvert is less if the foundations of the abutments from
the lowest bed level are within 2.0 m. On the otherhand, the construction of Box
culvert is more design oriented due to heavy reinforcements in top slab, bottom
slab and in walls.

80

## Hume Pipe culvert

Hume pipe culverts are taken up in construction of cross drainage works
in all weather rural roads under NREGA. It may be noted that in low and
moderate rainfall areas and on rural roads with low embankments, construction of 450 mm and 600 mm diameter NP3 Hume pipe culverts are the
safest, cheapest and more popular. But from the inspection, maintenance and
technical point of view, use of minimum 900 mm (internal) diameter NP3 Hume
pipes are highly recommended in all weather rural roads under NREGA for large
catchments areas and where rainfall is high. The construction of Hume pipe
culvert is very easy and can be constructed within a short period. Moreover, the
Hume pipes are constructed in factory as per Indian standard specifications and
cured for full 21 days in water tanks.
In case of pipe culvert, water passes under the road formation through
pipes of cast iron, or RCC Hume Pipes. There are three types of Hume pipes NP
2, NP 3 and NP 4. In ordinary roads with very less traffic, NP2 hume pipes are
used. But in all weather rural road under NREGA, NP3 Hume pipes are used
There are also different sizes of Hume pipes also. Present market rates are
shown in the Table below for ready reference and estimating.

a.
b.
c.
d.

## The above Rates are ex factory. Delivery charges are extra.

Central Excise Duty 14.42% & Vat 4 % will be charged extra.
The above Rates are subject to change
Transportation charges will be applicable as per approved rates of Director of Industries and Commerce, Assam.
for delivery of goods within 20 Km from Factory.

81

## Diameter of Hume pipes depending on catchment area.

Catchments area (Hector)
Upto 10
10 to 20
20 to 50
50 to 60

Diameter of pipes
1000 mm single row
1200 mm single row
1000 mm to1200mm (2 to 3 rows)
1000 mm to1200mm (4 rows)

## Cushioning of Hume pipe culvert

Hume pies are placed below road formation level at a depth as per design
calculation for the safety of pipes. There must be sufficient earth-cushioning
over the hume pipes with selected soil fully compacted. For example, say a 6-ton
vehicle approaches the site of hume pipe culvert. Moreover, there are required
cushioning over the hume pipe culvert of fully compacted selected soil. Then,
the load of the vehicle passing over the hume pipe culvert, does not affect the
hume pipe below the road formation along the vertical central line of the hume
pipe. The said load is divided along 45 degree angle from the vertical line through
the center of the hume pipe If the hume pipe is placed below the road formation
level well within the space of 45 +45= 90 degree angle, the hume pipe is not at all
effected. The earth cushioning for hume pipes with smaller diameters will be
less. On the other hand, earth cushioning for hume pipes with bigger diameters
will be more. To keep the hume pipes of different diameters safe from the direct
load of moving vehicles, the following chart of earth cushioning is recommended.

Up to 600 mm dia

600mm (2 ft)

900mm (3 ft)

82

## 1000mm (>3ft 3 inches)

Box Culvert
Box culvert is a squire/ rectangular passage of reinforced cement concrete works.
It is monolithic in structure square or rectangular in section.. The bed level of the
Box culvert should be at least 6 inches below the lowest ground level/ scour
level. The bed of the Box Culvert is placed on 100mm inch thick C.C.works
prop 1:3:6 over 3 to 6 inches thick Brick / Boulder soling
(a) Clear openings of Box Culverts are 1.m-x 1m, 1.50m x1.50m 2m x 2m, 3m x
3m, 4 m x 4m, 5m x 5m. And 6m x 6m
83

(b) There must be wing walls and curtain walls on both upstream and downstream side.
(c) Reinforcement in box culverts is same for all formation widths.
(e) There must be inside hunch in the four corners of the box culvert.

Thickness of bottom and top slabs and walls of the different sizes of box culverts and detail reinforcement are shown below in mm otherwise stated.

84

Box culvert

FIG 9
The box culverts are rigid and monolithic in structure and can take more
loads Box culverts of less than 2mx 2m is not practicable to implement. Generally, earth cushioning is not required on the top of the box culvert. Premix
curpetting is done including seal coat application over the slab.

SLAB CULVERT

85

The Slab culvert has abutments and a slab over them. Roadway is taken over
this slab, hence requisite reinforcement should be provided in the slab and the
bearing block. Abutments should be of cement concrete works on stable foundation. As per rule, each span (if there are more than one span) should be less
than 3 meters.
(a)Abutment Abutment cap should be 700mm wide having pedestal of thickness
300 mm and dirt wall of thickness 400mm. Height of dirt wall is according to thickness of the slab.
Inside of Abutments walls are straight from bottom of bearing block /
cap level to floor level then it is 1 horizontal to 4 vertical
If the span of the slab culvert is 6 meter or more, the total span should
be divided into spans or less than3.00m each
Outside walls are in slope of 1 horizontal to 3 vertical from bottom of
bearing block level to bed level then it is straight down upto soling
There should be provision of a 100mm stepping on backside wall at
bed level
The height of a slab culvert shall be from the top of footing to the top
of deck slab
The wearing coat over the deck slab should be 20mm premix carpet
with seal coat. The top surface of abutment cap shall be painted by
bitumen and the gap between slab and dirt wall shall be filled with
bitumen or other filling materials
Details of slabs of slab culvert 1.50 m to 6.0m clear spans, and overall formation
width 6.0m - all dimensions are in mm otherwise stated.

86

## Cover of reinforcement bars 40mm at bottom and 40mm at sides.

1. All bars are to be to be cranked at one end only. These are to be
placed with crank on left side and right side alternately
2. Surface steel bars (a) longitudinally 10mm dia rods @ 300mm c/c
3. Traverse 10mm diameter Torsteel @300mm c/c

Arch Culvert

In case of Arch culvert, there is arch from abutment to abutment. There may be
arch from abutment to Pier, then from pier to pier. Roadway goes over the arch.
Each span of an Arch culver should be less than 3.0m. Arched culverts have
been constructed on shallow streams in the interior places of Maharastra When
the lead distance for transporting Hume pipes from a factory is more,, the cost
of pipe culvert escalates. In such a situation, adoption of pre cast arched culverts would be economical. A semi circular arch of 1.4m span with a rise of 0.7m
was first evolved, the arches were constructed with precast concrete blocks.
Multiple arches can be constructed using precast blocks.
IRISH Bridge /Causeways.
A road network is never complete till all the cross drainage works including all the permanent culverts and bridges on the road are completed to
make the crossings passable even during monsoon and floods. However, till
these permanent cross drainage works are cmpleted, the causeways have to be
constructed. A causeway is a small submersible structure with or without
87

opening, which allows floodwater to pass over or below it. Depending on the
type of construction, these structures can be classified under flush, low level
and high-level cause. Sometimes, a horizontal pavement is constructed across
a wide and shallow stream to pass the traffic during the fair weather only. Such
pavement is called IRISH bridge or Causeway.
A causeway may be defined as a road built across a natural drainage. It is constructed so as to resist the erosion action of the stream flow across and over it. If
the stream has a low water flow, the road surface may be kept free of this flow by
constructing Irish bridge at a sufficient level and passing the flow of water through
culverts built under the road surface. A short road length on each sides of this
pavement is in the form of a ramp.
There are three types of causeway.
(i) Flush causeway - It is a paved road dam of a roadway, built to cross a
shallow watercourse. The top level of the roadway shall be at the same levels that
of the watercourse..
(ii) Low Level or a vented Causeway It is constructed in unimportant rural
roads. This is a structure provided with a few small openings of hume pipes
culverts, short span slab culverts, small arch culverts etc with a raised road top
of moderate height upto 1.20 M. In exceptional cases, the height of road top
level may be 1.5 M
(iii) High-level causeway- This is a submersible structure provided with larger
openings comprising of a simply supported RCC slab or multiple Arches or
boxes and a raised road top level to a reasonable height upto 1.5m to 3.0m The
RCC slab may be supported over a series of short masonry piers.
The culverts constructed below the high level causeways, allow the normal flood
water to pass through the Vents/ pipes from upstream to downstream side of the
causeway. During high flood or abnormal flood, however the causeway may be
under floodwater and therefore it cannot be used for some time till floodwater
receded. High-level Causeways are cheaper in comparison to culverts and
bridges. Causeways are feasible when the stream is wide and has low banks.
88

## Sizes of Road making materials

All road structures are supported by the soil of sub grade. A convenient
method of classifying soil is by their grain sizes and properties.

## IDEAL/ Selected SOIL

An ideal soil for the road formation, subgrade, sideberms etc will be one
in which the main properties of cohesion, plasticity and internal friction of soil
are present in addition to the required composition of Clay. Silt and sand.
The composition of ideal soil / selected soil is as follows
Composition of soil
(a) Clay
(b) Silt
(c) Sand

% Composition
9 to 18 %
5 to 15 %
65 to 80 %

Sand takes the required load, clay makes the sand more cohesive and silt
enters the voids of sand and clay increasing the dry density of the soil
It is quite difficult to correctly grade the above compositions in ideal selected
soil.. Hence it is taken that in ideal soil, sand should consist of 67%. Cay and silt
should be together 33 %. That is; Ratio between sand and Clay-silt should be 2
to 1 .

89

Gravel road is also a low type and low cost rural road. The sub grade should be
prepared by using ideal selected soil at least 2 feet thick fully compacted layer by
(a) inch to 2 inches size gravels.
(b) Binder materials should be used to bind the gravels together and for compaction.
. Binder consists of 26 % sand &13 % clay of the total quantity of gravels. The
binder not only binds the gravels together but also fills the voids between the
gravels. The mixture of gravels and binders is uniformly spread on the fully
compacted sub grade to get 6 inches compacted thickness in two layers.
First layer- The mixture is spread in a loose layer of 41/2 inches thickness on
the prepared sub grade which is compacted by road roller to a finished thickness
of 3 inches. Surface is lightly sprinkled with water during rolling to have the
required moisture content.
Second layer- If traffic is heavy, another second layer of 41/2 inches thick
gravels may be required to have 6 inches thick finished surface. The mixture of
gravels and binders are thoroughly mixed and spread over the first coat of gravelling already laid. The gravels and binders of second coat are fully compacted
with road roller. Water is sprinkled on the surface to have the required moisture
content and full compaction.
I.

If due to heavy traffic, two coats of gravelling are required, the gravels of the
first layer should be of bigger sizes (1 to 21/2 inches) than those of
second coat ( to 11/2 inches).

II. Before the gravel road is open to traffic, the surface should be lightly sanded
with coarse sand / quarry dust etc so as to have a cover of to inches
over the whole surface.
III. During preparation of sub grade for gravelling works, proper camber, grade,
super elevation etc on the road formation are to be accurately maintained.
90

IV. This type of gravel road, if properly constructed and maintained, can take
double the composite traffic than by an earth road.
Water bound Macadam roads are far better, stable and durable than earth,
The broken metals are laid on the fully compacted sub grade made of
ideal /selected soil or on gravel sub grade. It may have foundation layer of small
boulders in addition to the surfacing layer. Macadam was a scotch engineer who
first introduced the surfacing layer consisting of broken stone pieces of sizes 1,
1 , 2, 2 ,or 3 inches. According to his name, these metals are called
Macadam. During rolling, water is used to help in interlocking the stone pieces
The sub grade is prepared to the required thickness, grade and camber. If
the sub grade is weak and consists of black cotton soils, having bearing capacity
less than tons per sqft, the weak soils are to be excavated, removed and filled
up with selected sandy soils fully compacted. The foundation layer of required
thickness is laid on the fully prepared and compacted sub grade and rolled with
road roller till the same is fully compacted. The foundation layer that is 1ft wider
(6 inches on each sides) than the surfacing layer usually consists of 5 to 9 inch
size boulders that are hammer packed. The voids of boulders are filled with
smaller stones of 1 to 3-inch sizes.This layer is called TELFORD Base because it was first suggested by Telford- an English road engineer.
Later on, Macadam, a scotch road engineer, suggested only a 6 inches
thick surfacing layer (compacted) of road metals of sizes ,1,11/2, 2, 21/2and 3
inches. The metals in layer of 41/2 inches (loose) are compacted in two layers
by road roller to 3 inches thickness.. If greater thickness is required to take heavy
traffic, another layer of road metals of 41/2 inches thick is laid and compacted to
have another 3 inches thickness. In WBM works, the road metals are first interlocked by dry rolling. Then it is bounded with small broken metals, gravels,
coarse sands etc and forced into the voids of broken metals by watering and
rolling.
91

## Rolling should move smoothly without jerk at a maximum speed of 100 ft

per min. i.e. around one mile per hour. Water is sprinkled on the road surface
uniformly by road roller sprayers.. The surface is rolled again till the stone pieces
are nicely interlocked and the surface becomes hard. After this to inches
layer of bindage is spread uniformly to seal it. Water is used on top of the
bindage and the surface is again rolled till the surface becomes hard, smooth and
impervious. Next day, the surface is again rolled and covered with 1/4 inches
thick bindage. Layer of coarse sand is uniformly spread on the finished surface
to prevent the wet bandage from sticking to the wheels of vehicular traffic. Thereafter, the rolled surface is kept moist for a week by lightly sprinkling water on the
surface. WBM road can take a composite traffic load of 900 tons per day per
lane.

Screening materials should consist the same materials as the course aggregates of sizes 5.6mm to13.2 mm. Quantities of course aggregates and screenings required for 75mm compacted thickness of Grading 2 and3 for 10-sqmeter
areas.
Requirement of course Aggregates

## Requirement of Screenings Stone screening

92

In the surfacing of a bituminous road, bitumen is used as a binder, which
binds together the course, aggregates of the surfacing layer. Such a road is also
known as Black topped road. Bitumen as a binder can be used hot or cold.
In hot process, bitumen is heated to the required temperature to act as a binder
on the stone metals, which are also to be heated.
Surface Painting
It is a kind of bituminous surface treatment in which a film of tar or asphalt
is first applied on the prepared top of road formation. A thin layer of stone
chippings is spread and then rolled. The thickness of this thin layer is 20mm
thick. The main purpose of this layer is to seal the surface of foundation layer
and make it impervious and durable. Foundation layer may be WBM surfacing;
Gravel layer etc. In the hot process, hot tar or hot asphalt is used. In cold
process, emulsion is used. Surface dressings usually given on the top of WBM
road, which may be either existing one or a new one. In case of existing WBM
road, surface is cleaned of dust, dirt etc by means of wire brushes. Tar of thin
consistency is heated to about 250 degree F and asphalt if used, heated to
about 350 degree F for surface dressing. A uniform thin film of hot binder is
laid on the dry and clean surface of WBM road. About 35 to 50 lbs of binder
are required per 100sqft of the road surface. After that, stone chippings of
to size, are spread uniformly over the applied binder at the rate of 5 to 6 cft of
stone chippings per 100sqft of the road surface. Then rolled by a road roller.
Traffic is to be halted at least for24 hours after completion Prime coat. The
bituminous primer should normally be Emulsion
(a) The primer should be spread uniformly over the clean dry surface using
bitumen pressure distributor/ sprayer capable of supplying primer at specific
rate and at required temperature.
(b) Normal temperature range of spraying emulsion should be 20 to 69 degree
(c) A very thin layer of sand may be applied to the surface of the primer to
prevent it picking up under the wheels of vehicles carrying materials for
construction of bituminous layer.
d) The surface should be allowed to cool for 24 hours.
93

Tack coat
(a)

(b)

## The emulsion should be spread uniformly at uniform rate and at required

temperature of 20 to 60 degree Centigrade.

## Rate of application of tack coat per 10 sqm

Type of surface

Rate of application

Bituminous Surface

2.5 kg

Granular surface

3.00kg

Surface Dressing
(a)

## Cover the binder immediately with the stone chippings.

Notes
When 2 coats of surfacing are done the second coat should be applied after
the first coat is exposed to traffic for 3 weeks.
Immediately thereafter, the entire surface should be rolled
The road may be opened to traffic 24 hours after the entire work of rolling is
complete
94

Premix Carpeting
(a) 20mm thick carpeting is to be done
(b) A prime coat followed by Teak coat should be applied
(c) The temperature of bitumen at time of mixing should be150 to163 degree and that of aggregate should be 155 to163 degree centigrade
Rate of application of materials for premix carpet
Aggregate of Carpeting
Stone chipping
Stone chipping

Sizes
13.2 mm
11.2 mm

0.18cum
0.09 cum

## The mixed materials should be transported immediately to the site of works

and laid uniformly by suitable means. Proper rolling is to be done beginning from
the edge and progressing towards the center. A seal coat should be applied to the
surface immediately after laying the carpet.
Special Notes on Culverts and bridges.
(a) Culvert - Roadway width at the location of culverts.

Overall Width
7.5m

Between Kerbs
6.70m

(b) Bridge - The roadway width between the kerbs for minor bridges.

Plain

5.5 m

Min 4.25m

Plain
7.50 m

Min 6.0

95

## Side slopes of embankment of an all weather road.

1 : 1, 1 : 1 1/2 and 1 : 2 according to classification of soil used in the road
embankment. For rough estimating 1(H): 11/2 (V) slopes are generally adopted.
(e) Borrow pits for earth works in the road formation should be excavated
minimum 2 meter away from the toe line of the embank.
(f)

- The function of road side drains are to collect surface water from the roadway
and to lead it to the outlet. Another function of roadside drain is to drain out the
base course of the roadway structure so as to prevent its saturation loss in load
bearing capacity.

Fig 12
Typical cross section of a side drain

Fig 13
Functions of a side drain
96

Thump rules for the quantity of earth work with ideal soil having formation level of 6 meters and side slopes of 1 (horizontal): 1 1/2 (Vertical) having
different formation heights including approx. estimated cost per Km.

Approximate Rate per cum of earthwork based on Schedule of Rates for Rural
Roads under PWD for all divisions of Assam for 2007-2008 is adopted in the
above.
Item no 3.4 Construction of embankment with material obtained from borrow
pits.
Construction of embankment with approved materials obtained from borrow
pits with lift upto 1.5 m, transporting to site, spreading grading to required slope
and compacting to meet requirement etc with a lead upto 1000m etc.
(i) Private land: Rs. 142.00 per cum
(ii) Govt land: Rs.121.00 per cum.
As there is no land compensation for government land, hence rate for government land is less by Rs 21.00 than the private land. Similarly, there is no provision for land compensation to be paid to the land owner under NREGA Scheme,
the rate, may be taken to be

97

## Rs 121.00 per cum

(a) Minus 10 % for contractor profit

## ( ) Rs 12,10 per cum

______________________
=

(a)

## Minus 25 % for Roller compaction, lead upto 1 KM

and use of other machineries etc ()

## Rs 27.22 per cum

___________________________
Rs.81.68 per cum
Say

## Rs.82.00 per cum

Hence Rs 82.00 only per cum is fully justified and can be taken in estimating.
Earthwork on cutting. Thump Rules for hill cutting showing quantity of earth
work and amount. Half cutting and half filling utilizing the spoils on road embankment. Analysis of Rate as per Schedule of Rates for roads under APWD or
2007-08.
Item no 3.5 - (i) Excavation in cutting in soil by manual means with lead
upto 50m.
Excavation for roadways in soil using manual means for carrying of cut earth to
embankment site with a lift upto 1.5 m and lead upto50m etc.
Rate
Minus 10 % contractors profit

Rs. 4.30 per Cum

## Rs. 38.70 per Cum

Estimating say (i) average height of the earth cutting

1.0 m

3.0 m

98

## Hence quantity of earth work in Excavation per Km

1000 m x 1.0m x 3.0 m

= 3000 cum

Expenditure per Km =
3000.0cum x Rs. 38.70 per Cum = Rs. 1,16,100 .00
Hence to complete the said work
Man days required

=

## Estimating for 900 mm dia Hume pipe culvert - Single NP 3

Hume pipes required = 3 nos Total length

18ft (6 M)
3x 2.50 m = 7.50m

## + Central Excise duty 14 .42 %

+ Vat

4.00 %

= Rs.

3677 .00

= Rs.

1020.00

___________________________
Total

Rs.

30.197 .00

1200.00

+ Truck fare

1700.00

Rs.

________________________
Total

Rs.

33,097 .00

Item no 9.1 Earthwork for excavation for foundation of structures upto 3.0 m
depth as per drawing and technical specifications etc. Rate Rs. 91.80 10 % of
91.80 = Rs. 82.62 per C.m.
Item no 11.2 Filling in the foundation trenches

LS

Rs. 1000.00

LS

Rs. 500.00

99

## Item no 9.8 Brick Masonry works in cement mortar in foundation,

Head walls complete including plastering etc.
Misc

LS

Rs. 5000.00

LS

Rs. 2000.00

___________________________________
Total
Say

Rs. 45,000.00

## (Rs. forty five thousands) only

Special Technical Notes.
(a) In the construction of slab culverts, Box culverts, WBM works etc it is
better to first collect boulders at the site of works as per requirements. Then
boulders are to be broken to required sizes of metals, chips at the site of
works by engaging ordinary labors having job Cards. This process will increase the labor components, man days and will be more economical.
(b) The main problem in NREGA is the volume of works executed in comparison to the amount paid to the labors. As a result, the completion of an all
weather road will be delayed. Hence earth works of an all weather road may
be divided into sectors from chainage x to y and so on The said part of the
road with estimated amount for that particular portion may be allotted to a
willing group of job card holders to complete. the work within the estimated
amounts as piece meal basis. This endeavor will surely enhance the volume
of works in road construction and the road will be completed within the
stipulated time.
(c) As per NREGA Act, machineries in construction of all weather rural roads
should not be used. But there is also relaxation to that Act also. In the Act, it
is also written that works are to be completed as far as possible manually. In
the construction of all Weather rural roads, especially in preparation of Sub
etc use of machinery namely trucks and road rollers is the must. In these
100

cases, the daily fares of trucks. Road rollers etc including daily wages of
drivers should be charged to material component. The daily wages of the
be charged to wage components. But all these ordinary labors working in
the trucks etc should be job card holders and of the same Panchayat.
Acknowledgement
In preparing the above papers, technical help has been taken from the following
books for which the undersigned is indebted to.
Civil Engineering Deptt. Birala Engineering College.
b. Naths Hand book for engineering, by R.M. Nath, Special officer Technical Education Assam.
on.
f. Specifications and guidelines, Based on Hand Book of Quality Control
Works. by NRRDA, Govt of India.

101

## DESIGN CRITERIA OF VARIOUS FLOOD AND EROSION

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES
- Dr. Rajeev Kr. Goswami
TYPES OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES FOR FLOOD AND
EROSION MANAGEMENT
The following types of engineering works are generally executed for management of floods, river bank erosion and train rivers:a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Embankment
Groynes or Spurs
Permeable groynes / spurs
Porcupines
Bed bars
Revetment & launching apron

EMBANKMENTS
Construction of marginal embankment along the bank of river is generally
done for preventing floods from spilling its natural banks. This is the
easiest and quickest method of saving the land and people from the fury
of floods. Though there has been a controversy about their feasibility, it
still remains one of the favourite short term measures which can be implemented with public demand..
Following facts relating to their adequacy or otherwise should always be
considered before planning these measures.

102

i)

## The embankments constitute a very large measure of protection in

flood prone area.

ii)

## Construction of embankments enables reclamation of large tracts

of flood plains for economic development.

iii)

## A realistic approach for construction of embankments as a flood

control measure should accept the fact that embankments are also

liable to failure. And when they fail, the damage is likely to be greater
that if there were no embankments because of their so-called false
sense of security.
iv)

## Adequate number of drainage outlets / sluices should be provided

to mitigate the drainage problem created by embankment.

## Design Criteria for Embankments:

Details of design and specifications criteria for embankments assumed
importance in 1954 when the national policy on flood control was announced by the Government of India. Thereafter, systematic data collection was taken up from 1954-55. For the Brahmaputra, the maximum observed flood level had to be taken as the basis for fixing the design flood
level for the Brahmaputra embankment system. Design flood for the embankments on the tributaries was computed for a 25 year return period by
applying Gumbels method. For the estimation of this design flood, based
on short period hydrological data, extrapolation had to be done upto 3 to
4 times the period of record.
The criteria for fixing important parameters relating to free board, top
width, slope and hydraulic gradient of the embankment is explained as
follows :
1. Top Width
The width of the embankment at the crest should be fixed according to the
working space required for facilitating transport of material during construction and maintenance. The criteria given below may be considered as
general guideline for top width (see IS 11532)
The top width of the embankment should be 5.0m. The turning platforms,
15m to 30m long and 3.0m wide with side slope 1:3 along the land side of
the embankment should be provided at every kilometer. The top width
should be adequate for the type of vehicular traffic expected over the
embankment.

103

2. Free Board
The top of embankment should be fixed in such a manner that there is no
danger of over-topping even with intense wave wash or any expected rise
in river levels due to sudden change in the river course or shortening of
river course due to unforeseeable causes or aggradation of river bed or
embankment settlement. The height of the wave depends upon the wind
velocity and the fetch. There are many formulae for determining the height
of wave. However, the formula proposed by Stevenson modified by Molitor
is used as given below :
hw = 0.032 (VF)1/2+0.76-0.27(F)1/4
where,
hw

## = height of wave from trough to crest in meters. As waves

will travel up the slope of the embankment, it may be taken
as height above HFL.

F
kilometer.

## As a guideline, minimum free board of 1.5m over design HFL including

the back water effect, if any, should be provided for the river carrying
design discharge up to 3000 cumec. For higher discharge or for aggrading/flashy rivers, the minimum free board should be of 1.8m. This should
be checked also for ensuing a minimum of about 1.0 m free board over
HFL corresponding to 100 years frequency flood.
In addition to the free board provided, a settlement allowance of two
percent of the embankment height shall be provided for fully compacted
fills near optimum moisture content (OMC) and 15% for un-compacted
fills. It may be suitably assumed between 5 to 10%. However, for high
embankments founded on compressible foundations and high embankments with compressible fills, detailed settlement analysis shall be carried
out.

104

The section of the embankment should be designed in such a way that the
Hydraulic Gradient Line lies well within the embankment. This line should
never be allowed to intersect the outside country slope of bank above
ground level and care should be taken so that a cover of 0.6m is available
over it. Hydraulic gradient line should be determined on the basis of the
analysis of soils which are to be used in the construction of embankment.
However the following guidelines are recommended (See IS 12094)
Type of fill

Clayey soil

1 in 4

Clayey Sand

1 in 5

Sandy Soil
1 in 6
For important embankments protecting land of high value assets and for
high embankments, a rigorous analysis of seepage is necessary.
4. Embankment Slopes
The slopes of small embankment can be decided based on general guidance provided in IS 12094. For high embankments and for embankments
on poor foundations, a detailed analysis needs to be made.
The specifications of embankments constructed in Assam during different
periods as per recommendation of expert bodies are given below :
a)

## Embankments constructed during 1954 to 1960

During this period the specifications adopted were (i)

Top width

2.4 to 4.5 m

(ii)

Free board

0.45 to 0.91 m

(iii)

4:1

(iv)

## Side slopes - Countryside

2:1

- Riverside
1:1
Neither the hydraulic gradient nor the side slopes were based on
properties of the soil.
105

## b) Embankment constructed during 1971 to 1976

In 1970, revised specifications approved by the Brahmaputra Flood
Control Commission were prepared. These specifications are as
follows :
(i)

(ii)

Top width
For Brahmaputra and major tributaries
For other tributaries

4.5 m
3.5 m

Free board
For Brahmaputra and major tributaries
For other tributaries

1.5 m
1.0 m

(iii)

8:1
classification of the local soil

6:1to

(iv)

Side slopes
Country side with coverage of 0.6 m on
River side

2:1
3:1 to 2:1

## c) Recent specification for Brahmaputra embankment:

Crest width of the retirement
River side slope

= 7.5 meter.
= 3:1 .

## Country side slope = 0.6m coverage to the H.G. line at the

toe of retirement .

= 6:1 .

Free board

= 1 in 6450.

## Although the specifications of the embankment presently in use appear to

be alright, some improvement is necessary by way of providing impervious cover and filter arrangement in the reaches where the local soil available for construction is sandy and there is danger of abnormal seepage.
106

The countryside slope of the embankments have to be properly maintained. Also, adequate provision should be made for their subsequent
protection against erosion in the threatened reaches.
As estimation of peak flood by statistical method for a return period
greater than 3 to 4 times the period of observed data is not reliable and as
long period observed data were not available for most of the tributaries,
separate criterion could not be adopted for the design of embankments
based on the degree of protection to be provided for (i) predominantly
agriculture areas. (ii) towns and (iii) important industrial establishments
and lines of communication. But wherever hydrological data for a reasonable period were available for any tributary/river, 50 year flood frequency
was adopted as the criterion for estimating design flood for embankments
for the protection of town areas and important industrial establishments.
5. Height of Embankment
With regard to the design flood for determining the height of an embankment, the recommendation of the Rashtriya Barh Ayog (1980) is accepted
while issuing guidelines and instructions for its implementation is as under:
In the case of embankment scheme, the height of the embankment and
the corresponding cost is worked out for various flood frequencies and
also the benefit cost ratios, taking into account the damage likely to occur
for the relative flood frequencies. However, till such time as the details of
all relevant parameters are available, embankment schemes might be prepared for a flood of 25 years frequency in the case of predominantly
agriculture areas and for flood of 100 year frequency for works pertaining
to town protection and protection of important industrial and other vital
installation.
The embankments should be designed for urban and strategic locations
for 100-year flood and in other cases for a 25 year flood and checked for
maximum observed flood for overtopping.

107

6. Spacing of Embankment
The spacing of embankments is normally determined by Laceys regime
channel theory. In Assam, habitations have grown on river banks which
have higher level due to deposition of silt from spill water. As embankments have to protect not only agricultural land but more importantly habitations, the embankments in most cases are constructed close to the river
following more or less its sinuous bank line. Building of embankment well
away from the river edge on relatively low land to meet design criterion for
spacing entails increased height of embankment and also creates drainage
and water -logging problems in the strip of land between the embankment
and the river. On the other hand, embankments built close to the river are
more vulnerable and can require expensive protective measures.
REVETMENT AND LAUNCHING APRON
Bank caving is one of the common causes of deterioration of river conditions. Bank protection therefore, forms an important part of river training
works. Rivers passing through populated areas necessitate protection of
adjacent lands and properties threatened by erosion.
Revetment of the bank in full or part is resorted to resist the river attack
and where spurs cannot be effectively constructed. The pitched bank at
its toe is protected by the launching apron which is designed for maximum
scour. Where attack on the reaches is severe, continuous revetment is
provided at selected places.
Continuous bank revetment and launching apron for considerable length
is very expensive. When the river comes close to the bank / embankment,
the other alternative methods employed are (i) construction of series of
spurs to deflect the current away from the bank and (ii) the retirement of
the embankment. If this method is not economical, immediate construction of revetment and launching apron should be resorted to as soon as
the signs of bank erosion are noticed.
In reaches where the river edge is less than 100 m from the embankment,
the bank should be continuously riveted and provided with launching apron.
When the river edge is approaching about 200 m from the embankment,
spurs of suitable length may be provided to protect the embankment. The
108

## spacing of spurs should be approximately thrice their length which may be

increased or decreased, depending upon the direction of flow and intensity of attack by the river.
Before providing bank protection, the bank is to be graded so that its
slope is flattened or at least equal to the angle of repose of the soil under
water. Drainage behind the revetment may be necessary to prevent saturation of the bank. Graded stones filters should be provided on the back
side of the revetment to prevent soil particles being sucked out due to high
velocity flow. A filter of at-least 15 cm thick should invariably be provided
behind revetment. When stones are dumped under water, the thickness
should be increased by 50%.
Design Criteria for Slope Pitching & Apron
The pitching on the river side slope should be one man stone, weighing 35
to 55 kg each. Concrete blocks are equally good, but round and smooth
boulders should be avoided. Stone boulders used for training works have
to fulfill certain essential requirements. They must be large 45 to 90 kg, so
that they are not easily displaced by the current, yet small enough to be
handled manually. They must be dense so that their weight in water is high.
They must be angular rather than round for a proper interlocking advantage. The thickness of the stone required on the sloping surface to withstand severe action can be calculated as follows:
T = 0.06 Q13
Where Q = Discharge in cusec and
T = Thickness of stone in feet
According to the Indian Standard Institution, the size of stone required on
the sloping surface to withstand erosive action of flow may be worked out
on the basis of curve given at Fig. 1 & 2. 1t is usual practice to place the
pitching on slopes manually. For such type of works, the thickness of
pitching is specified to be kept equal to the size of stone but not less than
0.25 m. For velocities at which pitching stone of size greater than 0.4 m is
needed, cement concrete blocks of 0.4 to 0.5 m thickness are recommended A graded filter, 20 to 30 cm in thickness generally satisfying is to
be provided below the pitching.
109

## Adequate apron is to be provided to protect the slope pitching from the

scouring of the toe by the river. First the maximum scour by the river is to
be calculated as per Laceys regime depth D, where D = 0.47 (Q/t)1/3, Q
and f being discharge and silt factors respectively. In applying this formula, it is to be remembered that this is applicable only in case of incoherent alluvial sand of mean diameter 0.06 mm to 2 mm and not in the case of
clay, gravel, pebble etc. With this type of material, the scour depth would
be less and the actual extent of which will depend on the size and nature of
bed material.
Indian Standard Institution has suggested 1.5 times D as maximum scour
depth for straight reach of guide bunds which will be the case for bank
pitching. The size of the apron stone recommended by Indian Standard
related to velocity and can be obtained from Fig 1 & 2.
The actual slope of launched apron, on an average, is taken as 2:1.
Knowing the thickness of apron, depth of maximum probable scour
and the slope of the launched apron, the quantity of apron stone can
be assessed. The launching apron will not form a uniform stone
carpet in launching, as by hand packing. For rivers liable to sudden
deep scour, the thickness may be increased to 1.5 times. The thickness of apron at the junction of apron and slope land should be
same as the slope stone but should be increased in the shape of a
wedge towards the river-ward end. The relevant particulars and
dimensions of slope pitching and apron as per IS specifications are
given at Fig 3.
Bank pitching is quite common but quite expensive method. With slope
apron stone, and proper tying of both ends firmly in the bank, this river
training work can provide the desired protection. Adequate maintenance is
however, very essential in all such measures. It may require extension of
such works over a period of time, either upstream or downstream, as per
further movement of meanders and the requirement of such protection

110

## Typical Design for Bank Protection through revetment

Design parameter (Assumed)
1.

2.

5m

3.

0.1 mm avg.

4.

## Average velocity in river

3.5 m/sec

Slope Protection
The side slope should be graded and should not be steeper than 2:1. The
thickness of stone required on the sloping surface can be calculated from
the formula.
T = 0.06 Q1/3
Where Q = Discharge in cusec
T = Thickness of stone in feet
T = 0.06 (35000)1/3
T = 1.963 feet or 60 cm.
This should be further confirmed as per IS code, where the size of stone
required on sloping surface can be worked out on the basis of curves
given at Fig 1 & 2. Taking an average velocity of 3.5 m/sec and a bank
slope of 2:1, the stone for pitching should not be less than 50 kg and a
minimum of 0.35 to 0.4 m in diameter. The thickness of pitching is to be
kept equal to the size of stone. Taking into consideration the above criteria, the thickness of stone pitching is kept as 60 cm.
In addition, a graded filter of 20 to 30 cm in thickness generally satisfying
the standard criteria confirming to IS 8237 - 1976 is to be provided below
the pitching.

111

## Design of thickness of pitching and length of apron based on IS

method
As per IS code 8408 1994 the thickness of pitching is calculated as
follows:
The weight of stone required for slopping surface to withstand erosive
action of flow is determined from the following relationship
W = 0.02323 Ss V6 / K (Ss 1 )3
Where,

## K = (1- Sin2 / Sin2 )1/2

V = velocity at working site
= angle of sloping bank
= angle of slope protection
Knowing the weight of stone (W), the diameter of stone for pitching can
be determined from the following relationship
Stone Dia, D = 0.1249(W/Ss) 1/3
The minimum thickness of pitching is determined from the following relationship
T = V2 / [2g (Ss-1)]
Usually, for safety measures as well as to take care of loss of boulder
during erosive action, the entire thickness of pitching is provided in two
layers of the determined stone dia and at the periphery of the pitching,
boulders are laid in cages.
Launching Apron
To avoid damage to slope pitching due to scouring at the toe, a stone
cover in the form of apron is laid beyond the toe on the horizontal river
bed. In course of time, this apron would launch to cover the face of scour
with stone forming a continuous carpet below the permanent slope of the
protected bank. The quantity of stone in apron would naturally depend on
the apron thickness, depth of scour and slope of the launched apron as
also the size of stone.
112

The size of the stone is kept the same as in slope protection. The size of
apron stone is to be determined as per ISI recommendations in IS 84041994 and is related to velocity as already discussed above. Assuming a
velocity of 4m/sec and with surrounded stones, the weight of stone should
not be less than 50 kg and a minimum of 0.35 to 0.4 m diameter. The
thickness of apron is to be kept 1.5 times the thickness of slope pitching
for rivers liable to sudden and deep scour.
The scour depth is to be calculated as per Laceys normal scour depth
from the following formula.
Normal scour depth = 1.33 (q2/f)1/3
Where q = discharge intensity = velocity depth of flow at bank
full stage
f = 1.76 (dm) 1/2 i.e. silt factor
Assuming silt factor f = 0.90, velocity = 4 m/sec and depth of flow
= 10.00 m
Depth of scour below HFL = 1.33 (402/0.90) 1/3
= 16.11 m
In applying the Laceys formula to work out the scour depth, it is to be
noted that the formula is applicable only in case of incoherent alluvial
sands of mean diameter 0.06 mm to 2 mm and not in the case of clay,
gravel, pebble etc. With clay, gravel or pebble bed, the scour depth would
be less, the actual extent of which will depend on the size and nature of
bed material. The mean diameter of bed material should be found out
through analysis.
Maximum design scour depth varies between 2.5 times normal scour at
head of guide bank to 1.5 times at the straight reach. Assuming average
scour depth to be 2 times the normal scour depth,
D maxm below high flood level = 2 x 16.11
= 32.22 m
Assuming the rise of flood level above the low water level = R = 20 m.
The maximum scour depth below low water level, Dmax = 32.22
20.00 =12.22 m
Width of launching apron
= 1.5 12.22 =
18.33 m
113

## As per IS code, the thickness of apron is to be 1.25 to 1.5 times the

thickness of pitching.
For example, if the thickness of pitching is 0.60 m
Thickness of apron all throughout
=1.5 T = 1.5 0.6 = 0.9m
Volume of stone in apron per unit length
= 2.25 (Dmax) T
= 2.25 12.22 0.6
= 16.49 cum
GROYNES OR SPURS
Groynes are structures constructed transverse to river flow and
extend from bank into the river and probably constitute the most
widely used training works. The river is trained along a desired
course by a attracting, deflecting or repelling spur. They can be
used singly but normally they are used in series. They can also be
used in combination with other training measures as well.
Groynes can be aligned either perpendicular to the bank line or to the
thalweg or at an angle pointing upstream or downstream. A groyne pointing upstream has the property of repelling the river flow away from it.
When the groyne, usually of short length, changes only the direction of
flow without repelling it, it is known as a deflecting spur and gives only
local protection. A groyne pointing downstream attracts the river flow and
is called an attracting spur. These spur actions are illustrated at Fig 5
Repelling spurs are usually successful in achieving the result if properly
located, with regard to location of meander length. The angle of deflection
upstream varies from 60 to 80 with the bank or 10 to 30 from the
perpendicular to bank line. Generally, the head of a repelling groyne causes
disturbance in the flow at its nose and heavy scour occurs downstream
due to eddy formation. They should, therefore, have strong head to resist
the direct attack. Spacing between spurs depends on the length protected
by each one in the series. In a straight reach, the bank protected is about 3
times the projected length, on a concave bank the spacing is lesser than
for convex bank. As a rough guide, the length of spur should be l/3rd of
the width of the river proposed to be trained.

114

As spurs are very expensive works and require continuous heavy maintenance, it would be desirable that their orientation, length, spacing and
location are determined on the basis of Hydraulic Model test, instead of
only site inspection and visits. On a model tray, they can be tested for all
type of flow conditions and the best orientation can be obtained which
can give the best results on the proto type.
The spurs or groynes can be impermeable / solid, permeable or semiimpermeable. The impermeable and semi-impermeable spurs are designed
to repel or deflect the flow along a desired course while the permeable
groynes dampen the velocity of flow to induce siltation in their vicinity.
PERMEABLE GROYNES / SPURS
Permeability of structure influences a damping action on the velocity of
flow as distinguished from the deflecting or repelling action of impermeable structure. Permeable groynes, therefore, fall into the class of
sedimenting groynes. They obstruct the flow and slacken it to cause deposition of sediment carried by the river. They are, therefore, best suited for
sediment carrying streams. In comparatively clear rivers, their action results in damping the erosive strength of the current and prevent local bank
erosion. As sediment accumulates between groynes, the fore shore become more or less permanent. These structures require only temporary or
semi-permanent construction. Permeable groynes have the important advantage of being cheap and experience has shown that they are more
effective than solid ones in the regulation of river courses or in the protection of banks or embankment, especially in silt-laden rivers as is the case
in Assam.
It has also been seen that in the case of deep and narrow rivers, where the
depth is considerable solid groynes become expensive and may cause
undesirable flow conditions. In such cases, permeable spurs can be effective in affording the necessary protection by damping velocities along the
bank. The common type of permeable groynes are i) tree groynes ii) pile
groynes.

115

Balli screens (Mandaks) are also constructed to dampen the velocities and
induce siltation. Their length is so adjusted that the area of flow is not
restricted beyond 50%. They consist of two rows of ballies driven 3 m
below river bed and top of the ballies is kept at low water level or 1 m
above LWL. These are braced with bamboos / ballies at the top and
bottom. At the bottom of ballies is placed a loose stone pavement of 0.6
m to 1 m high, 2-3 m top with side slope of 1:1 and nose slope of 2:1.
Beyond the river edge these are carried over to the bank on a slope of 2: 1.
On the berm, they are keyed into the ground by 5-10 m wide and 0.6 m
thick stone revetment. Plantation may also be done on the berm to induce
siltation.
The typical details of spur used at Dibrugarh Town Protection Works are
given in Fig 6.
PORCUPINES
Bamboo porcupines placed on a scouring bank in a line normal to the
flow have been successful in inducing siltation along the banks. These are
made of 3 m long bamboo tied together at the center in the form of a
space angle and are weighted by tying stones to the center These type of
porcupines could be developed into a permeable spurs tied through a wire
net. In silt laden rivers, it can induce sufficient siltation in one flood season. These have been successfully tried on many tributaries of Brahmaputra
to induce siltation
In addition, R.C.C. porcupines have also been very successfully used on
the rivers of shallow depth recently for diverting their flows. These are
RCC members of size 3 m length x 0.1 m width x 0.075 m height, as
shown at Fig 7.
BED BARS
A bed bar is a submerged structure dividing the flow horizontally. Flow
above top level of the bed bar is comparable with river flow, while flow
below top level is obstructed by the bar and diverted towards the nose as
in case of a full height spur.
116

## When the alignment of a bed bar is skewed, a pressure gradient is formed.

When bed bar is facing upstream, this pressure gradient helps sediment
deposition on the upstream side of the bar while the surface flow gets
deflected away from the bank. These bed bars facing upstream are accordingly used for bank protection. The bed bars could be about 1 m in
width and one boulder to one half boulder height in flexible wire mesh, laid
on the bed of the river above the low water level and connected to high
bank. Action of the bed bar facing upstream and downstream is shown at
Fig 8.
CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT
A stream may be made to carry higher discharge at lower levels (or
stage) by merely improving its hydraulic conditions. Such improvement
may be brought about by the following ways
(a) Increase in size of cross section
(b) Realigning the channel alignment to shorter route
(c) Increasing velocity of flow in channel
(d) Removing deficiency of water ways
(a) Increase in size of cross section
This method of increasing size of cross section to cater for higher
designated flood without spilling over the bank is practicable from the
economic standpoint only for channels of small streams carrying manageable high flood discharge. In case of larger and longer rivers such method
is generally impracticable on account of excessive cost and also the difficulty of disposing off the spoils from the channels over the developed
areas in drainage crossing.
(b) Realigning the channel alignment to shorter route
The realigning of the channel through a shorter route is practicable
only in case of smaller streams, due to more or less reasons as stated
above.

117

## (c) Increasing velocity of flow in channel

The velocity of flow in the channel can be increased by deepening,
strengthening and shortening the channel length by cut off, removing barriers in the channel section and lining the channel. These measures my,
however, be adopted keeping in view the practical feasibility as well as
cost.
(d) Removing deficiency of water ways
The inadequacy in the waterways of bridges, culverts and cross
drainage works may result in aggravating the flood situation. These obstructions to the channel are often man made and can be avoided by
proper evaluation of ultimate drainage requirement of the basin at the time
of any proposed crossing across drainage.
All these methods tend to reduce the prevailing water level (or stage)
for the corresponding flood discharge with the result that after adopting
the measures of channel improvement, the banks of the channel are not
overtopped or less frequently overtopped during high flood discharge,
thereby providing protection to previously flooded area.
It may however be noted that although the channel improvement is
a well recognized method for flood control, it should be adopted with
caution. This is due to the fact that the measures for improving channel
capacity are essentially local protection measures which may increase flood
magnitude at down stream areas on account of accelerated flow or run off
from the upper improved reaches of the channel. Hence, unless well planned
and programmed, channel improvement works may merely shift the flood
problem from one area to the other.

118

Legend
F=
Free board
R=
Rise of flood water above low water level
Dmax = Depth of scour for calculation of apron stone
T=
Thickness of slope stone
S=
Thickness of filter

Fig: 2 Plot showing the size of apron stone Vs Velocity (IS Specification)

119

Legend
F=
Free board
R=
Rise of flood water above low water level
Dmax = Depth of scour for calculation of apron stone
T=
Thickness of slope stone
S=
Thickness of filter

Fig: 2 Plot showing the size of apron stone Vs Velocity (IS Specification)

120

## Fig: 4 Typical revetment used for protection of bank against erosion

121

122
Fig: 5 Spar action in river flow condition

## Fig. 6 Details of spur used at Dibrugarh Town Protection Works.

123

124
Fig: 7 Details of a R. C. C. Porcupine

125

## Typical items for Raising and Strengthening of embankment

Note: The specifications used in the items, rates and quantities are indicative
only and they should be determined on the basis of analysis of rate specific
to field condition. The quantities should be determined based on actual
design of the project.
A. Preliminary
B. Land

Rs....................
Nil

## 1. Cutting Light jungles and trees

including cutting, uprooting roots
and stumps and removing them
from the site of work etc complete
as directed.
Quantity = ..................................m2
@ Rs. .................... per m2

Rs....................

## 2. Falling of trees, uprooting of roots

and stamps upto the 50m below the
ground including removing the same
from the site of work etc.
completed as directed.
a. Trees above 50cm to100cm in girth
Qnty= ................. (As per statement)
@Rs.....................No

Rs. ..................

## 3. Dismantling of existing pucca strips

on the crest of the dyke including
removing and utilizing the same on
the nearest ramp at different
chainage of the Dibrugarh Town
protection Dyke etc.complete as
directed .

126

Quantity= ...............................m2
@ Rs. .................... per m2

Rs. ......................

## 4. Earth work in embkt by truck

carriage in all kinds of soil excluding
sandy/Rocky soil free from roots
and vegetation and filling in uniform
layers not exceeding 22 c.m. thick
including cutting and clearing light
jungles and trees up to 50 c.m girth
ploughing or benching the seat dug
belling, profiling and breaking clods
up to 25mm. Cube watering, if
necessary dressing as per design
section including payment of
compensation, for borrowing earth
from private land or forest royalty
if any etc. complete as directed
(10%will be deducted from
measurement on account of
shrinkage)for earth to be carried
from a distance of 4 Km. to 8 Km.
Qnty: ........................... m(As per
statement)
@Rs.................... m

Rs. ........................

## 5. Turfing with grass sods of largest

possible rectangle of 12 cm
minimum thickness placed closely
including dressing earth pagging
ramming and watering til the grass
grows for lead upto 9cm in all lift
completed as directed
Qnty: ...........................m
@ Rs. ......................... per m

Rs........................

127

## 6. Earth work in excavation for

foundation tranches ,walls ,retaining
walls, footing & column, steps,
septic tank including refilling
(Return filling ) the quantity as
necessary after completion of work
breaking clods in return filling
dressing, watering and ramming etc.
and removal of surplus earth with
all leads and lift asdirected and
specified in following classification
of soils bailing out water where
necessary as directed as specified .
In hard /dense soils
For Ch. ................
For Ch. ................
(As per A.P.W.D. 2004-05 Sl no 1.1 (B))
Total quantity = ..................... m
@Rs..........................per m

Rs. ........................

## 7. Plain cement concrete work with

coarse aggregate of size 13mm
to31mm in foundation bed for
footing , steps ,walls ,brick work,
etc. as directed & specified
including curing complete.
(Shuttering where necessary shall
be measured seperetly) in prop1:4:8
( As per A.P.W.D. 2004-05
Sl no2.1.1.(b)
Total quantity = .........................m
@Rs.........................per m

Rs..........................

128

## 8. Providing form work of ordinary

timber planking so as to give rough
finish including centering shuttering
and propping etc. height of
propping and centering below
smoothing floor to celling removal
of the same insitu reinforced
concrete and plain concrete.
a.Sub structure up to plinth level
Foundation, footing, based of
columns, tie beam pile capraft, walls
of septic tank
Using 25mm thick plank
Total quantity = ..................... m
( As per A.P.W.D. 2004-05
Sl no 3.1.1.3.(ii))
2
@Rs......................... per m

Rs.........................

## 9. Providing and laying plain/

reinforced cement concrete1:2:4
including curing complete but
excluding cost of form work and
reinforced cement concrete work
(Form work and reinforce will be
measured separately)
a)In Substructure up to plinth level.
Foundation, footing column with
base, tie and plinth beam, pile cap,
base slab retaining walls, walls of
septic tank, inspection pit and other
works not less than 10mm thick up
to plinth level.
For
Total quantity = ..................... m
( As per A.P.W.D. 2004-05
Sl no2.2.1.(b)(i)
@Rs. ............................ per m

Rs.......................
129

## 10. Supply fitting and fixing in position

reinforcement bars conforming to
relevant 1.5 code for R.C.C. works
/R.B walling including strengthening
clearing cutting and banding to
proper shape and length asper
details , supplying and binding with
20G ,annealed black wire and
placing in position with proper
block ,supports etc completed as
directed (upto 1st floor level)
M.S rod
Qnty: ..........................Quintal
(As per statement)
@ Rs................... per Quintal
( As per A.P.W.D. 2004-05
Sl no18.1.1.(b)(i))

Rs........................

## 11. Collection and supply of hard

broken metal from river boulder of
size 19mm to 38 mm free from dust
and dirt and other foreign materials
and debris ,screening and stacking
in suitable stacks at site of work
including forest royalty (sale tax etc)
complete as directed.
For crest : ..................... m
For ramp : .................... m
Total = ........................ m
@Rs...................... per m

Rs. .....................

## 12. Labour for spreading stacks ,meatal

/sand gravel over the crest and
slope of trimmed bank in uniform
layers of 15 cm thick including
130

## dressing ramming complete where

necessary & clearing debries etc
directed
Quantity = .............................. m
( As per item no-10 )
@ Rs. ........................... per m

Rs. ........................

## 13 Local carriage of boulder/ metal by

embankment where heavy trucks
not accessible within a distance of
Quantity = ....................... m (As
per statement)
@Rs....................../m

Rs. ........................

## 14. Ramming of earth work in all kind

of soil except rocky soil layer of
15cmlay manual labour with iron
hammer complete as directed
Qnty: .......................... m
@ Rs.................... /m

Rs . .......................
Total

Rs. .........................

Contingency 1 %
Total

Rs. ........................

131

## Typical items for construction of stone spurs, submersible spurs

and continuous boulder revetment
Note: The specifications used in the items, rates and quantities are indicative
only and they should be determined on the basis of analysis of rate specific
to field condition. The quantities should be determined based on actual
design of the project.
Item of work

Rate

A. Preliminary
B. Land
C. Works

Amount
Rs.........................
Nil

## Item no-1: Collection and supply

of one man size boulder from
approved quarry of size 30cm. free
from dust, dirt &other foreign
materials including carriage &
stacking in regular measurable
stacks at site of work or as directed
complete including payment of
forest royalty, sales tax etc.
complete as directed.
Qnty: ................... m

Rs................/m

## Item no-2: Galvd. Wire netting sheet

made of 8G. 152 square mesh wire
in sheets 2.67m x 1.66mlongitudinal
wire of 152mm center etc. and
transverse wire at 152mm center,
76mm projection of each wire in all
sides beyond the net size (2.42m x
1.61m) having knot of 12 gauge wire
Qnty: ................... nos

Rs................/no Rs......................

132

Rs......................

## Item no-3 Collection of hand broken

stone metal from river boulder of
size 19cm to 38 cm free from all
dust, dirt and other debris and
screening, stacking in suitable stacks
at quarry site including payment of
forest royalty, sale tax etc. complete
as directed.
Qnty: ................... m

Rs................/m

Rs......................

## Item no-4: Earth work in bank

trimming to designed section, slope
including removing the deposit soil
and deposit in the bank or toe of
the embankment in repairing the
dyke as directed by the department
including clearing light jungle &
foreign materials with all leads and
lift complete as directed.
Qnty: ........... m (St.no................) Rs................/m

Rs......................

## Item no-5: Earth work in excavation

in embankment section in the form
of a trenches in all kind of soil to
proper grade and slope as required
depositing the excavated soil by the
side of the trenches and refilling to
be done in layers not exceeding
22cm. thick including breaking
clods upto 25mm cube proper
ramming to proper compaction and
dressing the site to proper slope etc.
complete as directed.
Qnty: ................... m

Rs......................

Rs................/m

133

## Item no-6: Labour charge for

dumping river boulder in cages
of wire mesh of size (1.57m x
1.66m) two sheets made into one
one cage (to be supply by the
department free of cost) making the
cage by tying the projected ends,
filling boulder inside the cage and
launching the same in places as
directed including all handling
charges & local carriage of boulder
from distance of 150m.
(a) Without boat Qnty= ............. m
(b) With boat Qnty= ................. m Rs.............../m
Rs.............../m

Rs......................
Rs......................

## Item no-7: Labour charge for laying

& pitching boulder of size 23cm to
30cm (man size) including dressing
the seat, ramming as per proper size
and slope, hand picked properly
including local carriage of boulder
from a distance 150m complete as
directed.
Qnty: ................... m

Rs................/m

Rs......................

## Item no.8: Labour charge for laying

15cm thick filter backing bellow
revetement with broken stone
aggregate/gravel of size 19mm to
38mm size including laying the stone
in position hand packing including
carriage of stone/gravel from a
distance of 15 m etc complete as
directed
Qnty: ................... m

Rs................/m

Rs......................

134

## Item no-9 : Local carriage of

boulder/ metal by mini trucks on
heavy trucks not accessible within
a distance of 1 K.M. including
as directed.
Qnty=a.boulder = .....................m
b.metal = .....................m3
3
= .................... m3 Rs................./m

Rs. ......................

## Item no-10:Collection and supply

of sand gravel from approved
quarry (Dillighat) containing 60%
sand and 40% gravel free from
dust dirt and any foreign materials
including necessary carriage,
measurable stacks at the site of
work including payment of forest
royalty, sale tax, monopoly charges
etc. complete as directed (For
Qnty = Covering avg. dist. From ramp to spur
length = ...............m
Thickness = ...............m
Width = .............m
& no of spur = ......... nos
Qnty = ...............................m
Rs. ............./m3 Rs.........................

135

## Item no-11: Supply of ordinary

Labour for maintenance of
period
............. nos of labours for
............. months in a year for total
period of ................ year
Qnty = .................. man days
@Rs............ +10%
constructors profit)

Rs. ............/each

## Item no-12 : Supply of Wooden

Platform for dumping of cages from
Boat
Qnty: .................. nos

## Rs. ............../no Rs. ......................

Total

Rs......................

Rs.........................

## 1.5% contingency Rs.........................

Total
Rs.........................

## Grand Total Say Rs.........................

Water Resourses Deptt.

136

IRRIGATION CANNALS
- Mr. Dulal Chaudhuri
Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the Soil usually for arresting
in growing Crops. In Crops Production it is mainly used in dry areas and in
periods of rainfall shortfall. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage,
which is natural or artificial removal of surface and subsurface water from a given
area. Sources of Irrigation water can be ground water expected by using wells
and Surface water with drawn from rivers, lakes or reservoirs.
Canals are artificial channels for water used for the purpose of irrigation
activities. The engineering concept of efficiency at different level of a canal is
important planning, designing and even operating a canal irrigation system. There
are different types of canals such as Earthen canals Brick Canals etc.
WATER
v Water has always been an integral part of the developmental activities of
the human society as it is essential for sustaining all forms of life.
v Out of the total free water on earth amounting to 1370 million cubic kilometers, only 8.2 million cubic kilometer is available as fresh water, the bulk
quantity of which is ground water.
v Therefore, proper management of this essential commodity is a universal
requirement.
STRESS ON AVAILABLE LAND AND WATER IN INDIA
YEAR

POPULATION

## PER CAPITA WATER

AVAILABILITY
5410 m3

1951

361 million

1991

846 million

2309 m3

2001

1027 million

1902 m3

2025

1286 million

1519 m3

2050

1346 million

1451 m3
137

Note:
v per capita water availability < 1700 m3 Water stressed
v per capita water availability < 1000 m3 Water scarce
NATURE OF AVAILABLE WATER IN INDIA
v Bulk of the water in the country, both surface and ground is obtained from
rainfall
v Very wide spatial and temporal variation of rainfall in the country
v As much as 21% of the area of the country receives less than 750mm of
rainfall annually while 15% receives rainfall in excess of 1500 mm
v Precipitation is generally higher in the Eastern side (reaches nearly to 2500
mm over most of Assam and sub-Himalayan West Bengal). Rainfall in
large areas of peninsular India is less than 600 mm.
v The rainfall occurs only in a few months of monsoon and that too in a
spells of intense and heavy rains.
v Nearly three quarter of the rainfall in the country occurs in a less than 120
days during the monsoon months of June to September.
What is Irrigation?
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to land for supplementing the naturally available moisture in the root zone soil for the purpose of agricultural productivity
WHAT IS IRRIGATION
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to land for supplementing the
naturally available moisture in the root zone soil for the purpose of agricultural productivity
NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION
Availability of food grains are becoming acute due to pressure of population and
Indifferent weather conditions in one or the other part of the world
138

IRRIGATION IN ASSAM
The narrow and elongated valley portion of the river Brahmaputra in Assam
is the only plain area suitable for irrigation.
The contribution of agriculture sector to the overall economic development
of Assam has been fifty percent and this emphasizes the need for
development of irrigation in the state.
As most of the crops in Assam are grown under rain fed condition, its
agricultural production depends on the variation in rainfall.
VARIATION OF RAINFALL IN ASSAM
Studies on the variation of rainfall in the state shows that middle region of
the Brahmaputra valley receive comparatively less rainfall than the extreme
parts of the valley due to unfavourable physiographic condition.
A comparison of the annual total precipitation in these two regions indicate
the presence of a high rainfall centre at North Lakhimpur and a low rainfall
centre at Lumding.
MAJOR CROPS IN ASSAM
The major field crops raised in Assam include rice, wheat, maize and other
cereals, pulses, oilseed, jute, sugar cane and potato.
The horticultural crops grown in the state are fruit crops, plantation crops,
tuber crops, spices and vegetable.
Rice is by far the most important crop of Assam occupying an area of
25.80 lakh hectares or about 80% of the total cropped area.
As per the statistics of 1981-82, the state has a total cropped area of 3,460
thousand hectares constituting about 44.6% of the total reported area of
the state.
AREA COVERED BY IRRIGATION IN ASSAM
Up to the end of financial year 1990-91, irrigation had been extended to an
aggregate area of 5.0 lakh hectares of cropped land.
Of this area, government sponsored medium and minor irrigation schemes
accounted for 1.49 lakh hectares and 2.77 lakh hectares, respectively.
The remaining 1.44 lakh hectares were covered by privately sponsored
shallow tube wells and surface lift irrigation schemes.
139

## IRRIGATION POTENTIAL IN ASSAM

Of the total cumulative irrigation potential created so far in Assam, 70%
was created for Kharif season and only 30% for Rabi season.
In fact, Assam being a high rainfall zone and rainfall concentrated in the
Kharif season, it is the Rabi crop that is in greater need of irrigation facilities.
This is a major lacuna in the trend of irrigation development in Assam.
NEED FOR MORE STORAGE & DIVERSION TYPE OF IRRIGATION SCHEMES
Most of the installed irrigation schemes in the state do not have provision
for storage of irrigation water.
With the changing land use scenario, the need for storage based irrigation
projects is strongly felt.
At the same time, the inadequacy of the existing river diversion type of
irrigation schemes in substantially augmenting agricultural production, which
has been stagnating over the years, is now better appreciated.
SOURCE OF IRRIGATION IN ASSAM
q

Brahmaputra river system is the main source of surface water for irrigation.

It carries an average yield of about 60 million ha-m (420 million acre feet),
which can be further supplemented by considerable ground water reserves.

## TYPES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Gravity irrigation
Run of the river scheme
storage schemes
Pumped Irrigation
Lift irrigation
Tube well irrigation
Tidal Irrigation or flood irrigation
Other methods
Country bunds, delta irrigation
140

METHODS OF IRRIGATION
Surface irrigation
Flooding
Free or uncontrolled
Border method
Contour levee or check method
Basin method
Furrow irrigation
Deep Furrow method
Corrugation method
Sprinkler irrigation
Drip or trickler irrigation
CLASSIFICATION OF CANALS

Main canal
Canal takes its supply directly from the head works. Normally no irrigation is carried out from a main channel

Branch canal
Canal taking off from a main canal or from another branch canal and
having a head capacity of not less than 30 cumec

Distributor channel
Channel taking off from a main or branch canal or from another distributory
having a head capacity (a) under 30cumec and above 2.5 cumec (Major
Distributory) (b) under 2.5 cumec minor distributory

## These are small channels generally constructed by cultivators themselves.

They run from a outlet provided in a branch or distributiory channel and convey
water to individual fields

141

142

## Cost of Construction of Earthen Canal

Earth work is filling in marginal bund/guide bund/afferent bund canal embankment
etc. to the designed Section and grade attaining earth from outside borrow fill and filling
in uniform layer not exceeding 15cm thick ramming , watering,
draining and roughening the seat of embankment profilline etc. and paying the
compensation of earth borrowed from prinate or forest land if any up to 30 Metros and
lift up to 1.5 metros complete as directed.
Volume of Work=2 Width of top lenel of embankment+ width of Bottom Canal embankment
2
Height of the embankment Lenth of the Canal
Cost of Construction = Volume of work Schedule Rate ( Govt. of Assam)

## Cost of Construction of Brick Canal

A.

Brick work in Cement mortar with 1st class brick as directed in foundation,
retaining walls plinth including curing in proportion 1:3.

Volume of Work = 2 height of brick wall thickness of brick wall length of Canal.
Cost of Construction=Volume of work Schedule Rate ( Govt. of Assam)
B.

Soling I foundation floor at all level, septic tank etc. including filling the base
etc.
Area of Work
= Length of the canal Width of Canal.
Cost of Construction = Area of work Schedule Rate ( Govt. of Assam)

C.

## 12mm thick Cement plastering including surface and curing etc. in

proportion 1:4 .
Area of work = 2 height of brick wall length ofCanal+2thickness of brick
wall length of Canal.
Cost of Construction =Area of work Schedule Rate ( Govt. of Assam)

143

D. Earth work
Volume of work =2

2

## Eastimate of Earthen Canal (Diagram 1)

V=2 x H x L x (BB+BT)/2
Cost of Earthen Work = V x SR
(SR - Standard rate of Assam Govt.)
= V x Rs 59.58

144

V = Volume of Work
H = height of Canal
L = Length of Work
BB= Breath of top level of canal
embankment
BT= Breath of bottom level of
canal embankment

## Eastimate of Brick Canal

A. Brick Work
V= 2 x H x L x T

V = Volume of Work
H = height of Canal
L = Length of Work
T = Thickness of Brick Wall

## Cost of Brick Work = V x Rs 3371.32

B. Soling of Canal
A=LxB

A = Area of Work
L = Length of Work
B = Breath of Canal

## C. 12mm thick Cement Plastering

A1 = 2 x H x L
A2 = 2 x T x L
Total A = A1 + A2
Cost of plastering Work = A x Rs 86.03

D. Earthen Work
V = 2 x H x L x (BB + BT)/2

A1 = Area of Plasering
side of
canal
A2 = Area of plastering
top of
canal
A = Total area
H = height of Canal
L = Length of Canal
T = Length of Canal
T = Thinkness of Bricking
work
B = Breath of Canal

145

BT

BT

Earth

Earth

H
G.L

BB

BB

## Diagram 1. Earthen Canal

Earth

Brick wall
Soling

Earth
G.L

BB

BB
Diagram 2. Brick Canal

146

261 M 1
- 0 A
1 1 1
- 1 g 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 90
1 1n
1n 1 1 c 1 1
3 1 1 1n 1 X
1n 1 1 1 1n 1 1 1n 1
1 11 1
1 1 70 1n 30 1 1
11 11 1
11 1, 1 1 1 1 1
1 11 11 1
1n 1n 1n
M U v1 , 1
M
1 1
[2001], 2025 2.5 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
i 1 1 400 1 1 1
1 187 1 1 1 1 1 5
11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
11 1n 1 1 1 21 1 1
147

1M 1 11 11 Z1 1 1 1
1 1 1 M1 1 11
2030 1 1 1 LM
1 306 1 X 1 5
1 [1, 1 1n ] 1

26
26 1 G , 1
S 1 1 =
11 1 1 , 1, 1 1
261 1 1 1 261
1 1 1 11 1
1 1 1 1 1
=1 1 26 26
1n 1 1 1 1
1n Z1 1 y pS 26
1 26, 1, - 1
26 11 26 M
1 11 , 1 1n 1 26
M 26 1 , 1
26 M
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1n 1 1 1 26
1 1n 11 1n
148

1 26 1n
1 M 1 1 , 1, 1 1n 1 1
1 26, V 1 11 1 M1 i1
1n 1 i 1 1
1 11 S Q 1
26 1 11 1 1 11
1n 1 1 M1 V 1 Z1 1 1
1 1 1 1,
, ^ 1 1
, , 1, 1 Z1 M 1 1
1 1 26
M 1n 1 11 Z1 M 1
1

11
1 1 2000 1 1 1n 1 1 1
400 1 1 1 187 1 1 1
1n 1 89 11 1 1 1 M
1 1 1 1 55 1 1
1 + 1 1
11 1n 11 Z1 21 1 1
1 11 1 34 1 1 1 1 1
M 11 1n 1 1 t
1 M 1n 1

149

1 1 65 11 1 1 11
1 1 1 1 1 40 11 1
1n 1 1 1n 1 11+
1 2250 1 1 1 1 65 1 1 51
1 1 11 1n 3-4
1 1 11 1
1n 1 1 11 1
1 y 11 1 200-250 ..
1 11 y
11 1 1 11 1
1 , (1 1 M1 1
1 1 , 1
1 11+ 2005 11 1 1 11
1 1+ 1 1 1
1 = 1 &1 3 11 1
1 5 11 1n 11 Z1
11 1 11 U 1 1

11
11 1
1] 1 1 1
2] [ 1]
1] 1 1 111 1 1 1
1 1 11 1 1 1
150

1n 1 1 1
21 [KI1] - 21
1 1n 1
1
[] -
11 1n 1
[1] - 1 1 1
1 1 1n 1 1 1 1

S1 g [ g] - 1 1 Si 1 1 g
1 1 1n 1 1 1 1

21 11 g [KI1 g]
g]- 21 1
g 1 g g1 1 1n 1
X - , S1 1 M g1 1M
11 1 1 y 1 1 g
1M 1 1 1 1
1 1, 1M 1 1n 1
1n [ ] - V 1n 1Q
1 1 1 1 1 g 11 11 1
1 1 S 1 1n 1

151

1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1
X 11 1 1 1 ij
1 1 1M = 1 1
1 1 1 1 1n 1 1

1 g - 1 g
g 1 1 11 1 1
g g1 11 1 1 1 g1
1 1 1 1
1
2 11
1 11 U1U1 1 1 1n
1 1 1 1 1 1 1M 11 1
1 1 1 1 1
- 11
1 , 1 ,
1 1 1 1 1n 1 1
=1 1 1 1
1 - , 1n 1
1 11 1 11 3
1 11 1 11 1n
11 1 1 11 1
1 =1 1 1 1n 1 1 X1 1
1 1 1 11 1 1
152

1 1n |1 11 , 1 1n
1
11 1 1 - 11 11 1 1 1
1, 1 1 , , , , 1 Z1 1 1 11
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 , 11 1 1
1 1
1 - 11 1 X 1 1
1 1 1 1
11 g 1 1 1 M 1
1 1 1 1 U 1 1
1M 1
1 1 - 1 1 1 11 , , ,
, 1 1 11 1 11
1 M 1n 1 1 S
1 1 11 1 1
1n 1 11 1 1n i

153

1 11 1 [[100
100 11 ]
1 KI1 , 77.00 15 1 | 1155.00
2 1 , 1 1 [30X 30 ..]
500 10.00
500.00
3 , 11 1 77.00 5
385.00
4 1n1 1 1
100.00
5 1
60.00
6700.00
1 1 1

1 g 1 1
1 11 1 [10 . X 1.0 10.0 .]
8904.00 1 10 11
8.90
2 g g 1.5 1 [9.00 X 12 ]2 X 1.5
15.75 [ 1 ] - 0.75 15.00 X 10
150.00 . 74.00
11,100.00
[5 X 9] 2 X 2 X 10 140
10,920.00
76.00
3 1 [3 X 2] 2 X 0.5 X 10
12.5
46.00
575.00
4 g1 1.5 [3 X 1] 2 X 1 X 10
20 74.00
1480.00
5 1 1 1 1
5.25 X 2 X 10 105 1
19.001
1995.00
5 1 [5 ]
1303.90
27382.85
1

154

1 1 g1 1 [ 1]
1
2

## 1 1 - 12.8 X 1 12.801 0.89 1

1 g 1
1 [912]2 X 1.50 15.75 1 X 1.
15.75 74.00 . .
2 1.5 11 1
[59]2 X 2 X 1 14 . 78.00.
1 1 2 X 1 X 4.25 10.50 1
19.00 1

8.90

1165.50
1092.00

199.50
2465.90
1 [5 ] 123.30
1 2588.20

1 1 i1 1 [1 ]
1 1.5 . 1
[36.5235.02]2 X [36.5335.03]2 X 0.75 . 959.89 1
[34.0232.52]2 X [34.0332.53]2 X 0.75 . 830.42 1
[959.89830.42] 1790.31 ..
57.00 ..
102047.67
2 1 [5 ]
5102.38
1 107150.05

## 15.75 [ 1 ] - 0.75 15.00 .

150.00 . 74.00 .

10
11,100.00

155

1 1 1 [1 1 ]
1 , 1 1
[36.5235.02.]2 X [36.5135.01.]2 X 0.75 . 959.35 ..
[34.0232.52.]2 X [34.0132.51.]2 X 0.75 . 829.92 ..
[959.35 .. 829.92 ..] 1789.27 ..
46.00 ..
82,306.42
2 1 1
365 . X 2.83 . 1007 1
19.00 1
19133.00
3 1 [5 ]
5071.00
1 106511.40

1 [21.21 .]
1 1n
3.1428 X 1.00 3.1428 . X 3 9.4284 ..
3.1428 X 1.25 3.9285 . X 3 11.7855 ..
[9.4284 .. 11.7855 ..] 21.2139 ..
46.00 ..
2 1n a 1
7.07 . X 3.00 . 21.21 1 X 0.25 .
5.3 .. 3339.00 ..
3 1 [5 ]

156

975.84

17696.70
18672.54
933.63
19606.17

21 M I1 g1 1 [170 1]
1 1 gg1 1 1.5 1 ]
[3 . 1 .]2 X 1 .] X 170 . 340 1
12.5 M 1 42.5 ..
[340-42.5] 297.5 .. 74.00 ..
2 I , ,
, - 2
30 .. 1 306.00 . X 2.5 . X 2
1 216.00
U 276.00 1 [5 .]
3 1 1
1.41 . X 100 . 141 . 19.00 .
4 [5 ]

22015.00

1532.00
216.00
1391.00
2679.00
27822.00
1391.00
29213.00

S1 g1 1 [100 1]
1 1 g g 1 [1.5 1 ]
[4.3 .1.5 .2 X 1.4 . X 200 . 8120 1
1 12.5 M 1012.5 ..
[8120-1012.5]710.5 .. 74.00 ..
2 I []
, 3
90 .. 1 2922 . X 2.5 . X 2
1 1 370.00
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19.00 1
4 [5 ]

52577.00

14410.00
370.00
1380.00

14446.00
83383.58
4169.18
87552.76
157

11 1 1 1 [150 1]
1 1 gg1 1 1.5 1 ]
[3 . 2 .]2 X 0.50 . X 1. 1.25 1
46.00 .
2 1 1
4.25 . X 4.25 . 18.06 1
182.00 1
3 11 1
4.60 . X 4.30 . X 0.25 .
4.95 . 3193.00 .
4 1 1 1
13.40 . X 12.95 . 51.25 .
198.00 1
5 10 . 120.00 .
6 11 1
4.6 . X 1 . X 4
18.4 1
4.0 . X 1 . X 4
16.0 1
4.3 . X 0.3 . X 4
5.16 1
4.0 . X 4.0 .
16.0 1
1
55.56 1
72.00 1
7 [5 ]

517.50

3286.92

15805.35

10147.50
120.00

4000.32
34957.09
1747.85
36704.98

1 i 1 1 [ 1]
1 11 1 1.0 1 0.89 1
2 1n , 1
[5.003.00 . 2 X 1 . 4.0 . 47.00 .
3 1

158

0.89
184.00
184.89
9.24
1 194.93

1 1
1 1

11 1 [. .]

1
1

1600
1800

30.2-170.2
40.0-50.0

11 1
1

1600

24.0-62.6
32.9-45.0

11 1

1600

16.8

1600

10.83

1500

0.04-0.52

1600

83.8

1500

1n 1 , 1n
1 1
t 1 2.5 qX 1 1
68.9% , 0.9% 29.9% 1n 1n 11 0.3% 1
11 1 1 X 1n 1
1 1 X 1 - 1
1n 11 M 26 = , 1 1
1 S 1 , 26 S
26 , , 11 26 26 5 1
1 - 11 , , , , 1n
, 21 M 11 X 1
1 X 1 1. 11 11 1 1 1 1
=1 1 1 1
1 1 , 1 1 1
1 11 1 1n 1 =1 1 1
2 1 11 1 1 M
I1 1n g 21 1 1 g ,
1 1+ g 1 1 1 11 I1 g 1n I1
159

g g 1 1
g 1 1n 11 1 ,
3 1n
11 1 La 1 1n
1M g 1 U 11
1 1 1 1 1 1 1n
5 1n 11 1 S 1
1 1 1n 1 1
11 i 1 1
1 1 1 , 1 1 11 1
1 1 1 , , 1n 1 U1
1 1 , 1 1
1
261 M = 1 11 1 1 2
1n 1 1 - -
1 1 1n 1
1 -, 1, , - 1
, , 1 ,1 1 , - 1n 1
1 11 1 1 1n 11 1
-1 1 20 n11 1 11
1 1 1 1n 11 11 1
11 1 11 1n 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 y
11 1 1 - 1 1 1n 1
1 11 1 1n 1 11 1 1 1
11 1 1 1 1n 1
1 1 1- 1 1 M 1 1 1 1
1U 11 : ij 1 1 1
160

261 1 1n 11 1n La1 1
1 , 11 1n 1

1
-
- V1
- 1 3
- U1
- 1
- 1
- 11 1
- 1 La-

La1
1
- 1
- 1
- I1
-
- X
- 1

1
- 11
- 1
- I1 g
- g

-
- 1
- 1 1

26 1n 1n 11 - 1 1 1n 1 1
- 1M 261 1 26 1
- , -1 1 1 Z1 g1 Z1
- M 11 5 1 , 1 1n 1 1 11
11 (Water harvesting tank ) 1 =1 1 1
- -1- 1 1 1
- 1 1n 1 1 1 1 1
- : ij , 1n 11 1
- 1 1 1 1
- 1n =1 1
1-- 1U 1 1, 1n
1 1, 1 1 1 - 1 1
11 1 - 1 1 1 1U
1n 11 M 1 1 1 1 1 Z1 1
1 1 1
161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

## DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FARM

- Mr. B.K. Bhattacharjyee
Site Selection

## The availability of abundant and assured quantity of good water at low

cost is basic need for proper planning and design of fish farms

## It is desirable to construct ponds along irrigation canals, springs, nullahs,

lakes and convenient to construct ponds in water logged areas, commanded areas or in marginal lands.

## In this areas, construction of ponds are much cheaper mainly because of

the limited depth of cutting

When it is difficult to get the water table near the GL throughout the year, it
is necessary to cut deeper in view of locating water for a longer period
which leads to higher expenditure owing to greater excavation and utilization of excess earth.

## However full consideration is to be given to the effects of flood, sudden

accumulation of water due to heavy rains, in case ponds are constructed
in low lying areas to get the above water holding benefit due to less excavation.

Earthwork

Masonry work

Piping work

Fencing work

177

V= D/6(A+4B+C)
Where,

## V= Volume of earth in excavation in cubic metres

A= Area of ground level from where the earth cut starts in square metres

## D= Depth of excavation in metres

Dyke Construction

Dyke Foundation
Raising of Dyke
Dyke top Width
Dyke side slope
Inlet and Outlet arrangement
Dyke Settlement and Protection
Provision of free board

Dyke Foundation

The ground top soil of the dyke profile contains large amount of unwanted bushes, vegetation, organic matter

## When depth is filled by soil for construction of dyke , it provides a good

bond
Raising of Dyke

After filling of the foundation trench soil is being added in layers on centre
of the dyke with natural angle of repose up to maximum height of the dyke
The soil must be at its optimum moisture content to minimize the settlements

178

At this condition , void ratio in the soil will also be minimum which renders soil non porous

## Dyke top Width

The dyke top width is decided by taking its use into consideration

## Generally 2-2.5 m width is provided

Minimum top width is 1.5m against the height of 2.00m of the dyke

Maximum top width is 4.0m against the height of 5.00-8.00m of the dyke

## Dyke side slope

The side slope of ponds dyke is necessary for stability of the dyke

## The flatter the slope , the more stable it is

If the soil is laid as per its natural angle of repose , the slope will be more
stable

Usually slope between 1.5( H): 1( V) for clayey soil and 2.0( H): 1( V) is
provided for loamy soil and 3.0( H): 1( V) for sandy soil

## Inlet and Outlet arrangement

Arrangement for water Inlet and Outlet to the pond is provided on the
dyke itself

Generally the inlet system is provided above the maximum water level of
the pond

PVC or GI pipe with valves are used for inlet system which is connected
to the main supply channel of the farm

The outlet is provided at the minimum water level of the pond. It may be
PVC or GI pipe with valve. The system is connected to drainage channel
of the farm

## However, an overflow pipe with screen is provided at the maximum water

level as factor of safety.

179

## Inlet and Outlet arrangement

Arrangement for water Inlet and Outlet to the pond is provided on the
dyke itself

Generally the inlet system is provided above the maximum water level of
the pond

PVC or GI pipe with valves are used for inlet system which is connected
to the main supply channel of the farm

The outlet is provided at the minimum water level of the pond. It may be
PVC or GI pipe with valve. The system is connected to drainage channel
of the farm

## However, an overflow pipe with screen is provided at the maximum water

level as factor of safety.

## Ponds (excavated/ natural)

- Community ponds

## Other low-lying areas like

- Swamps and marshes

180

These water bodies are of varied size, shape and depth; yet they can be
suitably renovated for undertaking scientific fish culture

## Renovation of traditional water bodies for scientific aquaculture

Most traditional water bodies of Assam are of varied size, shape and
depth
- They need to be modified to manageable size, shape, depth for undertaking scientific fish culture

## Most traditional water bodies do not have a dyke

- This warrants construction of a dyke for protection of stocked fishes
especially in flood-prone areas
Most traditional water bodies have accumulated organic detritus which
leads to deterioration of soil and water quality, algal blooms, etc. These
accumulated debris needs to be removed

Type of pond

Size

Depth

Nursery pond

0.02-0.06 ha

0.75-1m

Rearing pond

0.06-0.12 ha

1.0-1.5m

Stocking pond

0.26-2.0 ha

2.0-2.5m

181

## Table 2: Recommended side slope for excavated ponds in various kinds of

soils up to 3 m depth
Nature of soil

Side slopes

1:1

2:1

Loose earth

3:1

3:1

Stiff clay

1:1

3/4:1

## Table 3: Design particulars for various dyke heights.

182

1 11 1n d 1
: ij 1n 1 i 11 11 1 , ,1
1 : 1 1 1 i V 1 1
1 1 1+ , 1 11 1
1 1 1 1 1 11 1 , 1n 1 i 11 1
1 X 1 1 1n : ij 1 1n 1
1 11
11
1 1 1n &1nQ M 1
11 1 M 1 11 1 1 1 1 1n
2 1 1 1n 1n 11 1 1
11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 =
1 11
1 1 1 1 1 -1 1
1 1n 1 1 1 , , 1,
11 1 1 1 ,
^ 11 1 1
1 1 11 1 x1 1n g
1 M 1 }X1 1 1 11 }1 1
1 1n 1 &1 1 1 1 1n 1 &&
1 1 1 1 && 11 1 1
183

1 1 1 1n &&1 1
1 M 1n 1 =
C , 1, 1 1n . . [pH)1 1
1 [ ] 1 1 1 100 50-75
C, 6-12 1 1n 1.5-2.5 1 1
1 X 1 . . 7.5-8.5 M 1 1 5
1 , 1, , , 1, , ,
=

-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -----------------------------xxxxx
1 2.0
2
L

xxx

11

11 26

---------------------- --

---------------------- --

100 .
--------------------------------

----------

--------------------L [12]

----------

11

---------------------

------------------------------- [1 1.5]]

--

40 .

--

0.4 1 1 1 1 1

184

1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 (Dugoutt pond) 1 1 1 1n
1 , 1 11 , 1
d 1 1 1 1 , 1
1 1 11 11 1 g
11 1 1 11 11 1n 11 M
1 11 y 1 1 1

---------------

1
g 1 1

2. g 1 1 [ Embankment pond]] 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 g g 1
11 1 1 1 1 S
1 1 11 11 1 , ,1 U
1 G1 M 1n 1 1 1 1 U S 1
1 11 11 1 1 1 S M
1 1n 1 11 2 L 1n 1
1 1 1 1 1

185

11

1 1 1 } 1n
1 1 11 , ,1 1 11 1
1 1 1 Z1 1- 1 1
1 1 1 11 1n 1 S 0.01 1 [
0.075 ] 1n 0.75-1 1, 11 1n 1 S 0.450.14 . [ 0.34-1] 1n 1-1.5 . 1n 11 0.45-2.0 . [
0.34-15 ] 1n 1 2 . L 1 1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1 , 1n 1 1 1 M 1
1 1 1.51
1 1 1 X } 1
1 1
1
11 1 1 1 11 , ,
1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1
1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1 11 2 1 1 1 2
1 1 11 2 1n 1 1 1 1 1
[] 1n 1 1 1 1 g 11 11
11.5 1n 11 1 12 1 g
11 1 1 1 1 y
1 g1 1 1 11 1n
11 11 1 1n 1 1 1
1 1

1 1M 11 1 2 X 1
1 1 2 La1 2 1 1 1M 1 1
186

1 1 1 11 1 1 1 11
1 1 1
11 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 11 1 1n, 1 11
1 11 1
1 11
1 1 1 1 11 1 }
1 11 1 1 : ij 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 11 1 1
1 1 11 1 11 1
L 1 1 - 1n
11 1 La

1 1 1 11
S 1 1 1 1 La 1
M 1 La 1 1 1 La1
1 1 1 1 1 1 =1
1 1 11
1 La 1 11
1 1 U S 1 1 1

1 1n d 11 1 1
1n 1 11 -11
1 1

187

UTILIZATION OF WASTELAND BY
AGRO FORESTRY
- Dr. A.A.Ahmed
- Mr. Pabitra Kalita
WASTELAND
Wasteland is a barren land that can be converted into productive land with
proper reclamination. The total geographical area of the country is 329 million
hectares. Out of which 175 million hectares is in wasteland. Therefore, there is
good scope to develop this wasteland into cultivable land.
AGRO FORESTRY
The term agro forestry indicates different forms of land use combining
trees and shrubs with agricultural and horticultural crops and/or livestock (pastoral components) on the same unit of land either alternately or at the same time
using management practices suiting the socio-economic condition of the people
and the system is ecologically and economically viable. The role of agro forestry
has earned a distinct identity in various sustainable farming systems. It has high
potential to simultaneously satisfy important objectives:
OBJECTIVE
1. Protecting and stabilizing the ecosystem
2. Producing a high level of out put of economic foods
3. Providing suitable employment to rural population
4. Efficient land use practice
BENEFITS

188

## SELECTION CRITERIA OF TREE SPECIES

a. Faster growth rate
b. Deep root system
c. Soil improving properties (eg, nitrogen fixing capacity)
d. Resistant to drought, disease and pest attack
e. Efficient nutrient management capacity
f. Serve as shed/cover for associated crops
g. High energy and market value
h. Multiple use for community
i. High regeneration potential
j. Maximum solar energy harvest
k. Nitrogen fixation
l. Low requirement of water and fertilizer
m. Free from disease and pest attack

189

Multiple uses

## High regeneration potential

Economic viability

## TREE SPECIES FOR FLOOD PRONE SOIL

1. Acacia auriculiformis (ornamental, shade, fuel and timber)
2. Lagestromia flos-raginae(ornamental, timber, fuel, fodder)
3. Syzygium cumini(fruit, fuel, timber, house construction)
4. Salix species(cricket bat, timber, fuel)
5. Trewia nudiflora(timber, fodder, fuel)
6. Terminalia arjuna(medicinal, fodder, fuel)
FODDER TREE SPECIES
1. Artocarpus heterophyllus
2. Ficus species
3. Streblus asper
5. Leucaena leucocephala
6. Albizia species
7. Terminalia arjuna
8. Bamboo species
9. Bauhinia variegata

190

MEDICINAL TREE
1. Neem

2. Silikha

Terminalia chebula

3. Bhomora

Terminalia belerica

4. Aonla

Emblica officinalis

5. Arjun

Terminalia arjuna

6. Kolajamu

Syzygium cumini

## FUEL AND TIMBER TREE

2. Simalu

Bambax ceiba

3. Ghora neem

4. Koroi

Albizzia procera

5. Moj

Albizzia lucida

6. Siris

Albizzia lebbek

7. Poma

Toona ciliati

AVENUE TREE
1. Sonaru

Cassia fistula

2. Krishnachura

Delonix regia

3. Nahar

Mesua ferra

4. Jacaranda

Jacaranda mimosifolia

5. Debdaru

Polyelthia longifolia

6. Kanchan

Bauhinia variegata

7. Azar

Lagestromia flos-raginae

8. Rain tree

Samania saman

191

TIMBER TREE
1. Sisso

Delbergia sissoo

2. Teak

Tectona grandis

3. Gomari

Gmelina arborea

4. Champa

Michelia chamaca

5. Sal

Shorea robusta

6. Manjum

Acacia mangium

7. Khoir

Acacia catechu

FRUIT TREE
1. Mango

Mangifera indica

2. Jackfruit

Artocarpus heterophyllus

3. Sajina

Moringa oleifera

4. Guava

Psydium guava

5. Aonla

Emblica officinalis

6. Coconut

Cocos nucifera

7. Arecanut

Areca catechu

## TREE IN BORDER OF CROP FIELD

3. Albizia lucida
4. Leucana leucocephala
5. Cajanus cajan
6. Sesbania aculeata
7. Tephrochia candida

192

## AGRO FORSETRY FARMING SYSTEM

1. Agri-silviculture system
2. Horti-silviculture system
3. Agri-silvi-pastoral system
4. Silvi-pastoral system
5. Horti-pastoral system
6. Multipurpose production system
AGRI -SILVICULTURE
1. Trees : Kadam, sisso, gomari, manjum,titachopa, moj, bamboo
2. Crops : Rice, rapeseed, pulses, sesamum, niger, vegetables
3. Trees in the field boundaries in single row at 4-5 m plant to plant spacing
AGRI-HORTICULTURE
1. Fruit trees : Coconut, arecanut, jackfruit, orange
2. Crops

## 3. Spacing : Coconut(7.5 x 7.5m), Arecanut (2.75 x 2.75m), jackfruit(10 x

10 m), orange(5 x 5m)
MULTISTOREID CROPPING SYSTEM
1. 1st storey :

3. 3rd storey :

4. 4th storey :

193

## SOME COMPATIBLE COMBINATIONS

1. Turmeric as inter crop in peach and banana
2. Chillies in lemon
3. Mandarin with zinger
4. Coconut with banana
5. Coconut with blackpeppr/betelvine
MULTIPURPOSE TREE SPECIES
Multipurpose tree species (MPTS) are those which are purposely grown
to provide more than one significant products and/or service function in the land
use systems in which they grow. There are two different ways in which MPTS
can provide more than one significant products:
1. Co production of more than one product from the same tree
2. Production of multiple products from different trees of same species,
using various management methods
Example: Neem, Acacia, subabul

Pabitra Kalita, SIRD, Khanapara

194

## BAMBOO NURSERY, PLANTATION AND

HARVESTING TECHNIQUE
- Mr. N.N. Deka
- Mr. Pabitra Kalita
Bamboo is a unique group of giant arborescent grasses in which the woody
culms arise from underground rhizomes. They are shrubs and have tree like
habit; their culms are erect an sometimes climbing. It is fasted growing plant on
this planet. Bamboos are characterized by woody, mostly hollow culms with
internodes and branches at the culms nodes. India is the second richest country
in terms of bamboo genetic diversity with a total of 136 species under 75 genera.
It encompasses about 8.96 million of forest area, which is equivalent to 12.8 per
cent of the total forest area of the country.
The northeast is recognized as one of the largest reserves of bamboo in
India. About 89 bamboo species out of 126 recorded in India under 16 genera
grow naturally in different forest types of this region. Every household has
bamboo plantation.
AREA UNDER BAMBOO PLANTATION ( Sq. Km)
State

Geo
graphical
area

Recorded Actual
forest
forest
area
cover

Area
under
bamboo

## Bamboo area (%)

Geo
forest
graphical area
area

83,743

51,540

68,602

4,590

5.5

6.7

Assam

78,438

30,708

23,824

8,213

10.5

34.5

Manipur

22,327

15,154

17,418

3,692

16.5

21.2

Meghalaya

22,429

9,496

15,657

3,102

13.8

19.8

Mizoram

21,081

15,935

18,775

9,210

43.7

49.1

Nagaland

16,579

8,629

14,221

758

4.6

5.3

Tripura

10,486

6,292

5,546

939

8.9

16.9

Sikkim

7,096

5,676

3,540

340

5.9

9.6

195

USES OF BAMBOO
The major user of bamboo in India is the paper industry, which consumes
nearly 45% of the total annual recorded production from government forest. In
production of handicrafts, bamboo furniture, incense sticks, brooms, mats.
Decorative articles etc. They are also used for fencing particularly in villages.
PROPAGATION OF BAMBOO
1. Sexual Reproduction
(By Seeds)

1. Rhizomes/
Offset

2. Asexual Reproduction
(By Vegetative)

2. Cuttings

(a) Culm

3. MicroProliferation

4. Layering

5. Tissue
Culture

(b) Branch

## There are various methods of propagating bamboo, especially at the nursery

level. Bamboo nursery business is a viable proposition. The following are the
methods by which bamboo can be propagated in a nursery for onward plantation on commercial basis.
NURSERY FROM SEEDS :
: SITE SELECTION :
Good accessibility with good road communication facilities.
As far as possible, it should be created near natural water sources. If not possible, then ground water sources should be sufficient.
Deep porous fertile / Sandy loam soil with PH value 6.5 to 7.5 (Continued)
This item includes site selection (already narrated in the above), (December to
February) followed by survey, demarcation, mapping, cleaning, uprooting stumps,
burning all the debris, fencing, construction of camp hut for staff and workers,
establishment of drinking water facilities, (Continued to next)
196

## (Continued from previous page) purchasing of required implements, collection

of seeds and its storage, planning of works schedule etc, laying and demarcation of plots within the nursery area for seeds germination beds and poly pot
beds, inspection paths, irrigation cannels, reservoirs, camp hut, store house etc,
which generally should be completed within December / January / February.
There should be well drainage system with irrigation facilities.
It should be situated in a bit high land, to avoid flood effect.
There should be availability of workers to keep the sustainable norm of cost.
The annual consumption of production of the seedlings in the locality as well as
marketing for the same should be looked in to, during the selection of site.
Raising season
Considering the aspect of its growth and mortality rate, March is the best
month to create nursery from seeds, off course, it can be created from December to April.

: Seeds Collection :
Seeds are collected when bamboo flowerings are occurred, it is occurred once
in life time, bamboo flowering circle ranges from 10 years to 60 years and generally it is gregarious and entire bamboos die after flowering. Generally the matured
seeds are collected from the bamboo trees, though the good fall seeds can also
be collected from the ground followed by cleaning, drying, selecting the good
ones.
Bamboo seeds
: Treatment of seeds at the time of
collection :
After collection, seeds are cleaned from sand, dust, debris with the help of Tula,
salani etc and then allow the same to drying in sun light for 1 to 2 hours.

197

: Storage of Seeds :
Cleaned and dry seeds can be stored up to 2 months.
Gradually its G/capacity decreases after 2 months.
Best to sow after collection.
: Treatment of Seeds before sowing in Nursery Beds:
Dry seeds are allowed to soak in ordinary water (6-12 hours)
Drained out the water before 10-12 minutes of sowing in beds.
: BEDS PREPARATION :
Size of Beds : 10 m x 1.5 m (Continued)
Depth of Beds : Deep ploughing or digging
(up to 0.20 m)
Raises the Beds from GL, up to 0.15 m
After ploughing or digging fill it
(including the raise portion) with mixture
of soil, Sand and DFYM (3 : 1 : 1).
The raising portion of the beds
should be guarded with bamboo splits to
protect it from soil erosion .
A Standard Bed of Size 10 m x 1.5 m, guarded by bamboo sticks and kamis to
protect it from soil erosions.

198

199

Each bed should be covered with Agro-Net to protect the seedlings from sun
light and being compact.
One week before sowing, drench the beds with
Insecticide : BHC power 20 grams per bed and
Covered the beds with Polythene preferably White. (Continued)
Sowing lines are dug with furrow up to 1 cm depth and along the lines seeds are
dropped in such a way, so that there should not be any over lap of seeds.
Then it should be covered with thin layer of soil and watered slightly.
Watering every day, at least once.
Arranged shades over beds with Agro net, leaves or bamboo splits
: Beds preparation including Insect control :
Seeds Germination Time :
Such sown seeds in beds, starts germination after 3 to 7 days and it continues up
to 15 to 25 days.
Regular watering in such seedling is most important.
Transplanting time in to poly pots :
3 to 4 months old seedlings in beds, become ready to transplant in to poly pots.

## : Technique of filling poly pots :

30 cm x 20 cm, one end open HD poly pots are taken to fill Soil, sand and
DFYM or dry cow dung in 1 : 1 : 1.
Poly pots are filled with this mixture and arranged them in beds having overhead
Each poly pot, so filled is holed (one to two) at bottom to drain out excess water
locked.
200

## :Technique of transplanting seedlings in to filled up poly pots :

3 to 4 months old seedlings in beds are up rooted very carefully and planted in
poly pots, making holes in to the mixture of soil.
Each and every poly pot, having just planted seedling, should be watered to be
the soil slightly wetted.
Everyday, watering in such seedlings should be done regularly.
Preparation of mixture of Soil, Sand & DFYM in 1 : 1 : 1 to fill it, in poly pots
Filling of soil mixture in poly pot and planting of seedlings.
Completion of planting in poly pot
Such type of poly potted seedlings are maintained up to 1 and years with
regular watering, weeding, cleaning, hoeing, shifting, applying manure and insecticide as an when required.
After 1 and years, seedlings in beds are ready for planting in field.
After 5 to 6 years the planted bamboo becomes ready for harvesting.

201

## : Disadvantage of seedlings created from seeds :

Seeds are available only when there are flowering of Bamboos, which has no
fixed time, so every year it is difficult to get seeds.
It takes more time to attain maturity and form clump (More than five years)
: Advantage of seedlings created from seeds :
The clump starts from zero age to the next flowering age
Creation cost is low and easy to create
: Creation of Bamboo Nursery from Vegetative Propagation :
From the above it is observed that to get Bamboo Seeds every year is not certain
and creation of Nursery from seeds is time bound.
And quantity of seedlings to produce depend upon the availability of seeds.
Now, as the production of quality bamboo is required hues quantity (Continued)
hence an alternative to create Nursery instead of seeds is necessary and it is
full filled by creating Nurseries from Vegetative Propagation of Bamboo. It is
easy to create and can be done at any month within a year, though the best is to
create during March or April. Nursery from Vegetative Propagation can be done
as follows :
202

## Site Selection : Same as above.

Raising Season : April / May is the best season, it can be created any time within
a year
Advance Works : Same as above, except the non required things, like seeds
collection etc.
Here Bamboo Culms are taken instead of seeds to raise seedlings in beds.
Bed Preparation : Same as above.

## Collection and Cutting of Bamboo Culms

Collect 1.60 to 2 years healthy bamboos
Collection month : Preferably April/May
Cut above first node and tender top thin part trim the side branches without
injuring and damaging auxiliary buds on nodes (Continued)
Maximum care should be taken to prevent dying on transport by wrapping cut
end with moist gunny bags and spraying water.
Cut with sharp hacksaw/ knife, 1-node, leaving 5 cm on either sides or 2-nodes,
leaving 5 cm on either sides.
203

Dip for 2 minutes in to Bavistin mixture ( 1 gram Bavistin power in I liter water)
to protect it from insects etc before placing it in beds.
1.60 to 2 years old bamboo with hand tied, selected to cut for cutting
A cutting of Bamboo Culms for Vegetative Propagation
: Placing / Planting technique of culms in to beds :
10 to 16 cm deep furrows are made on the already prepared beds (As stated
above) at a distance 40 cm to 50 cm apart
Fill the end openings of the above treated cuttings of culms with soil or sand to
protect it from insect attack and placed them in to the furrows horizontally without any inclination. Continued in such a way, so that Auxiliary buds are placed
laterally, it should not be down to soil.
The cuttings should be covered with thin layer of soil (2 - 3 cm thin). 50 t0 60
cuttings may conveniently be placed.
Frequent irrigation should done till proper development root system on the coming out shoots of nodes, which should be checked time to time.

## Placing / Planting of a Cutting of Bamboo Culms in Nursery Beds.

Generally proper root development has completed within 2 to 3 months and then
it becomes ready for separation and transplantation in poly bags / pots.
204

## : Technique of Separation and planting in to poly pot : (Preparation of poly

pots has already been explained which is followed in this case also)
Separation & Cutting : After 3 to 4 months and proper root development, the
shoots or seedlings coming from nodes are separated with a sharp knife in such
a way, so that each separated shoot carries rhizome and roots. Then the body of
the shoot / seedling above rhizome is cut and trimmed leaving two or three
nodes.
Sterilization : It is then, washed by dipping it in to Bavistin Solution ( 2 minites)
Then, this treated seedling is planted in poly bag (Preparation of Poly pot bags is
same as stated above)
It should be kept under shade for few days and then for some days under the
shade of Agro - Net to provide diffuse light and after establishment of root
It should not be disturbed till establishment of root system. (continued)
Sprouting took place from single node in Nursery Bed.
Sprouting took place from Nodes of Culms in Nursery Bed.
Monitoring for root system.
Separation of seedlings with out disturbing the whole cutting.
Separation from culms and Sterilization in Bavistin Mixture.
Separation of seedlings keeping Rhizome and root system in each.
Separation and planting of seedling in to poly pot.
Planting of litter /seedlings in to poly pot bag.

205

## Regular watering including weeding, cleaning and close observation is necessary

It should be maintained until proper root development of the seedlings in poly
bags, generally it is attained within 3 to 4 months and become ready for planting
in field.
Main advantage of such type of Nursery is it can be created at any time and can
produce large quantity of seedlings.
Main disadvantage is It carries the age of the mother culms and have risk to get
early Bamboo flowering.
Macro-proliferation (seedling Multiplication)
After 3 to 4 months these plants in poly pots develop 5 to 6 culms (litters) and
these litters can be separated as stated above and can produce as many as seedlings as required.

Plantation
Bamboo plantation can be created as follows : (i) From Rhizome and (ii) From
poly pot seedlings as created above and from other means like Branch Cutting,
layering, whole culms cuttings, tissue culture, root trainers etc. Here, I only discuss about the commercial plantation of bamboo .
206

Commercial Plantation of bamboo : It can be defined as Bamboo plantation like any other cash crops to enhance.
After 7th year, the income on yearly yield become stable and it goes on stable till
20th to 25th year and after that it should be uprooted and new plantation should
be created.
The creation commercial bamboo plantation has two purposes : To get high yield of bamboo shoot only
Or to get high yield of bamboo shoot and pole
For such different purposes the management is also different.
A commercial bamboo plantation can be created as follows :
Advance works : It includes site selection, survey and demarcation, mapping,
cleaning, stump uprooting, debris collection, burning, fencing, (continued)
construction of camp hut, store house, drinking water facilities, irrigation system, creation of required numbers of seedlings in Nursery in advance before 1
and years ago, organization of awareness programmes about the importance
of bamboo plantation among the local people, fusibility of marketing, organization of required labour force, collection organic manure and preparation of an
estimate.
Site Selection : - (December/January)
It can be created on most of soil, though deep porous, fertile, sandy loam soil
having high moisture content and pH value 5.5 is preferable.
Should have good soil drainage system that means there should not be any water
locked and the excess water beyond the retaining capacity of the soil should be
flown out.
It should not be prone to flood.
It is better, if it is situated on amoderate slope.

207

Survey, demarcation, mapping etc. :- It should be done just after site selection and cleaning, burning etc (December/January)
Fencing : It should be provided properly, because bamboo is a fodder species,
specially in the seedling stage. (December/January)
Construction of Camp hut, Store House and drinking water facility :It should be in the middle of the plantation, so that the watch and ward can
properly vigil the plantation,
Drinking water facility and store house should be by the side of camp hut.
Irrigation Facilities : Irrigation from the natural sources by constructing channel
should be done. Continued
In other way, construction of water deserver, storage of natural water and
supply the same to the plantation site through channel, pipes or manually.
Creation of Nursery : It should be created in advance before 1 and years ago
based on requirement of seedlings for the plantation. The technique has already
been stated above.
Organization of awareness programmes : Now a day it has become most essential to organize seminar, workshop etc during the implementation process of any
project, scheme or development programmes to introduce the benefits, importance of the project among the local people, so that they fill that this for their
benefits and provide full support and help for all aspect for successful implementation of the project. Moreover there is need for workshop to train the people
and staff involve with the project.
PLANTATION TECHNIQUE : After completion of all the advance works
etc, the plantation works should start from last part of March ( 1st rain ) up to
May, preferable it should be completed within April to May. It includes lining of
planting rows, marking of planting points with sticks, digging of planting pits,
placing of manure and seedlings by the side of pits and finally planting the seedlings in pits.
208

Planting rows and points should be marked with sticks (Bamboo etc) which
varies species to species. The spacing for rows and plants for some species are
give as follows :
Pith digging and planting : All piths should be dug in the planting points with
the size : 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm and well mixed the soil with manure ( Dry Cow
dung, 1.5 Kgs per plant) and filled the pits with the mixture and again dig the soil
mixture of the pits with hand just equal to the volume of poly pot and place the
seedling in it by removing the cover of polythene and tied the bottom with the
soil mixture making base of the planted seedling little bit slope from all sides of
the base of the plant, so that there will be no water locked on the base of the
seedling during rainy season.
Intercropping : Up to 2 to 3 years intercropping like cash crops, vegetable can
be done in between the lines of bamboo plantation. It serves the following purposes :
Provides grater stabilities to the soil.
Generate extra source of income
Provides batter protection to the bamboo plantation due to the intensive care of
cash crops and vegetables.
During 3rd year leguminous species may be intercropped to serve ground cover
in between the lines of bamboo. Its increases the moisture retain capacity of the
soil and protect it from compactness of soil due to heavy rain etc.
Maintenance : It is a long term process as it includes : Application of inorganic
fertilizers (NPK = Nitrogen : Super phosphate : Potash), maintenance of young
plants, weeding, cleaning, hoeing, mulching. management of rhizome exposure,
Clump, grazing and disease control etc .

209

## Application of inorganic fertilizers : After a week or two a small amount of

NPK may be applied over surrounding of plant, which is increased year wise as
stated below:
Cleaning and Weeding : All the area of the plantation should be cleaned from
all unwanted under growth of vegetation, creepers, weeds etc and surrounding
of seedlings with a radius of minimum 60 cm and it is continued latter surrounding the clumps atleast up to 4th years including regular watering in the evening.
Hoeing and Mulching : Time to time hoeing around seedlings and followed by
followed by mulching with meteca or with any organic debris. It increases the
moisture and nitrogen fixation content of the plants.
Management of rhizome exposure followed by organic manure application : The soil cover of the rhizome of each clumps may be removed without
doing any harm to the buds and rhizome for a week in summer and allowed to
expose to sun light and then again covering the same with mixture of soil and
organic manure to activate the buds and to increase the rate of burgeoning of
shoots increase.
Clump management : Its improves the productivity of bamboo. It is a work of
maintenance as well as harvesting. Here unwanted excess growth of culms are
removed, some times even scarify the good shoots / clumps to prevent from
congestion, other wise which may results poor growth of the clumps in future
and thus allowing the shoots to develop better in course of time and to produce
healthy, good quality bamboo.
It should be managed in such a way, so that, there is 9 to 12 culms per clump.
In a clump, all culms should be distributed evenly, so that, for example, if in a
clump, there are 12 culms, then there should be 3 N0s of 1 year, 3 N0s of 2
years, 3 N0s of 3 years and 3 N0s of 4 years. The all 4 years culms in the clump
should be removed during harvesting time. The time of harvesting varies species
to species. Rotting culms should completely removed.

210

## Protection from grazing : Bamboo is fodder species, specially at the time of

tender age, it is very much prone to grazing, so it should be protected completely
from stray cattle providing fencing. But it is possible only for small area of
plantation, for large area, it is not possible for fencing because the cost of creation will more than the marketable value. So there should create well vigilance in
the plantation and awareness among the local people, so that a situation of
social fencing is developed for the plantation.

Guwahati-14 and Mr. Pabitra Kalita, SIRD, Khnapara

211

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223

TRAINING MANUAL
ON
PERMISSIBLE WORKS

NREGS

June- 2009

CONTENTS
1.

## Soil and Water Conservation Measures

Prediction of design of peak rate of run off
Water conservation and water harvesting
Vegetative barrier
Earthen water harvesting structure
Boulder check dams/gabions
Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) dam
Excavated/dugout pond
Dugout well
Roof top water harvesting
Land development
Nalla bunding
Flood control and protection measures
Boulder protection/ pitching works
Boulder revetment
Boulder spur
Construction of earthen embankment
Raised platform
Drainage development
Afforestation
Model Estimates
Model estimate for vegetative barrier
Model estimate for earthen bund/dam with core wall by clay soil
Model estimate for boulder check dam
Model estimate for boulder gabion
Model estimate for RCC check dam
Model estimate for excavated pond
Model estimate for dug out well
Model estimate for roof top water harvesting
Model estimate for construction of contour graded bund with Hume pipe
Model estimate for construction of graded bund with Hume pipe
Model estimate for reclamation of agricultural land from sand
Model estimate for nalla bund with slab culvert
Model estimate for earth filling
Model estimate for boulders pitching
Model estimate for boulders revetment
Model estimate for boulder spur

1 - 65

## Model estimate for construction of embankment

Model estimate for raised platform
Model estimate for desiltation and decongestion of drainage channel
Model estimate for reclamation of pond
Model estimate for reclamation of beel
Model estimate for reclamation of marshy land
Model estimate for desiltation of pond
Model estimate for desiltation of beel
Model estimate for desiltation of marshy land
Model estimate for horticulture plantation
Model estimate for medicinal plantation
Model estimate for pasture plantation
Model estimate for energy plantation (Jathropha plantation)
Model estimate for community nursery
Model estimate for aromatic plantation
Model estimate for tree plantation

2.

## Construction of All Weather Rural Roads with

Cross Drainage Works
Main features of an all weather road
Technical requirements of an all weather road
Soil stabilization methods
Mechanical method
Cement stabilization method
Lime stabilization method
Chemical method
Bituminous stabilization method
Widening of the carriageway at curves
Super elevation
Cross drainage works
Drainage structures
Definition of culvert and bridge
Minimum span and clearance of cross drainage works
Span and clearance
Culverts

66 - 101

## Hume pipe culvert

Cushioning of Hume pipe culvert
Box culvert
Slab culvert
Arch culvert
IRISH bridge/Causeways
Ideal/ selected soil
Surface painting
Surface dressing
Premix carpeting
Side slope of embankment of an all weather road
Estimate for construction of embankment with material obtained from
borrow pits
Estimate for excavation in cutting in soil by manual means with lead
upto 50 meter
Estimate for 900 mm dia Hume pipe culvert

3.

## Design Criteria of Various Flood and Erosion

Management Structures

102 - 136

Embankment
Design criteria for embankment
Top width
Free board
Embankment slopes
Height of embankment
Spacing of embankment
Revetment and launching apron
Design criteria for slope pitching and apron
Slope protection
Design of thickness of pitching and length of apron based n IS method
Launching apron
Groynes or Spur
Permeable groynes/spurs
Porcupines
Bed Bars

Channel improvement
Model estimate for raising and strengthening of embankment
Model estimate construction of tone spurs, submersible spurs and
continuous boulder revetment

4.

Irrigation Canals

137 - 146

Water
Stress on available land and water in India
Nature of Available water in India
What is Irrigation
Necessity of Irrigation
Irrigation in Assam
Variation of rainfall in Assam
Major crops in Assam
Area covered by irrigation in Assam
Irrigation potential in Assam
Need for more storage and diversion type of irrigation schemes
Source of irrigation in Assam
Types of irrigation systems
Methods of irrigation
Classification of canals
Schematic layout of typical canal system
Construction of canals
Earthen canal
Brick canal
Model estimate of earthen canal
Model estimate of brick canal

5.

## Water conservation on the basis of watershed

approach
Watershed
Rain water
Rain water harvesting
Contour method
Stripe method
Terrace method
Contour bund
Pond
Vegetative method
Agricultural bund

147 - 176

Bore wells
Roof top harvesting
Conservation of pond, beel etc
Model estimate for Vegetative measure (Grass cultivatin)
Model estimate for Agriculture bund
Model estimate for construction of dyke along with nallas
Model estimate for construction and renovation of old pond
Model estimate for dugout pond
Model estimate for bore wells
Model estimate for contour bund
Model estimate for roof top water harvesting
Model estimate for renovation of nallas

6.

## Design and Construction of Fish Farm

177 - 182

Site selection
Main items of work for fish farm construction
Prismoidal formula of pond earth excavation
Dyke construction
Dyke foundation
Raising of dyke
Dyke top width
Dyke side slope
Inlet and outlet arrangement
Dyke Settlement and protection
Types of traditional water bodies in Assam
Renovation of traditional water bodies for scientific aquaculture
Ideal size and depth of carp culture ponds
Recommended side slope for excavated ponds

7.

## Utilization of Wasteland by Agroforestry

Wasteland
Agroforestry
Objective
Benefits
Selection criteria of tree
Leguminous tree plantation
Tree species for flood prone soil
Fodder tree species
Medicinal tree
Fuel and Timber tree

188 - 194

Avenue tree
Timber tree
Fruit tree
Tree in border of crop field
Agro forestry farming system
Agri silviculture
Agri-horticulture
Horti-silviculture
Agri-silvi-pastoral
Silvi-pastoral
Horti-pastoral
Multistoried cropping system
Some compatible combinations
Multipurpose tree species

8.

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## Area under bamboo plantation

Uses of bamboo
Propagation of bamboo
Nursery from seeds
Commercial plantation of bamboo
Plantation techniques

9.

## Plantation of Horticultural Crops

Soil selection
Collection of saplings
Plantation of horticultural crops
Assam lemon
Orange
Pine apple
Banana
Coconut
Areca nut
Jackfruit
Cashew nut
Bamboo
Model estimate for plantation of horticultural crops
Model estimate for tree plantation
****

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