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Lab Report of Marcet Boiler

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PRESENTED

BY

NAVEEN VALIL

(H00174202)

SUBMITTED TO DR. PETER KEW

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 6

DATE OF SUBMISSION: 09-03-2014

GROUP NO: 14

Contents

1. Abstract

Page 3

2. Introduction

Page 4

3. Background Theory

Page 6

4. Equipment

Page 10

5. Experimental Procedure

Page 13

Page 14

7. Conclusion

Page 23

8. References

Page 24

Abstract

The experiment requires prerequisite knowledge of the fundamental laws of thermodynamics

namely the first law of thermodynamics, the Newtons law of cooling and other thermodynamic

laws and properties. The apparatus called marcet boiler heats up the steam which raise the

temperature and pressure. The relationship that exist between temperature and pressure is one of

the main objective of the experiment. The temperature-pressure and temperature-time graphs are

plotted to obtain the relationship between the same. The experiment is carried out by heating the

steam from 2 to 15 bars of pressure as well as cooling the steam from 15 to 6 bars of pressure.

The results obtained are discussed further to obtain a better understanding of the experiment and

theory. The theoretical analysis familiarize the theory behind the each of the equations used to

compute any of the result. The marcet boiler is operated at a constant power of 2 kW and voltage

of 220 V. The results obtained does compare with the theory and standard results. The error

analysis is provided to describe the error that has reduced the accuracy of the experiment.

Introduction

Heat is a form of energy which gets transferred from a body that exists in higher temperature to

lower temperature due to the difference in the temperature. Heat and work are not permanent

energy unlike the internal energy a body possess. The heat transfer is studied during the

experiment through an apparatus called marcet boiler. The Marcet boiler is used to heat the water

to a certain temperature at a known pressure. Often the theoretically obtained temperature values

for fixed pressure from the steam tables is used to compare the accuracy of the experiment. This

help us to understand the relationship between the pressure and temperature of steam which has a

wide range of applications. The temperature holds a key in improving efficiency of gas turbines

in power plants. Generally the higher the temperature, higher will be the efficiency of these

steam turbines.

A device called recuperator is often used in steam turbines to increase the generation of power. It

is an energy recovery heat exchanger and what it does is that, it takes the waste heat from the

turbines and preheats the discharge air in the compressor and produce high pressure steam. This

steam from the boiler produces the additional electric power. This experiment help us to

understand various aspects of heat transfers and understand the practical knowhow of saturation

temperature and pressure of steam. It has wide range of applications in engineering context. The

industries involved in the making of refrigerators, power plants, chemical plants, air

conditioners, internal combustion engines etc. make use of heat exchangers. The rate of heat

transfer (Newtons Law of Cooling) can be used to determine the time required for any fluid to

lose or gain a certain amount of temperature. The thermal insulators are designed so as to limit

the heat transfer in the form of convection, conduction and radiation. These insulations play an

important role in reducing the heat transfer thereby conserving energy and the decreasing the

financial losses due to energy losses.

The Experiment is set up to compare the saturation temperature and pressure of steam in the

range of 1-14 bar gauge pressure. The pressure is limited to 14 bar pressure taking into account

the safety concerns. Another aim is to understand the rate of change in temperature of a body

when the body is heated and cooled. The rate of heat transfer can be further computed to help us

know the time required for a substance to lose a certain amount of temperature. The theoretical

analysis of the experiment is centered on the Newtons law of cooling that spots a relationship

between the temperature difference and the rate of heat transfer and the very general First law of

4

thermodynamics. A graphical analysis and theoretical analysis is detailed below to improve the

understanding of the experiment.

Background Theory

In the course of this experiment and calculations, it is required to state certain laws.

1. The first law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed during a

process; it can only change forms.

Equation 1

W + Q=0

where

W is the net work input measured in kJ

Q is the net heat measured in kJ

As in the first law, the system is subjected to a complete thermodynamics cycle, the change in

internal energy is zero. But when we consider a general thermodynamic process, the change in

internal energy need not be zero. So the initial internal energy is now not equal to the final

internal energy. So now the Equation 1 becomes:

Equation 2

W +Q= U

So the net work done and the net heat supplied sums up to the change in internal energy. This

equation is usually referred to as the Non-flow Energy Equation (NFEE) since this is a non-flow

process.

If we consider an isometric process, the net work done is zero and hence the following

relationship is valid for a perfect gas:

Equation 3

dQ = dU = MCvdT

where,

6

the Cv stands for the specific heat capacity at constant volume measured in kJ/kgK.

dT is the change in temperature measured in K

M is the mass of the fluid expressed measured in kg.

dU is the change in internal energy in kJ

The water is heated initially to a certain temperature and subsequently cooled. So the heat is

transferred from the fluid to the surroundings and vice versa. Hence we come across the

Newtons Law of cooling.

Newtons law of cooling defines the heat transfer by convection as the product of the

convection heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer area, and the difference between the

heat transfer surface temperature and the fluid bulk temperature away from the surface.[2]

So it can be mathematically manipulated as:

Equation 4

d Qt

= A s (T T )

dt

Where,

is known as the heat transfer coefficient for the transfer of heat from the body to its

surroundings measured in kW/m2K

T is the temperature of the surroundings measured in K.

As is the surface area of the body at which the heat is transferred measured in m2

The fluid is heated to a certain temperature and hence it is required to provide an amount of heat

(external) and also there is a change in internal energy along with heat being transferred. When

these conditions are applied in the first equation i.e the first law of thermodynamics, the

Equation 2 becomes:

Equation 5

dQ d Q t

=

+ U

dt

dt

Substituting Equation 3 into Equation 5

Equation 6

dQ d Q t

dT

=

+ MC

dt

dt

dt

During the process of heating, the Equation 6 becomes

Equation 7

dQ d Q t

dT

=

+ MC

dt

dt

d t heating

Equation 8

dQ

dT

= A s ( T T ) + MC

dt

d t heating

Where,

dQ

=

the net power supplied by the boiler.

dt

Equation 9

0= A s ( T T ) + MC

Here,

dT

d t cooling

dQ

=0 , since there is no external heat supplied to cool down the fluid

dt

To find the value of constants ( As and MC ), the equations (Equation 8 and Equation 9 ) are

dT

d t heating

and

dT

d t cooling

graph (temperature V/s time) and calculating its slope for heating and cooling respectively.

Equipment

The following are the apparatus used in the current experiment

9

i.

Figure 1: Marcet

boiler

The Marcet boiler has different components which together act as the sole important apparatus in

the experiment. They are mentioned below

10

It is used to compute pressure of the steam while the boiler heats up the steam to a certain

temperature. It displays the gauge pressure and should be converted into absolute

pressure by adding the atmospheric pressure.

2. Mercury thermometer

It measures the temperature in Celsius ( C) of the saturated steam inside the boiler.

3. Overflow

It removes any excess fluid and maintains the functioning of the boiler by controlling the

amount of fluid inside the container.

4. Safety Valve

The safety valve aids to maintain the safety by restricting the pressure to 14 bars. It

functions when the pressure exceeds 14 bar pressure.

5. Drain Valve

The traces of mixed steam is eliminated from the boiler using the drain valve into the

container.

6. Electric Heater

It heats the steam to the required temperature inside the insulated boiler.

ii.

Stopwatch

11

The stop watch is used to precisely measure the time required to reach a certain temperature.

Experimental Procedure

1. Before beginning the experiment, extra care should be taken to follow all the safety

measures.

2. The power supply of 220V is applied on the boiler so as to acquire a constant power of 2

kW to run the experiment smoothly.

3. Make sure the safety valve is closed before starting to heat.

4. The drain valve of the boiler is unsealed to remove any unwanted traces of saturated

steam ( in the mixed region ). The saturated steam may drastically decrease the accuracy

of the experiment.

5. Then seal the valve and resume the process of heating.

6. Start the stop watch when the boiler starts heating.

7. Note the pressure from the pressure gauge starting from 1 bar in intervals of 0.5 bar and

record the corresponding temperature into the table.

12

8. At the same time, not down the time from the stop watch to compute the time taken to

reach the pressure.

9. Continue the process until the pressure reaches 14 bar ( gauge pressure ).

10. Shut down the boiler once it reaches 14 bar pressure without any further heating.

11. Now the steam should be allowed to cool from 14 bar pressure without any power supply.

12. The pressure and corresponding temperature is noted down same as in the heating

process.

13. The readings are observed at a decrement of 0.5 bars till it reaches 6 bars.

14. All the values are then tabulated into the observation table.

The experimental data collected are tabulated as follows:

Heating

Pressure (in

bars)

Absolu

Guage

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

te

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

Temperature( Practical

)

Temperature

Time( in

( Theoritical )

In Kelvin

seconds)

In Celsius(

In Kelvin

In

C)

(K)

Celsius( C

)

120.3

127.45

133.6

138.9

143.7

147.95

151.9

155.5

158.9

162

165

120

125

130

135

139

144

148

151

154

156

159

393.15

398.15

403.15

408.15

412.15

417.15

421.15

424.15

427.15

429.15

432.15

(K)

393.45

400.6

406.75

412.05

416.85

421.1

425.05

428.65

432.05

435.15

438.15

0

98.33

208.96

308.71

396.24

478.49

557.52

637.74

709.27

771.55

835.33

13

6.5

7

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

7.5

8

8.5

9

9.5

10

10.5

11

11.5

12

12.5

13

13.5

14

14.5

162

165

168

171

173

175

177

179

181

182

184

186

187

189

191

435.15

438.15

441.15

444.15

446.15

448.15

450.15

452.15

454.15

455.15

457.15

459.15

460.15

462.15

464.15

167.8

170.5

173

175.4

177.7

179.9

182.1

184.1

186.1

188

189.9

191.7

193.4

195.1

196.75

440.95

443.65

446.15

448.55

450.85

453.05

455.25

457.25

459.25

461.15

463.05

464.85

466.55

468.25

469.9

891.24

948.71

1006.77

1061.14

1110.93

1162.11

1213.11

1259.46

1297.74

1342.18

1380.46

1420.52

1460.58

1495.93

1532.08

14

15

193

466.15

198.4

471.55

1570.61

Table 1

14

Practical

Theoritical

15

Graph 1

Practical

Linear (Practical)

Linear (Practical)

Linear (Practical)

Graph 2

Pressure (in

Temperature( Practi

Temperature

Time( in

cal )

( Theoritical )

seconds)

bars)

In

Guag

Absol

Celsius(

ute

C)

14

13.5

13

12.5

12

15

14.5

14

13.5

13

195

194.5

193

191.5

189

In Kelvin

In Celsius(

In Kelvin

(K)

468.15

467.65

466.15

464.65

462.15

C)

(K)

471.55

469.9

468.25

466.55

464.85

198.4

196.75

195.1

193.4

191.7

0

20.17

40.33

71.26

107.07

16

11.5

11

10.5

10

9.5

9

8.5

8

7.5

7

6.5

6

5.5

5

12.5

12

11.5

11

10.5

10

9.5

9

8.5

8

7.5

7

6.5

6

187.5

186

185.5

185

183

180.5

178

175.5

173

170

167

164

160.5

157.5

460.65

459.15

458.65

458.15

456.15

453.65

451.15

448.65

446.15

443.15

440.15

437.15

433.65

430.65

189.9

188

186.1

184.1

182.1

179.9

177.7

175.4

173

170.5

167.8

165

162

158.9

463.05

461.15

459.25

457.25

455.25

453.05

450.85

448.55

446.15

443.65

440.95

438.15

435.15

432.05

148.79

186.19

228.15

276.18

329.34

399.31

471.09

550.39

638.88

741.31

850.68

976.7

1105.6

1248.86

Table 2

17

Practical

Theoritical

Graph 3

18

Practical

Graph 4

Calculations

Two graphs are plotted, the pressure v/s temperature (Graph 1 and Graph 2 ) and temperature v/s

time (Graph 3 and Graph 4 ) in both the cases as of heating and cooling. And hence for further

calculations it is seen that there is a requirement to solve the simultaneous equations (Equation 8

and Equation 9) as derived in the theoretical analysis to find the values of the constants (As and

MC).

The Equations are mentioned below:

First consider the process of heating:

Equation 8:

dQ

dT

= A s ( T T ) + MC

dt

d t heating

19

The boiler is operating at a constant power of 2kW and since the electric energy is converted to heat.

The power supplied is same as the

dQ

dt

Equation 8 becomes:

Equation 10

2= A s ( T T ) + MC

dT

d t heating

As mentioned, since there is no heat supplied (external), left hand side of the equation becomes zero

as stated in Equation 9.

0= A s ( T T ) + MC

dT

d t cooling

The time rate of temperature can be obtained by calculating the slope of the temperature v/s time

(Graph 2 and Graph 4). The slope can also be calculated by using the formula as given below:

For the heating curve:

T T 1 193120

dT

73

= 2

=

=

=0.0464

d t heating t 2t 1 1570.610 1570.61

Taking the initial temperature and initial time at an absolute pressure of 2 bars( see Table 1Error:

Reference source not found ) and the final values of temperature and time at an absolute pressure of

15 bars.

20

T T 1 157.5195 37.5

dT

= 2

=

=

= -0.03

d t cooling t 2t 1 1248.860 1248.86

The initial values of temperature and time is taken at an absolute pressure of 15 bars and the final

values at 6 bars. (See Table 2 )

The T is the environmental temperature and is taken as 23 C.

And T = 155.75 C and hence T-T = 155.75 23

So now the Equation 9 and Equation 10 becomes:

2=A s ( 157.7523 ) + MC (0.0464)

0=A s ( 157.7523 ) + MC (0.03)

So after solving the equations, we get the values of

A s =5.9110

kW/K

To find the maximum temperature that the boiler will reach if it was to continue heating

So in this particular case Equation 10 is to be modified:

The heating is continued and as a result the rate of temperature decreases and as time tends to

approach infinity, the rate of temperature tends to approach zero. Therefore:

T = Tmax

And

dT

=0

d t heating

3

Tmax = 361.231 C

21

For the calculation of time required for the boiler to cool down to a certain temperature

We have the Equation 9 for cooling as:

0= A s ( T T ) + MC

dT

d t cooling

A s ( T T )=MC

dT

dt

As

As

dT

T+

T =

MC

MC

dt

As

dT

dt=

MC

( T T )

Equation 11

t=

MC

( ln ( T T ) +k )

As

At 9 bar pressure (See Table 2), the temperature is 175 C, the time taken to cool down from an

absolute pressure of 15 bars is 550.39 seconds.

So substituting the above mentioned values in Equation 11 to find the value of k

We get k = -5.1566

So in order to find the time for the boiler to cool down to a temperature of 33 C from 100 C is

Again substituting in Equation 11,

22

t=

26.14

(ln ( 10023 )5.1566)

5.91103

We get t = 4208.35seconds

So the time required is 4208 seconds.

Discussion

The practical values obtained is represented graphically and analyzed in the above section and is

often compared to the standard values found in the steam tables. It aids in comparing the

theoretical data to the practically obtained data. Many at times it is seen that the practical values

is same as the steam table values with a minimal error.

In the pressure v/s temperature graphs, it is seen that the error increases as the experiment

progresses. The curve tends to exponentially increase and is hence not linearly related.. The slope

of both the heating and cooling curves are increasing as a result. The increment is seen

decreasing as we approach the end of the experiment. The cooling curve deviates from the

theoretical as the pressure reaches the minimum. If we compare the temperature v/s time curve, it

is observed that it follows linear relationship. The heating graph has a positive slope whereas the

cooling graph has a negative slope. The cooling graph is seen deviating from the straight line

more than the heating graph.

If we analyze the graph of pressure v/s temperature, it illustrates the increase in temperature as

the pressure increases. Since the graph is exponentially related the increment is noticed

decreasing as we approach the close of the experiment. Whereas the temperature v/s time is

considered linear taking into consideration the practically determined values. As the temperature

is increased, the time required to attain the temperature also increases. If we take the case of

cooling, the decrease in pressure, decreases temperature exponentially.

The change in setting affects the experimentally obtained values and hence the theoretically

calculated values are also altered. For example, say if the power of the boiler is increased, it then

changes the practically measured values and also the theoretically determined values. And if the

experiment is setup in a laboratory where the temperature is higher than 23 C, then the constants

vary accordingly and thus decreasing the maximum temperature the boiler would attain. So each

of the configurations affect the experimental values and the values thus calculated above.

23

The steam turbines are used in power plants to produce power. These turbines work at high

temperature and pressure. Thus the boiler is operated to heat up the steam to such high

temperature to ensure the proper working of the turbines and also to increase the efficiency of the

turbines. The time required to reach the required temperature at specified conditions is realized in

the experiment. This help us to analyze and realize the concept of the processes involved in heat

transfer.

It is known that error is unavoidable in any experiment. The error in the practical analysis will

not fully agree with the theoretically obtained data. This can be explained as in this experiment.

The graph pressure v/s temperature is plotted in both ways i.e. practically and theoretically using

the values of the steam table which are considered accurate. The deviation obtained is acceptable

with the consideration of error. The error shows more deviation in the cooling graph but in the

heating graph it is seen that the error seems to increase as the pressure increase. The human error

includes the parallax error in noting down the measurements from the apparatus, the time

measurement using stop watch is subjected to error. The traces of steam remaining in the boiler

can give results that are prone to error. The experiment is a continuous process without any pause

to take pressure and temperature readings. This leads to improper measurement of the same.

The experiment can be improved if digital and accurate thermometer is attached to the boiler

instead of the mercury thermometer. The boiler should have a mechanism to ensure that no

saturated steam exists before the experiment begins. The heating of the boiler should be

consistent and the temperature should be same across the boiler.

Conclusion

The experimental results obtained and theoretically obtained results are similar with the

The pressure and temperature are linked exponentially and the temperature and time

appears to hold a linear relationship. The negative linear relationship is obtained for the

results of cooling.

The heat transfer can be explained by Newtons Law of cooling and can be linked to

estimate the time requisite to attain a specific temperature from its initial state.

The maximum temperature of the fluid inside the boiler can be obtained by

mathematically formulating the theories and the observations.

24

References

1. Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach 5th edition by Yunus. A Cengel and Michael

A. Boles.

[Reference] 1

2. http://energy.gov/fe/how-gas-turbine-power-plants-work

3. http://www3.nd.edu/~techrev/Archive/Fall2001/a5.html

4. Y.R., 5th edition, Steam Tables

Bibliography

1. Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists (5th edition) by T.D. Eastop and

A. Mcconkey

25

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