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What does the cell surface consist of?

Plasma membrane, glycocalyx, cell


extentions

What does the cytoplasm consist of?

Cytoskeleton, organelles

What does the nucleus consist of ?

DNA, nucleolus

What is the function of the plasma


membrane?

To protect the cell from harmful stuff


and to let in stuff it needs.

______ is an oily, two-layered


phospholipid film with proteins
emebedded in it

Plasma membrane

______ has these functions: receptor


molecules, cellular transport,
cell-identity marker, and cell adhesion

Membrane proteins

What makes up the plasma membrane?

Phospholipids

What maintains the fluid nature of the


plasma membrane?

Cholesterol

What serves for cell identificaion?

Glycolipids, Glycoproteins

Glycocalyx

Fuzzy, sugary coating formed by


carbohydrated coponents of
glycoproteins and glycolipids

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Microvilli

Extensions of the plasma membrane that


increase surface area for absorption
(kidney tubules and small intestine)

Cilia

Short hairlike processes that are motile


or nonmotile

Motile

Moving substances

Nonmotile

Sensory function

Flagellum

Long hairlike process for locomotion of


human sperm

What are the 3 cell extentions?

Microvilli, cilia, flagellum

What are the 3 intercellular junctions?

Tite junctions, desmosomes, gap


junctions

Tite junctions

Seal of the intercellular space, prevents


molecules from passing through the
intercellular space

Desmosomes

Prevent cells from pulling apart

Gap junctions

Enable free passing of nutrients and ions

How does the selectively permeable


membrane affect us?

It prevents certain things from getting


into the cell and allows the stuff it needs
into the cell.

Cytoskeleton

Network of protein filaments and


tubules that structurally support a cell

Organelles

Metabolically active structures within a


cell

Nucleus

Genetic control center (contains


chromosomes)

Nucleolus

part of nucleus that synthesizes


ribosomes

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

Transport system, synthesizes steroids


and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Covered with ribosomes; modifies and


transports proteins to golgi complex

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Ribosomes

Protein synthesis (translating the genetic


code of DNA into protein)

Golgi complex

Further modifies proteins and packages


them into secretory vesicles

Lysosomes

Break down used organelles and other


substances

Peroxisomes

Neutralize free radicals and detoxify


drugs and toxins

Mitochondria

Energy conversion within cells


(powerhouse)

Centrioles

Participate in cell division, are part of


centrosome

Cell cycle

-all cells come from preexisting cells


-series of events in the life of a cell that
culminates in mitosis and cytokinesis
-divided into 5 main phrases
(Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase,
Anaphase, Telophase)

What are the different forms of Passive


Transport?

NO ATP REQUIRED
1.Simple diffusion
2.Channel-mediated facilitated transport
3.Carrier-mediated facilitated transport
4.Osmosis

Simple diffusion

Molecules follow their concentration


gradient and pass through the plasma
membrane

Channel-mediated facilitated transport

Ions flow through the cell via proteins


based on charge and size

Carrier-mediated facilitated transport

Via a protein a chemical that matches


the binding site will be let in.

Osmosis

Diffusion of water from High


concentration of water to Low
concentration of water (Or think Water
follows where there is more solute)

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What are the different forms of Active


Transport?

ATP REQUIRED
1.Primary Active Transport
2.Secondary Active Transport
3. Vesicular Transport

Primary Active Transport

Using ATP to change the shape of the


protein it pumps molecules/ions against
there concentration gradient.

Secondary Active Transport

Using ATP to move things out the cell


and then having them move along there
concentration gradients and bring along
a friend to enter.

Vesicular Transport

Endocytosis- Vesicles that send things


into the cell
Exocytosis- Vesicles that send things out
of the cell
Transcytosis- Vesicles that send things
into, across and
out of a cell

Isotonic

Same solution

Hypertonic

Solution has more solutes

Hypotonic

Solution has less solutes

What happens to red blood cells in a


Hypertonic Solution?

The RBC will lose water or crenate or


shrivel up

What happens to red blood cells in a


Hypotonic Solution?

The RBC will gain water and rupture

What is resting membrane potential and


how is it established?

It is largely established by K+ and it is a


electrical voltage just across the
membrane. K+ goes outside the cell and
the concentration difference along with
the electrical difference brings Na+ into
the cell. It is important for exciting the
cell.

Interphase

Growth and DNA Synthesis (Most of the


Cycle) G1: Growth, S phase: Growth and
DNA synthesis, G2: Preparations for
division

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Prophase

The nuclear envelope dissappears and


Chromosomes appear

Metaphase

The Centrioles pull the Chromosomes


towards the middle

Anaphase

The centrioles pull the chromosomes


apart and towards each side of the cell

Telophase

The nuclear envelope forms and the


cells begin seperating.

Cytokinesis

The Cells split apart

DNA Replication

1. DNA strands open up via enzymes.


2. Leading strand gets new nucleotides
put on it while the lagging strand gets
put together in fragments via DNA
Polymerase
3.Ligase enzymes splec the short
segments of DNA together
4. Histones associate with the DNA,
forming two new chromatin strands.

Protein Synthesis

The genetic code to make proteins is


coded in three bases called a triplet.
Translation (Nucleus) happens and
Finally Transcription (Cytoplasm).

Translation

mRNA gets a copy of DNA in its own


language and takes it to the cytoplasm

Transcription

mRNA transfers the copy to tRNA to


decode and have rRNA form new
proteins.

Codon

Three-nucleotide sequence on
messenger RNA that codes for a single
amino acid

Anticodon

Group of three bases on a tRNA


molecule that are complementary to an
mRNA codon

What is Matter?

That which has mass and occupies space

What is Energy?

The ability to do work

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What are the three states of matter?

Solid, Liquid, or Gas

What does Kinetic energy mean?

Energy in action

What does Potential energy mean?

Stored energy

What four elements make up 96% of our


body mass?

Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O),


and Nitrogen (N)

What makes up an atom and what are


there charges?

In the Nucleus we have Protons (+) and


Neutrons (Neutral), while orbiting the
nucleus are Electrons (-)

What is does atomic number mean?

The number of protons in an atom

What does mass number mean?

The sum of the masses of its protons and


neutrons

What does isotope mean?

Same element with a different amount


of neutrons

What are solutions?

They are homogeneous mixtures of


components that may be gases, liquids,
or solids.

What are solvents?

The substance present in the greatest


amount (Usually liquids)

What are solutes?

The substance present in smaller


amounts

What are colloids?

Heterogeneous mixtures that scatter


light but don't settle out. (A kind of
happy medium between solutions and
suspensions)

What are suspensions?

Heterogeneous mixtures that are often


visible that tend to seperate out

What is a molecule?

Two or more of the same type of


element

What is a compound?

Two or more of differnt types of


elements

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What are the different types of chemical


reactions?

Covalent bonds- Two or more non


metals sharing electrons (CO)
Ionic bonds- Two or more metal to non
metal atoms giving away or taking
electrons (NaCl)
Hydrogen bonds- Not really chemical
bonds but more like strong attractions
when a hydrogen attached covalently to
a Nitrogen or Oxygen to another
electron hungry atom.

Polar bonds

Charges caused by unequal sharing of


electrons ( HO)

Nonpolar bonds

No charges caused, equal sharing of


electrons (CO)

What are valence shell electrons?

Outermost shell of electrons that cause


chemical reactions to occur

What is the rule of 8?

Atoms tend to want to have an a valence


shell of 8

What is a chemical reaction?

When to two reactants form a product


by bond being formed

What does reactant mean?

Two or more atoms being combined

What does product mean?

The result of the the reactants

What is a synthesis reaction?

When something is combined to make a


new product. (A+BAB)

What is a decomposition reaction?

When something is broken down into


smaller molecules (ABA+B)

What is a exchange reaction?

Bonds are both made and Broken (AB+


CBC +A or AB + CD AC+BD)

What is a redox reaction?

Electrons are exchanged. Electron


donors (Oxidized) lose electrons while
Electron acceptors (Reduced) take up
electrons

What is the difference between


inorganic and organic molecules?

Inorganic molecules tend to not have


Carbon. While organic molecules tend to
have Carbon.

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What are Ions?

Atoms that has a positive or negative


charge

What are Electrolytes?

A solution that conducts electricity


because it contains ions.

What is a cation?

Positively charged particle

What is a anion?

Negatively charged particle

What are acids?

H+(Proton) Donators

What are bases?

H+(Proton) Acceptors

What is the function of buffers?

To maintain homeostasis with acids and


bases

What is the pH scale?

(7= Neutral, X>7= Basic, X<7+= Acidic)


Tells whether something is neutral, basic
or acidic.

What is the function and the basic


building blocks of Carbohydrates?

To provide Energy. They tend to have a


carbon ring with H and OH hanging of
each carbon.

What is the funciton and the basic


building blocks of Proteins?

To build up tissues. They have a carbon


atom surrounded by a amine group, an
acid group, a hydrogen and an R group.

What is the function and the basic


building blocks of Lipids?

To store energy, become chemical


messengers or protect/insulate the body.
They tend to have a glycerol and 3 fatty
acid chains.

What is the funciton and the basic


building blocks of Nucleic acids?

To make up genetic code. They are


usually made of a phophate, sugar, and a
Base (A, T, G, C, U)

What is an enzyme?

Globular proteins that act as biological


catalysts

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What are the 3 basic steps to enzyme


activity?

1. Substrates bind to the enzyme's active


site, temporarily forming an enzymesubstrate complex.
2. The enzyme-substrate complex
undergoes internal rearangements that
form the products.
3. The enzyme releases the product(s) of
the reaction.

What is the function of ATP?

The energy/currency of the body to


preform all of its functions.

What is the difference between anatomy


and physiology?

Anatomy- study of the structure of body


parts and their relationships to one
another.
Physiology- study of the functions of the
body.

What is the principle of


complementarity?

It is the relationship between structure


and function.That is, what a structure
can do depends on its specific form.

What are the levels of organization?

From Smallest to Largest:


(1) Chemical Level (2) Cellular Level
(3) Tissue Level (4) Organ Level
(5) Organ System Level (6)
Organismal Level

What are the 11 organ systems?

1.Integumentary System 2. Skeletal


System
3. Muscular System 4. Nervous System
5. Endocrine System 6. Cardiovascular
System
7. Lymphatic System 8. Respiratory
System
9. Digestive System 10.Urinary System
11. Reproductive System

What are the functions of the


Integumentary system?

Protection, Synthesis of vitamin D,


Houses cutaneous receptors and sweat
and oil glands, Water retention

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What are the functions of the Skeletal


system?

Support, frame work for movement,


blood formation, protective enclosure of
viscera (organs), and Electrolyte and
Acid-base balance

What are the functions of the Muscular


system?

Movement, Stability, communication,


control of body openings, and heat
production

What are the functions of the Nervous


system?

Rapid internal communication,


coordination, motor control and
sensation

What are the functions of the Endocrine


system?

Hormone production, internal chemical


communication and coordination

What are the functions of the


Cardiovascular system?

Distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes,


hormones, electorlytes, heat, immune
cells, and antibodies, fluid, electrolyte,
and acid- base balance

What are the functions of the Lymphatic


system?

Recovery of excess tissure fluid,


detection of pathogens, production of
immune cells, defense against disease

What are the functions of the


Respiratory System?

absorption of oxygen, discharge of


carbon dioxide, acid-base balance,
speech

What are the functions of the Digestive


system?

Nutrient breakdown and absorption;


liver funcions include metabolism of
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins,
and minerals; synthesis of proteins;
disposal o drugs, toxins, hormones;
blood cleansing

What are the functions of the Urinary


system?

Eliminates wastes, regulation of blood


volume and pressre, stimulation of RBC
(Red Blood Cell) formation, control of
fluid electrolyte, and acid- base balance,
detoxification

What are the functions of the


Reproductive system?

Make offspring

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What is homeostasis?

Maintaining a relatively stable/constant


condition even though the outside world
changes continuously (ex temperature)

How does the body maintain


homeostasis?

A STIMULUS detected by a receptor


sends info to the CONTROL CENTER
via AFFERENT PATHWAYS. The
control center decides what to do. It
sends info to an EFFECTOR via
EFFERENT PATHWAYS to evoke a
RESPONSE. Which gets the body back
to normal by doing the opposite of the
stimulus (Negative Feed Back Loop) or
increases the response (Positive Feed
Back Loop)

Anatomical Position

Standing erect with feet flat; arms at the


sides; palms, face, and ears facing
forward; providing a standard reference
for body position

Ventral

toward the front or belly

Dorsal

toward the back or spine

Anterior

toward the front of the body

Posterior

toward the back of the body

Superior

above

Inferior

below

Cephalic

toward the head or superior end

Rostral

toward the forehead or nose

Caudal

toward the tail or inferior end

Medial

toward the midline of the body

Lateral

away from the midline of the body

Proximal

closer to the point of attachment or


origin

Distal

farther from the point of attachment or


origin

Superficial

closer to the body surface

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Deep

farther from the body surface

Abdominal

Abs area

Acromial

Deltoid area

Antebrachial

Forearm

Antecubital

Anterior part of the elbow

Axillary

Armpit area

Brachial

Arm

Buccal

Cheeks

Calcaneal

Heel

Carpal

Wrist

Cephalic

Head

Cervical

Where Cervical vertebre are (Neck)

Crural

Leg

Digital

Fingers and Toes

Femoral

Thigh

Frontal

Forehead

Gluteal

Butcheeks

Inguinal

Groin

Lumbar

Where Lumbar vertebre are (Lower


back, superior to the gluteal)

Mammary

Near the nipples

Mental

Jaw

Nasal

Nose

Occipital

Back of the Head

Oral

Mouth

Orbital

Eyes

Otic

Ears

Palmar

Hands

Patellar

Front of the knee

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Pelvic

Inferior to Abdominal, and superior to


Groin

Plantar

Foot

Popliteal

Back of the knee

Pubic

Genital area

Scapular

Back

Sternal

Sternum

Sural

Calf

Tarsal

Ankle

Thoracic

Chest

Umbilical

Belly button

Vertebral

Spinal cord area

Sagittal plane

Divides the body into left or right parts

Midsagittal plane

Divides the body in the middle to


become left or right parts

Transverse plane

Divides the body into superior and


inferior parts

Frontal plane

Divides the body into anterior and


posterior parts

Sagittal section

Sagittal cut

Transverse or Cross section

Transverse cut

Frontal or Coronal Section

Frontal cut

Oblique Section

Diagonal cuts

What are the two cavities of the Dorsal


Body Cavity?

Vertebral cavity and Cranial cavity

What are the two cavities of the Ventral


Body Cavity?

Thoracic cavity and Abdominopelvic


cavity

What cavities are in the Thoracic cavity?

Pleural cavity, Pericardial cavity and


Mediastinum

What cavities are in the Abdominopelvic


cavity?

Abdominal cavity and Pelvic cavity

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What is serosa?

A thin, double-layered membrane


containing a bit of fluid to reduce
friction

What is the part of the membrane that


lines the cavity walls called?

Parietal serosa

What is the part of the membrane that


lines the organs called?

Visceral serosa

What serous membrane lines the Cranial


and Vertebral cavities?

Parietal and Visceral Meninges

What serous membrane lines the


Abdominal and Pelvic cavity?

Parietal and Visceral Peritoneum

What serous membrane lines the Pleural


cavity?

Parietal and Visceral Pleurae

What serous membrane lines the


Pericardial and Mediastinum cavities?

Parietal and Visceral Pericardium

If you consider your home air


conditioner in terms of homeostatsis,
then the wall thermostat would be the

Control Center

Which of the following statements is the


most correct regarding homeostatic
imbalance?

It is considered the cause of most


diseases.

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