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CVNG3004STRUCTURALDYNAMICS
ByR.Clarke
1.0

Introduction

Thepracticeofstructuraldynamicsisessentiallytheformulationthensolutionofequationsofdifferent
typesapplicabletodifferentconditions.Anewstudentofthetopictypicallyfindsthemselvesabit
overwhelmedandthesignificanceofthedifferentaspectsofthetopicquicklybecomesdifficulttograsp.
However,itisthissignificance,whichariseswhentheunderstandingofthesubtopicsaresynthesizedinto
awhole,thatismostrequiredforeffectivemodelingandanalysis.

Theaimofthisintroductionistoputthevariouspartsofstructuraldynamicsintoperspectiveabirds
eyeview,whichmayhelpthestudentmoreeasilydevelopafeelfortherelativesignificanceofthe
varioussubtopicsofstructuraldynamics.

1.1
TheCriticalPhenomenaofStructuralDynamics

Input=F(t)
System
Output=DAFxF(t)

Figure1

Consideraphysicalsystemastructuralsystem,amechanicalsystem,anelectricalcircuit,etc.At
somepointorpointsinthesystem,atimevaryingexcitationisimposedasaninput,andwedesire
toknowhowthesystemwillrespond,asoutput.Dynamics,orVibrationTheory,enablesusto
determinetheresponseandischaracterizedbyjusttwothingsthephenomenaarefunctionsof
time,andaresuchthattheresponseismagnifiedoramplifiedrelativetotheinput.Thatis,ifthe
inputisF(t),theoutputisDAFxF(t),whereDAFisthedynamicamplificationfactor.This
amplificationtakesplacebecausetheoutputactuallyreinforcestheinputsotherefore,dynamicsis
afeedbackphenomenon.

StructuraldynamicsistheapplicationofVibrationTheorytostructurestypicallyencounteredincivil
engineering,andtheamplificationisduetothegenerationofinertiaforcesthatactonthesystem,
equationsofmotionassociatedwithNewtonsSecondLaw.Therefore,thevariablesare
forceF(t),andtheoutputisthedisplacement,x(t),fromwhichtheotherresponsequantitiesof
interestaredetermined(i.evelocity,acceleration,inertiaforce,etc).

ThisalsoappliestoMechanicalEngineeringbutinthisarena,thestructureisamachineorpartofa
machine.VibrationTheoryalsoappliestocertainaspectsofElectricalEngineering,sosomeofthe
terminologyofstructuraldynamicsoriginatesfromthisfieldsincethegoverningequationsarethe
same.

1.2

StructuralDynamicsinCivilEngineeringDesign

variousstructurescommontocivilengineering,andtheresultingbehaviorofthosestructures.

Ingeneral,structuraldesigncanbedefinedasthecontrolofphenomenawithinthestructural
systembydeterminingthevaluesofitsappropriateproperties,suchthattheresponseofthesystem

isacceptable.Acceptabilityisintermsof:(1)thesafetyofthestructureagainstcollapse,and(2)the
comfortoftheuserduringtheservicelifeofthestructure.Thatis,thecollapseorultimatelimit
state,andtheserviceabilitylimitstate,respectively.

Regardingtheultimatelimitstate,thestructureiseconomicallysafeifthestressdemandsonthe
structurearejustlessthanthecapacitiesofthestructure.Thestressdemandsaretypicallyinterms
ofthestressresultantswithinthesystemthemoments(M),shears(V),axialforces(P),andtorsion
(T),collectivelycalledthedesignactions.

proportionthestructuresothatithasthecapacitytoresistit.(2)AltertheM/Kratiosothatthe
responseisnotsignificantlyamplified.(3)Separatethestructurefromthesourceofthedynamic
thestructuralelements.

Regardingtheserviceabilitylimitstate,thefollowingaregenerallyundesirable.Thevibrationofa
floorordeckassomeoneorsomethingmovesonit,forexample,inbuildingsandbridges.In
buildingsthemovementcanbeduetoapersonwalking,agroupofpersonsdancing,acrowd
particularrangeofacceleration.Ifthestructurevibratestoomuchintheeventofanimpact,say
duetothecollisionofavehicle,orablast,thiscanalsobedisturbingtotheoccupants,andcause
thebeliefthatthebuildingisunsafe,henceaffectingtheirabilitytofunctionnormally.Toavoid
suchoccurrences,thedesignercanusethesameapproachesdescribedabovefortheultimatelimit
state.

Force
Force

Time
Time

Figure2a.PeriodicHarmonicLongDuration
Figure2b.PeriodicNonHarmonicLongDuration

Force
Force

Time
Time

Figure2c.NonPeriodicLongDuration

Figure2d.NonPeriodicShortDuration (Transient)

1.3

Root

Mean

Square
Force

Frequency

Figure2e.Spectrum

(usuallyjustcalledharmonic)canbeduetomachineryonafloor.Periodicnonharmoniclong
earthquakerecordingataspecificpointforaspecificearthquake.Nonperiodicshortduration
collision.

pointintime,t.However,thereareothersituationswhereatanytime,t,itisnotpossibletoknow
calledarandomprocess,orastochasticprocess,andstatistics/probabilitytheoryisusedinorderto
quantitativelydescribethephenomenon.

say,theaccelerationofastructureduringanearthquake,suchasshowninFigure2c.However,for
onanotheridenticalstructureduetothesameearthquake,willresultinyetanothergraph.Andif
anotherearthquakeoccurs,thenanothersetofdifferentgraphswillbeobtained.Theengineer
considersasuitablylargecollectionofrecordings,calledanensemble,andexaminestheirstatistical
properties.

othertimet,thephenomenoniscalledastationaryprocess.Anergodicprocessisaspecialcaseof
astationaryprocess.Foranergodicprocess,notonlyarethestatisticalpropertiesthesameateach
frequencyonthexaxisratherthantime.

DynamicEquilibrium

Ineveryproblemofstructuraldynamics,regardlessofthecomplexityofthemodel,theprincipal
factisthattheforcesinvolvedareinequilibriumatanytime,t.ThisiscalledDAlmbertsPrincipleof
DynamicEquilibriumandcanbedemonstratedsimply,asshowninthediagrambelow.

FI (t)
F (t)
F(t)
F(t)
FD(t)

FS(t)

Figure3b. Physicalmodel
Figure3c.Freebodydiagram(FBD)

oridealization

Figure3a.Physicalsystem

Figure3ashowsasimpleinvertedpendulumunderatimevaryingforce,F(t).Itisbasicallya
Figure3bshowsamodeloridealizationofthedistributionofthemassitisidealizedas
concentratedorlumpedintheball.Thatis,themassofthestickportionofthependulumis
includedinthelumpedmass,andthemodelconsistsofjustthismass.Figure3cshowsalltheforces
inthemodel.Clearly,atanytimet,

(1.1)
FI(t)+FD(t)+FS(t)=F(t)

FI(t)istheinertiaforce.FD(t)isthedampingforce.Thisrepresentstheeffectofinternalfriction,
orthesurroundingairmass,thatcausesthevibrationtodieawaywithtimeifthevibrationis
stopped.FS(t)isthespringforce.Itrepresentsthespringynessofthesystemsincethesystemis
essentiallyacantilever.ThetimevaryingforceF(t),iscalledtheforcingfunction,ortheexcitation.

Equation1.1expressesthedynamicequilibriumofthesystemandiscalledtheequationofmotion,
orthegoverningequation.Bychoosingacoordinatesystem,eachoftheforcescanbeexpressedin
termsofthedisplacementofthesystemandsoequation1.1canbesolvedforthisdisplacement,
knowingwhich,alltheforcesonthelefthandside(LHS)canbedetermined.

1.4

ModelingandAnalysisFundamentals

Theprevioussectiondescribesinanutshell,whatisinvolvedinsolvingdynamicsproblems.
However,inthisexampleonlyonesetofpossibleapproacheswasusedtosetupthemodelandits
equationsforsolution,aprocesscalledformulation.

andeconomy(i.e.timeandresourcesrequired)oftheentiresolutionprocess.Thesearebriefly
describedinthefollowingsections,aswellastheemphasisthatwillbehighlightedinthistext.It
powerfulcomputersandsoftware,thefinalapproachusedmaybejustamatterofpersonal
preference.

1.4.1

LumpedmassvsDistributedMass

Inthesimpleinvertedpendulumexamplediscussedpreviously,themassofthesystemwas
idealizedasasinglelumpedmass.Thisisbecause,sincetheinertiaforceisacentralcharacteristic
ofdynamicanalysis,andinertiaisapropertyofmass,itisimportanttorepresentthemassandmass
propertieswithsufficientaccuracy.Incontrasttoalumpedmassidealization,theengineercanuse
resultingmathematicalmodelisconsiderablymorecomplexcomparedtoifalumpedmass
approachisused.Theaccuracyrelativetocomplexityissufficientlyhighifalumpedmass
idealizationisused,thatformanyproblemsofpracticalinteresttothecivilengineer,thisapproach
usedforanalyzingabeaminChapter4.

oncemore.Itwasmentionedthatacoordinatesystemmustbeemployedsothatwecandefinethe
modeliscalledasingledegreeoffreedom(i.e.SDOF)model.Itispossibleforamasstohavemore
thanoneDOF.Forexample,thefloorofabuildingcanbeidealizedasasinglemass,with3DOF:a

plan.SuchamodeliscalledanMDOFormultipledegreeoffreedommodel.AnothertypeofMDOF
modelisforexample,a2dimensionalbuildingframewhereeachfloorisidealizedasalumped
inChapter2.MDOFmodelsarediscussedinChapter3.Itisinterestingtonotethatformany
problemsofpracticalinterest,anMDOFproblemcanbesolvedbyusingSDOFsolutions.

1.4.2

ForcevsEnergy

Forourinvertedpendulumexample,thegoverningequationisgivenbyequation1.1.Thisequation
equationistobesolvedforthedependantvariable,thedisplacement.Forrelativelysimplemodels,
thesolutionofthedifferentialequationisquitestraightforward,butformorecomplicatedmodels,
itbecomesmuchmoredifficult.Inengineeringanalysisingeneral,itisusuallymucheasiertosolve
governingequationsiftheyareexpressedusingintegralsratherthanderivatives.Theintegral
equationsaresaidtobeweaker.Theforceequationscanbeconvertedtoenergyequations(using
forexamplethePrincipleofVirtualWork)inwhichcasethedifferentialequationsnowbecome
integralequations.Itismorecommonhowever,forforce,andhencedifferential,equationstobe
usedforthetypesofdynamicsproblemsoftypicalinteresttocivilengineers,sothisformofthe
governingequationsisusedthroughoutthistext.

1.4.3

TimevsFrequency

Forourinvertedpendulumexample,thegoverningequationanditssolutionarefunctionsoftime
showninFigures2band2c,thereisimportantinformationorpatternsthatarenotobviouswhen
response(i.e.thesolutionofthedifferentialequation),canbeexpressedasfunctionsoffrequency.
duetothebranchofmathematicscalledFourierAnalysis.Solutioninthefrequencydomain
hasimportantapplicationinthedesignofthesystem,theunderstandingofthebehavior,orthe
theresponseforarangeofproblemsofpracticalinterest.

Withtheexceptionoffindingunderlyingpatternshowever,moderncomputertechnology(via
numericalanalysiswhichisdiscussedinthenextsection)enablestimedomainanalysistoprovideall
theinformationasafrequencydomainanalysisbutinasingleformulation.Frequencydomain
domainanalysisthoughfrequencydomainanalysisispresentedforseveraltypesofdynamic

1.4.4

AnalyticalvsNumericalAnalysis

computersandsoftwaremakesthisquitestraightforward.Numericalanalysisalgorithmsarebased
onreplacingacontinuousvariablebyaseriesofsmalldiscretestepsandinthismannerdifferential
orintegralequationsareconvertedtoalgebraicequations,hencethenecessityofcomputer
technology.Theseproceduresarebasedonseriesexpansions(i.e.MaclaurinorTaylorseries)and
severalhavebeendevelopedforthedirectorstepbystepintegrationofthegoverningdifferential
equationsofstructuraldynamics.SomeofthesearediscussedinChapter2.

ForMDOFanalysisbyoneofthemostpopularapproachescalledmodesuperposition,itisfirst
necessarytodeterminethevibrationmodeshapesofthestructureandinengineeringmathematics
thisisrecognizedasaneigenvalueproblem.Numericalanalysisalgorithmshavebeendevelopedfor
thisaswell,andisdiscussedinChapter3.

1.4.5

LinearvsNonlinear

Instructuraldynamicstheissueoflinearityornonlinearityiswithrespecttothethirdterminthe
LHSofequation1.1theFS(t)term.Recallthatthisisthespringforceterm.Formanypractical
rangesoftheperformanceofastructure,thestresscanbeconsidereddirectlyproportionaltothe
strainatanypointinthestructure.HenceforanSDOFsystem,FS(t)=Kx(t),whereK,the
proportionalityconstant,isthespringconstantorstiffnessofthestructure;x(t)isthetimevarying
displacementofthestructure.However,thereareimportantproblemsforwhichthisassumption
engineerdeliberatelyallowsthestructuretoyieldatanumberofpointswithinthestructure.At
thosepointsthestressstrainrelationshipisnonlinearhenceforthewholestructureaswell.
Thereforeinsuchacase,Kisnolongeraconstantanddependsonx(t).HenceFS(t)=K(x(t))x(t)
whichisclearlyanonlinearterm.

TheeffectofnonlinearityisthatanotherequationorprocedureisrequiredtoevaluateK(x(t))
simultaneouslywiththeothertermsintheequationofmotionandthismakesthesolution
impossiblebyanalyticalprocedures,hencefrequencydomainmethodscannotbeapplied.When
theproblemisnonlinear,thetypicalapproachistousetimedomainmodelingalongwithnumerical
analysis,andthisisexaminedinChapter3.

Itshouldbementionedthatbecauseofthedifficultiesassociatedwithanonlineardynamics
problem,ingeniousmethodshavebeendevisedtoconverttheproblemtoanequivalentlinear
problem.OneapproachistoreplacetheFS(t)termbychangingthedampingtermFD(t)inlinear
problembutinsuchamannerthattheoveralleffectisthesameasforthenonlinearproblem.

1.4.6

DeterministicvsRandom

approachisrequiredwhenthedynamicsphenomenonisinherentlyrandom.Insuchacase,and
onlyforlinearproblems,thegoverningequationshaveasthedependantvariable,themomentsof
theresponse(e.g.themeanandstandardvariation).

orresponsebutthenumberusedwillbeassociatedwithaselectedconfidencelevel.Forexample,

Frequencydomainsolutionsareextensivelyusedforrandomdynamicsproblems,primarilybecause
thegoverningequationsareintegralequations.Thisfieldisparticularlyinterestingforresearchers
andiscalledSpectralAnalysis.

1.5

VibrationTerminology

ofdescribingthevariousaspectsofthetopic.Someofthemorefundamentaltermsaredescribed
asfollows.

Period
ConsidertheverticalcantilevershownbelowinFigure4a,andwhichisvibratinginasimpletoand
fromotion.Thedisplacementatthetip,x(t),ishorizontalandhasamaximumvalueofAwhenit
bendstothefarright,butAtothefarleft.Thehorizontaldisplacementatanytimet,isthe
typicalsymbolfortheperiodisTandtheunitisseconds(sec).

Figure4aVibratingcantilever
Figure4b Vibrationintermsofa

Frequency
rps.

completecircleitissaidtohavecompletedacycle.Thesymbolforrectilinearfrequencyisf,andits
unitiscyclespersecondorcpsorHertz(Hz).fissimplytheinverseofT,sof=1/T.

circleinTseconds,therefore2=T.So,

=2/T

(1.2)

Thisisafundamentalequationofdynamics.

manytextssimpleusethewordfrequencyforeitherthecircularorrectilinearfrequency.

Harmonic
ThesimpletoandfromotionofthecantileverinFigure4aiscalledharmonicmotion.Intermsof

x(t)=Acos=Acost

(1.3)

Thevibrationofsimplecontinuasuchasstringscanbeshowntobecomposedofthesummationof
arearrangedinincreasingorderoffrequency,theyarecalledthefirstharmonic,thesecond
harmonic,etc.

Phase
Thecosineandsinefunctionshaveexactlythesameshape,buttheyhavedifferentvaluesforthe
sameangle,t.Therefore,thecosineandsinefunctionswillbeidenticalifoneisshiftedonthe
angleaxisrelativetotheother.Thisshiftordifferenceinangleiscalledthephasedifference,or
justthephaseforshort.Hencetheobservationfromtrigonometrythatcos=sin(+/2),
where/2isthephasedifferencebetweenthecosineandsinefunctions.

mostcompactform.

TimeSeries
systemresponses.Theentiresetofdataissometimesreferredtoasatimeseriesorarecord.

Magnitude
ForthecaseofharmonicmotionshowninFigure4,themagnitudeofthedisplacementisA.The
magnitudeofatimeseriesisitspeakormaximumvalueandisparticularlyimportanttocivildesign
systemwillexperienceduringitsservicelife.

aretypicallymathematicallyrepresentedinthefrequencydomainusingsummationsofharmonics
expressedintermsofacomplexnumberforeachfrequency.Inthiscase,themagnitudeisthe
absolutevalueormodulusofthecomplexnumber.

Average
Inseveralcases,theaverageormeanvalueofatimeseries,ortheaverageofasetofvalues
recordedatdifferentpointsonasystem,butatthesametimet,isuseful.Forexample,inthestudy
ofrandomvibrations,themeanplusxsigmarepresentsacertainprobabilityofbeingexceeded,
wherexistypicallybetween1and3.Also,whenrepresentingatimeseriesassummationsof

RootMeanSquare
Therootmeansquareorrmsvalueofthedisplacementassociatedwithavibrationisameasureof
theenergyofthevibration.Themeansquaredisplacementistheaverageofthesquaredvaluesof
thetimeseries,oroveratimeinterval.Thermsisthesquarerootofthisvalue,andismeasuredin
rmsmeters.

Bandwidth
orresponseofasystem.Forexample,aparticularbandwidthmayberesponsibleforcausingthe
(e.g.rmsvalue)isthehighestandfairlyconstantoverawiderangeofthefrequenciesrelevantto
fromavibratingmachineistypicallynarrowband.

Octave
Anoctaveisafrequencybandinwhichtheupperlimitistwicethelowerlimit.Soiffrequenciesare
dividedintobandsof1020Hz,2040Hz,4080Hz,theneachofthesebandsisanoctave.

Filter
ThistermisfromthefieldofSignalProcessingwhichsharesmanyofthegoverningequationsof
linearstructuraldynamics.InFigure1,themiddleboxisafilteritconvertstheinputvibrationto
anothertypeofvibrationasoutput.Ahighpassfilterreducesthevaluesinthelowerbandstovery
smallvalues,andalowpassfilterdoestheopposite.

Practicalworkinstructuraldynamicsinvolvestakingmeasurementsastimeseriesfromdifferent
pointsonastructure.However,becauseofcomputertechnologytheequipmentusesdigital
electronicsandthetimeseriesistheresultsofsamplingatacertaintimeinterval.Therefore,the
terminologyofDigitalSignalProcessing(DSP)iswidelyusedinthisaspectofstructuraldynamicsand
becauseofthesampling,certainphenomenamayarisethatthecivilengineermustbeawareoffor
properuseoftheequipment,andinterpretationoftheresultingdata.

1.6

TheBasicToolbox

Thebasictoolboxiscomprisedofthemostfundamentalmethodsorfunctionstheengineerapplying
structuraldynamicsislikelytouse.Thesearepresentedinthefollowingtable.

METHOD/
FUNCTION
FourierSeries(M)

FUNCTIONNAME

NOTES

NotApplicable(NA)

ofaseriesatdiscretefrequencies.
CharacterizedbyA,Bcoefficients,whichare
thebasicstructureoftheFourierSeries.
Usedtoobtain frequencydomain response
functionispartoftheintegralandthe
forcingfunctioncanbeexpressedasatime
seriesofnumericalvalues,orinclosedform.
Representstheamplitudesofthe
exponentialformoftheFourierSeries.
CanbeusedtogetfunctionsforA,Bofthe
FourierSeriesforclosedformsolutions.The
inputisasymbolicexpressionanditreturns
theintegralasasymbolicexpression.
Givestheabsolutevalueofacomplex
number:a+ib,whichcanbeusedfora
compactformoftheFourierSeries.The
inputisthepairofnumericala,bnumerical
valuesanditreturnsanumericalvalue.
Givesthephase(lag)anglebetweena,b.
Returnsanumericalvalue.Theinputisthe
pairofnumericala,bvaluesofacomplex
numberanditreturnsanumericalvalue.
TheDAF=|H|=Abs(H).Iftheinputtime
seriesisexpressedwithtasacontinuous
function,thenHrepresentsananalogue
filter.Butiftisasetofdiscretetimevalues,
formercase,theMATLABfunctionthat

FourierIntegral(M)

NA

SymbolicIntegration(F,
M)

Int

Absolutevalue(F)

Abs

Phase(F)

Transferfunctionor
ForceResponseFunction
(FRF)(F)

Angle

10

DirectFourierTransform
(M)

P(sometimesF)

FastFourierTransform
(F)

FFT

RungeKutta4thOrder
NumericalIntegration
(M,F)

Ode45

Eigenvalue/Eigenvector
Analysis(M,F)

Eig

GraphicalPlotting(M,F)

Subplot and
Plot

returnsHisfreqs(),andforthelatteris
freqz().Inbothcases,theinputtoHisa
symbolicfraction,andtheyreturnnumerical
values.
Thisistheclosedformfrequencydensityof
atimeseriesandisusedtocalculateits
amplitudespectrum,especiallyforhand
calculations,whichispossibleforsimple
calculatedbyasingleMATLABfunction,but
ascriptcanbedeveloped,basedonthe
Int()function,togetP(A,Balso)inclosed
form.
Givesthemagnitudevsfrequencyofa given
timeserieswherethetimeisasasetof
discreteequallyspacedvalues.Thisisthe
numericalversionoffunctionPandis
Theinputisasetoftimeseriesnumerical
values,anditreturnsthenumericalvaluesof
theamplitudespectrum.
ImplementstheRungeKutta4thor 5th Order
proceduresofnumericalintegrationofaset
of1storderODEs.Theinputisthesymbolic
expressionoftheDEs,theinterval,andthey
valuesattheleftendoftheinterval.It
returnsthenumericalvaluesforyoverthe
interval.CanbeusedtosolvetheODEs
representingtheequationofmotion.
ForlinearMDOFdynamics,themodal
superpositionmethodiswidelyused.An
eigenvalue/eigenvectoranalysisgivesthe
modeshapeanditsfrequency.Theinputis
themassandstiffnessvaluesassociatedwith
eachDOF.
graphicsisindispensiblefordisplayingthe
analysis.

Studentssometimesconfusethetermsclosedform,numerical,discrete,andcontinuous.A
closedformsolutionmeansthatthevaluescanbecalculatedusingasymbolicexpression.A
numericalsolutionmeansthatthesolutioncanonlybeobtainedasasetofnumbervalues.
Discretemeansthattheyaxisvaluesonlyexistatspecificxaxisvalues.Anexampleisthe
spectrumofaFourierSeries,whichonlyhasvaluesatspecificfrequenciesbutiszeroinbetween.
Continuousmeansthatanyvalueonthexaxishasavalueontheyaxis,hencewhenplotteda
smoothcurveisobtained.AnexampleisthespectrumofaFourierIntegralwhichhasvaluesatall
frequencies.Notethatitispossibletohaveaclosedformsolutionfordiscretespectra.Thismeans
thatatthefrequencyinquestion,thevalueisgivenbyasymbolicexpression.Furthermore,even
thoughasymbolicexpressionmayexist,itisimplementedinacomputerprogrambycalculatingthe
valueatdiscretevalues,usuallyviaaloop.

11

ComputerSoftware

MATLAB
Themethods/functionspresentedaboveareusuallyimplementedusingcomputersoftware,
especiallyforpracticalproblems.ApopularsoftwareframeworkformathcalculationisMATLABby
TheMathworksInc.ThefunctionsinboldtypeinthetableaboveareMATLABcommandnames.
MATLABismainlyasetoffunctionsgroupedintosetsbytopicandeachsetiscalledatoolbox.
MATLABcomeswithabasiccollectionoftoolboxesbutmanyothersareavailableasoptions.
MATLABisaveryhilevellanguagedesignedaroundthematrixasthefundamentaldatatypeso
inputdatashouldbevectorized.MATLABisaninterpretedlanguageandthecommandscanbe
collectedtogetherasascriptfilewithextension.mwhichisineffectacomputerprogram.
MATLABisavailableatmanyuniversitiesbutcanbepricy,evenforthestudentedition.

GNUOctave
OctaveisaMATLABopensource(i.e.free)clonethathasevolvedtoalmost100%compatibility.It
usesthesamecommandsasMATLAB.OctaveforWindowsisrunfromthecommandline.The

http://octave.sourceforge.net/

AnonlinemanualforOctaveisavailablefrom:

http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/interpreter/

MAXIMA
OctavescompatibilitywithMATLABis,however,onlywithrespecttonumericalcomputations.

http://sourceforge.net/projects/maxima/files/MaximaWindows/5.22.1Windows/maxima

ENGLTHA
ENGLHA(EarthquakeNonlinearandGeneralLinearTimeHistoryAnalysis)isacomputerprogram
developedbytheauthorforteachingstructuraldynamics.Itgivesthetimedomainsolutionforany

Inthistext,bothMATLABorOctavefornumericalwork,MAXIMAforsymbolicwork,andENGLTHA
areusedtoillustrateproblemsolvinganddemonstrations.

1.7

ProblemSolvingStrategy

Thecharacteristicsofagivendynamicsproblemindicatewhichapproachesarepossibleforsolution.
Thediagramonthefollowingpageisanoverallsummaryofthemainstepsrequiredforsolving
SDOFlineardynamicsproblems.Forthefrequencydomain,theapproachgivespeakvaluesonly.

ThoughcoveringonlytheSDOFcase,aswillbeseeninsubsequentchapters,themostwidelyused
methodofMDOFdynamicanalysissuperimposestheresultsofSDOFanalysis,makingtheSDOF
analysismethodscriticalforthesolutionsofmanytypesofproblems,evenforcontinuum
structures.

12

PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGYMAPFORLINEARSDOFSTRUCTURALDYNAMICS

PROBLEM

ClosedForm
Numerical

FrequencyDomain
TimeDomain
FrequencyDomain
TimeDomain

Getafunctionforthe
Integratetogetexpressions
Integratetogetexpressions
Integratetoget
expressionforA,BorP

Recallsolutionforunit
GetH
GetH
impulse
asAcos+Bsin

Sub.Inconvolution
Sub.A,Binsolution
H
integralandintegrate
H

TimeDomain
FrequencyDomain