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22 uGefysLwm*sme,f
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26 uGefysLwm*sme,f
owif;awGu ....... 'Dvdk&Sd w,f Myanmar News

MCC ESihf TMC Educational Group (Singapore)wd\Yk


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28 uGefysLwm*sme,f
owif;awGu ....... 'Dvdk&Sd w,f Myanmar News

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uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f 31
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

Vista: 32-bit or 64 bit?

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32 uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

PROCESSOR graphics card wpfckvnf; &Sdaer,fqdk&ifawmh


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w,f/ Memory vnf; vHkvHkavmufavmuf jynfhpHkjyD;? Discrete oHk;wJh laptops udk a&G;&rSm jzpfw,f/

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uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f 33
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

OPTICAL DRIVES AND REMOVABLE STORAGE jzpfw,f/ LightScribe jzpfjzpf? LabelFlash


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36 uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

GRAPHICS ydkxnfh&if ydkaumif;rvm;


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taetxm;&SdjyD; Radeon HD 3870 uvnf; tm;&p&maumif;ygw,f/ wkd;wufcJh&w,f/

uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f 37
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

NET WORKING

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38 uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

EXPANSION rvGJraoG xnfhpOf;pm;&w,f/ uGefysLwm 0,f


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jyD;cJhwJhESpftwGif;u DIY laptop kits qdkwm &SdvmcJhw,f/ Bare r,fvh nf; aemif PCI Express (PCIe) x 16 slot
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PC qdw k m desktop wpfcw k nf;twGuf r[kwaf wmhbJ laptop awG twGuf vm;? CrossFire X vm;qdw k hJ format a&G;cs,rf I
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wpfydkif;jzpfayr,fh usefwJh laptop tpdwftydkif;trsm;pkqdkwmawG twGuf External expansion options awGu
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&Sdae&vdrhfr,f) RAM slots ta&twGuf expansion slots qdkwmawGudk transfer vkyfwJhtcg ydkjyD;jrefqefrI&jyD; uGefysL
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ajym&ygvdrhfr,f/

AUDIO AND SPEAKER USB twGuf tqihfwdk;rIwpfck


Computer sound system qdkwm 'DaeY'DtcsdefrSm ydkjyD; tm;xm;p&m toHk;jyKolawGeJY tuRrf;w0ifjzpfvSwJh
jzpfvm&w,f/ Audio cHpm;rIudk vdkvm;olawG? *drf;upm;olawGuawmh USB twGuf rMumcif tqihfwdk;rIwpfck
sound card wpfckxnfhoHk;MurSm jzpfw,f/ Laptops eJY desktops &Sdvmawmhr,f/ 2.0 uae 3.0 udk wdk;jr§ihf
trsm;pkrSm tm;yg;w& jzpfapr,fh built-in audio processing chip vmrSmjzpfw,f/ USB 3.0 u USB.2.0
awG ygvmaeMujyD/ Desktop PC wpfvHk;twGuf pyDumwpfpHkpm aocsm xuf throughput q,fqydkjyD; yHhydk;aqmif
ayguf &SdzdkYvdkw,f/ Audio t&nftaoG;aumif;aumif; vdkcsif&if sub- &Gufay;vdrhfr,f/ wpfpuúefYudk 4.6 GB txd
woofer wpfckeJY satellite speaker ESpfvHk;ygwJh system twGuf a':vm EIef;xm;&apr,f (wpfpuúefY 600 MB EIef;
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rsKd;eJY &SdEdkifw,f/ jzpfEdkif&if pyDumpepfwpfckckudk r0,frD prf;oyf 3.0 qufvuf
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vnf; ydkao;rSm aocsmw,f/ Laptop awGu netbooks awGxuf jzpfw,f/ 2009 ckESpf
awmh toHtaetxm; ydkaumif;wmu netbooks qdkwm ½kyf&SifeJY ESpfv,fydkif;rSm pwif
rD'D,mtwGuf OD;pm;ay; wnfaqmufxm;wm r[kwfvdkYbJ jzpfw,f/ 0ifa&mufvmygvdrhfr,f/

40 uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f
uGeyf sLwm taxGaxG

WEIGHT AND SIZE tpm;&Sw d hJ puúLwpf&uG x


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oGm;EdkifzdkY ta&;MuD;ovdk? tdrfwGif;azsmfajza&; toHk;jyKwJh
home theater PC awGuvnf; vSvSyy oyfoyf&yf&yfeJY
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avmufrI &Syd gw,f/ Laptop qdw k musawmh tav;csdeq f w
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ydkjyD; tav;xm; pOf;pm;p&m jzpfaeapygvdrhfr,f/ rdrdeJYtwl vnf; t&G,ftpm; MuD;rm;&if tpdwftydkif;awG wdk;csJU
tjrJ o,f,loGm;&r,fhypönf;jzpfaevdkY ydkjyD;pOf;pm;&w,f/ wyfqifzdkY tqifajyr,fqdkwm odxm;&rSmjzpfovdk Laptop
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awGvnf; &Sdwwfygw,f/ qm;ApfeJY ywfoufvdkY ukefusaiG csmw,f/ 'gayr,fh TV/DVR combo
EIef;xm;u xkwfvkyfolawG tay:rSm rlwnfaewwfw,f/ jzpfjzpf? movie player jzpfjzpfawmh
aemufxyf ESpfESpfpm tumtuG,f&&SdzdkY twGuf a':vm 200 yg&Sdaumif; yg&Sdygvdrhfr,f/ tck rMum
avmufawmh arQmfrSef;xm;&vdrhfr,f/ wcsKdUy½dk*&rfawGu ao;cifuawmh 24 vufr t&G,t f pm;
awmh online backup pepfawGygw,f/ Power surge wpfc?k display eJ Y armf ' ,f r sKd ; wd k Y ? Blu-
electrical storm wpfckwdkYaMumifh jzpfjzpf? ESpfMumvmvdkYyJ raydiscs eJY 1080p t&nftaoG;
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42 uGeyf sLwm*sme,f Zefe0g&v


D ? 2009 ckEpS f
Newproduct

NEW PRODUCT

HD video awGukd cHpm;cGi&


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tors awGeYJvnf; tqifacsmarGUpGm vnfywf aqmif&u G f
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twmu 7.6 vufr&SdwmaMumifh PCIe power leads
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44 uGefysLwm*sme,f
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i Buypower Gamer Haf 9SE


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Alienware xkwf uGefysLwm qdkvdkufwmeJY *drf; vnfywfrIpepftaeeJY Windows Vista Home Pre-
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Logitech X-240 2.1 speaker pepfwYkd twGv


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MSI GX 720 tm;&p&maumif;w,f/ 2.26 GHz Centrino P8400
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MSI GX 720 udk midlevel gaming notebook 250 GB yrmP&SdwJh hard drive ESpfvHk; wyfqifxm;
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Zefe0g&D? 2009 47
Newproduct

Andrea Electronics Pureaudio


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Newproduct

Kodak Easy Share M 1033

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Product Name Authorized Distributors Service Center

EPSON Printer, Scanner/Projector Client Focus Technology Group Client Focus Technology Group
Comsumable & Media
BenQ Laptop/LCD monitor Client Focus Technology Group Client Focus Technology Group
BenQ Projector Myanmar Technology Zone Co., Ltd. Myanmar Technology Zone Co., Ltd.
TOSHIBA Notebook/Projector Lucky Bird Co., Ltd. Lucky Bird Co., Ltd.
Tablet PC/Pocket PC/ Projector
ASUS Notebook, Eee PC Golden Power Technology Golden Power Technologywebsite:
NEC Notebook KMD KMD Sales & Service Centre
MSI Smart Computer Technology Smart Computer Technology
ViewSonic LCD monitor Royal Ayeyarwaddy Co., Ltd. Fidonet Computer Sales &Service Centre
AOpen Royal Ayayarwaddy CO., Ltd. Fidonet Computer Sales & Service Centre
FOXCONN motherboard Royal Ayeyarwaddy Co., Ltd.
Acer Notebook Shwe La Min NaGar Co., Ltd. Shwe La Min NaGar Co., Ltd.
Samsung LCD Monitor, Printer Cystem Computer Sales &Service Centre
Optical drive
PowerTree UPS Direct Channel Distribution (DCD) DCD
APC UPS ACIT Co., Ltd. ACIT Co., Ltd.
TEAC Optical drive Alliance Stars Co., Ltd.
TWINMOS Memory
EAGLE AGP Card

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vkyfcJhygw,f/ atmufwdkbmvrSm version 2.0 xGufvmyg 2009 udk Edk0ifbmvqef;u pjyD; 6000 usyfeJY
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108 uGefysLwm*sme,f
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odvmMujyDqdkwJhae&mrSm jrefrmEkdifiHuausmif;om; jzpfygw,f/ 2008 ckESpftwGuf jrefrmEdkifiHu xkwfvkyf
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rsm;vmw,f/ 'DvdkoGm;vm&mrSmvnf; ukd,fykdif awGU&ygw,f/ rdkbdkif;vfzkef;ol&JU owif;tcsuftvuf
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software ukd twwfEi dk q
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Zefe0g&D? 2009 109


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rjzpfrae 0,f,lwifoGif; vmMu&w,f/ Oyrm- i,fwJht&G,ftpm;aMumifh ay:jyLvmjzpfwmxuf
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a&mufvmr,fh NEC Netbook qdk&if Windows ay:jyLvmjzpfvm&w,f/ 0,f,lolawGtaeeJY
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Zefe0g&D? 2009 113


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1.
Toshiba Portege M 80 Business
Notebook 5.
1ç410ç000 usyf Acer P194 Wbd LCD
LUCKY BIRD COMPUTER 19" LCD Monitor
215ç000 usyf
SMART COMPUTER

2.
Toshiba Qosmio X 300
Stylish Notebook 7.
3ç200ç000 usyf Epson TX 400
All-in-one Printer
3. 120ç000 usyf
MSI Wind U100 CLIENT FOCUS
Budget Netbook
610ç000 usyf
SMART COMPUTER,
TECHNOLAND

4.
MSI PR 601
Design Award Notebook
1ç400ç000 usyf
SMART COMPUTER
6. 8.
Acer Aspire 4980
Entertainment Notebook BenQ E900w LCD 19" LCD monitor
1ç200ç000 usyf 240000 usyf
SMART COMPUTER LUCKY BIRD COMPUTER,
CLIENT FOCUS
120 uGefysLwm*sme,f
9.
10. BenQ MP-522
BenQ C1060 Compact Camera 2100 Lumus Projector
144ç000 usyf 728ç000 usyf
MYANMAR TECHNOLOGY ZONE MYANMAR TECHNOLOGY ZONE

12.
13. Sony Ericsson K 550i
Smart Phone 11.
Sony DSC-W170
TMW Sony Ericsson W380i
Wide angle CyberShot Camera Walkman Mobile Phone
369ç000 usyf TMW
TMW

14. 16.
Canon EOS 400D DSLR Camera
Sony FP85 Digital Photo Printer
259ç000 usyf
870ç000 usyf 15.
D-CORNER Panasonic SDR -H 40
Digital Video Camera
17. 775ç000 usyf
iPod Shuffle ADVANCED VISSION
1GB - 70ç000 usyf?
2GB - 96ç000 usyf
ACCESS SPECTRUM,
D-CORNER
Zefe0g&D? 2009 121
18.
iPod Wano
8GB - 199ç000 usyf
16 GB - 268ç000 usyf
ACCESS SPECTRUM,
D-CORNER

24.
19. Asus Eec PC 100 H
Latest Design Notebook
iPod Classic 820ç000 usyf
120 GB- 350ç000 usyf GOLDEN POWER,
ACCESS SPECTRUM TECHNOLAND
D-CORNER

20.
jbl On Stage II
iPod Docking Speaker
240ç000 usyf
D-CORNER

21. 25.
ASus Eee Box Micro Desktop PC
V2 Rebot
433ç000 usyf
700ç000 usyf
GOLDEN POWER,
D-CORNER
TECHNOLAND

22. 23.
Robot Squirt R3 ME5A Robot
520ç000 usyf 100ç000 usyf
D-CORNER D-CORNER
122 uGefysLwm*sme,f
29.
Canon PowerShot A720 IS 8Mp Compact Camera
300ç000 usyf
ROYAL AYEYARWADDY,
TECHNOLAND

26.
A Open E555 5 - in-1 Combo 30.
accessories HP Parillion a 6505
45ç000 usyf Entertainment Desktop PC
ROYAL AYEYARWADDY 1ç100ç000 usyf
T-LAND TECHNOLOGY

27.
A Open DVD + RW Writer
Desktop-used writer
45ç000 usyf

28.
Canon Selphy CP 760
Compact Photo Printer
169ç000 usyf
TECHNOLAND
31.
BenQ Joybook S41 Slylish Notebook
1ç270ç000 usyf
CLIENT FOCUS
Zefe0g&D? 2009 123
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32.
Apple Mac Book
Stylish Notebook
0,f,lEkdifaom
1ç500ç000 usyf
ae&mrsm;
LUCKY BIRD COMPUTER
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SMART COMPUTER
(Ph : 389112)

CLIENT FOCUS
(Ph : 374110)

MYANMAR TECHNOLOGY ZONE


33. (Ph : 723009)

Sony KLV 32 400 A T-LAND TECHNOLOGY


32 " HDTV (Ph : 382868)
1ç150ç000 usyf
TMW ACCESS SPECTRUM
Ph : 380900)

GOLDEN POWER
(Ph : 226664)

D-CORNER
(Ph : 242360)
34.
Panasonic SC-PT 865 ROYAL AYEYARWADDY
Wireless (Ph : 389366)
Home Theater System
ADVANCED VISSION TECHNOLAND
(Ph : 372211)

ADVANCED VISSION
(Ph : 292664)

TMW
35. (Ph : 546002)
NEC S3301-F2017 DRC
Business Notebook
1ç100ç000 usyf KMD
KMD (Ph : 245180)

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pmrsufESmudk webpage vdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'goo- vdkrsKd;) udk csdwfqufoHk;pGJ&wJh Mail eJY 0ufbf
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Zefe0g&D? 2009 129


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ming tajccH room, java chat room eJY flash
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5/ pD;yGm;a&;
owif;tcsuftvufawG[m tjrJwrf;
pD;qif;aewJhtwGuf tck vef'efrSmaygufaewJh
pawmhaps;uGuf taetxm;udk tdrfuae vSrf;
jyD; odEdkifygjyD/ Purchasing, online auction

130 uGefysLwm*sme,f
tif w meuf q d k w m
udpaö wGudk xdkif&m rxpwrf; vkyfaqmifEdkifjyD;
tm;vHk;udkvnf; e-banking uae wpfqihf
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udpö&yfawGxuf ydkjyD; jrefqefygw,f/ zkef;eJY
qufoG,fajymqdk&wmxufvJ xda&mufovdk
vdt k yf&if tifwmeufuaewpfqihf 'Net meet-
ing' udkyg vkyfEdkifwJhtwGuf tifwmeufay:u
pD;yGm;a&;orm;wpfa,muf[m tjyifvl wpf
a,mufxuf tedrhfqHk;tqihfrSm owif;tcsuf
tvufawG ydkrdk <u,f0aerSm trSefygyJ/
qdkifbmuaz;awGrSm avhvmMunfhwJh tcg
rSm tckeajymcJhwJh tcsufig;csufaMumifh tifwm
eufudk toHk;jyKwm awGU&ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh
tckvuf&rdS mS awmh chatting ajymzdYkqw kd hJ &nf&,
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csufeJY vli,fawGu trsm;om;vm;/ qdkifbm -7-
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ta&twGuf 10 vHk;rSm 8 vHk;avmuf[m ouf
qdik &f m y½d*k &rfuav;awGziG v fh pS jf yD; pum;pjrnf toHk;rsm;MuovJ
ajymaewwfMuawmh ]bmaMumih}f oH;k &ovJqw kd hJ tifwmeufuaz;wpfc&k UJ tqdt k & vlwef;
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EdkifiH&yfjcm;rSm&SdwJh rdbeJY? oli,fcsif;eJY rajym EdkifiHudk tvnftywf a&mufvmwJh EdkifiHjcm;
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ynm &yfyikd ;f qdik &f m ar;jref;wmrsKd; ½d;k ? yk*?H anmifO;D pwmawGeYJ oufqikd w f hJ tcsuf
udak wmh >cif;csux f m;Edik af yr,fh tvufawG Munf½h MI ujyD; c&D;pOfukd wGucf suMf u
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awGuawmh pOf;pm;zdkYvdkr,f pm&if;Z,m;awG a&;qGEJ ikd zf Ykd eYJ ½H;k tky?f 'grSr[kwf
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tifwmeuf[m oHk;pGJ & tquftoG,&f o dS al wGuawmh ausmif;avQmufzYkd
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wmudk odr,fqdk&if chatting wJh tvkyaf e&mawGukd &SmazGwmrsK;d udk vkyaf qmif
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(about.com vdk? how stuff work vdk? vdkY od&ygw,f/ vli,fawGuawmh tD;ar;vf
ehow vdk) pwJh pmrsufESmawGrSmvnf; tenf; ppfaq;wm? chat room rSm pum;ajymwm? web
i,fawmh tcsdefay;oifhygw,f/ surfing vkyfwmrsKd; tygt0if taMumif;t&m
taMumif;trsKd;rsKd;aMumifh tifwmeufudk rsKd;pHkudk vkyfaqmifwwfavh &Sdygw,f/ tck
toH;k jyKMuwJah e&mrSm 90 &mcdik Ef eI ;f uawmh chat aemufyikd ;f rSm 'kw, d toH;k rsm;vmwmu tkyx f ed ;f
twGuf &nf&G,fjyD; usef&SdwJh 10 &mcdkifEIef;u ol rdbawGygyJ/ tjyifuae zkef;ajymr,fqdk&if
om pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;eJY ynma&;twGuf toHk; pifumylvdkEdkifiHrsKd;udk wpfrdepfudk axmifcsDjyD;
rsm;Muygw,f/ ay;&rSmqdkawmh tifwmeufuae zkef;ajymzdkY ydkrdk

Zefe0g&D? 2009 131


tif w meuf q d k w m
-8-
tifwmeufukd b,fae&mrSm
oHk;rvJ
ud, k &hf UJ ½H;k rSm? 'grSr[kwf tdrrf mS tifwmeuf
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cyber cafe awGrSm &Sdoifh&SdxdkufwJh pHcsdefpHñTef;
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zke;f ajymzdYk qw kd mu odyu f kd a0;vHacgifovD eG ;f wJh EkdifiH&yfjcm;eJY zkef;tajymtqdk r&Sdbl;qdk&if
ae&ma&mufae&if wpf'ku©? vludkvJ rjrif&wm awmifrS PC rSm head phone yg0if&ygr,f/
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ao;awmh zefom;jyifa&SUrSm xdkifjyD; Gtalk 'grS vdv k rkd mS wyfqifxm;wJt h wGuf web cam wpfck
r[kwf VZO chat vdkrsKd;uae udk,fhom;orD; vnf; &Sd&ygr,f/ wcsKdUqdkifawGrSm Air Con
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w,f r[kwfvm;/ MuD; tcsufjzpfwJh cyber cafe &JU internet
'gaMumifh a0;&yfajrrSm pGefYpGefYpm;pm;eJY bandwith [m tedrhfqHk;rSm 512 MB &Sdoihfyg
pD;yGm;oGm;&SmaewJh om;orD;awGeJY tifwmeuf w,f/ 'grSom data ta&TUtajymif; jrefqefrSm
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ausmif ; pmtk y f a wG download cswwf a vh aps;EIef;jrihfrm;aeayr,fh tJ'Dqdkif[m
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132 uGefysLwm*sme,f
tif w meuf q d k w m
-9- count wpfckudk wnfaqmufum tJ'D user-
name eJ Y password toH k ; jyKjyD ;
tif w meuf t oH k ; j y K&mrS m 0ifa&mufEdkifyg w,f/
&SdoihfwJh aqmhzf0J 10 rsKd;
3/ Internet download man-
tdro
f ;kH user awGeYJ ½H;k 'grSr[kwf ukrP
Ü v
D kd ager
rsKd;rSm PC udk wpfvHk;uspD udk,fydkifoHk;pGJae&jyD; (download)
udk,fh PC uvnf; internet csdwfqufxm; "http://www.idm.
w,fq&kd if 'D aqmhz0f aJ wG install vkyx f m;oihyf g com" uaejzpfjzpf? "http://
w,f/ wu,fvdkY cyber cafe user jzpfr,f www.softpedia.com"
qdk&ifawmh 'Daqmhzf0JawG[m odxm;oihfjyD; uaejzpfjzpf download &,l
toHk;jyKwwfatmif MudK;pm;xm;oihfygw,f/ Edkifygw,f/ tcrJhay;xm;wm
(cyber cafe tawmfrsm;rsm;rSmawmh tckazmfjywJh r[kww f t
hJ wGuf serial key 'grS
aqmhzf0JawG&JU 85 &mcdkifEIef;[m PC tay:rSm r[kwf crack file eJY jznfxkwf&
t&efoihf &Sdaewwfygw,f/ ygr,f/ vkyf&wm ruRrf;usif&if
tjyif CD qdkifawGqDuae 0,f,lEdkifygw,f/

4/ Photoshop CS2 (photo editing)


udk,fh&JU "mwfyHkudk a0rQcsifwJhtcgrSm jzpf
jzpf? yHk&dyfawG wnf;jzwfcsifwJh tcgrSmjzpfjzpf
toHk;0ifygw,f/ Window rSm yg0ifwJh 'paint'
u odyfrpGHygbl;/ Cyber Cafe awGrSm 'picasa'
eJY 'microsoft photo manager' yJ &Sdwwfwm
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
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toHk;jyKol jzpfaecJh&if 'portable photoshop'


udk CD qdik af wGrmS ar;0,fjyD; USB eJY ,laqmif
oGm;wm ydkaumif;ygw,f/

5/ VZO chat (chat program)


VZO chat [mvJ chat ajymqdkzdkYtwGuf
1/ Firefox (browser) oD;oefYaqmhzf0Jwpfckjzpfayr,fh olYrSm ydkaumif;
http://www.mozilla.com uae &,lEi
kd yf g
w,f/ tifwmeuf Munfh½IzdkYtwGuf oD;oefY
xkwfa0xm;wmyg/ ajracG;i,fuav; urÇmvHk;
udk ywfaewJh yHkpHuav; &Sdygw,f/ IE xuf
80 &mcdkifEIef; ydkjrefqefygw,f/

2/ Gtalk (chat program)


http://www.google.com/talk rSaejyD;
download &,lEi kd yf gw,f/ 0ifa&muf pum;ajym
qdzk YkdtwGuf Gmail account &Szd Ykd vdt
k yfygw,f/
'http://www.gmail.com' rS aejyD; gmail ac-

Zefe0g&D? 2009 133


tif w meuf q d k w m
wmwpfcu k web cam eJY wGJzufvdkufwJhtcgrSm
rsuEf mS udk [db
k uf? 'Dbuf jrifawGUcGi&fh wJt
h wGuf
pdwfauseyfp&mwpfck jzpfygw,f/ http://
vzochat.com u jzpfap tjyif CD qdkifawGu
jzpfap 0,f,l &,lEdkifygw,f/

6/ Windows Media Player (media player)


XP Service pack 2 udk install vkyfvdkuf
wJhtcgrSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh version 10 om
ygvmwwfygw,f/ Windows &J U media
player [m MP3 oDcsif;awG em;axmifwm?
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oDcsif; ½kyf&SifawG&JU format tawmfrsm;rsm;udk
vufcHEdkifpGrf; &Sdygw,f/ Version 11 udk Mi-
crosoft website uae tcrJh download &,l zdkifawGrSm virus &Sd? r&SdeJY virus jyóemawGudk
Edkifayr,fh CD awGrSm ar;0,fwm ydkaumif; 70 &mcdik Ef eI ;f ajz&Si;f ay;Edik pf rG ;f &Syd gw,f/ http:/
w,f/ tJ'D version topf[m oDcsif;awG for- /www .filehippo.com uae &,lEi kd yf gw,f/
mat ajymif;vJjyD; t&G,ftpm; qHhEdkifwmeJY print
screen zrf;Edkifwm? CD burn EdkifwmrsKd; tyg 9/ metacafe (movie chip)
t0if feature rsKd; pHkvifygw,f/ http:// tcrJhay;tyfxm;wJh 'D meta cafe udk in-
www.filehippo.com uae &,lEi kd yf gw,f/ stall vkyfxm;r,fqdk&if tvdktavsmuf down-
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pfingo [m r&Sr d jzpfxrJ mS awmh ryg udk metacafe xJrSm&SdwJh movie clip awG&JU
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udk tcrJzh ek ;f ajymqdv k Ykd &wmaMumifh &if; pdwftyef;ajzEdkifygw,f/
tvG e f vl M ud K uf r sm;ygw,f / http://www.metacafe.com
pfingo eJY ajymqdz k Ykd twGuf ud, k hf
qDrSm account wpfck &,lxm;& 10/ Adobe reader (reader)
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count vkyfxm;Edkifygw,f/ reader [m ebook awGukd zwf½½ I o
kH ufoufuykd J
http://www.pfingo.com pGrf;aqmifjyD; vdktyfovdk jyefvnf jyifqif
wnf;jzwfzdkYudkawmh 'professional' u ydkrdk pGrf;
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tcaMu;aiGeJY 0,foHk;EdkifwJh user awG
filehippo.com rSm &,lEdkifjyD; 'crack + profes-
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134 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Future of Computing Paradigm

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vnf; xdk cloud yHpk eH YJ ud, k pf m;jyK
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taqmufttHak wGukd odp&m rvdk
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'D protocol oH;k wJh network udk odrf;EdkifzdkY&mvnf; rvdkyg/ bm
protocol awG oHk;xm;vJ/ Fi-
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bre optic cable awG r[kwfbJ
[dk topology eJY [dk protocol oH;k wJh network oHb;l eJY MudK;awG oH;k xm;vm; *½k
udk [do
k auFwyHk um;csyef YJ jyw,f/ rpdkufyg/ xdkYaMumifh cloud [l tcsuftvuf information awG
onf tifwmeuf/ udk tifwmeufay:u qmAmawG
at; . . . tJ'D pHpk eD zmpepf trsK;d rsK;d eJY Computing qdkwmuawmh ay:rSm tjrJwrf;tm;jzifh odak vSmif
bmrSe;f rodaom network Mu;D jzpfvm&if uGefysLwmenf;ynm azmfxkwf od r f ; qnf ; xm;jyD ; desktop,
bmrSe;f rodwhJ oabmo½kyu
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ol a jym rsm;í IT industry Cloud computing qdkwm
twGi;f rSm vIyv f yI &f mS ;&Sm; jzpfvm bmvJvdkY pmwpfaMumif; ESpf
aew,f/ jyóemu web 2.0 aMumif;avmufeYJ o½kyaf y:atmif
wkef;uvdkyJ/ ¤if;eJYywfoufí &Sif;jyí r&bl;xifw,f/ tJ'Dvdk
vlwikd ;f rSm rwlujJG ym;wJh t"dymÜ ,f ar;cGef;rsKd;u bmeJYwlovJqdk&if
zGihfqdkcsufawG &SdaeovdkyJ a&m wuúodkvf ausmif;om;b0[m
axG; ½IyfaxG;rIawGvnf; jzpfae bmvJvdkY ar;wmeJYwlvdrhfr,f/
w,f/ IEEE Internet Comput- Cloud Computing taMumif;
ing &JU tqdkt&awmh ]]owif; wpfcGef;? ESpfcGef;wnf;eJY &Sif;jyyg

Zefe0g&?D 2009 135


Future Of Computing Paradigm

vdYk ynm&Siif g;OD;avmufukd vdu k f ief; vkyfudkifyHk rdk',f (business oifhawmfovdk ydkif;jcm; odrf;xkyf
ar;&if tajzu ajcmufrsK;d avmuf model) tm;vHk;aygif; yg0ifwJh í a&rDwm? vQyfppfrD; rDwmyHkpH
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wpfckcsif;pD[m rSm;w,fvdkYawmh perspective ½Iaxmihft& Munfh onfhenf; jzpfw,f/ Autono-
rqdkomygbl;/ 'gayr,fh þrQ wwfzdkY vdkygw,f/ mic computing qdkwm &Sdw,f/
vTrf;jcHKwJh a0g[m&wpfcktwGuf udk,fhbmom pDrHcefYcGJEdkifpGrf;&SdwJh
olwdkYbuf OD;wnf&m rsufESmpm a&maxG;wwfaom t&mrsm; computer systems jzpfygw,f/
u ajymovdjk zpfwmaMumifh rjynfh Cloud computing eJY a&m trSefwu,frSm cloud comput-
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d ,f/ tcg grid jzifh pGrf;tm;ay;í
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rsuEf mS pmwpfcu k kd wpfcv
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&Sif;jyzdkY MudK;pm;oGm;ygr,f/ tributed computing yHkpHwpfrsKd; jcif;vdkY jrifEdkifygw,f/
Cloud computing [m jzpfygw,f/ aemuf utility com- Cloud computing ud k
software as a service (SaaS), puting qdw k m &Sw
d ,f/ wGucf suf business model ½I a xmih f u
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aygif ; pyf yg0if w J h a,bk , s
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tac:ta0:[m ukefxkwf vkyf
ief ; (industry) enf ; ynm
(technology) eJY pD;yGm;a&; vkyf

136 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Future of Computing Paradigm

Cloud Computing qdw


k m tasks awGudk cloud xHodkYvG,f wdkYu oHk;oavmuf usoihfaiG
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f ikd v
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uk,d o f ;kH wJrh ed pfawGtwGuyf J ay;&wmrsK;d u protocols oHk;vJ? b,f carrier Cloud computing [m
awG jzwfoGm;ovJ? fiber oplic trSefwu,ftm;jzifh outsourc-
xif&mS ;wJh OyrmrsK;d jzpfygvrd rhf ,f/
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tD;ar;vfydkY½Hkavmufuav;twGuf
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hosting twGuf ydkufqHay;p&m rvdkawmhbJ ygyJ/ oH;k pGjJ cif;rS ondemand comput-
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services eJY behaviours rsm; wpfckuawmh outsourcing of
u ukefusp&dwfrSm ydkí xda&muf tpHkvdkuf b,fvdk 'DZdkif;jyKxm; development jzpfw,f/ Inte-
aumif;rGefatmif vkyfay;EdkifwJh ovJ uRefawmfwdkY *½krpdkufyg/ gration eJY reusing services
twGuf jzpf&ifjzpfr,f/ Oya' olwdkYu uRefawmfwdkY arQmfrSef; awG yg0ifjyD; business sys-
pnf;rsOf;rsm;t&yg rSefuefpGm xm;wmawG vkyaf y;jyD; uReaf wmf tems topfwpfck vsifjrefpGm
vkyfaqmifzdkY ud&d,mypönf; ydkí
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wGef;csufrsKd;yJjzpfjzpf olwdkYu
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Cloud computing ud k
tapmydkif; outsouring yHkpHawGeJY
uGmjcm;apwmu computing

Zefe0g&?D 2009 137


Future Of Computing Paradigm

zefw;D zdYk &mawmif software plat- odkYr[kwf aqmhzf0JvdkifpiftwGuf 3/ Web services in the cloud
forms MuD; wpfckvHk; jzpfEdkifyg wpfvHk;wpfcJwnf; &if;ESD;jr§KyfESHzdkY SaaS eJY eD;uyfpmG qufE,
T f
ao;w,f/ yHkrSm jyxm;wJh chart rvdkyg/ Provider bufu Munfh aew,f/ Web service [m de-
rSm tqdkyg dimension ESpfckü &if app wpfckwnf;udkom xdef; velopers rsm;taeeJY tifwmeuf
erlemaygif;pyfrI taetxm;rsm; odrf; Munfh½IzdkYvdkw,f/ orm; ay:u functionality awG tusK;d
jyxm;ay;ygw,f/ ½dk;us hosting eJY ,SOf&if p&dwf tjrwfxkwf &,lEdkifzdkY&m appli-
IT rS tjrJwrf;tm;jzihf vdk enf;w,f/ vkyfief;MuD;oHk; ap- cations tjynfhtpHk ay;urf;r,fh
tyfwJht&mtaMumif; pOf;pm;jzpf plications awGxr J mS Salesforce. tpm; API awG ay;urf;w,f/
wJ h t cg cloud computing com utaumif;qHk; erlemyJ/ oD;jcm; business services yHkpH
tay: tm½Hpk u kd rf yd gvdrrfh ,f/ In- SaaS u HR apps awGtwGuf rsKd;awG &Sdw,f/ Strike Iron vdk
frastructure topfawG &if;ESD; vnf; toHk;rsm;jyD; ERP tqihf rsKd; API tjynfhay;wJh Google
jr§KyfESHp&mrvdkbJ? 0efxrf;topf xdawmif wufjyD; vkyaf y;Edik af o; maps, ADP payroll process-
awG avhusifh oifMum;ay;p&m w,f/ Google Apps eJY Zoho ing awGvnf; &Sdw,f/
rvdkbJ? 'grSr[kwf software office vdk SaaS 'desktop' ap-
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pGrf;&nf capacity udk wdk;jr§ihfzdkY tm;aumif;vmr,fvdkY b,folrQ
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capacity aygif;xnfhEdkifpGrf; &zdkY
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Cloud computing rSm tifwm pdwful; tdkif'D,muawmh
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&jyD; IT &JU &Sd&if;pGJ pGrf;aqmif&nf r,fh Amazon.com, Sun, IBM
awG csJUay;wJh b,f subscrip- wdkYaMumifh cloud computing &JU
tion based odkYr[kwf pay-per- 'DyHkpH[m b0opfwpfzef jyefí
use service rqdk vTrf;jcHK yg&Sd &Sifoefvmw,f/ IT vkyfief;[m
w,f/ yHpk aH wGukd o½kycf MJG unf&h if demand wuf&ifwufoavmuf
storage eJY virtual server awG
1/ SaaS iSm;&rf; oHk;pGJEdkifr,f/ tapmydkif;
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tpm;rS m application wpf c k utility computing udk rpf&Sifvdk providers)
wnf;rSaeí customers axmif ta&;ygaom vdktyfcsufr&SdwJh Cloud computing &JU a&S;
aygif;rsm;pGmxH browser rS wpf xyf a qmif ; ud p ö t wG u f o m tusqHk;yHkpH jzpfw,f/ Man-
qihf multitenant architecture t"duxm; oHk;pGJaew,f/ 'gay aged service u tajccHtm;jzifh
oHk;jyD; jzefYa0ay;w,f/ Cus- r,fh wpfaeY olwYkdu data center end-users odkY r[kwfbJ IT odkY
tomer bufu Munfh&if qmAm &JU tpdwftydkif; ae&mawGrSm zGihfcsjywJh application jzpfw,f/
tpm;xdk;oGm;Edkifw,f/ tjcm; Oyrmtm;jzifh tD;ar;vftwGuf
providers awGuawmh trsm;oH;k virus scanning service 'grS
ukefpnf commodity servers r[kwf application monitaring
awGeJYwif virtual datacenters service jzpf w ,f / Secure
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w,f/ jzefYa0wJh Managed security

138 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Future of Computing Paradigm

services awG[m 'D trsKd;tpm;


xJ yg0ifw,f/

5/ Platform as a service
aemufxyf SaaS rsK;d uGJ wpf
ck/ Cloud computing &JU 'DypkH rH mS
development 0ef;usifudk serv-
ice tjzpf ay;urf;w,f/ oihf
ud k , f y d k i f application wnf
aqmufjyD;wJhaemuf provider &JU
infrastructure tay:rSm run jyD;
oihf&JU user xHodkY tifwmeufrS
wpfqihf jzefYa0ay;w,f/ Legos
rSmuJhodkY 'D services awG[m
vendor &JU 'DZdkif;eJY pGrf;aqmif
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tjynf h r &bl ; / aumif ; rG e f w J h
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jzpfw,f/ rSm,lwm 'grSr[kwf udk,fa&; cation jzefYa0rItwGuf cloud
vufaxmuf 0efaqmifrI&,lwm tay: rSDcdk&w,f/ Cloud Serv-
6/ Service Commerce Plat- rsKd;cGijfh yKw,f/ Automated Ser- ices awG jzefYa0zdkY txl; 'DZdkif;jyK
forms vice bureau vdkY awG;Munfhyg/ xm;w,f/ ¤if;rygbJ toHk;rus
SaaS eJY MSP Mum;uswJh
jzpfEdkifw,f/
taetxm;rSm &Sdw,f/ 'D cloud 7/ Internet integration Ä Mobile (Android,
computing services u user Cloud-based services iPhone, Windows Mo
rS wHkYjyef qufoG,fEdkifwJh serv- awG aygif;pyfppk nf;a&;u tapm bile)
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olwYkdawGu ukeo
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rSm tawGU&trsm;qHk; jzpfw,f/ jzifh SaaS providers awG udk,f Ä Thick Client/ Web bro-
Expense management sys- EIdufudk axmufyHhay;zdkY&m vkyf wser (Google, Chrome,
tems vdkt&mrsKd;rSm users awGu aqmifygw,f/ Mozilla Firefox)
Cloud computing udk pk½Hk;
zJGUpnf;wJh components rsm; ½I 2. Application: Cloud appli-
axmihfrS Munfh&if 1. Clients, 2. cation u cloud udk software
application, 3. storage, 4. serv architecture tm;jzifh jr§iw
fh ifay;
ices, 5. platform, 6. infrastruc w,f/ Application udk cus-
ture wdkY jzpfygw,f/ tomer &JU udk,fydkif uGefysLwm
tay: install vkyf run zdkY&m vdk
1. Cloud client: u uGefysLwm tyfcsufukd tcgrsm;pGmrSm azsmuf
client jzpf w ,f / Hardware ay;w,f/ aqmhzf0J maintena-

Zefe0g&?D 2009 139


Future Of Computing Paradigm

nce, operation wufzYkd &meJY sup- Ä Web Service (Amazon awG csxm;zd k Y
plications
port awGtwGuf 0efxkyf0efydk; Simple Storage Service taqmifta,mifawG jzpfw,f/
avQmhay;w,f/ [S3]) Ä Web application Frame-
Ä Peer-to-peer/ volunteer works
computing (Bittorrent, 4. Service: Web service qdw
k m Ä Ajax (Caspio)
Skype) ]]network tay: wHkYjyef quf Ä Pythox Django (Goo-
Ä Web application (Face oG,fzdkY&m pufrS pufodkY tjyef gle App Engine)
book) tvSef vkyfaqmifzdkY axmufyHh&ef Ä Ruby on Rais
Ä Software as a Service 'DZdkif;jyKxm;wJh aqmhzf0Jpepf}} Ä Web hosting (Mosso)
(Google Apps, Sales- tjcm;aom cloud computing Ä Proprietary (Amazon,
force) components awG r S &,l E d k i f saleforce .com)
Ä Software plus services w,f/
(Microsoft Online Serv Ä Identity (OAuth, Open 6.Infrastructure: Infrastruc-
ices) ID) ture as a service jzpfw,f/ uGef
Ä Integration (Amazon ysLwm infrastructure jzefYa0rI
3. Storage: Cloud storage Simple Queue Service) jzpfw,f/ Platform virtualiza-
qdkwm data storage udk serv- Ä Payments (Amazon Flex- tion 0ef;usifudk as a service
ice taejzifh jzefYa0ay;rI jzpf ible Payments Services, tjzpf ay;jcif;jzpfw,f/
w,f/ Database eJYwlwJh serv- PayPal) Ä Full Virtualization (Go
ices awGvnf; yg0ifw,f/ Util- Ä Mapping (Google Maps) Grid, Skytap)
ity computing tajccHjzifh us Ä Search (Alexa, Google Ä Grid computing (Sun
oihaf iG uscw
H ,f/ Per gigabyte Custom Search) Grid)
per month. Oyrm- Ä Others (Amazon Me- Ä Management (Right
Ä Database (Amazon Sim chanical Turk) Scale)
ple DB, Google App En-
Ä Paravirtuatization (Ama-
gine &JU Big Table) 5. Platform: Platform as a zon Elastic Compute
Ä Network attached stor- service jzpfw,f/ Computa-
Cloud [EC2])
age (MobileMe iDisk, tion platform jzefYa0rIjzpfw,f/ Modula-2
Cloud NAS) atmufcH hardware eJY software
Ä Synchronisation (Live layers awG 0,f,p l rD &H wJh ukeu f s
Mesh Live Desktop) p&dwef YJ ½Iyaf xG;rIawG rvdb k J ap-

140 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Quick Looks
tm;omcsuf tm;enf;csuf t"dutcsuf tao;pdwftcsuftvuf
DESKTOPs
Duad-core power wpf Memory olrsm;xuf ydk Multimedia system 2.4 GH3 IntelCore 2 Quad
cktwGuf aps;EIef; oifh wmrSty features ydkyg vd k Y qd k x m;ayr,f h Q6600 processor.
avsmfw,f/ tpdwftykdif; rvm/ Norton Internet taumif;pm;MuD; r[kwf 4GB 800 MHz DDR2
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rsm;onf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk tajcpdkuf u olonf i,fpOfuyif ukd,fydkif tvGwfynm
diploma mills rsm; jzpfaeMuygw,f/ oif ausmif;udk wufí pmoifcJh&jyD; vkyfief;
aemuf tjzpfwpfckudk a&;ygr,f/ pD;yGm; twGuf A[kokwrsm;pGmudk pkaqmif;cJhwmyg/
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&Sif ‘Dr’ Clemen Chiang onf Nanyang cyfjrefjref&zdkY&m tGefvdkif;rSm &SmMunhf&mu Pre-
Chandroo Technological University u bGJU&wpfOD;yg/ ston University udk awGUcJw h ,f/ tJ'w D uúov kd f
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'Dowif; EdkifiH&yfjcm;u oli,fwef;ausmif; 60 udk OD;pD; oG,frIqdkif&m a'gufwmbGJUtwGuf 16 vMum
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yg&*lbGJU vufrSwfu Preston University rS p&dwt f m;vH;k pifumyla':vm 18ç000 usoifch hJ
zwfvdkuf&awmh jzpfygw,f/ Preston University onf tar ygw,f/ Preston University onf tar&duef
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Mr Chandroo &JU twGif;a&;rSL;u olY
tvkyf&Sif tvkyfodyfrsm;aevdkY The Straits
Times &JU tar;udk ajzzdYk &m tcsdef MumOD;r,fvYkd
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tck uRefawmf Mopaw;vsu Southern odkYr[kwf a&mif;pm;aewJh ae&mawGyg/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh tusKd;tjrwf
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Mr Chandroo &JU cHpm;csuf odkYr[kwf cH,lcsuf ydkay;Edkif&if *kPfjyKtcrf;tem;awG? vufrSwfay;wJh tcrf;tem;awG
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degree mill tjzpf bGJUvufrSwf &xm;Muol
rsm;vnf; wpfckckawmh cHpm;&r,fxifygw,f/ Degree Mill awG b,fvkd ay:ayguv f mwmvJ
Ref: Straits Times, 29/08/08,
tGefvdkif; ynma&;pepfonf ,aeY ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;
twGuf tqifajyaewJh enf;pepfjzpfvmaeygw,f/ b,fEdkifiHu
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ta&;,lum wuúov kd af umvdyrf sm;udk [efjy½Ho
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vdkcsifonfh bGJUvufrSwfrsm;udk zefwD;ay;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvmMuw,f/
olwdkYtaeeJY tifwmeufrSm x.edu domain name wpfck &,lzdkY&m
Degree mail erlemwpfck

Zefe0g&D? 2009 147


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Zefe0g&D? 2009 149


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150 uGefysLwm*sme,f
ynma&;
tar&duefEdkifiH ynma&;qdkif&m aumfr&Sif
rif;MuD; John Eaton udk,fwdkif ynma&; *kPf
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twk q d k w m bG J U vuf r S w f t wG u f o m http://www.elearners.com/0ufbfqdkufrSm &SmMunhfEdkifygw,f/ U.S.
r[kwfbJ t&m&m wdkif;rSm &dSaewmyg/ tifwm Department of Education and/or the Council for Higher Education
euf ay:aygufvmjyD; tGefvdkif; enf;ynmawG Accreditation u pDpOfay;xm;wmyg/ 'Dvdk ppfaq;ay;wJh 0ufbfqdkuf
jzpfxGef;atmifjrifcJh&mu tGefvdkif; ynma&; 0ef trsm;MuD;yg/
aqmifrI vkyfief;awG tvsiftjref wdk;yGm;vmyg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unaccredited _institutions
w,f/ tJ'D tMum;rSm degree mill odkYr[kwf _of_higher_learning rSm oufqdkif&mEdkifiHu todtrSwfjyKxm;wJh
diploma mill vkyfief;awG a&mvmwmyg/ ausmif;rsm;omru w&m;r0ifzGifhxm;wJh ynma&;vkyfief;rsm;pm&if;udkyg
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Degree Mill rsm;&JU e,fy,fukd wpfO;D jzpfvmygw,f/ vkyo f ufuvnf; MumcJh
wdkif;wmEdkifovm; ygjyD/aemufrS vufrSwftwkudkifxm;rSef; oday
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rsm;uae bGJUvufrSwf b,favmufxkwfvkyf Asm/ rodcsifa,mifbJ quf ae vdkuf Mu yg
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f & 'Dvyk if ef;rsm; tjzpftysuf trSefwpfckudk ajymr,f/ tifwmeuf
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avmuf &dSw,fvdkY qdkygw,f/ tar&duefEdkifiH tifwmAsL;rSm tqifrajybl;/ ol 'Dtvkyfudk
tkd&D*Gef jynfe,fu olwdkYqDrSm 'Dvdk degree aumif;aumif; vkyfEdkifw,fqdkwm b,fvdkrS enf;ynmawG
mill rsKd; 260 &dSw,fvdkY pm&if;xkwfygw,f/ &Sif;jyvdkY r&bl;/ jyefoGm;&w,f/
rpfcsD*efjynfe,fu tMurf;zsif; 600 avmuf jzpfxGef;
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vufrSwftwkrSef; tvkyfcefYwJh EdkifiH&yfjcm;oabFmom; e,fy,frSmqdkygawmh/ 0efaqmifrI
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cefYvdkufwmyg/ vufrSwfqdkwm yHkpHrSm jznfhzdkY t&m&dS (second officer) tjzpf &mxl; wdk;ay;zdkY
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vkyfief;rsKd;rSmqdkygawmh/ tcsKdU ukrÜPDuawmh vufrSwfr&dSbl;/ Second mate ajzzdkY olYudk
vufrw S w
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ukrÜPDrSm tvkyf&jyD; t&nftcsif;vnf; &dS? jyefvmcsifrSvnf; vmawmhr,f/ 'Dawmh crew
MudK;vnf; MudK;pm;awmh ukrP Ü tD MudKuf 0efxrf; manager ud, k w
f ikd u
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S w
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Zefe0g&D? 2009 151


ynma&;
odYk r[kwf oifwef;ausmif;rsK;d udk &SmjyD; vufrw
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tcuftcJ r&dSvdkY vufrSwfwk udkifaqmifol r&dS usapEdkifw,f/ wdkif;jynftm;vHk;eJY qdkifw,fvdkY
oavmuf jzpfomG ;w,f/ pifumylvkd Edik if rH sKd;rSm ajym&rSmyg/ ynma&; pHEIef;awG edrfhukefr,f/
vufrSwftwkrd&if tJ'D t&m&dSudk axmif'Pf t&Si;f qH;k a&;&&ifwefz;kd r&djS zpfuek rf ,f/ aiGaMu;
'Dvkad Mu;om tjypfay;jyD; oufqdkif&m ukrÜPDudkvnf; 'Pf wefzdk;udkajymwm r[kwfbl;aemf/ ynmwefzdk;/
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MuKd ;pm;oifr,fh tppf udkifaqmifolxuf vufrSwftwk udkifol ywfoufwJh Oya'awG &dSjyD;om;yg/ Oyrm tm;
udk ukrÜPDu ydkjyD; oabmuswmrsKd; jzpfcJhzl;yg jzifh rav;&Sm;rSm 'Section 71 of the Education
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epfemygw,f/ wpf cktwGuf oifwef;ay;w,f/ oufqdkif&m sion Act' ? zdvpfydkifrSm 'act of Falsification
EdkifiHtzGJYtpnf;uvnf; ay;w,f/ tJ'DEdkifiH of medical certificates, certificates of merit
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pm;oif,lcsifwJh oifwef;ay;wJh0efxrf;u vkyfief;cGifrSm ydkjyD; U.S. Department of Education (USDE)
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Continuing Education and Training
vufrw S f tppf? twkqw kd m (ACCET) 0ufbq f ukd rf sm;uvnf; tifwmeuf
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ajz&ygr,f/ 'Dvakd Mu;om bGUJ vufrw S w
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aiGay;0,fEikd &f if ynm&yfawGukd MudK;pm;oifr,fh wnfjyD; tqifajyr,fh jynfe,f odkYr[kwf EdkifiH
oltwGuf tvGef epfemygw,f/ aemufjyD; MudK; odkY ajymif;a&TUoGm;wmrsKd; vkyfwwfMuygw,f/
pm; oif,lcsifwJhpdwfawG aysmufukefr,f/ ¤if; wdkYonf w&m;0ifvdkifpif&,ljyD; wu,f
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u@vdk touftEÅ&m,ftwGuf pGefYpm;&wJh rsufjcnfrjywfMunfhjyD; xdef;csKyfoifhwm xdef;
tvkyfawGrSm vufrSwfwk udkifaqmifolawG? csKyf&ygr,f/
q&m0eftwk qdkygawmh/ tJ'Dvdk vlrsKd;awG armifarmifMu;D
a&mufvm&if &ifav;p&myg/ Ref : Internet

152 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Website Index

tckvtwGuf topfxuG af y:vmaewJh jrefrm website awGxu


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aw;oH & S i f ? trsKd ; orD ; aw;oH & S i f nical seven [m 'D uGufvyfav;udk
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xm;ygw,f/ 'movie' eJY 'forum' wdkYvdk w,f/ uGefysLwm owif;awGudk jrefrm
online.net
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'myanmar music online' rSm rsm;jym;wJh
w,f/ Modins wdkY? shwenet wdkYvdk avmutwGuf tvGet f zd;k wefwhJ enf;
oDcsif;awGudk upload wifay;xm;yg
community qefqef user tcsif;csif; ynm zdk&rfeJY blog wdkY aygif;pyfxm;wJh
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awGU&ygr,f/

Zefe0g&?D 2009 153


WEBSITE INDEX

awmh Education udk OD;pm;ay;jyD; ]urÇmh


xdywf ef; wuúovkd rf sm;} qdjk yD; acgif;pOf
u@awG cG J a 0jyD ; owif ; tcsuf
tvufawGudk rQa0wwfMuwmaMumifh
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awGeJY awGUqHkcsifvdkYyJ jzpfjzpf? aeYpOf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &Sdvmygw,f/ Blog

154 uGefysLwm*sme,f
twGufa&m? 0ifa&muf toHk;jyKolawG
twGufa&m? ESpfOD;ESpfzuf tusKd;&Sdap
wJh pmrsufESmyg/

pwdkif wnfaqmufxm;jyD; myanmar ausmufwifay;oltjzpf av;pm;&rSm


information, technology, myanmar jzpfygw,f/ wpfcsed rf mS tvGeaf umif;rGef
culture awGudk pOfqufrjywf azmfjy wJh "mwfyHkq&mwpfOD; jzpfvmEdkifzG,f
oGm;zdkY &nf&G,fxm;ygw,f/ &Sdygw,f/

http://www.myanmaronlinezone
http://www.pansagar.com .net
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Specs : Specs :



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object odkYr[kwf actors a&m tqHk; ders tay: rSDcdkae&w,f/ 'Dtajctae tpOfudk rSefuef atmifcsjyD; olwdkYudk
owf vufcH&m destination object rsKd;twGuf message awGukd rScD ckd H class actors eJY objects awG&UJ Lifelines rsm;
odkYr[kwf actor udkyg azmfxkwf owf (orders) rSaeí rSDcdkol class (order odkY oihfavsmfpGm qufoG,fyg/
rSwfyg/ wpfcgwpf&HrSm 'Dvkyfief;pOfu items) odkYyJ tjrJ ydkYaqmifyg/
cufcJwwfw,f/ txl;ojzifh oifu Oyrm w,fvDzkef;trSm jyKvkyf&m 5/ ajyvnf&r,fhtajctae condi-
object-oriented tac:ta0: oHk;EIef; rSm ukefvufusef inventory udk ppf tions, message &JU trnfeJY vufvTJ
yHkeJY ,Ofyg;tom;usjcif; r&Sd&ifaygh/ aq;zdkY message awG b,folydkYaqmif ay;&r,fh xdef;n§dudef; parameter rsm;
Oyrmtm;jzifh oifu ukefypönf; vuf oihfovJ/ trSmxJyg0ifr,fh ypönf; udk yHkpHuspnf;rsOf; formal syntax
usef inventory item &JU ta&twGuf trnf w pf c k Order line item ud k twdkif; aygif;xnfhyg/
udk ppfaq;vdkwJhtcg inventory ob- b,fol zefwD;oifhovJ/ Clerk vm;?
ject udk,fwdkifom tJ'gudk vkyfEdkifr,f/ order vm;/ Line item trnfwpfckpD 6/ vdkvm;tyfw,fqdk&if sequence
Order Object, clerk actor 'grSr[kwf ¤if;xH rSefuefpGm qufoG,fae&JUvm; diagram jyD;jynfhpHkapzdkY&m wHkYjyefrI re-
b,f object ? b,f actor rS tJ'gudk order u xdef;csKyfí aocsmap&r,f/ sponse messages eJY qufoG,frIawG
vkyfvdkYr&bl;/ 'gaMumihfrdkY inventory 'gaMumifh order uyJ Line items udk aygif;xnhfyg/
object odkY tqHk;owf OD;wnfa&muf&Sd zefwD;cGihf&ygap/ 'gaMumifh order u
r,fh message wpfck vdkw,f/ ydkjyD; product description udkvnf; vufcH 1/ w,fvDzkef;trSmtwGuf order
awmhawmif cufOD;r,fh ykpämuawmh &&SdzdkY vdktyfw,f/ ('gaMumifh prod- clerk actor wpfOD; vdktyfw,f/ Or-
message &JU rlv&if;jrpf source udk uct item odkY message ydkU&r,f/) ukef der clerk [m bmvky& f r,fvYkd b,fvkd
owfrSwf azmfxkwfzdkY&myJ/ Message vufusef inventory udkvnf; ppfaq; odovJ/ Clerk udk ñTefMum;csufay;zdkY
&JU souce udk owfrSwf azmfxkwfEdkifzdkY &OD;r,f/ ('gaMumifh intentory item &meJY w,fvDzkef;trSm tpysKd; jzpfay:
&m vrf;ñTefcsuf guidelines tcsKdUu odkY message ydkY&r,f/) System de- apzdkY&m customer actor yg xnfhoGif;
awmh - velopment wdkif;rSm Mudrfzefrsm;pGmqdk vdkufygw,f/ uRefawmfwdkYrSm order
1/ 0efaqmifrI service vdktyfwJh ovdyk J jzpfEikd w
f hJ ajz&Si;f csuf solutions object wpfck vdktyfwm xif&Sm;yg
object owfrSwf &SmazGyg/ rsm;pGm &Sdygw,f/ w,f/ Order wpfck[m Customer
2/ vdktyfaom toGif; input pa- wpfOD;twGuf jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh

Zefe0g&?D 2009 161


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yk-H 1
:product item inventory item

Customer Clerk
[NewCustomer]
CreateCustomer
(Customer Information)

> :customer

PhoneCall
> >
[ExistingCustomer]
Status :=CheckStatus
(CustomerName,
PhoneNo)
RequestItem
(Create No,
Qty) [First Item] CreateOrder
> > :Order

AddToOrder (ProductID, Description, Qty)


>
Price:=CheckPrice (Product ID)
>
Quantity:= CheckQuantity
(Product ID, Description, Qty)
> :order item
[QOH > Qty] CreateItem (Item ID,Qty)
>
AddItemConfirmation ()
>

FinishedOrdering OrderComplete (Credit Card number) *ReadyToShip()


> > >

yHkrSmjyxm;aom telephone-order sequence diagram wnfaqmufzdkY&mtwGuf tawG;pOf thought process twdkif;


erlemvdu k Mf unf&h atmifyg/
uReaf wmfwYkdu customer object wpfck 'Dae&mrSm order aqmufzdkYyJ pOf;pm; clerk qD zk e f ; quf w ,f / (mes-
vdkygw,f/ rSm,lwJh items awG[m Munfh&atmifyg/ ydkjyD;us,fjyefYvmwJh sage).order clerk [m customer qDu
order xJu Line items awG jzpfw,f/ analysis rSmawmh uRefawmfwdkYu pay- owif; tcsuftvuf &&SdjyD;wJhaemuf
'gaMumifh order item object vdyk gw,f/ ments, back-orders eJY shipments (1)/ Customer &JU owif; tcsuf
Product descriptions eJY quantities awGyg ygapcsifygvdrhfr,f/ Class dia- tvufawG jynfhpHk rSefuefovm; ppf
awGvnf; vdkygw,f/ ¤if;wdkYudk sys- gram udk jyefvnf ½Ijrif oHk;oyfMunfh aq;w,f/ (Customer object xHodkY
tem twGif;rSm &&SdEdkifzdkY xdkowif; wJth cg order udk wnfaqmufzYkd vdt
k yf Verify message) (2)/ Customer ob-
tcsufrsm; axmufyHhay;r,fh product r,fh tjcm; objects rsm; rjrifyg/ ject topfwpfck jyKvkyfzefwD;w,f/
item object eJY inventory item ob- (Customer object xHoYkd Create mes-
ject awG uRefawmfwdkYrSm &Sd&ygr,f/ 2/ Customer u yxrqHk; order sage) ponf h enf ; ES p f o G , f x J u

162 uGefysLwm*sme,f
IT Tutorial
wpfckckudk vkyfygw,f/ Customer u Class diagram
Use case Shipment
b,fypön;f trnf item udk order txJ diagram
xnfhvdkovJ clerk udk ajymygw,f/ > Enter new
Order
(message) wu,fvdkY yxrqHk; item customer
Order clerk Customer
twGuf jzpf&if Clerk u t&ifqHk; or- > Create new
der topfjyKvkyf&ygw,f/ (Order order

class odkY "Create a new order" mes-


sage) aemuf xdk item udk order odkY
Sequence diagram for
aygif;xnfhzdkY MudK;pm;&ygw,f/ (order Create new order
xH o d k Y "Add To Order"). Order Create order Order Customer
twGi;f u program logic u" ig price >

udk odzdkYvdkjyD; inventory eJY uduk af tmif


vnf; n§d&OD;r,fvdkY udk,fhudk,fudk ajym Order clerk yk-H 2
aer,f/ 'g[m message &JU source
owfrSwfazmfxkwfa&; guide lines &JU (Createorder item message) 'D items bl;/ ,ck 'DtqihfrSmawmh uRefawmfwdkY
tqihf 1 jzpfw,f/ b,fol 0efaqmifrI aygif;xnhjf cif; aemufq;kH tpDtpOf[m u messages awG&JU rSefuefwJh tpD
vdkovJ qHk;jzwfzdkY&mav/ Order u customer u oljyD;jyDvdkY rajymrcsif; tpOf sequence ? &if;jrpf sources eJY
product object eJY qufo, G jf yD; (mes- xyfausmhjyefw,f/ aemuf sequence tqHk;owf OD;wnfvufcH&m destina-
sage) item twGuf name and price tpDtpOfu payment eJY shipping tion awGudk aocsmap&ygw,f/
axmufcHw,f/ Order [m inventory information rsm;odkY qufygw,f/
object odkYvnf; qufoG,fjyD; (mes- 3/ tqihf 2 rSm uRefawmfwdkYu tpD 4/ Messages twGif; rSefuefwJh pa-
sage) vuf0,f&dS ta&twGuu f rSm,l tpOfawG csomG ;&mrSm messages awG&UJ rameters awG yg&JUvm; aocsmapzdkY&m
rItwGuf vHkavmufovm; ppfaq;& sequence tpDtpOfudk tvdktavsmuf awmh uRefawmfwdkYu class diagram
w,f/ aemuf rSmvdu k wf t
hJ a&twGuu f kd qHk;jzwfoGm;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh 'DxJu rS object wpfckpDtwGuf attributes
inventory rS Ekwfcdkif;&ygr,f/ tu,f tcsKdU messages awG[m tjydKif con- awG MunfhzdkY vdkygw,f/ Oyrmtm;jzifh
í 'D messages ESpfck atmifjrifpGm current jzpfEdkifw,f/ tcsKdUu tajc customer topfzefwD;,lzdkY&m cus-
jyD;qHk;wJhtcg Order u 'Dvdk ajymvdrhf taewpfck jynfhpHkrS jzpfvmwJh condi- tomer class udk MunfhjyD;awmh input
r,f ]]ig Line item object wpfck tional jzpfEdkifw,f/ tJ'Dtcg tpDtpOf
jyKvkyfjyD; igeJY qufoG,fxm;vdkufrSyJ}} awGu twdtusMuD; [kwfrSm r[kwf
yHk (3)rSm jyxm;wJt
h wkid ;f (:) u
An Object which eHygwpf Ofaemufu tjrJvu kd yf gw,f/
An actor who sends receives a message and
the Initial message sends other message

1: FirstMessage () 2: SecondMessage ()
> Object1 > Object2
< 3: ReturnMessage ()
4: FinalResponse () <

A link between symbols A message arrow


that send or receive and descriptive
message name

Zefe0g&?D 2009 163


IT Tutorial
yk-H 4

catalog product item inventory item

Customer

ItemInquiry ( )
> ProductltemInquiry ( )
InventoryInfo:=
>
InventoryitemInquiry ( )
>
<
< Productinto ( )
ItemAvailability Details ( )

yk-H 5

information twGuf b,f attributes aqmufEdkifjyD jzpfygw,f/ Use case aMumihf tjyD;owf final system [m
awG vdkovJ qHk;jzwf&ygw,f/ Order diagram eJY events pD;qif;rIawGudk jynfhpHk vTrf;jcHK rSefuefaMumif; aocsm
item topf zefw;D zdYk&m customer qDu sequence diagrams wnfaqmuf&mrSm apjcif;yJ jzpfygw,f/ trsKd;rsKd;aom
(order clerk rS wpfqihf) bm infor- oHk;ygw,f/ Sequence diagrams &JU models awG tcsdef,l wnfaqmuf
mation awG vmovJ? product ob- tao;pdwftcsufawGtwGuf class azmfxkwf,l&if; oif[m oihf&JU analy-
ject eJY inventory object awGu bm diagrams udk oHk;zdkY vdkygw,f/ Se- sis udk rSefuefpGm aqmif&GufcJhovm;
information &EdkifovJ pOf;pm;yg/ quence diagram wnfaqmuf&if;eJY aocsmpdwfcspGm odEdkifygw,f/
awmif;cHvdkufaom request message use cases, flow of events eJY class
'grSr[kwf jyefvmwJh return message diagram awG rjynfhrpHk jzpfaeaMumif; Collaboration Diagrams
twGif; oihfavsmfwJh parameters awG azmfxkwf awGU&Sd&vdkY update jyefvkyf Collaboration diagram udk yifr
vufqihfurf; pass ay;yg/ zdkYvdkaMumif; awGU&r,f/ Object-ori- t&if;cH oHk;pGJrIu ay;xm;aom sce-
'Dtqihfa&mufwJhtcg oifu yHk- ented-development &JU tm;aumif; nario udk axmufyHh&ef yl;aygif; aqmif
2 rSm ñTef;xm;wJh qufET,fcsufrsKd; aom tcsuu f þ tjyefjyef tvSevf eS f &Guf&wJh objects rsm; tm;vHk; vsifjref
&Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfqufpyf wnf qufoG,fcsuf interconnected ness pGm jcHKiHk½IjrifEdkifzdkY&mygyJ/ Collabora-

164 uGefysLwm*sme,f
IT Tutorial
tion diagram [m actors, objects eJY &JU o'´gpnf;rsOf; syntan
descriptor w,f/ ¤if;u messages rsm; ul;
messages awGtwGuf sequence dia- u atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygw,f/ ajymif; ydYk aqmifay;&m 0dik ,
f mMudK;tjzpf
grams rS m awG U &aom wl n D o nf h awG;MunfhEdkifygw,f/
oauFwrsm;yJ oHk;ygw,f/ Lifeline [true/ false condition] sequence- yHk (5)[m yHk (4) rSm jyxm;aom
ouf0ifcsdefjy oauFwudkawmh roHk;yg number: return-value: = message- "Look up item availability" sce-
bl;/ odYkaomf link symbol qdw k hJ uGjJ ym; name (parameter-list) narios &J U sequence diagrams
wJh oauFwoHk;w,f/ yHk 3 rSm col- twGuf Collaboration diagram jzpf
laboration diagram rsKd ; aygif ; pk & J U Objects rsm;tMum; 'grSr[kwf w,f/ yHk (6) uawmh yHk (1)rSm jyxm;
oauFwav;ck jyxm;ygw,f/ actors eJY objects rsm;tMum; quf aom "Create new order" scenarios
Collaboration diagram twGuf oG,fxm;wJh rsOf;vdkif;u Links udk &JU sequence diagrams twGuf col-
message descriptor yHkpHcsxm;rI for- udk,fpm;jyKygw,f/ Collaboration laboration diagram jzpfygw,f/
mat [m sequence diagram eJY twef diagram rSm Link wpfck[m items yHk (5)udk yHk (4)eJY ,SOfMunhfr,f
i,f jcm;em;ygw,f/ Scenario twGi;f ESpfckrS message wpfck share vkyf qdk&if yHk (5)&JU tav;ay;rIu actors
tcsdefumv jzwfoef;rIjywJh lifeline a0rQoufqikd af Mumif; jyygw,f/ wpfck eJY objects awG&JU yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifrI
rygwmaMumifh messages awG&JU a&SU u message udk ydkYjyD; wpfcku mes- collaborating yJ jzpfw,fqdkwm &Sif;
aemuf tpDtpOfodEdkifzdkY&m message sage udk vufcH&&Sdw,f/ qufoG,f vif;oihfw,f/ Message informa-
wpfcpk üD eHygwfpOf xd;k í jyw,f/ Col- xm;wJh vdik ;f [m tESpo
f m&tm;jzihaf wmh tion awG xnfhoGif;xm;ygw,f/ 'gay
laboration diagram twGi;f message messages udk o,faqmifzdkY&myJ oHk;yg r,fh diagram eJY focus u collabo-

yk-H 6

Zefe0g&?D 2009 165


IT Tutorial
ration udk,fEIduftay: jzpfygw,f/ scenario twGif; objects rsm; zefwD; Interaction diagrams jzifh sce-
Messages tay:u eHygwfpOfawG[m jzpfay:jcif;? zsufodrf;jcif; owif; narios udk tao;pdwf azmfjyjyD;wmeJY
messages awG&UJ a&SUaemuftpDtpOfukd tcsurf sm; ñTejf yEdik jf cif; r&Sb
d ;l / wpfcg aemuftvkyfwm0ef task u object
jyay;zdkY&m oHk;ygw,f/ wpf&HrSm interaction diagrams azmf class wpfcp k &D UJ twGi;f ydik ;f udk owfrw
S f
yHk (6) rSm jyxm;wJhtwdkif; tel- xkwf&mü collaboration diagram zdkY&m jzpfw,f/ Interaction diagrams
ephone order twGuf collaboration messages rsm; rygbJ yl;aygif; aqmif twGif; owfrSwfcJhwJh message inter-
diagram u ydí k tao;pdwu f sygw,f/ &Gufvsuf&SdwJh actors eJY objects rsm; actions awGu object class wpfckpD&JU
Message 1, Phone Call [m analy- owfrSwf azmfxkwf&eftvdkYiSmom a&; tjyKtrl behaviour udk azmfjyzdkY&m
sis twGif; 'D point trSwfü tao; qGJavh &Sdw,f/ aemuf sequence dia- toH k ; jyK&ygw,f / uRef a wmf w d k Y u
pdwfrusbl;/ Message 2 eJY 3 uawmh gram azmfxw k jf yD;rSyJ scenario twGi;f aemuf wpfqihfrSm jyKrlvkyfaqmifrI
tenf;i,fydkí tao;pdwfusw,f/ interaction eJY message taMumif; activity buf vSnfh&ygvdrhfr,f/
wpfcpk rD mS message ydYkvw
T rf I xde;f csKyfzYkd tao;pdwf owif;tcsufawG azmfjyyg Modula-2
true/ false condition ygw,f/ 'Dudpö w,f/
rSm message 2 r[kw&f if 3 udk ydYk w,f/
'gayr,fh ESpfckpvHk;awmh rydkYbl;/ wpfck
pDrSm parameter list twGuf tMurf; C++ ox
zsif; azmfjycsufyg&Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh
b,fued ;f &Siaf wG ygw,fqw kd thJ xd tEk Programming Language awG qufvuf&SifoefqJ &Sdr&Sdudk Language tay:
rpdwfbl;/ Message 4 rSm customer features opfawG xyfrH jznfhwif; csJUxGifay;jcif;&Sdr&Sd? third party tzGJUawG&JU
u items awG order rSm aygif;xnhfzdkY axmufyHhrI &Sdr&Sd? standard xkwfjyefn§dEIdif;rI &Sdr&SdawGeJY Munfh&ygw,f/ C++
awmif;cHw,f/ ,cifuvdyk J eHygwfpOfü [m ANSI/ISO standard xkwfjyefcsuf&SdwJh proprietary r[kwf/
Mu,f asterisk jyxm;jcif;[m xyf vGwfvyfaom language jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtcsufu C++ udk Java eJY Delphi vdk
ausmhjyefEkdifaom message udk &nf language awGeJY uGmjcm;apcJhygw,f/ C++ ox [lí standard topfudk
ñTef;w,f/ yxrqHk; item rSmjyD;rSom qufvuf azmfaqmifí zGHUjzdK; &SifoefqJ&Sdw,f/ Langauge zefwD;&Sif Bjarne
ydkYwJh message 5 u order topf zef Stroustrup udk,fwdkif yg0if aqmif&Gufvsuf &Sdw,f/ C++ qdkwm
wD;jzpfay:apw,f/ Message 4 xyfcg uGefysLwm&JU pepf Programming twGufomruyJ tjcm; pufud&d,m
xyfcgydkYwdkif;jzpfvmwJh Message 6 u ypönf;rsm;twGuf embedded systems tjzpfvnf; tvGef oihfawmf
Order object tm; þ item udk order aumif;rGefw,f/ ¤if;aqmhzf0JawG&JU &Sif;vif;aom 'DZdkif; clear design eJY
odkY aygif;xnhf&ef ajymw,f/ wdusaom azmfjyrI precise expression vdktyfcsufawGu language wpfck
aemuf order u product item twGuf pdefac:rIMuD; jzpfEdkifw,f/ acwfay: avpGrf;tm;oHk; *sifea&wmMuD;
eJY inventory item rsm;odkY vdktyfwJh awG? tMuD;qHk;aom ukefaowåmwif oabFmawGudk yg0gay;wJh {&mr 'DZ,f
informations awGtwGuf messages tif*sifawGrSm tqdkyg aqmhzf0JrsKd;awG oHk;Muw,f/ Aerospace u@
awG ydkYjyD; aemufqHk; order item topf twGufvnf; C++ udk oHk;Muw,f/ F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
jyKvkyf&ef Create message udk ydkYyg wdkufav,mOfawG? Rover j*dK[fqif;,mOf ya&m*sufawGrSm jzpfw,f/ Rovery
w,f/ awGu MuD;rm; ½IyfaxG;vSaom systems &JU jrifomaom tydkif;jzpfw,f/
Collaboration diagram [m Computer Science tm;vHk;eD;yg;eJY tif*sifeD,mqdkif&m uRrf;usifrI skills
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r[kwf wpfjydKifeufwnf; EId;qGjzpfay: taqmufttHk infrastructure vdkwJh system wdkif;twGuf C++ u
wJh messages awGtaMumif; owif; aumif;rGefygw,f/
tcsufawG vG,fvG,fulul azmfjyEdkif
jcif; r&Sdbl;/ jyD;awmh 'D diagram u

166 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Top Games of 2008
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rygcsifbJ 0ifyg&yHkeJY *drf;Zmwfvrf;udk qifxm;ygw,f/ Radio eJY TV show
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qdkwm oif xifa,mif cHpm;Munfhzl;ygovm;/ tEÅ&m,f axmifacsmufrsm;tay:
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&J&ifhvSaom vl&G,fav;&JU acgif;xJrSma&m bmawGjzpfaervJ/ Zmwfaumiftay:
þokdY vHIYaqmfwGef;tm;ay;rIrsKd;? &SmazGazmfxkwfxm;wmrsKd; wu,fawmh
&Sm;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh Braid u 'DvdkrMumcP vspfvsL½IcHxm;&wJh ar;cGef;awG
ajzzdkY MudK;pm;xm;w,f/ Mario adventure eJY taumif;qHk; platform vdkY
awG;Munfhyg/ t"duwGef;tm;ay;armif;ESifrIu vdr®myg;eyfvSpGmaom gameplay
mechanics jzpfayr,fh txl;wvnf pyg,f&S,fjzpfapwmu 'gawG wpfvHk;
wpfpnf;wnf;jzpfapaom epfarsmzG,f&m yHkjyifZmwfvrf; jzpfygw,f/ Braid qdkwm
oifhtaeeJY yxr wpfrdepfü ya[VdawGajz&Sif;zdkY acgif;ukwfpOf;pm;&jyD;
aemufwpfrdepfrSm &ifhusuf aumif;rGefwJh yHkZmwfvrf;eJY uRrf;0ifzdkY&m pdefac:xm;
w,f/ uRrf;usifpGm 'DZkdif;qifxm;wJh puzzle awGu pdwfuoduatmuf rjzpf&bJ
MuD;rm;wJh pdefac:rIay;w,f/ odrfarGYwJh art design u tm½Hkrysufjym;apbJ
vSyw,f/ &ifhusufwJh yHkjyifZmwfvrf;u pGrf;tm;MuD;aom tqHk;owfyg&Sdygw,f/

Zefe0g&?D 2009 167


Top Games of 2008
Gears of War 2 Genre: Sci-Fi shooter
Platform: Xbox 360 exclusive
rlv Gears of War [m r,HkEkdifavmufatmif Score: 9.0
aumif;rGefwJh *&yfzpf? ½kyf&SifqefvSaom cine-
matic presentation ? tajcckdifwJh cover
system aus;Zl;wdkYjzifh action genre rSm
classic jzpfvmcJhw,f/ ,ck sequel u
'DazmfjrLvmudkyJ xyfausmhjyefxm;w,f/
'gayr,fh vufeuftopf? &efoltopfeJY Genre: shoot-em-up
0ef;usiftopfawG xnfhoGif;yg&Sdw,f/ 10 em&D Platform: Xbox 360 exclusive
Score: 9.0
Mum campaign u yg;eyfpGm xnfhoGif;xm; Burnout: Paradiss
aom csdefukdufjzpf&yf set picece rsm;?
taumifMuD;rsm;eJY &ifqkdif&rIawGeJY tvGef
auseyfzG,f&maumif;aom stop-and-pop gun- Geometry Wars: Retro Evolved 2
play jzpfvmygw,f/ Gameplay tm;jzifh rlv a&S;,cif*drf;awG ay:OD;pu acwfpm;cJhwJh
*drf;eJYtwlwlyJjzpfayr,fh cover system rSm tEkpdwf csdefnd§ retro arcade yHkpHrsKd;yg/ taoG;ta&mif
xm;w,f/ ajryHktopf 10 ck? upm;ol 10 OD; axmufyHhrIwdkY pHkayr,fh *&yfzpfu realistic rjzpfbJ
jzifh multi-player tykdif;u taumif;qHk; jzpfw,f/ j*dK[f abstract geometry shape awG
om;awGeJY wkdufckduf&wJh survival *drf;rSm Zmwfaumif&JU jzpfaer,f/ ½dk;&Sif;wJh control eJY
family, death eJY love vdk theme rsm;jzifh crf;em;aom ypfcwf&if;? a&SmifuGif; vIyf&Sm;&if
ZmwfuGuf plot tm; &S,f&ufay;xm;ygao;w,f/ trSwfawG rsm;EkdiforQ rsm;rsm;&atmif
upm;&wJh *drf;rsKd; ½dk;ayr,fhvnf;
master jzpfatmif uRrf;usifzdkY&mcufjyD;
pGJvrf;rIvnf; ay;ygw,f/ ,ck sequel
Genre: Action Role-Playing Fable II aemufqufwGJrSm a&SUu *drf;eJY tMuD;qHk;
Platform: Xbox 360 exclusive uGmjcm;rIjzpfatmif
Score: 8.5 RPG *drf;awG&JU xHk;pHtwkdif; pl;prf;
aygif;xnfhay;xm;wmu geom awG
&SmazGoGm;vmzdkY&m us,fajymwJh
jzpfw,f/ &efolawG ypfcswJh
urÇmMuD;ay;xm;w,f/ uav;b0u
xdktpdrf;a&mif gem awG vkdufpm;&if;
pí oifhudk,fykdif vrf;aMumif;a&G;jyD;
trSwf score awGudk multiplier
MuD;jyif; &ifhusufap&r,f/ Good
qyGm;apygw,f/ upm;enf; mode
aemufudkvkdufrvm;/ Evil aemufudk
topfig;rsKd;ygvmjyD; Pacifism rSmqdk&if
vkdufrvm;/ MudKuf&m path a&G;yg/
&efolawGudk ypfcwf&wmr[kwfawmhbJ
Quest &SmyHkawmfc&D;awG zGifh&r,f/
a>rvdrfa>raumufyHkpHcsxm;wJh gate awGrSm
'D*drf;&JU xl;jcm;csufu oifeJYtwl
tem;pGef;udk a&Smifí tv,frS wdk;0if&
opöm&SdpGm vkdufvmr,fh acG;uav;yJ
wm jzpfw,f/ 'Dvdk shotter
jzpfygw,f/ ulazmfavmifzuf&í
*drf;rsKd;awG[m upm;& pGJvrf;zG,f
wG,fwmrdvmr,f/ nd§KU,laom
aumif;vGef;íyJ tcsdefawG jzwfausmfjyD;
*&yfzpfeJY pdwfvIyf&Sm;zG,f music awG
qufvuf&SifoefaeqJ jzpf&wmygyJ/
yg&Sdw,f/

168 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Burnout Paradise Genre: Racing
Platform: Xbox 360, PS3
Burnout *drf;wpfckrS oif arQmfvifhxm;orQ vsifjrefaomarmif;ESifrI? 0uf0ufuGJ Score: 9.0
action awG yg&Sdw,f/ 'gayr,fh open-world design opfu ¤if;ukd,fykdif teHY
t&om ay;ygw,f/ tpOftvmtm;jzifh tawmftwefzGJYpnf;yHkuswJh arcade
racing *drf;jzpfaeawmh open environment u 'DpD;&D;&JU jriforQ 0ifwkduf ½dkufcGJ
gameplay enf;vrf;rSm b,fvdktoHk;awmfcHrvJ odcsifp&myJ/ Developer Cri-
terion [m Burnout &JU obm0eJYukdufnDaom urÇmwpfckzefwD;cJhw,f/ zsufqD;
wkdufcGJypfp&mtjynfhtwGuf txl;wvnf wnfaqmufxm;wJhjrdKUjzpfygw,f/
Burnout trnfeJY ukdufnDqJrSm wpfjydKifwnf;tm;jzifh vwfqwfaom cHpm;rI
vnf; tHhMopzG,f&&Sdr,f/ jyyGJ&JU Mu,fyGifhu Paradise City ukd,fEdIufjzpfygw,f/
Guns' N Roses oDcsif;awGeJY yxrawmh Paradise City u vSywJh yHkrSefpH
racing game city eJY wl&ifwlr,f/ tjrJvdk &Sdaeus landmark locations awGeJY
jiD;aiGYzG,f aemufcH,mOfaMum background traffic om jzpf&ifjzpfr,f/ 'gayr,fh
Paradisc City u jydKifyGJywfvnfajy;&m ½dk;½dk;jrdKUxufydkaom taMumif;udpö
twGuf &nf&G,fxm;wm cPcsif; ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/ wu,fawmh jrdKUu oifh&JU
ukd,fykdifvuf&majrmuf jc,fozefwD;rItwGuf &Sif;oefYaom uif;Awfp tvGwf
om jzpfw,f/ Crash mode rSmqdk&if xdckdufysufpD;rIawG rsm;EkdiforQ rsm;rsm;&
atmif wkdufcGJ armif;ESifum trSwfawG&atmif vkyf&ygw,f/

PlayStation 3 Metal Gear Solid 4


MGS 4 : Guns of the Patriosts [m enf;ynmykdif;t& tHhMozG,ftaumif;qHk;
Genre: Modern Action Adventure
Platform: PS3 exclusive jzpfw,f/ 'D medium Mum;cHtwGif; ZmwfaMumif;jyefajymjcif;udk &Jwif; uRrf;usifpGm
Score: 10 azmfaqmifxm;yHk aumif;rGefwJh erlemwpfckvnf; jzpfw,f/ Gameplay eJY narrative udk
odyfudkacsmarGYpGm? odyfudk vSypGm aygif;pyfxm;wmaMumifh wpfckuaewpfck cGJxkwfvkdY
r&jzpfaer,f/ yxrqHk;tMudrf upm;jyD;wmeJY tqHk;owfudk auseyf&onfhwkdif qufí
awGYMuHKcsifaeOD;r,f/ Metal Gear *drf;awG upm;cJhzl;olawGtwGuf &Snfvsm;aom Zmwf
vrf;pOfawGudk tHhMordrnf r[kwfyg/ MGS 4 twGif; oif[m wpf0ufavmufeD;eD;udk
cinematic awG MunfhjyD; jzwfoef;&r,f/ 'gayr,fh gameplay u story aemufvdkuf
xm;wmvdkY xif&ifawmh tMuD;tus,f rSm;,Gif;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/ 'D tajccHypönf;ESpfcku
wif;usyfpGm vdrfuspfxm;jyD; Zmyef;uGufxdk;yHkazmfrIudk ta&;ygaom technical thread
eJY wGJoDxm;w,f/ Cutscenes Mum;jzwf½kyf&SifawGudk game engine eJYyJ real time
tjynfh render vkyfxm;íyJ/ oifMunfhzl;orQ prerendered scenes awGavmuf
Munfhaumif;jyD; xdkwlnDaom scenes rSyJ pause r&SdbJ gameplay xJ0ifoGm;awmh ydkí
epfarsmzG,f&maumif;ygw,f/ tomwdwfwdwf vIyf&Sm;&wJh sneaking udk rMudKuf&if
ypfcwfwJhenf; oHk;vdkY&w,f/ Audio visual presentation tykdif;rSm qdkzG,f&mudk r&Sdyg/

Zefe0g&?D 2009 169


Top Games of 2008
Resistance 2 Genre: Modern First-Persion Shooter
Platform: PS3 exclusive
PS 3 *drf;pufawG&JU *&yfzpftpGrf;udkjyzdkY pufeJY twlwGJxGufcJhwJh Resistance Fall of Score: 9.0
Man typftcwf shooter *drf;[m PS3 exclusive oD;oefY*drf; jzpfw,f/
Resistance 2 u ydkjyD; xl;uJMuD;rm;wJh owif;awGeJY a&mufvmjyefjyD/ r[kwfyg/
vlom;awGu Chimera [kac:aom j*dK[fom;awGeJY aoG;½l;aoG;wef;
wkdufckdufrIawGrSm tompD; r&cJhyg/ aqmif,lvmwJh pum;u Resistance 2 [m
MuD;us,fwJh urÇmysuf apocalyptic setting 3 yDjyif oGufvufaom actions
awGyg&SdjyD; enf;vrf;toG,foG,ftm;jzifh a&SUuxuf wdk;wufaumif;rGefatmif
vkyfxm;w,fqdkwmygyJ/ ydkMuD;aom wkdufyGJawG? ydkí <u,f0pdkjynfwJh0ef;usif
xl;uJaumif;rGefvSaom &Spfa,muf cooperative mode wdkYu Resistance 2 udk PS3
ay:u tjcm; shooter *drf;wkdif;&JUtxufodkY jr§ifhwifay;xm;w,f/ M5A2 Carbine,
.44 Magnum uJhodkY aoewf 12 rsKd;eJY aumif;rGefvSwJh action, mussion awGrSm
tm;&yg;& ypfcwf azmufcGJypfEkdifygw,f/

Genre: Historic Turn-Based Strategy Sid Meier's Civilization Revolution


Platform: PS3, Xbox 360
Score: 9.0 tcsdef&JUprf;oyfrIudk MuHhMuHhcH&yfwnf&r,fh tifyg,mwpfck wnfaqmufyg/ EHkeJYvS
aomtpjyKrIuae urÇmMuD; odrf;ykdufvTrf;rdk;zdkY&mtxd orkdif;0if,Ofaus;rI tzGJY
tpnf; civilization udk turn-based strategy game rSm OD;aqmifí AsL[mcsrSwf
pDrH&r,f/ 'DumvMum&Snf pD;&D;&JU r[mAsL[mykdif;qkdif&m us,fajymrI xdef;odrf;xm;
qJrSm consoles *drf;pufawGeJY acsmarGYtqifajyapzdkY atmifjrifatmif jyKvkyfEkdifcJh
w,f/ &v'fuawmh pD;&D;&JU 0g&ifhupm;olawGtjyif topf0ifa&mufvmolawGyg
MudKufESpfoufr,fh tqDtESpfxkwfxm;aom civilization version jzpfvmygw,f/
Victory av;rsKd;rSm cultural, economic , technology eJY domination wdkYjzpf
w,f/ Civilization tzGJYu 16 ck&Sdw,f/ 'Dawmh rwlwJhenf;jzifh replay value u
16 x 4 = 64 &Sdvmwmaygh/ Wonders awG olrsm;xufOD;atmif aqmuf&wJh
t&omu bmeJYrQ EdIif;rjyEkdifyg/

Rock Band 2
Genre: Action Role-Playing
yxrqHk;aom Rock Band [m music games awG upm;yHkenf;vrf;udk awmfvSef Platform: PS3 exclusive
ajymif;vJypfcJhw,f/ ¤if;&JU sequel uawmh qifhuJjzpfpOf a&SUajcwpfvSrf;pmom Score: 8.5
jzpfw,f/ tMuD;qHk;aom qGJaqmifrIawGu MuD;rm;aom song list pm&if;eJY
tGefvkdif;rSm World Tour mode upm;Ekdifjcif;jzpfw,f/ usefwmawGuawmh
rajymif;oavmufygyJ/ twlwlrSmudk tHhMop&maumif;ygw,f/ oifod&SdjrwfEdk;cJh&wJh
yxr *drf;rS gameplay udk Rock Band 2 rSmvnf; rwdkYrxdxm;w,f/ oifu
oDqdkEkdifw,f/ '&rfwD;Ekdifw,f/ *pfwm odkYr[kwf abhpfukd wpfa,mufwnf;
wD;Ekdifw,f/ oli,fcsif;oHk;a,muf&Sd&ifawmh band zGJYvdkY&ygjyD/ AC/ PC,
Bob Dylan, Nirvana, Metallica &JU oDcsif;awGygw,f/
170 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Little Big Planet Genre: Action/ Platformer
Platform: PS3 exclusive
Platforming *drf;vdkY ajym&rSmjzpfayr,fh e,fajr {&d,mwkdif;rSm creativity Score: 9.0
twGuf &nfnTef;tm;xkwfxm;awmh genre udk ausmfvGefaew,f/
ZmwfaumifrSonf 0ef;usifaemufcHtxd t&mtm;vHk;udk upm;ol&JU creation eJY
adaptation awGtwGuf OD;wnfjyKvkyfay;xm;w,f/ pwpfumawG?
t0wftpm;awGu pjyD; level wpfckvHk; aqmuf,lEkdifwJh level creator
ygvmw,f/ Play, Create ,Share vdkY &nfnTef;xm;w,f/ aysmfwm?
a'gojzpfwmpwJh cHpm;rIrsm;udk upm;olrS control vkyfEkdifaom
t0wf½kyfav;[m odk;arG;ouúvwfp? opfom;? a&jrKyfwdkYjzifhjyD;aom urÇmxJrSm
vrf;aMumif;&Sm oGm;vm&r,f/ ,kwdåwefwJh physics puzzles awG yg&Sdw,f/
aumifwmtvSjy ½dI;auhpfxJu ypönf;rsKd;awGeJY qef;opf azmufxGufaeaom
0ef;usif urÇmawGrSm tmz&du qmAm;em;? ruúqDuefuEÅm&? tmwdwfa&cJjyif
pHkaeatmif yg0ifw,f/ puf,EÅ&m;ypönf;eJY ,mOfawGawmif ygygao;w,f/

Genre: Rhythm/ Music Valkyria Chronicles


Platform: PS3, Wii
Score: 8.5 Valkyria Chronicles vdk *drf;rsKd; oifrupm;zl;wm aocsmoavmufyJ/ yxrawmh
xl;jcm;vGef;aom visual design aMumifhvdkY xif&ifxifr,f/ 'gayr,fh 'DOpömu
tvSty[m ta&jym;wpfaxmufpmqdkwJh t&mrsKd;r[kwfyg/Third-person
shooters u tajccHypönf; enf;enf;? tactical yHkpHenf;enf;eJY strategy role-
playing *drf;csOf;uyfenf;awG aygif;pyfxm;awmh xdk genre y&dowfrsm;udk
csufcsif; qGJaqmifqJrSm topf 0ifa&mufvmolawGtwGufvnf; ESpfoufp&m
jzpfw,f/ rdkufrJwJh AI udpu
ö vGJ&if Valkyria Chronicles [m upm;&wm?
&,f&TifaysmfarGYzG,f&m aumif;ygw,f/ RPG yHkpHrsKd; ukd,fykdif&if;ESD; uRrf;0ifjyD;
urÇm&JUfantasy version rSm tajccsxm;w,f/
xl;jcm;wJh visual design u wpfcsufavmuf iJhapmif;Munfh½HkeJYwif odomw,f/
a&aq;yef;csDum; touf0if vIyf&Sm;aewmeJY wlw,f/ Cel shaded pwkdif
aumufaMumif;rsOf;tem;om; a&;a&;ygw,f/ ta&mifawGu azsmhawmhayr,fh
awmufvGifw,f/ tcsKdU tjzpftysufawGrSm comic-book yHkpHazmfw,f/ 'gayr,fh
tm;aumif;aom tEkynm art udk ausmfMunfhr,fqdk&if wlrQwJh acsmarGYyDjyifvSaom
enf;ynmudkvnf; owdjyKrdygvdrfhr,f/ tay:pD;uMunfh&aom strategic map
uae 3D tjynfh versions odkY ul;ajymif;&m animation u txifMuD;
av;pm;avmufp&m jzpfw,f/ Action b,favmufrsm;rsm; jrifhrm;wJh frame-rate
udk xdef;xm;ay;Ekdifygw,f/ Genre rsm;pGm pkqHkaygif;pyfaom *drf;rsKd;ü jzpfwwfwJh
pdwftaESmifht,Sufjzpfp&mrsm; y,fazsmufay;xm;ygw,f/

Zefe0g&?D 2009 171


Top Games of 2008
goo balls ta&twGuf wpfpHkwpf&mudk wnfaqmufa&;
PC twGuf roHk;bJ usef&Sd&rSmrdkY taqmufttHkudk economy
jzpfatmif aqmufzdkY&m vdkygw,f/ txGufydkufodkY goo balls
Genre: Puzzle
Platform: PC, Wii awG vHkavmufpGm jzwfjyD;wJhaemufrSmawmh zefbDumcGufu
Score: 9.0 apmihfaeygw,f/ vHkavmufwJh ta&twGufr&&if wpfzef
jyefp&vdkY xda&mufpGm oHk;pGJzdkY&m vdkygw,f/ tqHk;owf
&rSwf scores u u,fwifjcif;cH&wJh goo balls ta&
twGufeJYa&m? level twGuf oHk;wJh tcsdeftwdkif;twmeJYyg
wdkif;ygw,f/ ppfrSefwJh physics oabmw&m;awG? gravity
awGudk tjrJxnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&r,f/ upm;&vG,f uRrf;usif
ydkifEdkifzdkY&m cufwJh *drf;u wpdrhfpdrfheJY qGJaqmifrIjyKw,f/
xdyfydkif;av;jyD; jydKrusatmif Goo towers [m [efcsufrQzdkY
vdkw,f/ Bridges awGrSm tm;jznfh axmufuefrI reinforce
taotcsm vkyf&r,f/ wpfcgwavrsm;usawmhvnf;
structure &JU height or length r,lbJ balloon goo vdk
txl;jyK items awG oHk;&ygw,f/ Goo eJY aqmuf&wm
World of Goo
qdkawmh e*dkyg t&nftcsif;t&udk rwnfjidrf jydKysufvG,f
bl;yHkpHMunfhvdkuf&if cyfnHhnHhwwd,wef;pm;yHkpHeJY pifay: w,f r[kwfvm;/ txGufydkufawGu levels tpeJY tjrJtm;
rSm acsmifxdk;xm;cH&r,fhtaersKd;/ 'gayr,fh 'D physics- jzifh a0;&mrSm&Sdw,f/ &,fp&maumif;avmufatmif &SnfvGef;
based puzzle u 'DESpf PC twGuf xGuforQ*drf;awGxJrSm wJh rdk;arQmfwdkuf odkYr[kwf cHk;wHwm; pwif raqmufcifu
azmufxGuf qef;opfrIt&SdqHk;eJY pGJvrf;p&m taumif;qHk; wnf;u trSefwu,f pOf;pm;zdkY&m vdkygw,f/ oihf&JU
jzpfw,f/ trSDtcdkuif;aom 2D Boy developer [m building wpfckvHk; tcsdefra&G; jydKysufoGm;Edkifw,fqdkwJh
aygufaumifyGihfcJhjyD/ ½dk;pif;aom building game vdkY todu r,HkEdkifavmufp&m wif;usyfrI tension aygif;xnfh
xif&wJht&m[m Tetris eJY Lemmings vdk *E¦0ifwef; ay;ygw,f/ zJcsyftdrfaqmufupm;&wJh feeling eJY trsm;
a&mufvmp&m &Sdaew,f/ trSefwu,frSmvnf; World of MuD; wlw,f/ ydkufeJY rDwmtenf;i,ftuGm a&mufwJhtcg
Goo &JU concept u 90 ESpfrsm;ü aygufcJhaom aorxl;? &ifwrr tjzpf&qHk;ygyJ/ 'DESpftwGif; rl&if;tjzpfqHk;eJY pGJ
aerxl; Lemmings aumifav;awG vrf;ñTef&wJh *drf;odkY p&mtaumif;qHk; gaming experiences awG rvJGapeJYaem/
ta<u;rsm;pGm wif&Sdaew,f/ *drf;udk jyD;pD;atmifEdkifzdkY&m
&nfrSef;csufuvnf; qifwlw,f/ 'gayr,fh tpdrf;a&mif
Lemmings aumifav;awG vrf;jy&r,fhtpm; oif[m
tEÅ&m,fMuD;wJhe,fajrudkjzwfjyD; tdwkef usdcRJ t&nfpuf
awG pkyf,lEdkifr,fh ydkufvHk;&Sd&modkY ydkYaqmif&r,f/
t&nfpufav;awGeJY jirf;tdrfyHkjzpfatmif aqmufjyD;
twm;tqD;awG jzwfausmfzdkY&m ya[VdawG OD;aESmuf
pm;&ygr,f/ rdk;ay:odkY avSum; axmif&r,f/ oihf&JU
structure u txGufydkufodkY vufvSrf;rDwJhtcg roHk;bJ
usefwJh goo balls tvHk;awG[m wpfcg olwdkY taygif;
tazmfawG jzpfcJhzl;aom ,m,DtaqmufttHkudk jzwfí
vGwfajrmufap&ygr,f/ Level wpfckpDrSm atmifEdkifzdkY&m

172 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Dead Space Genre: Sci-Fi shooter
Platform: PC, Xbox 360, PS 3
Resident Evil udk tmumoxJ ydkYxm;wJh PC *drf;vdkY awG;Munhfvdkufyg/ Score: 9.0
bmrQr&SdwJh [if;vif;jyif eufarSmifrIu ydkí acsmufcsm;apvdrhfr,f/ euf½Idif;
epfarsmzG,f ZmwfaMumif; yg&Sdw,f/ Visual ydkif;rSm Munfhvnf;Munfhcsifw,f/
Munfhvnf; rMunhf&Jbl;qdkwJh taersKd;/ ausmpdrfhp&maumif;wJh toH effect awGeJY
aygif;xnfhay;ygao;w,f/
xl;jcm;rIav;awG Munfh&&if tpOftvmusnf? toufvufusefjy heads-up
display z,f&Sm;jyD; wu,fh epfarsmzG,fjzpfatmif MuHqxm;ygw,f/
toufudkMunfhcsif&if *drf;Zmwfaumif Isaac alarke &JU RIG 0wfpHk aemufausmrS
rD;tvif;wef;eJY jyw,f/ usnfvufusef odcsif&if weapons udk ready mode
wif&w,f/ ajryHkeJY objectives awG Munfhcsif&if holographic yHkpHeJY xdk;í
jyw,f/ xdktcsdef umvwpfavQmufvHk; *drf;udk pause &yfxm;wmr[kwfvdkY
wdkufcdkufcH&Edkifygao;w,f/
Zmwfvrf;taeeJY USG Ishimur qdkwJh tmumo,mOfrSm qufoG,fa&;
ud&d,mawGjyifzdkY yHkrSef mission tjzpf oGm;&wJh tif*sifeD,m Isaac Asimov &JU
½IaxmihfrS wifjyxm;ygw,f/ uvDa&S; xHk;pHtwdkif; ,mOfay:a&mufawmhrS
survival horror tcif;tusif;udk MuHK&jcif; jzpfw,f/ wdkufcdkuf&r,fh
taumifawGu Necromorphs vdkY ac:wJh monsters awG jzpfw,f/ wDxGif
qef;opfxm;wJh wdkufcdkufrIyHkpHwpfcku strategic dismemberment vdkY ac:w,f/
taumiftrsKd;tpm;tvdkuf t*Fgtpdwftydkif;awGudk enf;pepfusus wpfppD
z,f&Sm;jyKwfxGufaprS udk,fhtwGuf touf&Sifusef&pfygr,f/ vufeufawGu
,cif vkyfief;oHk; ypönf;awGudk vufjzpf MuHqxm;wJh welding guns, buzz
saws vdk t&mrsKd;awG jzpfw,f/ Zmwfaumif&JU tif*sifeD,mo½kyfudk ay:apjyD;
¤if; taiGUtoufudk azmfaqmifxm;ygw,f/

Genre: Historis First- Call of Duty: World at War


Person Shooter
Platform: PC, Xbox &J&ihfaom ol&owådqdkif&m pdwfvIyf&Sm;zG,fZmwfvrf;? wlrQpGmjzifh
360, PS 3 taumif;qHk;tqihfrSm&SdwJh multiplayer system ? av;a,mufyg cooperative
Score: 8.5
campaign ? bufeufeJY rD;½IdUud&d,mawG? emZD zombies awG yg&Sdw,f/ wpfckawmh
owday;xm;&OD;r,f/ &if;ESD; od&SdjyD; qufwif? game mechanics eJY guns
awGaMumifh a&SUu modern warfare eJY bmrQ ruGmbl; xif&ygw,f/ 'guvnf;
odyfjyD; raumif;jrifp&m qdk;0g;rIawmh r[kwfygbl;/ r½dk;EdkifbJ qufí
upm;jzpfapzdkY&m weapons topftjzpf Bayonets eJY flame throwers awG
yg&Sdvmygw,f/ World War II setting awGxJrSm taumif;qHk; *E¦0ifpD;&D;tjzpf
a&SUqufí csDwufOD;r,fh oabm &Sdygw,f/

Zefe0g&?D 2009 173


Top Games of 2008
Genre: Role-Playing
Fallout-3
Platform: PC, Xbox 360,
PS3
urÇmysufumvvGef post-apocalypitic 0g&Sifwef 'DpDjrdKUysufMuD;rSm aemufcH setting xm;w,f/
Score: 9.0 topf xGufvmwJh *drf;rsm;pGmrSm upm;oludk a&G;cs,fcGihfawG ay;jcif;jzifh qGJaqmifrI jyKMuw,f/
'gayr,fh b,f tajctaersKd;twGufrqdk ½IyfaxG;odrfarGU tao;pdwfusí t"dyÜm,f&Sdaom
csOf;uyfenf;rsm;ay;wJh *drf;awG &Sm;ygw,f/ ,ck 'D*drf;rSmawmh oihf&JU actions awG[m
*drf;urÇmudkomru oifhupm;yHek nf;tay:yg MuD;MuD;rm;rm; tusKd;oufa&mufrI jzpfapygw,f/
oifvdkcsifwJht&m oifvdkcsifwJh tcsdefrSm pl;prf;&SmazGEdkifwJh vGwfvyfcGihfawGu fallout 3 udk
upm;zdkY&m xdkufapjyD; xyfívnf; replay upm;zdkY&m xdkufygw,f/ aysmfarGUp&m tEkpdwf
odrfarGUwJh quests awGudk enf;aygif;rsm;pGmeJY jyD;pD;zdkY&m pdwfauseyfzG,f enf;rsm;ay;w,f/
*drf;&JU yxrqHk; em&DrSmwif *drf;&JU focus vkyf&mudk xif&Sm;apw,f/ ZmwfaumifeJY Zmwfvrf;
ajzxkwf zGihfcsrItm; vSypGm &ufvkyfxm;w,f/ 'Dae&mrSm tao;pdwf ajymjyr,fhtpm;
rdwfqufay;rIudk oihfudk,fydkif awGUMuHK cHpm;rIuom taumif;qHk;jzpfr,f/ c&pfESpf 2277 oifeJY
oihftaz[m Vault 101 rSm aexdkifolrsm; jzpfw,f/ EsLuvD;,m;'PfaMumifh xdcdkufysufpD;cJh&rIrS
umuG,f&ef aqmufxm;aom shelter rsm;pGmrS wpfckjzpfw,f/ oihftazu EIwfrqufbJ Vault rS
vGwfajrmufoGm;wJhtcg olYudk&SmzdkY c&D;xGufcJh&mü political eJY scientific vGefqGJyGJawGtwGif;
a&mufoGm;jyD; tem*wf&JU vrf;aMumif;udk oihftm; ajymif;vJcGihfjyKygw,f/ Quests awG
odyftrsm;MuD; rygayr,fh ¤if;&JU ½IyfaxG;rIawGu tHhMoavmufp&m aumif;w,f/

Sin of a Solar Empire Genre: Sci-Fi Real-Time


Strategy gamers awG arQmfvifh wrf;wwJh uGef;cdk&mXmewpfck&Sdw,f/ ttdyfysuf? Strategy
tpm;ysufjzpfjyD; aeYcif;ydkif; tvkyfawGrSm xkwfvkyfrItm; xdk;usapwmawmifrS awGUMuHK Platform: PC exclusive
Score: 9.0
cHpm;csifwJht&mrsKd;? Sins of a Solar Empire [m xdkodkYaom &Sm;yg;wJh *drf;awGxJrS wpfck
jzpfw,f/ oifh&JU usef;rmoefpGrf;wJhb0 tpdwftydkif;MuD;udk pm;oHk;ypfqJrSm r,HkEdkifavmufp&m
pJGvrf;rIay;jyD; enf;enf;rS pdwfruGufrdwJht&maygh/ EIdif;,SOfcsuftm;jzifh ao;i,faom
developer xHrS xGufvmwJh *drf;taeeJY odyfrqdk;vSbl;/ Ironclad eJY publisher Stardock wdkY
*kPf,loihfw,f/ rMumao;cifESpfrsm;twGif; rl&if;tusqHk;? qJGaqmifrItjyKqHk; strategy
games udk ay;urf;EdkifcJhíygyJ/ &Sif;atmifawmh ajymxm;&OD;r,f/ Sins u Galatic Civiliza-
tions udk tpOftvm turn-based space strategy *drf;eJY rwlbl;/ 'D genre &JU bdk;atMuD;
Master of Orion vdkvnf; r[kwfbl;/ tJ'Dtpm; real-time game jzpfw,f/ 'gayr,fh
tmumoxJu Command & Conquer vdkYawmh rxifvdkufeJY/ Sins u cyfjznf;jznf; aES;aES;
ajcvSrf;eJY zGihfcsay;jyD; MuD;rm;wJh scale eJY jzpfay:um oihftaeeJY ig;ck odkYr[kwf
ajcmufcktxd&SdwJh {&mr ,mOftkyfMuD;tm; tvG,fpDrHEdkifatmif csxm;ay;ygw,f/ urÇmawG
'gZifaygif; rsm;pGmygwJh star systems awG rsm;pGmjzwfí upm;&ygw,f/ Space Strategy
*drf;rsm;pGmvdkyJ j*dK[fwpfckxJ xdef;csKyf&mrS action pí usefwJh system worlds awG pl;prf;
&SmazG&r,fh udkvdkeDjyK resources awG wl;jyD; tmumo,mOfawGaqmufzdkY research awG
vkyf&ygr,f/ aumif;rGefwJh strategy *drf;awGrSm oihftaeeJY resources awG cJGa0csxm;
oHk;pGJzdkY qHk;jzwfcsufawG rjywfvkyfzdkY zdtm;ay;w,f/ Sins u 'DtvkyftwGuf xl;uJvSpGm
vkyfay;w,f/ oif[m tzdk;xdkufvSwJh resources rjywf tqifajyatmif vdkwdk;ydkavQmh
csxm;zd 174 kY&m tjrJvkyfae&ygw,f/ {&mr wdkufyGJMuD;rsm;eJY armfuGef;0if epic cHpm;&ygw,f/
uGefysLwm*sme,f
Left 4 Dead Genre: Sci-Fi First-Person Shooter Genre: Action
Platform: PC, X box 360 Role-Playing
tpkvdkuftjyHKvdkuf zombie awGeJY Score: 8.5 Platform: PC,
acsmufcsm; &GH&Smp&m*drf;rSm xl;xl; Xbox 360
jcm;jcm; upm;uGuf mode yg&Sdw,f/ Score: 9.0

oifu ½dk;½dk; omrefvltjzpfom r[kwfbJ


zombie awGbufu upm;csif&ifvnf;
upm;vdkY&wJh mode xnfhay;xm;ygw,f/
Role reversal jzpfoGm;awmh wu,fh
alternative yJaemf/ yHkrSef mode
twGufawmh wif;usyf csdefom;udkufwJh
controls eJY aoewfawG yg&Sdw,f/
&efolawG xGufvmwJhae&mu wpfae&meJY
wpfae&m rwlvdkY wpfcgjyef upm;wdkif;
rwlwJht&om cHpm;&ygr,f/ 4 qdkwJh
Mass Effect
pum;vHk;u for qdkwJh t"dyÜm,f&ovdk
cspfcifESpfvdkzG,f&m toGiftjyif&Sd rESpf Edk0ifbmwkef;u Xbox 360
Zmwfvdkufausmf survivars av;OD;udk ay:rSm Mass Effect udk yxrqHk;
&nfñTef;ygw,f/ uJ oifu survivars xkwfa0awmh taxGaxG tjym;jym;
yJ jzpfcsifovm;/ Zombie yJ jzpfcsif pdwful;qef;Mu,f alien races awG
ovm;/ jynfhESufaewJh MuD;rm;vSyaom
*vufZDMuD; csjycJhw,f/ upm;ol
awG[m 'DtqihfodkY Commander
Genre: Modern First-Person Far Cry 2
Shepard taejzihf 0if&w,f/
Shooter
Platform: PC, Xbox 360, PS3 'D*drf;&JU urÇm0ef;usifu ½kyfjidrf Galatic politics jydKifuGif;rSm vlom;
Score: 8.5 qufwifr[kwfbJ tjyifrSmvdk obm0 rsKd;EG,f tajcjrihfapzdkY&m hero Zmwf
uspGm vIyf&Sm; &Sifoefajymif;vJrI &Sd aumifjzpfw,f/ 'Daemuf ESpfvdkzG,f
w,f/ vSyom,maom tmz&du character ? <u,f0í udkif;cJGrsm;aom
e,fajr&JU jynfwGif;ppfawGrSm mercenary dialogue wdkYjzifh epic story Zmwf
wpfOD;taejzifh aumufuspfaom vrf;&SnfMuD; pwifygawmhw,f/ pdwf
vufeufukefonftm; &SmazG vIyf&Sm;zG,f combat eJY tajccdkif
acsrIef;&r,fh MuD;rm;us,fajymvSwJh usifvnfpGm xnfhxm;aom skill
*drf;urÇm0ef;usifrSm vSnfhvnf oGm;vm management wdkY yg&Sdw,f/ ,cifu
zdkY vehicles aygif;pHk yg&Sdw,f/ Mission jypfcsuf&SdcJhw,f/ tao;tzGJav;rsm;
wpfckpDudk udk,fhpdwfMudKuf csOf;uyfenf;eJY udk PC release rSm jyifqifxm;vdkY
ajz&Sif;Edkifw,f/ ZmwfaMumif;wpfavQmuf ydkí acsmarGUvmw,f/ rMumao;cif
tjcm; AI awGeJY rdwfaqGzGJUEdkifw,f/ umvrsm;twGif; taumif;qHk;aom
Multiplayer mode rSm blood diamond role-playing games awGxJu wpfck
csD;jr§ihfrIyHkpHeJY wGef;tm;ay;w,f/ jzpfvmygw,f/
Capture the flag ae&mrSm Capture the
Diamond &,fvdkY jzpfvmygw,f/
Zefe0g&?D 2009 175
Photoshop jzwfvrf;enf;rsm;

Sepia wpf0uf zefw;D jcif;

Sepia qdkwm tndK&ihfa&mif color jzpfw,f/ tjzL tqifh «1»


trnf;½kyyf akH wGrmS sepia ta&mifxnfjh yD; a&S;a[mif;qef aom Photo udk Photoshop twGif;rSm zGihfyg/ 'D half se-
effect? *E¦0ifqefaom effect jyKvkyf oHk;pGJavh&Sdw,f/ yef;csD pia photo effect u "mwfyHktrsm;pktay:rSm tvkyfvkyfay
aq;a&miftjzpfvnf; oHk;w,f/ Photoshop vdk Photo- r,fh ta&mifpkd jynf0h rI saturation jrihw
f hJ ½kyyf akH wGrmS ydjk yD;ay:
editing software awGjzihv f nf; tvG,jf yKvkyf oH;k pGMJ uw,f/ vGifw,f/
ta&mifeyH gwf # 704214 RGB (112, 66, 20)
tckyHkrSmawmh Sepia udk b,fatmufaxmifh wpfjcrf; tqifh «2»
twGufyJ oHk;xm;vdkY half sepia vdkYyJ ac:Edkifygr,f/ Layers palette
u Create new fill
or adjustment layer
button tay:uvpf
ESdyfjyD; Hue/Satura-
tion udk a&G;yg/ ay:
vmwJh dialog box rSm
nmbuf atmufajc
axmifhu Colorize
rSm Check trSwfay;
yg/ Settings rsm;udk
atmufygtwdik ;f xm;

176 uGefysLwm*sme,f
Photoshop jzwfvrf;enf;rsm;
yg/ oihf &JU image [m awmufywJh sepia tone &vmygr,f/ xm;jyD; prf;Munfhyg/ odkYr[kwf
OK udk uvpfESdyfyg/ oihfyHkt& prf;oyfupm;Munfhyg/
Blending mode udk soft light
tqifh «3» odkY ajymif;yg/
Hue/Saturation adjustment layer &JU Layer mask Black & White 'grSr[kwf
tay:rSm tvkyv f yk &f r,f/ yHrk mS jyxm;wJt
h wdik ;f Layers pal- Channel Mixer adjustment
ette rS layer mask thumbnail tuGuftay: uvpfESdyf a&G; layer thumbnail tay: double
cs,fyg/ Im- click ESdyf jyefac:jyD; setting awG
age > Apply jyifvdkY&w,f/ aemuf adjust-
Image udk a&G; ment layer &JU oabmtwdkif;
jyD ; default layer mask thumbnail tuGuf
settings awG tay: uvpfESdyf Brush jzifh
yJ oHk;yg/ oif teufa&mifjc,fí effect oufa&mufapvdkjcif;r&SdwJh ae&m
csdefn§dzdkY vdkwJh awGrSm effect udk z,f&Sm;ypfí &ygw,f/
wpf c k w nf ;
aom setting
[m Invert

setting jzpfw,f/ wu,fvdkY tJ'gudk check rvkyfcJh&if


sepia tone effect [m oihf image &JU tvif;qHk;tydkif;rSmyJ
jrif&r,f/ Invert option udkzGihfcJh&if sepia tone udk oihf
image &JU tarSmifqHk;tydkif;rSmyJ jrif&r,f/

tqifh «4»
tck black and white adjustment layer aygif;xnfh&
r,f layers paldetle rSm Create new fill or adjustment
layer udk ESdyfjyD; Black & White udk a&G;yg/ Photoshop
CS2 eJYxYkdxufapm&if Black & White option rygvdYk chan-
nel mixer udk a&G;&r,f/ Settings awGukd yHr
k mS jyxm;wJt
h wdik ;f

Zefe0g&D? 2009 177


IT Tutorial

Advanced Titling Styles and Templates

1/ Adobe premiere pro xJodkY0ifí Project topf 4/ Title rectangle udk select vkyx
f m;csed w
f iG f Title prop-
wpfck,lay;yg/ erties panel rS Distort wefzdk;udk X = 20 % ESifh Y =
30 % ½dkufxnfhay;yg/ Rectangle axmifhcsKd;rsm;
2/ Title > New Title > Default Still (F9) a&G;í Titler
ajymif;oGm;ygvdrfhrnf/
window udzk iG ahf y;yg/ trnfukd title style jzifh odr;f ay;
yg/

3/ Tool panel xJrS Rounded Rectangle tool ukda&G;í


rectangle wpfck qGJay;yg/ Rectangle ukd serect
vkyfyg/ Title properties panel rS width ESifh height
wefzdk;udk 325,80 ½dkufxnfhay;yg/

5/ Title properties panel rS Fill ae&mrS? Fill Type wGif


4 color Gradient udk a&G;yg/ tay:b,fbuf&cdS olour
wefzdk;udk R=0 ,G=138, B =0 ESifh nmbufatmuf
axmifh colour wefzdk;udk txufygwefzdk;twkdif; ½dkuf
xnfhay;yg/ nmbuftay:ESifh b,fbufatmuf
ta&mifudk e*dkta&miftwkdif;xm;ay;yg/

178 uGefysLwm*sme,f
IT Tutorial
8/ tem;vkid ;f ta&mifajy;zdYktwGuf sheen check box wGif
trSefjcpfxm;yg/ Color : R= 229, G= 225, B=196
Size = 25 , Angle = 260 ½kdufxnfhí ajymif;vJrIudk
Munfhay;yg/

6/ Properties panel xJrSmyJ qufvufí yHkpHajymif;Munfh


ygr,f/ Sheen pmom;a&SU&Sd arrow wGifzGifhcsí trSef
jcpfxm;ay;yg/ Rectangle tv,fae&mwGif tpdrf;
eufa&mifjznfhzdkYtwGuf colour ae&mwGif R = 0, G=
102, B=0 ½kdufxnfhay;yg/ ta&mifjzmoGm;&eftwGuf
9/ 'kwd, stroke wpfckxyfxnfhzdkYtwGuf Outer Stroke
size wefz;kd udk 35 ½du
k x
f nfí
h ajymif;vJru
I kd Munfah y;yg/
&Sd Add wGif xyfESdyfí azmfjyygwefzdk;rsm;udk ½dkufxnfh
ay;yg/
Type : Edge
Size : 4
Fill Type : Solid
Color : Default Black
Opacity : 10 %
Sheen Check box wGif trSefjcpfxm;í sheen wpfck
xyfxnfyh gr,f/ azmfjyyg wefz;kd rsm;udk ½du
k x
f nfah y;yg/
Colour : Default White
Opacity : 100 %
Size : 40
Angle : 100
Offset: 0.0

7/ 7. Fill a&SU&Sd arrow wGifESdyfí jyefcsKHUxm;yg/ tem;


vkdif;xnfh&eftwGuf strokes udk zGifhcsay;yg/ Outer
Strokes wGi& f adS om Add pmom;wGif click ESyd yf g/ azmfjy
ygwefzdk;rsm;udk ½dkufxnfhay;yg/Type = Edge, Size
= 4, Fill Type = solid, Color R= 0, G= 60, B=0

Zefe0g&?D 2009 179


IT Tutorial
10/ Title panel atmufajcwGi&f adS om Titler Styles menu Color : Default Black
jrm;wGif click ESdyfí New Style udka&G;yg/ emrnfudk Opacity : 100 %
style Green vdkY trnfay;í style topfwpfck
owfrSwfay;yg/

11/ pmom; style topfwpfckudk qufvufjyKvkyfMunfhyg 14/ Sheen Check box wGif trSefjcpfxm;í wefzdk;rsm;udk
r,f/ Type tool udk a&G;í Computer Journal pmom; qufvuf½dkufxnfhay;yg/ Color: R = 255, G= 255,
udk ½dkufxnfhay;yg/Title properties panel xJwGif B= 168, Size = 60 , opacity = 60 % , Angle = 65
azmfjyyg wefzdk;rsm;udk jyifay;yg/
Font: Myriad Bold 15/ toH;k jyKjyD;aom outer stroke wefz;kd rsm;&JU list udjk yefcsKUH
Small caps : Â
ay;yg/ Outer strokes aemufwpfck xyfxnfhzdkYtwGuf
Font size : 45
Add pmom;wGif click xyfESdyfí wefzdk;rsm;udk ½dkufay;
Small caps size : 80 %
yg/
Type : Edge
12/ Title properties panel rS Fill check box wGif trSef Size : 14
jcpfxm;í atmufazmfjyyg wefzdk;rsm;udk ½dkufxnfhay; Fill Type : solid
yg/ Color: Default Black
Fill Type : 4 Color Gradient Opacity :100 %
Top left corner box: R = 255, G= 225, B= 191
Top Right: R =255, G =255, G= 148
Bottom left : R=247, G=247, B=89
16/ Outer Stroke List udk jyefcsKHUí shadow check box
Bottom Right: R=242, G=223, B= 78 wGif trSefjcpfxm;jyD; azmfjyygwefzdk;rsm;udk ½dkufxnfh
ay;yg/
color: Default Black
Distance : 10
opacity : 50 %
Size : 0
Angle : 122
Spread : 35

13/ Fill arrow udk csKHUí stroke list udk zGifhcsay;yg/ Outer
stroke &Sd Add wGif click ESdyfí atmufazmfjyyg wefzdk;
rsm;udk ½dkufxnfhay;yg/
Type: Edge
Size : 14
Fill Type: solid

180 uGefysLwm*sme,f
IT Tutorial
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17/ Title panel xJrS pmom;ukd select vkyyf g/ Titler Style 12345678901234567890123456789
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uifr&mxJu yHak wG aysmufaeovm?; ysuaf ejyv D m;/
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18/ Title panel xJrS pmom;ESifh tpdrf;a&mif rectangle 12345678901234567890123456789
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udk select vkyfyg/ Tool panel atmufajcrS Align 12345678901234567890123456789
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xJuzdkifawG xkwfr&wm? rSwfÓPfuwf memory card
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awG ysufw,fqdkwJh ajymoHawGvnf; rsm;vmaeygw,f/
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uifr&mxJuyHkawGudk zsufrdvdkY? memory card udk
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&Sif;vdkufrdvdkYqdkwJh owif;rsm;vnf; tygt0ifyg/
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East Imperial Soft Company
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(http://www.magicuneraser.com/) u xkwfvkyfwJh
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Magic Photo Recovery aqmhzf0Ju oifhudk tultnD
19/ Title > Templates udka&G;yg/ Dialog box rS menu
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arrow wGif click ESdyfí save Title style as Tem- 12345678901234567890123456789
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